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  • 51. Kjellman, Bengt
    et al.
    Martinsen, Egil W
    Aker Universitetssjukhus, Universitet i Oslo.
    Taube, Jill
    Centrum för allmän medicin (CEFAM), Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge .
    Andersson, Eva A
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Depression2008In: FYSS 2008 - Fysisk aktivitet i sjukdomsprevention och sjukdomsbehandling / [ed] Yrkesföreningen för fysisk aktivitet (YFA), Statens folhälsoinstitut , 2008, p. 281-291Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Fysisk aktivitet har positiv effekt vid depression både för att förhindra depressionsepisoder och för att behandla sådana, såväl akut som på längre sikt. Den fysiska träningen sker med fördel parallellt med sedvanlig behandling med mediciner och samtal. Även om många studier har metodologiska brister och att det fortfarande finns få långtidsstudier, har fysisk träning vid lätt och måttlig depression klart vetenskapligt stöd när det gäller akut behandling och som ett medel att minska risken för återfall. En preventiv effekt har konstaterats vid epidemiologiska studier och vid långtidsstudier med uppföljning upp till tio år. Övriga hälsoeffekter av fysisk aktivitet är också viktiga, då depression ofta samvarierar med kroppsliga sjukdomar. Fysisk aktivitet är en stor vinst, både för den enskilda och för samhället.

  • 52.
    Larsson, Kristina
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Kallings, Lena
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Blom, Victoria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Andersson, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Criterion validity and test-retest reliability of SED-GIH, a single item question for assessment of daily sitting time.2019In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 19, no 1, article id 19:17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Sedentary behaviour has been closely linked to metabolic and cardiovascular health and is therefore of importance in disease prevention. A user-friendly tool for assessment of sitting time is thus needed. Previous studies concluded that the present tools used to assess a number of sedentary behaviours are more likely to overestimate sitting than single-item questions which often underestimate sitting time, and that categorical answering options are recommended. In line with this, the single-item question with categorical answering options, SED-GIH, was developed. The aim of this study was to investigate the criterion validity of the SED-GIH question using activPAL3 micro as the criterion measure. The second aim was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the SED-GIH questionnaire.

    METHOD: In the validity section of this study, 284 middle-aged adults answered a web questionnaire, which included SED-GIH, wore activPAL and filled in a diary log for one week. Spearman's rho assessed the relationship between the SED-GIH answers and the daily average sitting time as monitored by the activPAL (activPAL-SIT), a Weighted Kappa assessed the agreement, ANOVA assessed differences in activPAL-SIT between the SED-GIH answer categories, and a Chi2 compared the proportions of hazardous sitters between the different SED-GIH answer categories. In the reliability section, 95 elderly participants answered the SED-GIH question twice, with a mean interval of 5.2 days. The reliability was assessed with ICC and a weighted Kappa.

    RESULTS: The SED-GIH question correlated moderately with activPAL-SIT (rho = 0.31), with a poor agreement (weighted Kappa 0.12). In total, 40.8% underestimated and 22.2% overestimated their sitting time. The ANOVA showed significant differences in activPAL-SIT between the different SED-GIH answer categories (p < 0.001). The Chi2 showed a significant difference in proportion of individuals sitting more than 10 h per day within each SED-GIH answer category. ICC for the test-retest reliability of SED-GIH was excellent with ICC = 0.86, and the weighted Kappa showed an agreement of 0.77.

    CONCLUSIONS: The unanchored single item SED-GIH question showed excellent reliability but poor validity in the investigated populations. Validity and reliability of SED-GIH is in line with other questionnaires that are commonly used when assessing sitting time.

  • 53. Martinsen, E
    et al.
    Hovland, A
    Kjellman, B
    Taube, J
    Andersson, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Om depression2018In: Fysisk aktivitet som medicin: En praktisk handbok utifrån FYSS / [ed] Ing-Marie Dohrn, Stockholm: SISU idrottsböcker , 2018, p. 177-182Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 54.
    Martinsen, Egil
    et al.
    Oslo universitetssjukhus.
    Hovland, Anders
    Universitet i Bergen.
    Kjellman, Bengt
    Psykiatriska öpenvårdsmottagningen Huddinge.
    Taube, Jill
    Landstinget i Värmland.
    Andersson, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Fysisk aktivitet vid depression2015In: FYSS 2015, Stockholm: Yrkesföreningen för fysisk aktivitet , 2015, p. 1-12Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Fysisk aktivitet kan förebygga insjuknande och återsjuknande i depression.

    Enbart fysisk träning har klart vetenskapligt stöd när det gäller behandling vid lindrig och måttlig depression.

    Fysisk träning som tillägg till sedvanlig behandling i form av samtal och mediciner ger en förstärkt effekt.

    Fysisk aktivitet har utöver effekt på depression också en gynnsam effekt på vanliga komorbida tillstånd, som typ 2-diabetes och hjärt-kärlsjukdom.

    Personer med depression bör rekommenderas fysisk aktivitet som tillägg till samtalsterapi och läkemedel.

  • 55.
    Martinsen, Egil W
    et al.
    Oslo universitetssjukhus.
    Hovland, Anders
    Universitetet i Bergen.
    Kjellman, Bengt
    Karolinska institutet.
    Taube, Jill
    Landstinget i Värmland.
    Andersson, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Fysisk aktivitet vid depression2016In: FYSS 2017: fysisk aktivitet i sjukdomsprevention och sjukdomsbehandling, Läkartidningen förlag , 2016, p. 362-370Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattande rekommendation

    Personer med depression bör rekommenderas aerob eller muskelstärkande fysisk aktivitet för att minska depressiva symtom, måttligt starkt vetenskapligt underlag (evidensstyrka +++), och förbättra livskvalitet, begränsat vetenskapligt underlag (evidensstyrka ++).

    Vid lindrig eller måttlig depression reducerar fysisk aktivitet depressiva symtom i liknande grad som antidepressiva läkemedel eller kognitiv beteendeterapi (KBT). Måttligt starkt vetenskapligt underlag (evidensstyrka +++).

    Om enbart muskelstärkande fysisk aktivitet väljs i syfte att behandla depression, bör den kompletteras med aerob fysisk aktivitet för att minska risken för hjärt-kärlsjukdom, eftersom denna risk är förhöjd vid depression.

  • 56.
    Martinsen, Egil W.
    et al.
    Oslo universitetssjukhus.
    Hovland, Anders
    Universitet i Bergen.
    Kjellman, Bengt
    Karolinska insitutet.
    Taube, Jill
    Landstinget i Värmland.
    Andersson, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control. Karolinska institutet.
    Fysisk aktivitet vid depression: Forskning pågår2017In: Fysioterapi, ISSN 1653-5804, no 5, p. 34-39Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi har nöjet att publicera kapitel 2.8 Fysisk aktivitet vid depression ur  Fysisk aktivitet i sjukdomsprevention och sjukdomsbehandling, FYSS 2017  med tillstånd av Yrkesföreningar för Fysisk Aktivitet (YFA). Detta kapitel samt  ytterligare drygt 30 kapitel ur FYSS 2017 kan laddas ner från www.fyss.se.  Samtliga 53 kapitel är samlade i boken FYSS 2017 utgiven av Läkartidningen förlag AB.

    SAMMANFATTANDE REKOMMENDATION •  Personer med depression bör rekommenderas aerob eller muskelstärkande fysisk aktivitet för att minska depressiva symtom. Måttligt starkt vetenskapligt underlag (evidensstyrka +++). •  Fysisk aktivitet reducerar depressiva symtom i liknande grad som antidepressiva läkemedel eller KBT vid lindrig och måttlig depression. Måttligt starkt vetenskapligt underlag (evidensstyrka +++). •  Om enbart muskelstärkande fysisk aktivitet väljs i syfte att behandla depression, bör den kompletteras med aerob fysisk aktivitet för att minska risken för kardiovaskulär sjukdom, eftersom denna risk är förhöjd vid depression.

  • 57.
    Moritani, Toshio
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Fuchi, Tokio
    Oddsson, Lars
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Andersson, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Applications of fast fourier transform (FFT) in noninvasive physiological measurements in sport science.1988In: J Sports Med Sci (Japan), Vol. 2, no 1, p. 27-42Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 58.
    Oddsson, Kristjan
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Laboratory of Applied Sports Science (LTIV).
    Danielsson, Evelina
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Nilsson, Johnny
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH. Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Laboratory of Applied Sports Science (LTIV).
    Wahlgren, Lina
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Laboratory of Applied Sports Science (LTIV).
    Andersson, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Laboratory of Applied Sports Science (LTIV).
    Development of physical tests and ratings scales of perceived health in a project with supervised physical activity for elderly.2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Valid and reliable field tests for measuring physical fitness and different health parameters is an important matter for evaluating effects of exercise interventions.

    Purpose: The aim was to study different test parameters such as aerobic capacity, strength, perceived health and life style habits, such as physical activity, in a physical activity intervention for elderly people.

    Method: 117 old-age pensioners (99 women and 18 men). Their mean age (yrs) and BMI (kg/m2 ) was 74 and 26 for the women and 73 and 25 for the men, respectively. Different aerobic, strength and balance tests were measured. Guided physical activity (nordic walking, strength training, aqua gymnastics), were given 45-60 min, 2 times/week for 8-12 weeks. Perceived exertion ratings during the exercises were moderate and/or strong.

    Results: Significant changes (p< 0,05) were seen between pre- and post tests regarding all physical tests except the balance test for men. Even the perceived physical and mental health significantly improved. The mean values for questions concerning self reported inactive/active life style, including sedentary time, were changed to a more active life style.

    Conclusion: 8-12 weeks of guided physical activity can improve several physiological parameters which are positively correlated to decreased risk of numerous diseases. More research is needed to develop reliable and valid field tests for physical capacity and different health parameters.

  • 59.
    Oddsson, Lars
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Moritani, Toshio
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Andersson, Eva A
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Thorstensson, Alf
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Differences between males and females in EMG and fatiguability of lumbar back muscles.1991In: Electromyographical Kinesiology / [ed] Anderson PA, Hobart DJ, Danoff JV, Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publisher (Biomedical Division) , 1991, p. 295-298Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 60.
    Olin, Hedvig
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Wahlgren, Lina
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Andersson, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Wedman, Ingemar
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Hälsa i relation till fysisk aktivitet, vikt och ålder: Upplevelse av hälsa hos olika målgrupper2006In: SVEBI:s Årsbok 2006, ISSN 0284-4672, p. 213-235Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 61.
    Olsson, Sven Johan Gustav
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Andersson, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Börjesson, Mats
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group. Department of Medicine, Unit of Cardiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Solna.
    Kallings, Lena
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Categorical answer modes provides superior validity to open answers when asking for level of physical activity: A cross-sectional study2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 70-76, article id 1403494815602830Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS:

    Physical activity (PA) used as prevention and treatment of disease has created a need for effective tools for measuring patients' PA level. Our aim was therefore to assess the validity of two PA questions and their three associated answer modes.

    METHODS:

    Data on PA according to the PA questions and Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometers, aerobic fitness (VO2max), cardiovascular biomarkers, and self-rated general health were collected in 365 Swedish adults (21-66 years). The PA questions ask about weekly PA via categories (Categorical), an open-ended answer (Open), or specified day by day (Table).

    RESULTS:

    The Categorical mode, compared with the Open mode, correlated (Spearman's rho) significantly more strongly (p<0.05) with accelerometer PA (0.31 vs. 0.18) and VO2max (0.27 vs. 0.06), and the level of BMI (-0.20 vs. -0.02), waist circumference (-0.22 vs. -0.03), diastolic blood pressure (-0.16 vs. 0.08), glucose (-0.18 vs. 0.04), triglycerides (-0.31 vs. -0.07), and general health (0.35 vs. 0.19). The validity of the Categorical and Table modes were similar regarding VO2max and accelerometry, but the Categorical mode exhibited more significant and stronger correlations with cardiovascular biomarkers. The capacity of the PA questions to identify insufficiently physically active individuals ranged from 0.57 to 0.76 for sensitivity and from 0.47 to 0.79 for specificity.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    The Categorical mode exhibits the strongest validity and Open mode the weakest. The PA questions may be used on a population level, or as a tool for determining patents' appropriateness for treatment.

  • 62.
    Peter, Annamaria
    et al.
    Neuromuscular Research Center, University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Andersson, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Arndt, Anton
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Finni, T
    Neuromuscular Research Center, University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Cronin, NJ
    Neuromuscular Research Center, University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Impact of footwear type and walking speed on ankle plantar flexor fine-wire electromyographic activity2018In: Sport science at the cutting edge, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION:

    Ankle plantar flexors substantially contribute to propulsion in human walking, and their relative contributions may be affected by the type of footwear used. In this study, we aimed to examine plantar flexor fine-wire electromyography (wEMG) activity in different footwear types and barefoot walking. We further examined the effect of walking speed on the relative activity of ankle plantar flexors.

    METHODS:

    Nine healthy people volunteered to this study (five males) with two sessions. In session 1, participants were familiarized to the study protocol. In session 2, electrical activity of flexor hallucis longus (FHL), soleus (SOL), medial and lateral gastrocnemius (MG and LG) muscles were measured with wEMG during eight overground walking tasks: preferred speed walking with shoes, barefoot and with flip-flops; with shoes: 30% slower and faster than preferred speed walking with shoes, and maximum walking speed; walking barefoot and with flip-flops at the same speed as preferred speed walking with shoes (matched speed). Then they performed maximal isometric plantar flexion contractions and maximal big toe flexions superimposed on ankle plantar flexion (MVICs) in an isokinetic dynamometer for wEMG normalization. Root mean square activity was calculated in the push-off phase of individual step cycles based on ground reaction force data. The relative contribution of each muscle to propulsion was calculated as: (mean RMS value %MVIC of the given muscle / mean RMS value %MVIC of all muscles) * 100. Cohen’s d±90% confidence intervals were calculated to define the magnitude of differences.

    RESULTS:

    In all muscles, wEMG activity increased with speed. With increasing speed the relative contribution to propulsion increased in FHL (from 19 to 22%), did not change in SOL (32%), decreased in MG (from 32 to 25%) and increased in LG (from 18 to 21%). There were no differences between preferred and matched barefoot walking speed or wEMG activity level (d range = 0.06-0.17). wEMG activity for all muscles was lower during matched barefoot walking than preferred speed walking with shoes (7-10% MVIC, d range=0.31-0.47). Flip-flop data are under analysis.

    CONCLUSION:

    We found that relative wEMG activity of the examined muscles was affected by speed and absence or presence of shoes. During barefoot walking, wEMG activity of plantar flexor muscles was lower than during shod walking at the same speed, which presumably means that shod walking limits the contribution of intrinsic foot muscles to propulsion, which should be further examined.

    REFERENCES:

    1 Murley GS, Menz HB, Landorf KB. (2014). Gait & Posture, 39(4), 1080-5.

    2 Goldmann JP, Potthast W, Brüggemann GP. (2013). Footwear Sci, 5 (1): 19-25.

    3 Franklin et al., Gait & Posture. 60: 1-5, 2018.

    CONTACT:

    annamaria.a.peter@jyu.fi

  • 63.
    Peter, Annamaria
    et al.
    University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Arndt, Anton
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control. Karolinska institutet.
    Andersson, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control. Karolinska institutet.
    Finni, Taija
    University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Hegyi, Andras
    University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Tarassova, Olga
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Cronin, Neil
    University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Effect of footwear on plantar flexor fine-wire electromyography activity in walking.2019In: Footwear Science. 2019 Supplement, Vol. 11, p S120-S121: Proceedings of the Fourteenth Footwear Biomechanics Symposium (Kananaskis, Canada, 2019), Taylor & Francis, 2019, Vol. 11, p. S120-S121Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 64.
    Péter, Annamária
    et al.
    University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Andersson, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control. Karolinska institutet, Sweden.
    Hegyi, András
    University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Finni, Taija
    University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Tarassova, Olga
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Cronin, Neil
    University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Grundström, Helen
    Capio S:t Göran's Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Arndt, Anton
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control. Karolinska institutet, Sweden.
    Comparing Surface and Fine-Wire Electromyography Activity of Lower Leg Muscles at Different Walking Speeds.2019In: Frontiers in Physiology, ISSN 1664-042X, E-ISSN 1664-042X, Vol. 10, article id 1283Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ankle plantar flexor muscles are active in the stance phase of walking to propel the body forward. Increasing walking speed requires increased plantar flexor excitation, frequently assessed using surface electromyography (EMG). Despite its popularity, validity of surface EMG applied on shank muscles is mostly unclear. Thus, we examined the agreement between surface and intramuscular EMG at a range of walking speeds. Ten participants walked overground at slow, preferred, fast, and maximum walking speeds (1.01 ± 0.13, 1.43 ± 0.19, 1.84 ± 0.23, and 2.20 ± 0.38 m s-1, respectively) while surface and fine-wire EMG activities of flexor hallucis longus (FHL), soleus (SOL), medial gastrocnemius (MG) and lateral gastrocnemius (LG), and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles were recorded. Surface and intramuscular peak-normalised EMG amplitudes were compared for each muscle and speed across the stance phase using Statistical Parametric Mapping. In FHL, we found differences around peak activity at all speeds except fast. There was no difference in MG at any speed or in LG at slow and preferred speeds. For SOL and LG, differences were seen in the push-off phase at fast and maximum walking speeds. In SOL and TA, surface EMG registered activity during phases in which intramuscular EMG indicated inactivity. Our results suggest that surface EMG is generally a suitable method to measure MG and LG EMG activity across several walking speeds. Minimising cross-talk in FHL remains challenging. Furthermore, SOL and TA muscle onset/offset defined by surface EMG should be interpreted cautiously. These findings should be considered when recording and interpreting surface EMG of shank muscles in walking.

  • 65.
    Schantz, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Björkman, Per
    Sandberg, Mats
    Andersson, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Movement and muscle activity pattern in wheelchair ambulation by persons with para- and tetraplegia1999In: Scandinavian Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 0036-5505, E-ISSN 1940-2228, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 67-76Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 66.
    Sirevåg, K
    et al.
    University of Bergen, Faculty of Psychology, Solli DPS, Nestun, Norway.
    Stavestrand, S
    Endal, T
    Sjøbø, T
    Nordhus, IH
    Pallesen, S
    Nordahl, H
    Specht, K
    Martinsen, EW
    Hammar, Å
    Mohlman, J
    Halmøy, A
    Andersson, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Thayer, JF
    Hjelmervik, H
    Hovland, A
    Physical EXercise Augmented COGnitive Behaviour Therapy for Older Adults with Generalised Anxiety Disorder (PEXACOG)2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) is the most prevalent severe anxiety disorder among older adults. The disorder has a pervasive influence on the lives of those affected, and is a risk factor for other severe disorders such as depression, dementia and coronary heart disease. Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is the treatment of choice for this disorder, but older adults have shown reduced effect of treatment compared to working age adults. Physical exercise has been suggested as intervention to improve the effects of treatment for GAD, via its demonstrated positive effect on cognitive functioning, increased plasticity in the brain, and increased availability of neurotrophins important for extinction of fear associations. The aim of the current research project is to investigate whether augmenting CBT with physical exercise will lead to improved effects of CBT on GAD in older adults in a randomized controlled trial (RCT). Participants between 60-75 years of age with a primary diagnosis of GAD will be randomised to one of two treatment conditions. The effects of treatment will be assessed on outcome measures, biological, physiological and cognitive measures at pre- interim-, and post-treatment, and follow-up assessments at 6- and 12-months post intervention. Participants in both groups will receive five weeks of pre-treatment intervention consisting of either physical exercise or weekly telephone contact. Participants thereafter receive either ten weeks of manualised CBT for GAD combined with manualised physical exercise or ten weeks of manualised CBT for GAD combined with weekly telephone contact. We expect that the treatment effect of the physical exercise augmented CBT will be greater than that of CBT combined with weekly telephone contact, as measured by a reduction in GAD symptoms on the Penn State Worry Questionnaire and in the proportion of remitted patients. The study also aims to determining the possible beneficial and augmenting properties of physical exercise in combination with CBT, and our understanding of clinical characteristics of GAD and mechanisms involved in treatment effect. Treatment rationale, procedures and protocols will be presented in detail together with preliminary results from the initial feasibility study comprises eight participants

  • 67.
    Sirivåg, K
    et al.
    University of Bergen, Faculty of Psychology, Bergen,Solli DPS, Nesttun, Norway.
    Haukenes Stavestrand, S
    Hilde Nordhus, I
    Pallesen, S
    Sjøbø, T
    Bruun Endal, T
    Nordahl, HM
    Specht, K
    Hammar, Å
    Halmøy, A
    Martinsen, EW
    Andersson, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Hjelmervik, H
    Mohlman, J
    Thayer, JF
    Hovland, A
    Physical exercise augmented cognitive behaviour therapy for older adults with generalised anxiety disorder (PEXACOG): Study protocol and feasibility results from a randomised controlled trial2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) is prevalent among older adults. These patients exhibit impaired response to cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT), and physical exercise has been recommended as a potential add-on intervention to improve efficacy. The current study is a randomised clinical trial that will compare CBT augmented with physical exercise, or CBT combined with attention placebo, and the current study assessing the feasibility of testing procedures and the experimental combined treatment measures.

    Methods. 4 participants were included in the feasibility study, and feasibility was assessed trough completion and attendance rates of testing and treatment sessions. Primary outcome measures were remission as assessed by an independent clinical rater using the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for DSM-IV, and by symptom reduction on Penn State Worry Questionnaire. Manipulation check was assessed by physical tests of change in aerobic capacity and strength. Participants were measured on clinical, biological, physiological and neuropsychological tests at pre-, interim and post-treatment.

    Results. Completed treatment protocol for the RCT will be presented. 3 of 4 participants completed the full protocol including testing and the experimental augmented treatment. Participants completed 100% and 80% of CBT and physical exercise content, respectively. The three completers had large improvements on primary outcome and on manipulation checks.

    Conclusion. The testing procedures and experimental augmented treatment appear to be feasible. The preliminary findings indicate that this combined intervention can be efficacious.

  • 68.
    Sirivåg, K
    et al.
    Universitetet i Bergen; Solli Distriktspsykiatriske Senter (DPS), Nesttun, Norge.
    Stavestrand, SH
    Sjøbø, T
    Endal, T
    Nordhus, IH
    Pallesen, S
    Nordahl, H
    Pallesen, S
    Nordahl, H
    Mohlman, J
    Specht, K
    Andersson, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Hammar, Å
    Halmøy, A
    Harkestad, N
    Hjelmervik, H
    Martinsen, E
    Thayer, J
    Harvey, A
    Hovland, A
    Universitetet i Bergen; Solli Distriktspsykiatriske Senter (DPS), Nesttun, Norge.
    Physical EXercise Augmented COGnitive Behaviour Therapy for Older Adults with Generalised Anxiety Disorder (PEXACOG)2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) is the most prevalent severe anxiety disorder among older adults. The disorder has a pervasive influence on the lives of those affected, and is a risk factor for other severe disorders such as depression, dementia and coronary heart disease. Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is the treatment of choice for this disorder, but older adults have shown reduced effect of treatment compared to working age adults. Physical exercise has been suggested as intervention to improve the effects of treatment for GAD, via its demonstrated positive effect on cognitive functioning, increased plasticity in the brain, and increased availability of neurotrophins important for extinction of fear associations. The aim of the current research project is to investigate whether augmenting CBT with physical exercise will lead to improved effects of CBT on GAD in older adults in a randomized controlled trial (RCT). Participants between 60-75 years of age with a primary diagnosis of GAD will be randomised to one of two treatment conditions. The effects of treatment will be assessed on outcome measures, biological, physiological and cognitive measures at pre- interim-, and post-treatment, and follow-up assessments at 6- and 12-months post intervention. Participants in both groups will receive five weeks of pre-treatment intervention consisting of either physical exercise or weekly telephone contact. Participants thereafter receive either ten weeks of manualised CBT for GAD combined with manualised physical exercise or ten weeks of manualised CBT for GAD combined with weekly telephone contact. We expect that the treatment effect of the physical exercise augmented CBT will be greater than that of CBT combined with weekly telephone contact, as measured by a reduction in GAD symptoms on the Penn State Worry Questionnaire and in the proportion of remitted patients. The study also aims to determining the possible beneficial and augmenting properties of physical exercise in combination with CBT, and our understanding of clinical characteristics of GAD and mechanisms involved in treatment effect. Treatment rationale, procedures and protocols will be presented in detail together with preliminary results from the initial feasibility study comprises eight participants.

  • 69.
    Stavestrand, Silje Haukenes
    et al.
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    Sirevåg, Kristine
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    Nordhus, Inger Hilde
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    Sjøbø, Trond
    Solli DPS, Nesttun, Norway.
    Endal, Trygve Bruun
    Solli DPS, Nesttun, Norway.
    Nordahl, Hans M
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway..
    Specht, Karsten
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    Hammar, Åsa
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    Halmøy, Anne
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    Martinsen, Egil W
    University of Oslo, Norway.
    Andersson, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Hjelmervik, Helene
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    Mohlman, Jan
    William Paterson University, NJ, USA.
    Thayer, Julian F
    Ohio State University, OH, USA.
    Hovland, Anders
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    Physical exercise augmented cognitive behaviour therapy for older adults with generalised anxiety disorder (PEXACOG): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.2019In: Trials, ISSN 1745-6215, E-ISSN 1745-6215, Vol. 20, no 1, article id 174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) is a frequent and severe anxiety disorder among older adults. GAD increases the risk of developing other disorders such as depression and coronary heart disease. Older adults with GAD exhibit a poorer response to cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) compared to younger patients with GAD. The normal age-related cognitive decline can be a contributor to reduced treatment efficacy. One strategy for improving treatment efficacy is to combine CBT with adjunctive interventions targeted at improving cognitive functions. Physical exercise is a viable intervention in this regard. Increased levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor may mediate improvement in cognitive function. The present study aims to investigate the proposed effects and mechanisms related to concomitant physical exercise.

    METHODS: The sample comprises 70 participants aged 60-75 years, who have GAD. Exclusion criteria comprise substance abuse and unstable medication; inability to participate in physical exercise; and conditions which precludes GAD as primary diagnosis. The interventions are individual treatment in the outpatient clinic at the local psychiatric hospital, with two experimental arms: (1) CBT + physical exercise and (2) CBT + telephone calls. The primary outcome measure is symptom reduction on the Penn State Worry Questionnaire. Other measures include questionnaires, clinical interviews, physiological, biological and neuropsychological tests. A subset of 40 participants will undergo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). After inclusion, participants undergo baseline testing, and are subsequently randomized to a treatment condition. Participants attend five sessions of the add-on treatment in the pre-treatment phase, and move on to interim testing. After interim testing, participants attend 10 sessions of CBT in parallel with continued add-on treatment. Participants are tested post-intervention within 2 weeks of completing treatment, with follow-up testing 6 and 12 months later.

    DISCUSSION: This study aims to develop better treatment for GAD in older adults. Enhancing treatment response will be valuable from both individual and societal perspectives, especially taking the aging of the general population into account.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02690441 . Registered on 24 February 2016.

  • 70.
    Stålman, Cecilia
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Nilsson, Johnny
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences. Karolinska institutet.
    Ryhed, Anna
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Godhe, Manne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Andersson, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control. Karolinska institutet.
    A novel aerobic test, 5-minute-pyramid-test, useful in school to monitor VO2max2019In: AISEP International Conference 2019 Book of abstracts, 2019, p. 402-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 71.
    Taube, Jill
    et al.
    Själ och Kropp, Stockholm.
    Jonsdottir,, Ingibjörg H
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Kjellman,, Bengt
    Uppsala Akademiska sjukhuset.
    Hovland, Anders
    Universitetet i Bergen; Solli Distriktspsykiatriske Senter (DPS), Nesttun, Norge.
    Sundberg, Carl Johan
    Inst. för fysiologi och farmakologi, Karolinska Institutet.
    Andersson, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Martinsen, Egil W
    Universitetet i Oslo; överläkare, Kliniken för psykisk hälsa och beroende, Oslo universitetssjukhus.
    Levnadsvanor bör integreras i de nya riktlinjerna2017In: Dagens medicin, article id 23 marsArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    ”Levnadsvanor bör integreras i de nya riktlinjerna”

    Vi är kritiska till att Socialstyrelsens olika riktlinjer tillåts krocka med varandra, skriver sju debattörer. 

    Publicerad: 2017-03-23 07:00 Skriven av: Jill Taube, Ingibjörg H Jonsdottir, Bengt Kjellman, Anders Hovland, Carl Johan Sundberg, Eva Andersson och Egil W Martinsen

    Detta är opinionsmaterial. Åsikterna som förs fram här är upphovsmannens egna.

     

    Fysisk aktivitet som prevention och behandling har varit en naturlig del av hälso- och sjuk­vården sedan början av 2000-talet. År 2011 breddade Socialstyrelsen detta med riktlinjer för sjukdoms­förebyggande metoder där tobaksbruk, riskbruk av alkohol, ohälsosamma matvanor och otillräcklig fysisk aktivitet inbegreps. Personer med psykisk ohälsa har här prioriterats av flera skäl, då man löper en stor risk för kroppslig ohälsa och förkortat liv.

    Nu uppdaterar Social­styrelsen riktlinjer om behandling av depression och ångest och uppmärksammar samsjuklighet som hjärt-kärlsjukdom och diabetes, men nämner inte levnadsvanor som en nödvändig del i omhändertagandet, vilket är olyckligt.

    Betydelsen av råd om fysisk aktivitet som en del av behandlingen av patienter med depression, framkommer tydligt i andra länder såsom Storbritannien med expertmyndigheten Nice. Här ses fysisk aktivitet som en viktig bas, oberoende av övrig behandling.

    “Här ses fysisk aktivitet som en viktig bas, oberoende av övrig behandling.”

    Riktlinjer från 2010 gav stöd för fysisk aktivitet som behandling av mild till måttlig depression. I de nya riktlinjerna som publicerades i december 2016, är detta i stort sett borta.

    Vi menar att det är kontra­produktivt att Social­styrelsen inom ramen för ett riktlinjearbete inte ser till övrigt arbete inom myndigheten.

    Socialstyrelsens föreslagna riktlinjer krockar med vad vi har redovisat i den helt nyligen upp­daterade versionen av Fysisk aktivitet i sjukdomsprevention och sjukdomsbehandling, Fyss, avseende behandling av depression. I vårt arbete har ett stort antal vetenskapliga artiklar och meta-analyser granskats. I Social­styrelsens underlag redovisas endast sex vetenskapliga referenser.

    Vi är inte heller ensamma om att rikta kritik mot de nya rikt­linjerna. Skarp kritik framfördes också av tre sakkunniga inom psykoterapiområdet som själva varit en del av riktlinjearbetet. Där beskriver man en icke-transparent arbetsorganisation som i mycket hög grad har präglats av partiskhet till förmån för vissa insatser. Personer med kunskap om annat än KBT och läke­medels­behand­ling var i extrem minoritet, vilket påverkade omröstnings­förfarandet. Vi saknar insikt om hur denna process gått till, men blir oroade över den kritik som framförts.

    Sammanfattningsvis är vi kritiska till att Socialstyrelsens olika riktlinjer tillåts krocka med varandra. Socialstyrelsen bör ta ett större grepp och även integrera råd om levnadsvanor i de föreslagna nya riktlinjerna, gärna i samråd med andra myndigheter. Vi ifrågasätter också prioriteringsgruppens slutsats av evidensen för fysisk aktivitet som behandlingsalternativ för mild till måttlig depression.

    Vi har framfört dessa syn­punkter direkt till Social­styrelsen, i ett detaljerat remissvar. Vi hoppas att vårt inlägg ska upp­fattas som ett sätt att fortsätta den konstruktiva dialog vi redan har med myndigheten och därmed sakfrågan framåt. 

    Jill Taube, specialistläkare i psykiatri, Ingibjörg H Jonsdottir, professor, institutionen för kost och idrottsvetenskap, Göteborgs universitet, Bengt Kjellman, docent, specialist­läkare i psykiatri, Karolinska institutet och Akademiska sjukhuset i Uppsala, Anders Hovland, försteamanuens, psykolog, Solli distriktspsykiatriske senter och institutionen for klinisk psykologi, Universitetet i Bergen, Carl Johan Sundberg, professor, läkare, institutionen för fysiologi och farmakologi, Karolinska institutet, Stockholm, Eva Andersson, docent, läkare, idrottslärare, Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan och institutionen för neurovetenskap, Karolinska institutet, Stockholm, Egil W Martinsen, professor, specialistläkare i psykiatri, Universitetssjukhuset i Oslo.

     

    https://www.dagensmedicin.se/artiklar/2017/03/23/levnadsvanor-bor-integreras-i-de-nya-riktlinjerna/

     

  • 72. Taube, Jill
    et al.
    Kjellman, Bengt
    Jonsson, Bo
    Wahlgren, Lina
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Oddsson, Kristjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Laboratory of Applied Sports Science (LTIV).
    Hultgren, Staffan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH.
    Andersson, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Laboratory of Applied Sports Science (LTIV).
    Improved perceived health and scored depression with a physical activity project.2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Physical activity programs have shown a positive effect on health but also on depression that increases worldwide.

    Purpose: The purpose was to study perceived health and rated depression score with a physical activity project for persons with diagnosed depression or anxiety.

    Methods: Eighty-four persons (56 women, 28 men) with depression or anxiety disorders, recruited from psychiatric out-patient clinic participated. Mean age and BMI were 46 (21-80) yrs and 26 (17-41) kg/m2, respectively. Guided physical activity was given, in groups of 10-15, 1 hour twice a week for 8-12 weeks.

    Results: A significant improvement (p<0.05*) was seen regarding perceived physical health, several aspects of mental health and waking up thoroughly rested. Depression score significantly improved, both self-rated (PHQ-9, n=55) and by experts (MADRS, n=13), expect PHQ-9 for those with overweight.

    Conclusions: The project showed that patients with depression and anxiety can improve, in addition to increased physical activity level, both their perceived physical and several aspects of mental health and also depression score by joining a physical activity program.

     

     

  • 73.
    Thorstensson, Alf
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Oddsson, Lars
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Andersson, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Arvidsson, Åke
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Balance in muscle strength between agonist and antagonist muscles of the trunk.1985In: Biomechanics IX: proceedings of the ninth International Congress of Biomechanics held in 1983 at Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. B / [ed] David A. Winter, 1985, p. 15-20Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 74.
    Väisänen, Daniel
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Andersson, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Validity in Ekblom-Bak Test and its Ability to Track Changes in an Elderly Population2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) has a high prognostic value for CVD and all cause mortality, however the test is hard to administer and requires a maximal effort, which can be arduous for an elderly population. The submaximal Ekblom-Bak cycle ergometer test (EB test) has shown to be valid in adults, but its applicability in an elderly population is unknown. Aim: The purpose of this study was to validate the submaximal EB test and to examine its ability to detect changes in VO2max in an elderly population. Methods: The sample consisted of 108 elderly participants; aged 65-75 years (54 women, 54 men) with a measured VO2max of 1.42-3.69 L/min. 34 women and 40 men performed a retest (VO2max 1.45-3.59 L/min) after an intervention period. During the intervention, participants performed 30 training sessions over 12 weeks where they cycled for 30 min at 65-75 % of maximal heart rate. On pre- and retests participants completed a submaximal Ekblom-Bak test. Directly after participants completed an individually adjusted VO2max test on a treadmill where VO2 max was measured using indirect calorimetry. Results: For the validation of the EB-test on an elderly population there was a correlation (R) between measured and estimated VO2max of 0.64 for women and 0.47 for men, mean (95% CI) difference was 0.01 (-0.45 - 0.07) for women and -0.05 (-0.11 - 0.07) for men. Standard error of the estimate was 0.17 for women and 0.31 for men. Coefficient of variation was 10 % for women and 11 % for men. When analyzing the ability of the EB test to track change in VO2max after a 12 week training intervention there was a significant (P<0.001) average increase in estimated VO2max of 0.11 L/min for both genders (CI for women 0.06 - 0.16 and for men 0.08 - 0.15), with no change in the measured values. Changes in the estimated values were linked to a decrease of the submaximal HR on both work rates (3.0 bpm and 3.2 bpm on the standard work rate and 5.4 bpm and 6.4 bpm on the higher work rate, for women and men, respectively) Conclusion: Validity of the EB-test in a population between 65-75 years was fairly good but we found larger standard error of the estimate for the men. The higher error for men in contrast to women could be derived from a difference in change of physiological variables that affect VO2max with increasing age. Since there was no change in measured VO2max while there was an improvement in estimated VO2max after the intervention, the EB-test appears to respond to changes in fitness that are not reflected in a VO2max. Grant funding: European Research Council.

  • 75.
    Väisänen, Daniel
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Andersson, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control. Karolinska institutet.
    Nilsson, Jonna
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Criterion validity of the Ekblom-Bak and the Åstrand submaximal test in an elderly population.2019In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to validate the submaximal Ekblom-Bak test (EB-test) and the Åstrand test (Å-test) for an elderly population.

    METHODS: Participants (n = 104), aged 65-75 years, completed a submaximal aerobic test on a cycle ergometer followed by an individually adjusted indirect calorimetry VO2max test on a treadmill. The HR from the submaximal test was used to estimate VO2max using both the EB-test and Å-test equations.

    RESULTS: The correlation between measured and estimated VO2max using the EB method and Å method in women was r = 0.64 and r = 0.58, respectively and in men r = 0.44 and r = 0.44, respectively. In women, the mean difference between estimated and measured VO2max was - 0.02 L min-1 (95% CI - 0.08 to 0.04) for the EB method and - 0.12 L min-1 (95% CI - 0.22 to - 0.02) for the Å method. Corresponding values for men were 0.05 L min-1 (95% CI - 0.04 to 0.14) and - 0.28 L min-1 (95% CI - 0.42 to - 0.14), respectively. However, the EB method was found to overestimate VO2max in men with low fitness and the Å method was found to underestimate VO2max in both women and men. For women, the coefficient of variance was 11.1%, when using the EB method and 19.8% when using the Å method. Corresponding values for men were 11.6% and 18.9%, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: The submaximal EB-test is valid for estimating VO2max in elderly women, but not in all elderly men. The Å-test is not valid for estimating VO2max in the elderly.

  • 76.
    Wecke, Liliane
    et al.
    Dep of Cardiology, Karolinska sjukhuset & Karolinska Institutet.
    Andersson, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Laboratory of Applied Sports Science (LTIV).
    Nilsson, Johnny
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Laboratory of Applied Sports Science (LTIV).
    Lundahl, Gunilla
    Bergfeldt, Lennart
    Younger People Show More Changes in Repolarization with Exercise2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Cardiac repolarization is a complex phenomenon that depends on heart rate (HR), autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity, age, gender and diseases/pathological conditions etc. Cardiovascular events in LQT1 mutation carriers are also typically related to age, gender, and QT interval, and are triggered by physical exercise. We studied the repolarization response to heavy exercise in healthy subjects.

    Material and methods:

    Vectorcardiography (VCG) was recorded with the Coronet II system (Ortivus AB, Danderyd, Sweden) using the Frank orthogonal leads (X, Y and Z) at supine rest before and after a maximal cycle ergometer test in 42 healthy subjects. They were of different age and gender, 21 old (64-79 years) and 21 young (20-32 years), 23 were women and 19 men. Maximum T-vector amplitude and direction were assessed as well as T-area, QTc-interval and other VCG parameters.

    Results:

    At baseline most parameters differed between old and young subjects, but only QRS-duration, QRS-area and T-amplitude between women and men. Younger subjects had lower HR (59 vs 72 bpm; p<0.01), higher T-amplitude (530 vs 395 μV; p<0.01), larger T-area (73 vs 48 μVs; p<0.001), shorter QTc (417 vs 430 ms; p<0.01) and a narrower QT-angle (25 vs 59°; p<0.01).

    The response to strenuous exercise was much more pronounced in the younger subjects with an increase in resting HR by 35 bpm compared with 17 bpm for the old subjects (p<0.001). This was accompanied by a more pronounced decrease in T-amplitude (-138 vs -27 μV; p<0.01) and T-area (-20 vs -7 μVs; p<0.01) but a larger prolongation of QTc (54 vs 10 ms; p<0.001).

    Conclusion:

    Young people seem to have a more active ANS, which results in a more pronounced repolarization response to heavy exercise. This might explain why patients with LQT1 more likely suffer from malignant arrhythmias at ages below 40 years.

  • 77.
    Wecke, Liliane
    et al.
    Dept of Cardiology, Karolinska sjukhuset & Karolinska Institutet.
    Andersson, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Laboratory of Applied Sports Science (LTIV).
    Nilsson, Johnny
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Laboratory of Applied Sports Science (LTIV).
    Lundahl, Gunilla
    Bergfeldt, Lennart
    Younger People Show More Changes in Repolarization with Exercise2012In: Younger People Show More Changes in Repolarization with Exercise, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose:

    Cardiac repolarization is a complex phenomenon that depends on heart rate (HR), autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity, age, gender and diseases/pathological conditions etc. Cardiovascular events in LQT1 mutation carriers are also typically related to age, gender, and QT interval, and are triggered by physical exercise. We studied the repolarization response to heavy exercise in healthy subjects.

    Method:

    Vectorcardiography (VCG) was recorded with the Coronet II system (Ortivus AB, Danderyd, Sweden) using the Frank orthogonal lead system (X, Y and Z) at supine rest before and after a maximal cycle ergometer test in 42 healthy subjects. They were of different age and gender, 21 old (64-79 years) and 21 young (20-32 years), 23 were women and 19 men. Maximum T-vector amplitude and direction were assessed as well as T-area, QTc-interval and other VCG parameters.

    Summary:

    At baseline most parameters differed between old and young subjects, but only QRS-duration, QRS-area and T-amplitude between women and men. Younger subjects had lower HR (59 vs 72 bpm; p<0.01), higher T-amplitude (530 vs 395 μV; p<0.01), larger T-area (73 vs 48 μVs; p<0.001), shorter QTc (417 vs 430 ms; p<0.01) and a narrower QT-angle (25 vs 59°; p<0.01).

    The response to strenuous exercise was much more pronounced in the younger subjects with an increase in resting HR by 35 bpm compared with 17 bpm for the old subjects (p<0.001). This was accompanied by a more pronounced decrease in T-amplitude (-138 vs -27 μV; p<0.01) and T-area (-20 vs -7 μVs; p<0.01) but a larger prolongation of QTc (54 vs 10 ms; p<0.001).

    Conclusion:

    Young people seem to have a more active ANS, which results in a more pronounced repolarization response to heavy exercise. This might explain why patients with LQT1 more likely suffer from malignant arrhythmias at ages below 40 years.

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