Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH

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  • 1.
    Petré, Henrik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics.
    Concurrent training for elite team sport athletes2024Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Most team sports consist of elements that require both a high level of strength and aerobic endurance. Because of these demands a combination of resistance and endurance training (concurrent training) is an integrated part of their weekly training program. Concurrent training can be defined as the implementation of resistance and endurance training in parallel within the same training program to develop both capacities simultaneously. Despite the wide range of benefits of concurrent training, there is evidence that adding endurance training to a resistance training protocol can compromise strength development. The underlying cause has recently started to be clarified, with substantial evidence suggesting that the design of the training program and inter-individual differences play a crucial role in determining the effect of concurrent training on strength performance. It has been suggested that the training status may have an independent influence on the results during concurrent training. Thus, it is important to acknowledge that the scientific literature on concurrent training for elite team sport athletes is very scarce, especially in females. The primary aim of this thesis was therefore to investigate the effect of concurrent training on elite team sport athletes with both sexes represented. This was done by performing one systematic review with meta-analysis and three experimental studies.

    Study I is a review study addressing the effect of training status on strength development during concurrent training and the effect of same-session and different sessions of concurrent training. The result from this study suggests that adding endurance training to a resistance training protocol impairs lower-body maximal dynamic strength development in trained individuals but not in moderately trained or untrained. The data also show that the impairment appears to increase if concurrent training is performed within the same session. Given these findings, the focus of study II was to investigate the impact of intrasession exercise order during same-session concurrent training in elite team sport athletes. In this study, we show that high-intensity interval training before resistance training reduces power output during resistance training but does not impair maximal strength or power development during a 7-week training intervention. The focus of study III was to examine the reliability of isometric leg press and countermovement jump, two commonly used measurements when assessing strength- and power-related variables in elite team sport athletes. In this study, we demonstrate that isometric leg press and countermovement jump are highly reliable measurements when examining strength- and power-related variables.

    The findings from study II showed that a reduction in resistance training performance (power output) during same-session concurrent training was visible only when high-intensity interval training was performed before resistance training (study II). The focus of study IV was therefore to investigate the effect of different recovery periods following high-intensity interval training on strength and explosive performance during a power training session in elite team sport athletes. Since isometric leg press and countermovement jump were shown in study III to be highly reliable measurements when assessing strength- and power-related variables in elite team sport athletes, these measurements were used in study IV. In study IV, we demonstrated that high-intensity interval training 10 min prior to power training impairs strength and explosive performance. However, the impairment was no longer present 6 and 24 hours after high-intensity interval training.

    In conclusion, the present thesis shows that trained individuals are sensitive to concurrent training, and that adding high-intensity interval training prior to resistance training compromises strength and explosive performance during the resistance training session in elite team sport athletes. However, the reduction in training performance does not seem to translate to reduced strength or power development during shorter training periods (<7-weeks). The findings from the present thesis also show that the reduction in training performance can be reduced by performing the resistance training session first or by allowing at least a 6-hour recovery period between sessions. The findings from this thesis provide a foundation for an evidence-based approach when organizing training to enhance performance in elite team sport athletes, and for future work to further examine the effect of concurrent training on this population.

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  • 2.
    Petré, Henrik
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics.
    Hemmingsson, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Rosdahl, Hans
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics.
    Psilander, Niklas
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics.
    Development of Maximal Dynamic Strength During Concurrent Resistance and Endurance Training in Untrained, Moderately Trained, and Trained Individuals: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.2021In: Sports Medicine, ISSN 0112-1642, E-ISSN 1179-2035, Vol. 51, no 5, p. 991-1010Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The effect of concurrent training on the development of maximal strength is unclear, especially in individuals with different training statuses.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis study was to compare the effect of concurrent resistance and endurance training with that of resistance training only on the development of maximal dynamic strength in untrained, moderately trained, and trained individuals.

    METHODS: On the basis of the predetermined criteria, 27 studies that compared effects between concurrent and resistance training only on lower-body 1-repetition maximum (1RM) strength were included. The effect size (ES), calculated as the standardised difference in mean, was extracted from each study, pooled, and analysed with a random-effects model.

    RESULTS: The 1RM for leg press and squat exercises was negatively affected by concurrent training in trained individuals (ES =  - 0.35, p < 0.01), but not in moderately trained ( - 0.20, p = 0.08) or untrained individuals (ES = 0.03, p = 0.87) as compared to resistance training only. A subgroup analysis revealed that the negative effect observed in trained individuals occurred only when resistance and endurance training were conducted within the same training session (ES same session =  - 0.66, p < 0.01 vs. ES different sessions =  - 0.10, p = 0.55).

    CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated the novel and quantifiable effects of training status on lower-body strength development and shows that the addition of endurance training to a resistance training programme may have a negative impact on lower-body strength development in trained, but not in moderately trained or untrained individuals. This impairment seems to be more pronounced when training is performed within the same session than in different sessions. Trained individuals should therefore consider separating endurance from resistance training during periods where the development of dynamic maximal strength is prioritised.

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  • 3.
    Petré, Henrik
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Laboratory of Applied Sports Science (LTIV).
    Löfving, Pontus
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Laboratory of Applied Sports Science (LTIV).
    Psilander, Niklas
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    The Effect of Two Different Concurrent Training Programs on Strength and Power Gains in Highly-Trained Individuals.2018In: Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (JSSM), ISSN 1303-2968, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 167-173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of concurrent strength and endurance training have been well studied in untrained and moderately-trained individuals. However, studies examining these effects in individuals with a long history of resistance training (RT) are lacking. Additionally, few studies have examined how strength and power are affected when different types of endurance training are added to an RT protocol. The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of concurrent training incorporating either low-volume, high-intensity interval training (HIIT, 8-24 Tabata intervals at ~150% of VO2max) or high-volume, medium-intensity continuous endurance training (CT, 40-80 min at 70% of VO2max), on the strength and power of highly-trained individuals. Sixteen highly-trained ice-hockey and rugby players were divided into two groups that underwent either CT (n = 8) or HIIT (n = 8) in parallel with RT (2-6 sets of heavy parallel squats, > 80% of 1RM) during a 6-week period (3 sessions/wk). Parallel squat performance improved after both RT + CT and RT + HIIT (12 ± 8% and 14 ± 10% respectively, p < 0.01), with no difference between the groups. However, aerobic power (VO2max) only improved after RT + HIIT (4 ± 3%, p < 0.01). We conclude that strength gains can be obtained after both RT + CT and RT + HIIT in athletes with a prior history of RT. This indicates that the volume and/or intensity of the endurance training does not influence the magnitude of strength improvements during short periods of concurrent training, at least for highly-trained individuals when the endurance training is performed after RT. However, since VO2max improved only after RT + HIIT and this is a time efficient protocol, we recommend this type of concurrent endurance training.

  • 4.
    Petré, Henrik
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics.
    Ovendal, Alexander
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics.
    Psilander, Niklas
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics.
    Kombinationsträning - vän eller fiende?2019In: Idrott & Kunskap, ISSN 1652-6961, no 6, p. 12-17Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 5.
    Petré, Henrik
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics.
    Ovendal, Alexander
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics.
    Westblad, Niklas
    ten Siethoff, Lasse
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics.
    Psilander, Niklas
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics.
    Physical Characteristics of Elite Male Bandy Players.2022In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 19, no 19, article id 12337Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Physical characteristics of elite male bandy players have not been studied for the last 30 years. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical characteristics of elite male bandy players with respect to playing positions. A cross-sectional study was performed that included 25 male bandy players from one of the highest-ranked bandy leagues in the world. Body weight, length, isometric mid-thigh pull, countermovement jump, squat jump, unilateral long jump, bilateral long jump, 15- and 30-m sprint, 15-m flying sprint, and VO2max were tested. Players were divided into forwards, midfielders, and defenders. Forwards had significantly (p = 0.012) higher relative VO2max than defenders (59.8 ± 4.3 compared to 53.0 ± 5.6 mL/kg/min). No significant differences for any of the other measurements were observed between positions. This is the first study to present the physical characteristics between playing positions in off- and on-ice tests for male bandy players competing at the highest level. Today's bandy players are heavier and have lower relative VO2max compared with players in the early 1990s. However, their work capacities have increased since their absolute VO2max is higher. These results provide benchmark values that can serve as a foundation for strength and conditioning professionals when designing future training programs.

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  • 6.
    Petré, Henrik
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics.
    Ovendal, Alexander
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics.
    Westblad, Niklas
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics.
    ten Siethoff, Lasse
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics.
    Rosdahl, Hans
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics.
    Psilander, Niklas
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics.
    Effect of the Intrasession Exercise Order of Flywheel Resistance and High-Intensity Interval Training on Maximal Strength and Power Performance in Elite Team-Sport Athletes.2023In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287, Vol. 37, no 12, p. 2389-2396Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of intrasession exercise order of maximal effort flywheel resistance training (RT; 436 repetitions [rep]) and high-intensity interval training (HIIT, 2–438 rep of 20 second at 130% of Watt atV̇O2max [wV̇O2max]), on the development of maximal strength and power in elite team-sport athletes. A 7-week training intervention involving 2 training sessions per week of either HIIT followed by RT (HIIT + RT, n 5 8), RT followed by HIIT (RT + HIIT, n 5 8), or RTalone (RT, n 5 7) was conducted in 23 elite male bandy players (24.7 6 4.3 years). Power and work were continuously measured during the flywheel RT. Isometric squat strength (ISq), countermovement jump, squat jump, and V̇O2max were measured before and after the training period. Power output during training differed between the groups (p 5 0.013, h2p5 0.365) with RT producing more power than HIIT + RT (p 5 0.005). ISq improved following RT + HIIT (;80%, d 5 2.10, p 5 0.001) and following HIIT + RT(;40%, d 5 1.64, p 5 0.005), and RT alone (;70%, d 5 1.67, p 5 0.004). V̇O2max increased following RT + HIIT and HIIT + RT(;10%, d51.98, p50.001 resp. d52.08, p50.001). HIIT before RT reduced power output during RT in elite team-sport athletes but did not lead to blunted development of maximal strength or power after a 7-week training period. During longer training periods(.7-weeks), it may be advantageous to schedule RT before HIIT because the negative effect of HIIT + RT on training quality increased during the final weeks of training. In addition, the largest training effect on maximal strength was observed following RT +HIIT.

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  • 7.
    Petré, Henrik
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics.
    Psilander, Niklas
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics.
    Rosdahl, Hans
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics.
    Between-Session Reliability of Strength- and Power-Related Variables Obtained during Isometric Leg Press and Countermovement Jump in Elite Female Ice Hockey Players.2023In: Sports, E-ISSN 2075-4663, Vol. 11, no 5, article id 96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Isometric leg press (ILP) and countermovement jump (CMJ) are commonly used to obtain strength- and power-related variables with important implications for health maintenance and sports performance. To enable the identification of true changes in performance with these measurements, the reliability must be known. This study evaluates the between-session reliability of strength- and power-related measures obtained from ILP and CMJ. Thirteen female elite ice hockey players (21.5 ± 5.1 years; 66.3 ± 8.0 kg) performed three maximal ILPs and CMJs on two different occasions. Variables from the ILP (peak force and peak rate of force development) and CMJ (peak power, peak force, peak velocity, and peak jump height) were obtained. The results were reported using the best trial, an average of the two best trials, or an average of three trials. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and coefficient of variation (CV) were high (ICC > 0.97; CV < 5.2%) for all outcomes. The CV for the CMJ (1.5-3.2%) was lower than that for the ILP (3.4-5.2%). There were no differences between reporting the best trial, an average of the two best trials, or an average of the three trials for the outcomes. ILP and CMJ are highly reliable when examining strength- and power-related variables in elite female ice hockey players.

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  • 8.
    Petré, Henrik
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics.
    Tinmark, Fredrik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics.
    Rosdahl, Hans
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics.
    Psilander, Niklas
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics.
    Effects of different recovery periods following a very intense interval training session on strength and explosive performance during a power training session in elite female ice hockey players2024In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates how different recovery periods after high-intensity interval training (HIIT) affects strength and explosive performance during a power training (PT) session. Fifteen female elite ice hockey players (22.5 ± 5.2 years) performed PT, including 6 sets of 2 repetitions (reps) of isometric leg press (ILP) and 6 sets of 3 reps of countermovement jump (CMJ), following a rested state and 10 minutes, 6 hours, or 24 hours after HIIT (3 sets of 8 × 20 seconds at 115% of power output at maximal oxygen consumption on a cycle ergometer). Peak force (PF) and peak rate of force development (pRFD) were measured during the ILP. Peak jump height (PJH), concentric phase duration (ConDur), eccentric phase duration, total duration, peak power (PP), velocity at peak power (V@PP), and force at peak power were measured during CMJ. The following variables were significantly reduced when only a 10-minute recovery period was allowed between HIIT and PT: PF was reduced by 7% (p < 0.001), pRFD by 17% (p < 0.001), PJH by 4% (p < 0.001), ConDur by 4% (p = 0.018), PP by 2% (p = 0.016), and V@PP by 2% (p = 0.007). None of the measured variables were reduced when PT was performed 6 and 24 hours after HIIT. We conclude that strength and explosive performance of elite female ice hockey players is reduced 10 minutes after HIIT but not negatively affected if a rest period of at least 6 hours is provided between HIIT and PT.

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  • 9.
    Westblad, Niklas
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics.
    Petré, Henrik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics.
    Kårström, Andreas
    Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden..
    Psilander, Niklas
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics.
    Björklund, Glenn
    Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden..
    The Effect of Autoregulated Flywheel and Traditional Strength Training on Training Load Progression and Motor Skill Performance in Youth Athletes.2021In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 18, no 7, article id 3479Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The effects of flywheel resistance training (FRT) on youth are relatively unknown. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of autoregulated FRT with traditional strength training (TST) on jumping, running performance and resistance training load progression in youth athletes. Thirty youth athletes (11.8 ± 0.9 yr) were matched for peak height velocity (PHV) status and block-randomised into two groups: FRT (n = 15, PHV -0.8 ± 1.6) and TST (n = 15, PHV -0.8 ± 1.5). Twelve resistance training sessions over a six-week intervention with flywheel or barbell squats were performed using autoregulated load prescription. Squat jump (SJ); countermovement jump (CMJ); and 10 m, 20 m and 30 m sprints were assessed pre- and post-intervention. The external load increased similarly for FRT and TST (z = 3.8, p = 0.06). SJ increased for both groups (p < 0.05) but running performance was unaffected (p > 0.05).

    CONCLUSIONS: FRT resulted in similar load progression and motor skill development in youth athletes as TST, but the perceived exertion was less. Autoregulation is a practical method for adjusting training load during FRT and should be considered as an alternative to autoregulated TST.

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