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  • 3651.
    Wallin, Marcus
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Høgmo Utstøl, Gustav
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Ekologisk dynamik inom svensk elitfotboll: Ett paradigmskifte för taktisk träning2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte

    Studiens syfte är att undersöka hur svenska elittränare i fotboll tränar taktik med en analytisk utgångspunkt från ekologisk dynamik och den pedagogik/metodik den förespråkar (icke-linjär pedagogik och constraints-led approach).

    Frågeställningar

    • Arbetar tränarna enligt principerna inom icke-linjär pedagogik (rörelsevariation, representativ övningsdesign och perception-aktion)?
    • Vilka främjande och begränsande faktorer utifrån constraints-led approach tar tränarna hänsyn till samt påverkar medvetet?
    • Har tränarna i svensk elitfotboll kunskap om icke-linjär pedagogik, constraints-led approach och ekologisk dynamik?

    Metod

    Studien genomfördes med en kvalitativ metod där semistrukturerade intervjuer användes för att ta reda på hur tränarna genomförde taktisk träning och om det var i enlighet med ramverket ekologisk dynamiks nyckelprinciper. Deltagarna var fem manliga tränare från Allsvenskan som innehöll UEFA PRO. Två pilotintervjuer genomfördes. Innan intervjuerna informerades intervjupersonerna om de etiska huvudkraven och gav sitt samtycke. Datainsamling gjordes via transkribering och analyserades efteråt genom en tematisk innehållsanalys.

    Resultat

    Enligt intervjuunderlaget visar det sig att tränarna till stor grad arbetar med principerna inom icke-linjär pedagogik, däremot skiljer sig deras åsikter sig med hur de praktiserar. Trots att tränarna medvetet inte använder sig av constraints-led approach så säger resultatet att de använder de sig av olika främjande och begränsande faktorer i sin övningsdesign, främst uppgiftsfaktorer. Det framkom även andra faktorer som påverkar de beslut som spelarna fattar på plan såsom de individuella faktorerna. Ingen av deltagarna har någon djupare förståelse om icke-linjär pedagogik, constraints-led approach eller ekologisk dynamik.

    Slutsats

    De åsikter och argument som framfördes under studien var en kombination av praktisk erfarenhet på svensk elitnivå och utbildning som tränarna genomgått. Det går att argumentera för att icke-linjär pedagogik och constraints-led approach är ett relevant pedagogiskt ramverk för taktisk träning på svensk elitnivå.

  • 3652.
    Wallmann-Sperlich, Birgit
    et al.
    Institute of Sport Science, Julius-Maximilians University Würzburg, D-97082 Würzburg, Germany.
    Froboese, Ingo
    Institute of Health Promotion and Clinical Movement Science, German Sport University, D-50933 Cologne, Germany.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Physical Activity and the Perceived Neighbourhood Environment: Looking at the Association the Other Way Around2014In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 11, no 8, p. 8093-8111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     The associationbetween physical activity (PA) and variables of the perceived environmentmainly originate from cross-sectional studies that introduced the idea that theenvironment influences the PA level of residents. However, the direction ofcause and effect has not been solved with finality. The aim of this study wasto investigate whether residents’ perception of their proximate environmentdiffers depending on their level of PA in transport and recreation. Weconducted a cross-sectional survey with residents of six different parts of thecity of Cologne, Germany. The sample of 470 adults (52.8% females; mean age =35.5 ± 13.8 years) filled in the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ),as well as the European Environmental Questionnaire ALPHA. To distinguishbetween residents with ‘low’ and ‘high’ PA, we split the samples into two on the basisof the specific median in transport- and recreation-related PA. In the ‘high’ vs. ‘low’ PA group of the overall sample,we noted 4–16% more ‘PA favourable’ environmental perceptions in seven of the15 environmental variables. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to investigateassociations of socio-demographic correlates and transport- andrecreation-related PA on the dependent variables of the environmentalperception. In this case,levels of PA were significant predictors for eight of the 15 items concerningenvironmental perceptions. Thus, the present study introduces the idea that residents withhigher levels of transport and recreational PA may perceive their environmentin a more ‘PA-favourable’ way than residents with lower levels.

  • 3653.
    Wallman-Sperlich, Birgit
    et al.
    Institute of Health Promotion and Clinical Movement Science, German Sports University Cologne, Germany.
    Buksch, Jens
    WHO Collaborating Centre for Child and Adolescent Health Promotion, School of Public Health, Bielefeld University, Germany.
    Hansen, Sylvia
    Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, Maastricht University, The Netherlands.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Froboese, Ingo
    Institute of Health Promotion and Clinical Movement Science, German Sports University Cologne, Germany.
    Sitting Time in Germany: An Analysis of Socio-demographic and Environmental Correlates2013In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 196, no 13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Sedentary behaviour in general and sitting time in particular is an emerging global health concern. The aim of this study was to provide data on the prevalence of sitting time in German adults and to examine socio-demographic and environmental correlates of sitting time.

    Methods: A representative sample of German adjults (n = 2000; 967 men, 1033 women; 49.3 ±17.6 years of age) filled in the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire, including one question on overall sitting time and answered questions about the neighbourhood environment, as well as concerning demographics. Daily sitting time was stratified by gender, age group, BMI, educational and income level, as well as physical activity (PA). To identify socio-demographic and environmental correlates of sitting time, we used a series of linear regressions.

    Results: The overall median was 5 hours (299 minutes) of sitting time/day and men sat longer than women (5 vs. 4 hours/day; p < 0.05). In both genders age and PA were negatively and the educational level positively associated with sitting time. The level of income was not a correlate of sitting time in multivariate analyses. Sitting time was significantly positively associated with higher neighbourhood safety for women. The variance ranged from 16.5% for men to 8.9% for women.

    Conclusions: The overall sitting time was unequally distributed in the German adult population. Our findings suggest implementing specific interventions to reduce sitting time for subgroups such as men, younger aged adults and adults with a higher education and lower PA. Future studies should enhance our understanding of the specific correlates of different types and domains of sitting in order to guide the development of effective public health strategies.

     

     

  • 3654. Walsh, B
    et al.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Söderlund, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Hultman, E
    Saks, V
    Sahlin, Kent
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Research group for Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    The role of phosphorylcreatine and creatine in the regulation of mitochondrial respiration in human skeletal muscle.2001In: Journal of Physiology, ISSN 0022-3751, E-ISSN 1469-7793, Vol. 537, no Pt 3, p. 971-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. The role of phosphorylcreatine (PCr) and creatine (Cr) in the regulation of mitochondrial respiration was investigated in permeabilised fibre bundles prepared from human vastus lateralis muscle. 2. Fibre respiration was measured in the absence of ADP (V(0)) and after sequential additions of submaximal ADP (0.1 mM ADP, V(submax)), PCr (or Cr) and saturating [ADP] (V(max)). 3. V(submax) increased by 55 % after addition of saturating creatine (P < 0.01; n = 8) and half the maximal effect was obtained at 5 mM [Cr]. In contrast, V(submax) decreased by 54 % after addition of saturating phosphorylcreatine (P < 0.01; n = 8) and half the maximal effect was obtained at 1 mM [PCr]. V(max) was not affected by Cr or PCr. 4. V(submax) was similar when PCr and Cr were added simultaneously at concentrations similar to those in muscle at rest (PCr/Cr = 2) and at low-intensity exercise (PCr/Cr = 0.5). At conditions mimicking high-intensity exercise (PCr/Cr = 0.1), V(submax) increased to 60 % of V(max) (P < 0.01 vs. rest and low-intensity exercise). 5. Eight of the subjects participated in a 16 day Cr supplementation programme. Following Cr supplementation, V(0) decreased by 17 % (P < 0.01 vs. prior to Cr supplementation), whereas ADP-stimulated respiration (with and without Cr or PCr) was unchanged. 6. For the first time evidence is given that PCr is an important regulator of mitochondrial ADP-stimulated respiration. Phosphorylcreatine decreases the sensitivity of mitochondrial respiration to ADP whereas Cr has the opposite effect. During transition from rest to high-intensity exercise, decreases in the PCr/Cr ratio will effectively increase the sensitivity of mitochondrial respiration to ADP. The decrease in V(0) after Cr supplementation indicates that intrinsic changes in membrane proton conductance occur.

  • 3655. Wang, Li
    et al.
    Mascher, Henrik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Psilander, Niklas
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Sahlin, Kent
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Research group for Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Resistance exercise enhances the effect of endurance training on molecular signaling in human skeletal muscleManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 3656. Wang, Li
    et al.
    Psilander, Niklas
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Research group for Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Mascher, Henrik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Research group for Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Sahlin, Kent
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Research group for Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Resistance exercise enhances the molecular signaling of mitochondrial biogenesis induced by endurance exercise in human skeletal muscle.2011In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 111, no 5, p. 1335-1344Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Combining endurance and strength training (concurrent training) may change the adaptation compared with single mode training. However, the site of interaction and the mechanisms are unclear. We have investigated the hypothesis that molecular signaling of mitochondrial biogenesis after endurance exercise is impaired by resistance exercise. Ten healthy subjects performed either only endurance exercise (E: 1h cycling at ~65% of VO(2max)) or endurance exercise followed by resistance exercise (ER: 1h cycling + 6 sets of leg press at 70-80% of 1 repetition maximum) in a randomized cross-over design. Muscle biopsies were obtained before and after exercise (1 and 3h Post cycling). The mRNA of genes related to mitochondrial biogenesis (PGC-1α, PRC) and substrate regulation (PDK4) increased after both E and ER, but the mRNA levels were about 2-fold higher after ER (P<0.01). Phosphorylation of proteins involved in the signaling cascade of protein synthesis (mTOR, S6K1 and eEF2) was altered after ER but not after E. Moreover, ER induced a larger increase in mRNA of genes associated with positive mTOR signaling (cMyc and Rheb). Phosphorylation of AMPK, ACC and Akt increased similarly at 1h Post (P<0.01) after both types of exercise. Contrary to our hypothesis, the results demonstrate that resistance exercise, performed after endurance exercise, amplifies the adaptive signaling response of mitochondrial biogenesis compared with single-mode endurance exercise. The mechanism may relate to a crosstalk between signaling pathways mediated by mTOR. The results suggest that concurrent training may be beneficial for the adaptation of muscle oxidative capacity.

  • 3657.
    Wang, Li
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Research group for Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Psilander, Niklas
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Research group for Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Ding, Shuzhe
    Sahlin, Kent
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Research group for Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Similar expression of oxidative genes after interval and continuous exercise.2009In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 41, no 12, p. 2136-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: There is a debate whether interval or traditional endurance training is the most effective stimulus of mitochondrial biogenesis. Here, we compared the effects of acute interval exercise (IE) or continuous exercise (CE) on the muscle messenger RNA (mRNA) content for several genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and lipid metabolism. METHODS: Nine sedentary subjects cycled for 90 min with two protocols: CE (at 67% VO2max) and IE (12 s at 120% and 18 s at 20% of VO2max). The duration of exercise and work performed with CE and IE was identical. Muscle biopsies were taken before and 3 h after exercise. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the two exercise protocols in the increases in VO2 and HR, the reduction in muscle glycogen (35%-40% with both protocols) or the changes in blood metabolites (lactate, glucose, and fatty acids). The mRNA content for major regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis [peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma coactivator 1alpha (PGC-1alpha), PGC-1-related coactivator, PPARbeta/delta] and of lipid metabolism [pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isozyme 4 (PDK4)] increased after exercise, but there was no significant difference between IE and CE. However, the mRNA content for several downstream targets of PGC-1alpha increased significantly only after CE, and mRNA content for nuclear respiratory factor 2 was significantly higher after CE (P < 0.025 vs IE). CONCLUSIONS: The present findings demonstrate that, when the duration of exercise and work performed is the same, IE and CE influence the transcription of genes involved in oxidative metabolism in a similar manner.

  • 3658.
    Wang, Li
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Research group for Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Sahlin, Kent
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Research group for Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    The effect of continuous and interval exercise on PGC-1α and PDK4 mRNA in type I and type II fibres of human skeletal muscle.2012In: Acta Physiologica, ISSN 1748-1708, E-ISSN 1748-1716, Vol. 204, no 4, p. 525-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: Differences in fibre-type recruitment during exercise may induce a heterogenic response in fibre-type gene expression. We have investigated the effect of two different exercise protocols on the fibre-type-specific expression of master genes involved in oxidative metabolism [proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) and Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4)].

    METHODS: Untrained subjects (n = 7) completed 90-min cycling either at a constant intensity [continuous exercise (CE): approximately 60% of VO(2max) ] or as interval exercise (IE: approximately 120/20% VO(2max) , duty cycle 12/18s). Muscle samples were taken before (pre) and 3 h after (post) exercise. Single fibres were isolated from freeze-dried muscle and characterized as type I or type II. The cDNA from two fibres of the same type was pooled and mRNA analysed with reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR.

    RESULTS: Continuous exercise and IE elicited a small increase in blood lactate (<2.5 mM) and moderate glycogen depletion (<40%) without difference between exercise modes. The mRNA of PGC-1α and PDK4 increased 5- to 8-fold in both fibre types after exercise, and the relative increase was negatively correlated with the basal level. However, the mRNA of PGC-1α and PDK4 was not different between type I and II fibres neither pre nor post, and there was no difference in the exercise-induced response between fibre types or exercise modes.

    CONCLUSION: We conclude that the mRNA of PGC-1α and PDK4 increases markedly in both fibre types after prolonged exercise without difference between CE and IE. The similar response between fibre types may relate to that subjects were sedentary and that the metabolic stress was low.

  • 3659.
    Wangler, Anna-Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Aj - Kliv av min fot!: - En studie angående hästrelaterade olyckor hos vuxna ridskoleryttare2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka förekomsten av olyckor hos vuxna ridskoleryttare. Frågeställningarna var: Hur stor har förekomsten av olyckor varit hos vuxna ridskoleryttare under de senaste 5 åren? Hur stor har förekomsten av olyckor varit i samband med hantering av häst i förhållande till olyckor relaterade till fall från häst?

    Vilka typer av skador är mest förekommande?

    Vilka typer av olyckor är beroende på ålder, kön och ridvana?Metod

    Studien genomfördes kvantitativt med enkäter som delades ut till vuxna på tre olika ridskolor i Stockholms län. 100 enkäter besvarades och kodades i Excel, dessa analyserades sedan med hjälp av statistikprogrammet SPSS.Resultat

    Resultatet i denna studie visar på att 68 % av ryttarna inte varit med om en olycka medan

    32 % varit med om en eller fler. 79 % av olyckorna inträffar då ryttaren ramlar av och de skador som är vanligast är hjärnskakning och mindre frakturer på revben och fingrar. Endast 21 % av olyckorna som skett var då ryttaren hanterat hästen. De flesta skador som uppkommer vid dessa tillfällen är sårskador då de blivit bitna av hästen samt frakturer och knäskador då ryttaren blivit sparkad. Påverkansfaktorer gällande förekomsten av olyckor var framförallt vilken ridvana ryttaren hade, ju längre denna ridit desto större risk. Även lektionens innehåll spelade roll, där hoppning och ridning i naturen visade sig inneha den största olycksfrekvensen.Slutsats

    Förekomsten av olyckor i denna studie visade sig bero framförallt av hur länge ryttaren ridit på ridskola. Ridvana visade sig vara statistiskt signifikant även då man tagit hänsyn till andra störningsfaktorer. Ju längre ryttaren ridit desto större olycksrisk, sannolikt beror detta antagligen på svårare moment i ridningen. Även om skador sker i stallet så är det betydligt större risk att råka ut för en olycka vid ridning och då framförallt vid hoppning eller ridning i skogen.

  • 3660.
    Wareborn, Oscar
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Varför och vilka bollspel i skolan?2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Drygt en tredjedel av idrottslektionerna innehåller någon form av boll, enligt statistiken. Så behöver det inte vara på alla skolor men den generella statistiken säger det. Skolan som studien gjordes på är en av många skolor som har mycket bollspel på idrottsundervisningen. Syftet med den här undersökningen är att undersöka varför man använder bollspel till så stor del av idrottsundervisningen.

    • Vad lär sig eleverna av bollspel?
    • Vilka bollspel används mest under idrottsundervisningen?
    • Vilka bollspel används minst under idrottsundervisningen?
    • Vilka för- och nackdelar finns det med bollspel?

    Metod

    Det här är en kvalitativ undersökningsstudie med intervjuer som hjälp. Detta för att få så djupgående svar som möjligt. Intervjupersonerna valdes genom ett bekvämlighetsurval och bestod av två idrottslärare och fyra elever.

    Resultat

    Under skolans idrottslektioner använder man sig av flera olika bollspel på grund av att få elever att lära sig komplexa rörelser så som springa, kasta, fånga och hoppa. Det visar sig även vara bra för det sociala samspelet mellan olika individer. Elevernas samarbetsförmåga provas samt deras sida av att visa respekt för lagkamrater och motståndare. Det tas även upp vilka bollspel som används mest och minst.

    Slutsats

    Bollspel har länge varit en central del i idrottsundervisningen och kommer säkerligen vara länge framöver. De traditionella bollspelen som fotboll, handboll, basket och innebandy är fortfarande stora och står stadigt som de viktigaste bollspelen att lära ut till eleverna medan tennis och de mer kulturella spelen som lacrosse och softball inte alls slagit i genom i undervisningen. Dels för att intresset inte finns för dem men också för att flera olika ramfaktorer spelar in.

  • 3661.
    Wasserman, Anders
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, For Sports Coaches (Tränarlänken).
    Hur blir vi mer specifika?: En träningsplanering för ungdomsfotboll med speciell inriktning mot agility2011Student paper otherStudent thesis
  • 3662.
    Wasserman, Anders
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, For Sports Coaches (Tränarlänken).
    Krav- och Kapacitetsprofil Fotboll: Elitungdomsfotboll: Nationell vs. Internationell2011Student paper other, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 3663.
    Wasserman, Anders
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Kreativitet inom Fotboll: En tvärsnittsstudie om ungdomsfotbollsspelares kreativitet och tränares träningsmetodik och aktioner2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The purpose of this study is to study whether there is any correlation between soccer coaches’ actions and the creativity of the players, as well as whether soccer players' creative actions differ in number between play form and training form. What does the relationship look like between soccer coaches’ actions and the creativity of players? Are there any differences in the number of creative actions per minute between play form and training form? The study's hypothesis is that soccer players perform more creative soccer actions in trainings where the coach uses more play form and questions.

    Method

    The coach's actions, training methodsand players' creativity were measured using systematic observations. To measure training methods and training actions, a modified version of the Coach Analysis and Intervention System (CAIS) was used, while the creative actions of players were subjectively assessed by two expert coaches, similar to the Consensual Assessment Technique (CAT) creativity test.

    Results

    The results generally supported the study's hypothesis. The Wilcoxon sign-rank test showed differences in the number of creative actions/min between play form and training form (Z =  -3,059; p <0.05). Most creative actions/min were performed in play form. In addition, there was a positive correlation between the creative actions and the frequency of open questions (rs= 0.71, p <0.01) and instructions – positive (rs= 0.82, p <0.01), and a negative relationship between the creative actions and silence – focus on training (rs= -0.70, p <0.05).

    Conclusions

    The results of this study have highlighted the relationship between creativity, coaches’ actions and training methods. The intention is not that the results should be interpreted as recommendations for how soccer coaches should work to promote creativity. In fact, much more research is needed before such recommendations can be given. However, it is possible to see tendencies that point to the fact that it’s important for soccer coaches to be active in their coachingand support the players with questions and instructions, as well as use training methods that challenges the players’ flexibility.

  • 3664.
    Wasserman, Anders
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, For Sports Coaches (Tränarlänken).
    Återerövring & Försvarspress – FC Barcelona vs. Real Madrid CF2011Student paper other, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 3665.
    Watson, Debbie
    et al.
    Trinity Laban Conservatoire of Music and Dance.
    Nordin-Bates, Sanna M
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Chappell, Kerry
    University of Exeter.
    Facilitating and nurturing creativity in pre-vocational dancers: Findings from the UK Centres for Advanced Training2012In: Research in Dance Education, ISSN 1464-7893, E-ISSN 1470-1111, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 153-173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a case study investigation into creativity involving young dancers and faculty members on the UK government-funded pre-vocational contemporary dance training programme. Qualitative research techniques were used to gather and interpret data on how individuals nurtured and viewed creativity at an individual level, as well as how the facilitation of creativity was perceived and manifested at a teaching and institutional level. Findings suggest that nurturing creativity at a within-person level involves the evolution and development of personality characteristics and abilities in both direct and indirect ways. Two other factors were influential at this level, namely inspiration and motivation. At an interpersonal and environmental level, the study found that a communal and collaborative approach underpinned the nurture of creativity in the setting. Additionally, teaching styles which supported the development of dancers’ own voice alongside dance skills were critical in helping to encourage and realise creativity in young people. The study sheds light on the constantly evolving and dynamic processes involved when nurturing and facilitating creativity.

  • 3666.
    Watterdal, Øyvind
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    The impact of warm up intensity and duration on sprint performance2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A traditional warm-up (WU) for track sprinters usually includes a general WU, a series of mobility drills and some short sprint strides lasting 30-60 min in total. A WU of this duration might cause significant fatigue and impair sprint performance.

    Aim: To test the hypothesis that a traditional high intense warm-up of long duration would elicit fatigue and impair sprint performance.

    Methods: Five highly trained males competitive in endurance sports performed three different WU protocols on separate days in their postseason period. Their mean ± SD age, body mass and height were 24.2 ± 1.6 years, 78.4 ± 7.8 kg, 179.6 ± 8.8 cm. The study participants performed a timed 60 meter sprint on an indoor track. The traditional warm-up (LONG), started with 10 min of easy running; then 7 min of mobility drills followed by five sprints performed with 3-min break in between. The total duration of LONG was 35 minutes. The experimental warm-up (SHORT) was shorter and less intense; 10 min of easy running was followed by just one sprint. Both warm-up protocols were followed by 10 min of recovery, where participants were not allowed to sit down. A third test occasion served as control (CON), where participants did not conduct physical activity prior to the time trial, only 10 min of recovery. Participants also rated the satisfaction of their performance on a 10 point scale.

    Results: The results of 60 m time trial performance showed no significant differences among the different WU protocols (P = 0.20). The 60 m performance was better for SHORT (8.02 ± 0.10 sec) than for LONG (8.08 ± 0.16 sec) and CON (8.20 ± 0.21 sec). 4 of 5 participants experienced their fastest time trial following SHORT. It appeared that participants were significantly faster following SHORT (7.99 ± 0.22 ms-1) compared to LONG (7.77 ± 0.33 ms-1) in the final 10 m of the time trial (P = 0.05). The satisfaction after SHORT scored highest (6.9), followed by LONG (5.9) and CON (4.5).

    Conclusions: There is no significant difference between a traditional WU compared to a WU of shorter duration and lower intensity. The traditional WU showed a significant decline in running speed in the final stage of the time trial, which might be caused by fatigue.

  • 3667.
    Webrink, Ludvig
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Axelsson, Oscar
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Mål och verklighet, är det samma sak?: Överensstämmer elevers självskattade kunskap med de nationella målen i kursen Idrott och hälsa A2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of this study is to examine students' estimates of knowledge in regards of the goals in the national curriculum, in the course Physical Education A, as well as to examine whether there is a difference when comparing a big city and a smaller town.

    Are students´ real knowledge equal to the national goals to be achieved after completing the course in Physical Education A 100 p? How does self-rated knowledge differ from students in a big city versus students in a small town?

    Method

    In our thesis, we have used a quantitative method in form a questionnaire.  A quantitative study was suitable for this study because it considered a relatively broad view of students´ self-rated knowledge regarding the achievements of goals in the course Physical Education A.

    A total of 170 students from eight classes - four classes from a big city, and four from a smaller town - participated in the study. The basis for the survey is the National School Board's goals for the Physical Education course. The goals were made to question and the students rated their knowledge on a six-point scale.  

    Results

    The results showed that about 50 % of the students felt that they have the knowledge which is printed in the National School Board's goals. The subject that differed most from the other questions were outdoor life and dance. The survey question that students are estimated to have a minimum knowledge of was the question as to whether the students were familiar with some selected dances, such as jive, salsa and waltz.  The goal that most students estimate that they have knowledge in was the goal: how different factors affect human health.

    Conclusion

    The conclusion is that there is a clear weakness regarding students' goals achievement. If this study reflects reality, it is obvious that a change is required, when 50 % of all pupils do not estimate that they achieve the National School Board's goals.

    It requires a discussion of where physical education is heading; should it be a knowledge-topic or is it only to be viewed as a relief from the substance of the theoretical teaching?

  • 3668.
    Wecke, Liliane
    et al.
    Dep of Cardiology, Karolinska sjukhuset & Karolinska Institutet.
    Andersson, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Laboratory of Applied Sports Science (LTIV).
    Nilsson, Johnny
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Laboratory of Applied Sports Science (LTIV).
    Lundahl, Gunilla
    Bergfeldt, Lennart
    Younger People Show More Changes in Repolarization with Exercise2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Cardiac repolarization is a complex phenomenon that depends on heart rate (HR), autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity, age, gender and diseases/pathological conditions etc. Cardiovascular events in LQT1 mutation carriers are also typically related to age, gender, and QT interval, and are triggered by physical exercise. We studied the repolarization response to heavy exercise in healthy subjects.

    Material and methods:

    Vectorcardiography (VCG) was recorded with the Coronet II system (Ortivus AB, Danderyd, Sweden) using the Frank orthogonal leads (X, Y and Z) at supine rest before and after a maximal cycle ergometer test in 42 healthy subjects. They were of different age and gender, 21 old (64-79 years) and 21 young (20-32 years), 23 were women and 19 men. Maximum T-vector amplitude and direction were assessed as well as T-area, QTc-interval and other VCG parameters.

    Results:

    At baseline most parameters differed between old and young subjects, but only QRS-duration, QRS-area and T-amplitude between women and men. Younger subjects had lower HR (59 vs 72 bpm; p<0.01), higher T-amplitude (530 vs 395 μV; p<0.01), larger T-area (73 vs 48 μVs; p<0.001), shorter QTc (417 vs 430 ms; p<0.01) and a narrower QT-angle (25 vs 59°; p<0.01).

    The response to strenuous exercise was much more pronounced in the younger subjects with an increase in resting HR by 35 bpm compared with 17 bpm for the old subjects (p<0.001). This was accompanied by a more pronounced decrease in T-amplitude (-138 vs -27 μV; p<0.01) and T-area (-20 vs -7 μVs; p<0.01) but a larger prolongation of QTc (54 vs 10 ms; p<0.001).

    Conclusion:

    Young people seem to have a more active ANS, which results in a more pronounced repolarization response to heavy exercise. This might explain why patients with LQT1 more likely suffer from malignant arrhythmias at ages below 40 years.

  • 3669.
    Wecke, Liliane
    et al.
    Dept of Cardiology, Karolinska sjukhuset & Karolinska Institutet.
    Andersson, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Laboratory of Applied Sports Science (LTIV).
    Nilsson, Johnny
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Laboratory of Applied Sports Science (LTIV).
    Lundahl, Gunilla
    Bergfeldt, Lennart
    Younger People Show More Changes in Repolarization with Exercise2012In: Younger People Show More Changes in Repolarization with Exercise, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose:

    Cardiac repolarization is a complex phenomenon that depends on heart rate (HR), autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity, age, gender and diseases/pathological conditions etc. Cardiovascular events in LQT1 mutation carriers are also typically related to age, gender, and QT interval, and are triggered by physical exercise. We studied the repolarization response to heavy exercise in healthy subjects.

    Method:

    Vectorcardiography (VCG) was recorded with the Coronet II system (Ortivus AB, Danderyd, Sweden) using the Frank orthogonal lead system (X, Y and Z) at supine rest before and after a maximal cycle ergometer test in 42 healthy subjects. They were of different age and gender, 21 old (64-79 years) and 21 young (20-32 years), 23 were women and 19 men. Maximum T-vector amplitude and direction were assessed as well as T-area, QTc-interval and other VCG parameters.

    Summary:

    At baseline most parameters differed between old and young subjects, but only QRS-duration, QRS-area and T-amplitude between women and men. Younger subjects had lower HR (59 vs 72 bpm; p<0.01), higher T-amplitude (530 vs 395 μV; p<0.01), larger T-area (73 vs 48 μVs; p<0.001), shorter QTc (417 vs 430 ms; p<0.01) and a narrower QT-angle (25 vs 59°; p<0.01).

    The response to strenuous exercise was much more pronounced in the younger subjects with an increase in resting HR by 35 bpm compared with 17 bpm for the old subjects (p<0.001). This was accompanied by a more pronounced decrease in T-amplitude (-138 vs -27 μV; p<0.01) and T-area (-20 vs -7 μVs; p<0.01) but a larger prolongation of QTc (54 vs 10 ms; p<0.001).

    Conclusion:

    Young people seem to have a more active ANS, which results in a more pronounced repolarization response to heavy exercise. This might explain why patients with LQT1 more likely suffer from malignant arrhythmias at ages below 40 years.

  • 3670.
    Wedberg, Helen
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Lexell, Hanna
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Friluftsliv i skolan?: en kvantitativ studie om idrottslärarstudenters attityder till friluftsliv i skolan2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how PE teacher-students at The Swedish School of Sports and Health sciences experience the school segment Outdoor teaching, and to find what internal factors that may influence the teacher's decision to teach it.

    1. What are the PE-teacher student’s views on the different areas of the subject outdoors?
    2. What are the PE-teacher student’s views on teaching the subject outdoors?
    3. How do the PE-teacher student’s knowledge in and experience of outdoor education affect on their attitude towards teaching the subject?

     Method

    This study is a quantitative survey where the data collection has been done through a questionnaire survey consisting of 24 questions. The questionnaire was answered by PE-teacher students in grade 2-5 at the Swedish school of sports and health sciences In Stockholm. The total loss of responses in the study on the entire population is 15%. Collected data were analyzed using the statistical program Statistica 64 version 11 using frequency analysis and Pearsons and M-L Chi Square – test.

     Results

    Of the total of 148 participant student 22 % feel insecure about teaching the green outdoor education, 51 % of the respondents feel insecure about teaching the blue outdoor education and 58 % of the respondents feel insecure about teaching the white outdoor education.  The majority of these respondents indicate a lack of knowledge as the main reason for the uncertainty. Which is also shown in compared results between students' own estimates of their knowledge and their attitude towards the subject and towards teaching it.

     Conclusions

    The majority of the students have little experience with outdoor activities from their own schooling. Green outdoors is the type of outdoors most of the students have experience of from their own schooling. Green outdoors is also the type of outdoors that most of the students have a positive experience of and feel secure teaching in school. The majority of the respondents consider themselves to have basic knowledge of the three different types of outdoors. Lack of knowledge is the superior reason for the feeling of insecurity towards teaching the subject. The students who have completed courses in the various types of outdoors indicates less insecurity towards teaching the different types of outdoors.

     

  • 3671.
    Wedman, Ingemar
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Wahlgren, Lina
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Franke-Wikberg, Sara
    Examination med kvalitet: en undersökning av examinationsförfarandet vid några svenska högskolor2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I föreliggande rapport har syftet varit att granska examination och examinationsprocessen vid fyra utbildningsprogram, nämligen läkar-, psykolog-, civilingenjörs- och lärarprogrammen. Särskild tonvikt i granskningen har legat på examinationens kvalitet. Studien genomfördes under perioden 1 april, 2005 till 30 mars, 2006.

  • 3672.
    Weel Sanne, Martin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    I huvudet på elitishockeycoachen: att prestera genom andra via idrottspsykologiska färdigheter i samband med match.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka elitishockeycoachens användande av de idrottspsykologiska färdigheterna visualisering och inre samtal för att prestera under match.

    Frågeställningarna som hjälpte till att besvara syftet var:

    – Använder coachen sig av visualisering och inre samtal för att prestera under match?

    – Hur använder coachen sig av visualisering och inre samtal för att prestera under match?

    – När använder coachen sig av visualisering och inre samtal för att prestera under match?

     

    Metod

    Undersökningen har en kvalitativ ansats, där halvstrukturerade intervjuer har använts för datainsamling. Tre manliga coacher från 46-48 år med erfarenhet av att vara head-coacher på elitnivå (definierat som Svenska Hockeyligan (SHL) och HockeyAllsvenskan i Sverige, och Get-Ligaen i Norge) deltog i undersökningen. Intervjuerna spelades in på band, blev transkriberade i sin helhet och tematiskt analyserade med hjälp av meningskodning.

     

    Resultat

    Samtliga av coacherna använder sig av både visualisering och inre samtal för sin egen prestation i samband med match. Två av coacherna gör detta för sin egen prestation, medan den tredje coachen säger att han inte gör det medvetet, dock säger han att han gör det mer än vad han själv tror. Både visualisering och inre samtal har flera olika funktioner för coacherna, som stresshantering, förberedelse, analys och utvärdering. De två idrottspsykologiska färdigheterna används både före, under och efter match för coachernas egen prestation.

     

    Slutsats

    Dessa elitishockeycoacher använder sig av visualisering och inre samtal för att prestera genom andra under match. Coacherna anser att de två idrottspsykologiska färdigheterna har stora effekter och påverkar deras prestationer positivt.

  • 3673.
    Weidenius, Joakim
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Svärd, Hugo
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Visualiseringsvanor: skillnader hos elitidrottare och motionärer inom kampsport2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Uppsatsens syfte är att undersöka skillnaden i hur elitidrottare och motionärer använder sig av visualisering inför och under träning och tävling.

    Frågeställningarna:

    Hur använder sig elitidrottare av visualisering inför och under träning och tävling?Hur använder sig motionärer av visualisering inför och under träning?

    Hur ser medvetenheten ut för elitidrottare kontra motionärer, angående visualisering?Vilka skillnader finns i hur elitidrottare och motionärer använder sig av visualisering?

    Metod

    Fyra kampsportsutövare intervjuades för att få information om deras tränings-, motivations- och visualiseringsvanor. Respondenternas syn på visualisering och dess innebörd kartlades utförligt. Intervjuerna var öppet riktade för att ge relevanta svar men samtidigt ge plats åt respondenternas egna tankar och funderingar. Möjlighet att beskriva respondenternas medvetenhet speglas i frågor där respondentens tankar kring visualisering utforskas. På så sätt ger metoden data till att besvara samtliga frågeställningar.

    Resultat

    Resultaten visar hur motionärer och elitidrottare använder sig av visualisering inom sin idrott på ett utförligt sätt. I intervjuerna uppkommer tydligt vad respondenterna har för syn på visualisering och hur stor vikt de lägger på det. Delarna av intervjun där respondenterna får beskriva hur de själva gör, visar på såväl strategier som medvetenhet. Sammantaget ger resultatet vad som krävs för att besvara syftet.

    Slutsats

    Eftersom att studiens omfång är begränsat får de flesta resultat tolkas som enskilda tendenser snarare än fakta. Resultaten visar då tydliga tendenser till att elitidrottare är mer medvetna och använder visualisering till fler saker än motionärer. I sina beskrivningar av hur visualisering går till var elitidrottarna betydligt utförligare än motionärerna.

  • 3674.
    Welin, Louise
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, For Sports Coaches (Tränarlänken).
    Krav & Kapacitetsanalys i långdistanssimning på öppet vatten2007Student paper otherStudent thesis
  • 3675.
    Welin, Louise
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Påverkas Transversus Abdominis anticipatoriska aktivering av långvarig ihållande aktivering?2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether prolonged sustained sub maximal activation of Transversu Abdominis (TrA) influences its anticipitatory activation associated with fast voluntary shoulder flexion.

    Method

    In a standing position nine physically active female subjects (mean age of 26 ± 3 y) performed five rapid bilateral shoulder flexion from 0° to 90° shoulder flexion, before and after approximately 10 minutes of sustained submaximal activity in TrA as well as after 5 minutes rest. Electromyographic activity (EMG) was recorded using two intramuscular fine-wire electrodes placed in the right TrA and two surface electrodes placed over the Deltoideus anterior. Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) was recorded intra-gastrically.

    Results

    TrA was activated prior to Deltoideus, before as well as after the sustained activation. The onset of TrA muscle activation relative to the onset of Deltoideus activation was not significantly different between before, directly after, or 5 minutes after the end of the sustained activity. The root mean square of the TrA EMG was unchanged both before arm lifts (baseline) and within the anticipatory window (100 ms before until 50 ms after Deltoideus onset). The IAP-value was unaffected in the baseline as well as in the anticipatory phase.

    Conclusion

    This study shows that the central nervous system begins activating the TrA slightly before initiating arm movements and that this behaviour is unaffected by a 10 min. sustained submaximal activation of TrA. There are no methods available for direct measurement of the mechanical output from TrA activation, but since IAP was unaffected it appears reasonable to conclude that the contractility of TrA is not deteriorated by the submaximal activation of TrA.

  • 3676.
    Welin, Louise
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, For Sports Coaches (Tränarlänken).
    Träningsplanering för långdistanssimmare - med inriktning på aerob kapacitet2007Student paper otherStudent thesis
  • 3677.
    Wemyss, Cameron
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Selma, Kosevic
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    En djupdykning i Skandinaviens simundervisning: En komparativ innehållsanalys av läroplaner och styrdokument i Norge, Sverige och Danmark2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställning

    Syfte med denna studie är att undersöka simundervisningen i skolan för att få en fördjupad förståelse för simning i ämnet idrott och hälsa.

    Studiens avser att besvara (1) hur simundervisning framställts i läroplaner historiskt i Sverige, Norge och Danmark, (2) hur simundervisning framställs i nuvarande styrdokument för grundskolan i Sverige, Norge och Danmark (3) och om det finns eventuella likheter respektive skillnader i detta material.

    Metod

    I denna studie används innehållsanalys med en läroplansteoretisk utgångspunkt där simundervisning i styrdokument från Sverige, Norge och Danmark analyseras. I en kvalitativ textanalys av materialet med kodning och kategorisering framställs en överblick över simundervisning för respektive land. Därtill identifiera dess eventuella likheter och skillnader och även teman.

    Resultatet

    I tidigare läroplaner visar det sig att simundervisningen varierat över tid i Sverige, Norge och Danmark. Variationer förekommer till exempel i anvisningar lektionsupplägg och bedömning. Norges nutida material skiljer sig från Sverige och Danmarks på så sätt att simundervisningen i större utsträckning lyfts fram som möjliggörande för aktiviteter inte endast något som förhindrar olyckor. Av denna anledning har vi identifierat ett möjliggörande tema i de norska styrdokumenten. I det danska materialet finns en stark betoning på säkerhet vilket inneburit att vi identifierat ett olycksförebyggande tema. Det svenska materialet delar aspekter från både det danska olycksförebyggande- och det norska möjliggörande temat och kan därför ses som ett mellanting. Det svenska materialet utmärker sig dock genom att ha betoning på prestation i bedömning.

    Slutsats

    I denna studie har vi konstaterat simundervisningen i skandinaviens styrdokument har ett liknande innehåll på så sätt att de alla innehåller simkunnighets- och säkerhetsaspekter. Trots denna likhet finns skillnader som möjliggjort för oss att identifiera olika teman. Detta visar på att vad som kan uppfattas som subtila skillnader kan i praktiken medföra signifikanta skillnader. Denna studie, och studier av detta slag, skulle möjligen kunna vara till hjälp då framtida läroplaner formuleras då lärdomar kan utvinnas från både historiska exempel men även andra länder.

  • 3678. Wengström, Y
    et al.
    Bolam, Kate A.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Mijwel, S
    Sundberg, C J
    Backman, M
    Browall, M
    Norrbom, J
    Rundqvist, H
    Optitrain: a randomised controlled exercise trial for women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy.2017In: BMC Cancer, ISSN 1471-2407, E-ISSN 1471-2407, Vol. 17, article id 100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy suffer from a range of detrimental disease and treatment related side-effects. Exercise has shown to be able to counter some of these side-effects and improve physical function as well as quality of life. The primary aim of the study is to investigate and compare the effects of two different exercise regimens on the primary outcome cancer-related fatigue and the secondary outcomes muscle strength, function and structure, cardiovascular fitness, systemic inflammation, skeletal muscle gene activity, health related quality of life, pain, disease and treatment-related symptoms in women with breast cancer receiving chemotherapy. The second aim is to examine if any effects are sustained 1, 2, and 5 years following the completion of the intervention and to monitor return to work, recurrence and survival. The third aim of the study is to examine the effect of attendance and adherence rates on the effects of the exercise programme.

    METHODS: This study is a randomised controlled trial including 240 women with breast cancer receiving chemotherapy in Stockholm, Sweden. The participants are randomly allocated to either: group 1: Aerobic training, group 2: Combined resistance and aerobic training, or group 3: usual care (control group). During the 5-year follow-up period, participants in the exercise groups will receive a physical activity prescription. Measurements for endpoints will take place at baseline, after 16 weeks (end of intervention) as well as after 1, 2 and 5 years.

    DISCUSSION: This randomised controlled trial will generate substantial information regarding the effects of different types of exercise on the health of patients with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy. We expect that dissemination of the knowledge gained from this study will contribute to developing effective long term strategies to improve the physical and psychosocial health of breast cancer survivors.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: OptiTrain - Optimal Training Women with Breast Cancer (OptiTrain), NCT02522260 ; Registration: June 9, 2015, Last updated version Feb 29, 2016. Retrospectively registered.

  • 3679.
    Wengström, Yvonne
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Mijwel, Sara
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Cardinale, Daniele A.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Högintensiv träning hjälper patienter med bröstcancer2018In: Idrottsforskning.se, ISSN 2002-3944, article id 12 novemberArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 3680.
    Wennlöf, Jessica
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Musiktillskott?: Hur fysiska och psykiska variabler skiljer sig vid löpning med, respektive utan musik2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka hur fysiska och psykiska variabler skiljer sig hos löparvana män, vid löpning på löpband i samband med respektive utan musik.

    - Hur skiljer sig upplevd ansträngning under löpning med, respektive utan musik?

    - Vilka skillnader finns i laktat, laktattrösklar och hjärtfrekvens under löpning med, respektive utan musik?

    - Vilken skillnad finns mellan situationsspecifikt självförtroende innan löpning med musik samt situationsspecifikt självförtroende innan löpning utan musik?

    Hypotes: Fysiska och psykiska variabler skiljer sig vid löpning med, respektive utan musik.

    Metod

    I denna experimentella studie testades nio män i åldrarna 18-30 år i ett laktattröskeltest på löpband med, respektive utan musik. De sprang sex till sju stegrande intensiteter/nivåer. Under testerna undersöktes laktat, hjärtfrekvens och upplevd ansträngning. Ansträngingen skattades efter borgskalan. Innan testerna fick de fylla i en enkät med frågor om situationsspecifikt självförtroende.

    Resultat

    Det visades inga skillnader i upplevd ansträngning, hjärtfrekvens, laktat, laktattrösklar och situationsspecifikt självförtroende vid löpning med, respektive utan musik.

    Slutsats

    Det finns inte skillnader i laktat, laktattrösklar, hjärtfrekvens, upplevd ansträngning samt situationsspecifikt självförtroende vid löpning med, respektive utan musik.

  • 3681. Wernbom, Mathias
    et al.
    Apro, William
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Paulsen, Gøran
    Nilsen, Tormod S
    Blomstrand, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Raastad, Truls
    Acute low-load resistance exercise with and without blood flow restriction increased protein signalling and number of satellite cells in human skeletal muscle.2013In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 113, no 12, p. 2953-2965Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To investigate hypertrophic signalling after a single bout of low-load resistance exercise with and without blood flow restriction (BFR).

    METHODS: Seven subjects performed unilateral knee extensions at 30 % of their one repetition maximum. The subjects performed five sets to failure with BFR on one leg, and then repeated the same amount of work with the other leg without BFR. Biopsies were obtained from m. vastus lateralis before and 1, 24 and 48 h after exercise.

    RESULTS: At 1-h post-exercise, phosphorylation of p70S6K(Thr389) and p38MAPK(Thr180/Tyr182) was elevated in the BFR leg, but not in the free-flow leg. Phospho-p70S6K(Thr389) was elevated three- to fourfold in both legs at 24-h post-exercise, but back to baseline at 48 h. The number of visible satellite cells (SCs) per muscle fibre was increased for all post-exercise time points and in both legs (33-53 %). The proportion of SCs with cytoplasmic extensions was elevated at 1-h post in the BFR leg and the number of SCs positive for myogenin and/or MyoD was increased at 1- and 24-h post-exercise for both legs combined.

    CONCLUSION: Acute low-load resistance exercise with BFR resulted in early (1 h) and late (24 h) enhancement of phospho-p70S6K(Thr389), an early response of p38MAPK, and an increased number of SCs per muscle fibre. Enhanced phospho-p70S6K(Thr389) at 24-h post-exercise and increases in SC numbers were seen also in the free-flow leg. Implications of these findings for the hypertrophic effects of fatiguing low-load resistance exercise with and without BFR are discussed.

  • 3682.
    Westblad, Niklas
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    The effect of flywheel training on functional neuromuscular performance in physically active youth2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of flywheel resistance training on functional neuromuscular performance in physically active youth.

     

    Method

    Forty-four healthy and physically active youth between 12-14 years of age (n=19 boys & n=25 girls) volunteered to participate and were randomized into three different groups of flywheel resistance training (FRT) (n=15, body mass = 42,9 ± 8,6 kg, time to Peak Height Velocity (PHV) = - 0,8 ± 1,6), traditional strength training (TST) (n=15, body mass = 44,7 ± 10,3 kg, time to PHV = - 0,8 ± 1,5) and a control group (CON) (n=14, body mass = 43,8 ± 9,0 kg, time to PHV- 0,8 ± 1,5. Squat jump (SQ), Countermovement jump (CMJ), 10-m acceleration, 20-m speed and 30-sprint was assessed pre- and post-intervention. All training groups performed 12 resistance training sessions over a 6-week intervention. The FRT-group performed bilateral flywheel resistance squats with 4 sets of 6 repetitions with 0,025 to 0,05 kgm2 and the TST-group performed bilateral barbell squats with 4 sets of 6 repetitions at a predicted 80 %1RM, while the control group only performed their regular sports training.

     

    Results

    Repeated measures two way-ANOVA, 3 x 2 (training group x time), showed no significant mean effects between groups after the intervention. A significant increase occurred in the control group for SQ; 2,4 ± 2,5 (cm) p ≤ 0,008 and CMJ; 2,2 ± 3,1 (cm) p ≤ 0,037. Both training groups increased significantly in body mass from pre- to post-tests by 2,0 ± 2,7 kg for the flywheel training group and 1,3 ± 0,9 kg in the traditional strength training group (p ≤ 0,05).

     

    Conclusions

    This study indicates that flywheel training can be used as a resistance training method for youth athletes without inducing training related injuries. Flywheel resistance training resulted in a small but non-significant increase from pre to post test in squat jump and 10-m sprint. Future studies on flywheel resistance training for youth needs to investigate the implementation of longer training periods, additional training sessions, more experienced youth in resistance training and faster movement speed.

  • 3683. Wester, Anita
    et al.
    Wahlgren, Lina
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH.
    Wedman, Ingemar
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Att bli fysiskt aktiv2008In: FYSS 2008: Fysisk aktivitet i sjukdomsprevention och sjukdomsbehandling, FHI & YFA , 2008, p. 64-78Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 3684.
    Westermark, Gabriela
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Lindgren, Moa
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Är tidig specialisering vägen till landslaget?: Konståkares och truppgymnasters erfarenheter kring specialisering2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka om tidig specialisering är en förutsättning för att uppnå elitnivå inom de estetiska idrotterna konståkning och truppgymnastik samt försöka få en förståelse för vilka för- och nackdelar tidig specialisering kan tänkas få för individen och den framtida elitkarriären. Följande frågeställningar skall besvaras i studien:

    1. Hur ser idrottsbakgrunden ut för samtliga landslagsutövarna inom konståkning och truppgymnastik?
    2. Hur beskriver landslagsutövarna sin idrottskarriär, inklusive eventuell specialisering och diversifiering?

    Metod

    En deduktiv enkät med totalt 7 frågor skickades ut till de 34 landslagsutövarna för att få en överblick över/kring hur deras idrottsbakgrund såg ut. 29 stycken valde att svara varav 14 var kvinnor och 15 var män, 10 konståkare och 18 truppgymnaster. Därefter kunde intervjupersonerna väljas utifrån de svar de angivit och som ansågs relevanta för studien, 2 från varje sport, 2 män och 2 kvinnor, med olika bakgrund inom sporterna. En semistrukturerad intervjuguide skapades för att samla så mycket information från deltagarna som möjligt. Efter transkribering togs citat ut och en induktiv metod användes för att skapa en modell med de svar som angivits av atleterna.

    Resultat

    Studien visade att det var stor spridning inom de båda landslagen gällande när atleterna börjat, specialiserat sig, utövat olika idrotter och dylikt. De fyra intervjupersonerna hade en mängd likheter och olikheter i deras väg till landslaget. Det skiljer sig i när de började utöva sporterna, några hade mest lek i träningen och andra tränade med målet att bli bättre redan första året. Kvinnorna hade fler skador än männen, endast en av de fyra atleterna hade slutat och tagit en paus i sin karriär. Stöttningen hemifrån och lagamraterna/kompisarna hade också olika stor inverkan på de fyra intervjupersonerna.

    Slutsats

    Tidig specialisering framkommer inte som ett måste för att nå det svenska landslaget i konståkning och truppgymnastik.

  • 3685.
    Westholm Kjellgren, Gerd
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Påverkar mineralbalansering hälsan?: upplevda effekter hos vuxna med visuell problematik2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudent thesis
  • 3686.
    Westin, Jakob
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Fysisk aktivitet, stillasittande och psykiskt välbefinnande: Finns det något samband?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och Frågeställningar

    Syftet med undersökningen var att mäta sambandet mellan fysisk aktivitet och psykiskt välbefinnande inom ett begränsat urval av gymnasieelever. Undersökningen syftade också till att mäta respondenternas psykiska välbefinnande, stillasittande och fysiska aktivitet samt att mäta sambandet mellan respondenternas stillasittande och psykiska välbefinnande.

    • Hur psykiskt välmående, stillasittande och fysiskt aktiva är respondenterna?
    • Finns det ett samband mellan fysisk aktivitet och psykiskt välbefinnande?
    • Finns det ett samband mellan stillasittande och psykiskt välbefinnande?

    Metod

    Som metod för studien användes en kvantitativ metod med enkäter. Den byggde på färdiga frågor från Socialstyrelsen (2010) och WHO (2010) och gick ut till 86 respondenter i gymnasieålder. 82 godkända enkäter från respondenterna analyserades genom IBM SPSS Analytica för att mäta sambanden. I korrelationsanalysen användes Spearmans RhoRho för att undersöka samband. Undersökningen ägde rum på ett skolområde i Uppsala, Sverige.

    Resultat

    Resultatet visade att 42 procent av respondenterna utför mindre fysisk aktivitet än den rekommenderade dosen om 150 minuter i veckan. Resultatet visade också att 51 procent av respondenterna var stillasittande 10 timmar eller mer, varje dag. I välbefinnande-indexet fick 39 procent av respondenterna ett resultat som rekommenderade kontakt med vården.

    Samband mellan fysisk aktivitet och psykiskt välbefinnande fick en positiv korrelationskoefficient på 0,443 (p=0,000), vilket tyder på att det finns ett moderat samband. Sambandet mellan stillasittande och psykiskt välbefinnande visade ingen tydlig korrelation.

    Slutsats

    Den studerade populationen rör sig mindre än genomsnittet i Sverige och sitter mer än genomsnittet i Sverige. Det finns ett tydligt moderat samband mellan fysisk aktivitet och psykiskt välbefinnande, men det går inte att förkasta andra påverkansfaktorer. Min slutsats är att det krävs en vidare studie för att säkerställa sambandet mellan variablerna, där fler parametrar mäts och analyseras. Sambandet mellan stillasittande och psykiskt välbefinnande visade ingen tydlig korrelation., men det går inte att avfärda att dikotomiseringen av data påverkade resultatet.

  • 3687.
    Westin, Marie
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Utvärdering av beteendemodifierande obesitasbehandling: Påverkar kön, ålder och body mass index viktminskning?2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To describe the effects of a 2-year long, lifestyle modification obesity treatment programme at the Obesity unit, Karolinska University hospital. The following questions were the focus of the study:

    • Are there differences between men and women in terms of relative and absolute weight loss?

    • Are there differences between level of obesity (calculated from BMI) and relative and absolute weight loss?

    • Are there any differences between different age groups and relative and absolute weight loss?

    • To what extent, if any, does the programme influence the prevalence of IGT/diabetes type II, high levels of triglycerides, hypertension and metabolic syndrome?

    Method: The programme focuses on lifestyle changes (diet and physical activity). The analyses are based on data before the treatment started and after 1 and 2 years. The measures include blood samples, height, weight and blood pressure. The patients were divided into different categories based on sex, age and level of obesity (BMI) and the results are presented as relative and absolute weight loss. For effects on related morbidity, the focus was on transition between illnesses vs. no illness. ITT, intention-to-treat, is used and the latest observed value has been used when data was missing. Parametric statistics were used.

    Results: There was no significant sex difference in weight loss. Patients with a higher BMI i.e. 40 (kg/m2) at start of treatment achieved a greater weight loss, than patients with a smaller BMI value (<35) at start. There were no significant differences between different age-categories, in terms of weight loss. Disease transitions were showed between start of treatment and year 1. For example, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 70% at start of treatment for men and 55% after 1 year.

    Conclusion: Sex and age did not affect weight loss, whereas BMI did. Weight loss occurred between year 0 and year 1, in all categories (sex, age, BMI), whereas weight tended to increase between year 1 and 2.

  • 3688.
    Westin, Niklas
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Petré, Jonas
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Ensam, nedstämd och rastlös: En studie om komorbiditet och hälsotillstånd hos hjälpsökande spelberoende2008Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka skillnader i hälsa mellan hjälpsökande spelberoende personer och den vuxna populationen i Sverige.

    1. Har hjälpsökande spelberoende sämre upplevd hälsa än den övriga befolkningen?
    2. Är hjälpsökande spelberoende mer rastlösa eller stressade än den övriga befolkningen?
    3. Kan komorbiditet konstateras hos hjälpsökande spelberoende?

    Metod

    En stödförening för spelberoende kontaktades och enkäter delades ut och samlades in under två möten. Totalt svarade 31 personer på enkäten. Resultaten jämfördes med data från undersökningen LIV 2000 för att se eventuella skillnader mot en population som mer motsvarar befolkningen i Sverige. I de fall en skillnad upptäcktes togs hänsyn till andra faktorer som kunde påverka resultatet.

    Resultat

    Inga skillnader i smärta, värk, upplevd fysisk och psykisk hälsa förekom. Hjälpsökande spelberoende upplevde oftare sömnproblem. De kände sig oftare rastlösa, ensamma och nedstämda jämfört med befolkningen i stort. En större andel av de hjälpsökande spelberoende var rökare eller snusare. Hjälpsökande spelberoende var mindre nöjda med sin totala livssituation. Dock upplevde de i högre grad kunna påverka sin livssituation.

    Slutsats

    Det finns vissa skillnader i hälsotillstånd mellan hjälpsökande spelberoende och befolkningen i stort. Resultaten är inte heltäckande och vidare forskning behövs för att undersöka om hälsoskillnaderna påverkar behandlingen av spelberoende.

  • 3689.
    Westin, Niklas
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Petré, Jonas
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    "Watchman and reporter": En kvalitativ studie om rektorers inställning till ledarskap2009Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

     

    The aim of the study is to, from a comparative perspective, examine principals’ view of leadership in successful schools. Questions:

     

    1. How do the principals describe their own leadership?
    2. What subject positions do the principals take?

    Method

     

    Three principals were interviewed in the study. The interviews lasted for about 60 minutes. The interviews were recorded and transcribed. The interviews were analyzed according to the theories of transformative and instructional leadership and also which of the three subject positions supporter, pedagogical leader and chief the principals enabled.

     

    Results

     

    The principals had not an entirely consistent approach to school leadership. Two of the principals spoke of leadership in accordance to the transformative theory with a focus on development and change. The third principal described his leadership in a manner more similar to the instructional theory with clear top-down approach and focus on school to be a safe place for students in a troubled area. All headmasters enabled in some degree all three subject positions however, they had one position each as they foremost enabled.

     

    Conclusions

     

    The headmasters’ view of leadership differs on some points which could indicate that the leadership needs to be adapted to the specific school in order to make the school and the headmaster successful. Common to all headmasters was that they had a strong commitment to the mission and students. The headmasters are taking different positions when they talk about leadership. This may be because they tend to use transformative or instructional leadership. The instructional leadership is beneficial in the beginning of the structuring of a school. In light of growing maturity in the organization, it is possible to switch to transformative leadership which gives the principal greater opportunities to work with future visions and the school's overall goals.

     

     

  • 3690. Westing, S H
    et al.
    Cresswell, A G
    Thorstensson, Alf
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Muscle activation during maximal voluntary eccentric and concentric knee extension.1991In: European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, ISSN 0301-5548, E-ISSN 1432-1025, Vol. 62, no 2, p. 104-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this investigation was to study the relationships among movement velocity, torque output and electromyographic (EMG) activity of the knee extensor muscles under eccentric and concentric loading. Fourteen male subjects performed maximal voluntary eccentric and concentric constant-velocity knee extensions at 45, 90, 180 and 360 degrees.s-1. Myoelectric signals were recorded, using surface electrodes, from the vastus medialis, vastus lateralis and rectus femoris muscles. For comparison, torque and full-wave rectified EMG signals were amplitude-averaged through the central half (30 degrees-70 degrees) of the range of motion. For each test velocity, eccentric torque was greater than concentric torque (range of mean differences: 20%-146%, P less than 0.05). In contrast, EMG activity for all muscles was lower under eccentric loading than velocity-matched concentric loading (7%-31%, P less than 0.05). Neither torque output nor EMG activity for the three muscles changed across eccentric test velocities (P greater than 0.05). While concentric torque increased with decreasing velocity, EMG activity for all muscles decreased with decreasing velocity (P less than 0.05). These data suggest that under certain high-tension loading conditions (especially during eccentric muscle actions), the neural drive to the agonist muscles was reduced, despite maximal voluntary effort. This may protect the musculoskeletal system from an injury that could result if the muscle was to become fully activated under these conditions.

  • 3691. Westing, Stephen
    et al.
    Seger, Jan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Eccentric and Concentric Torque-Velocity Characteristics, Torque Output Comparisons, and Gravity Effect Torque Corrections for the Quadriceps and Hamstring Muscles in Females1989In: International Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0172-4622, E-ISSN 1439-3964, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 175-180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to assess and compare eccentric (ECC) and concentric (CONC) torque output of the quadriceps and hamstring muscles and to analyze the effect of gravity effect torque (GET) correction on the calculation of the hamstring/quadriceps peak torque quotient (H/Q quotient). Twenty female subjects performed maximal voluntary CONC and ECC contractions of the quadriceps and hamstring muscles at five isokinetic lever arm velocities from 60 degrees/s to 360 degrees/s. Peak torque was measured and corrected for GET. Mean ECC torque did not significantly change with increasing ECC velocity for either the quadriceps or hamstring muscles (P greater than 0.05). Mean CONC torques were significantly lower than the corresponding ECC torques (P less than 0.05) and decreased with increasing CONC velocity. At each test velocity, the CONC H/Q quotient was significantly lower than the corresponding ECC H/Q quotient (P less than 0.05). Mean H/Q quotients did not significantly change with increasing velocity for either the CONC or ECC tests (means: 0.46 and 0.57; P greater than 0.05). Mean H/Q quotients not corrected for GET significantly increased with increasing velocity for the CONC (0.61 to 0.78; P less than 0.05), but not ECC tests (0.66 to 0.71; P greater than 0.05). The results indicate that the ECC torque-velocity curve is essentially level for both quadriceps and hamstring muscles. The present findings point strongly toward the necessity of correcting for GET when calculating both CONC and ECC H/Q quotients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  • 3692. Westing, Stephen
    et al.
    Seger, Jan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Karlson, Eddy
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Eccentric and concentric torque-velocity characteristics of the quadriceps femoris in man1988In: European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, ISSN 0301-5548, E-ISSN 1432-1025, Vol. 58, p. 100-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary purpose of this investigation was to study the eccentric and concentric torque-velocity characteristics of the quadriceps femoris in man using a recently developed combined isometric, concentric and eccentric controlled velocity dynamometer (the SPARK System). A secondary purpose was to compare the method error associated with maximal voluntary concentric and eccentric torque output over a range of testing velocities. 21 males (21-32 years) performed on two separate days maximal voluntary isometric, concentric and eccentric contractions of the quadriceps femoris at 4 isokinetic lever arm velocities of 0 degree.s-1 (isometric), 30 degrees.s-1, 120 degrees.s-1 and 270 degrees.s-1. Eccentric peak torque and angle-specific torques (measured every 10 degrees from 30 degrees to 70 degrees) did not significantly change from 0 degrees.s-1 to 270 degrees.s-1 (p greater than 0.005) with the exception of angle-specific 40 degrees torque, which significantly increased; p less than 0.05). The mean method error was significantly higher for the eccentric tests (10.6% +/- 1.6%) than for the concentric tests (8.1% +/- 1.7%) (p less than 0.05). The mean method error decreased slightly with increasing concentric velocity (p greater than 0.05), and increased slightly with increasing eccentric velocity (p greater than 0.05). A tension restricting neural mechanism, if active during maximal eccentric contractions, could possibly account for the large difference seen between the present eccentric torque-velocity results and the classic results obtained from isolated animal muscle.

  • 3693. Westing, Stephen
    et al.
    Seger, Jan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Thorstensson, Alf
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Effects of electrical stimulation on eccentric and concentric torque-velocity relationships during knee extension in man1990In: Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6772, E-ISSN 1365-201X, Vol. 140, p. 17-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of electrical stimulation on torque output during knee extension. Nine well-trained males (19-43 years) performed maximal voluntary, electrically evoked and superimposed eccentric and concentric knee extensions at velocities of 60, 180 and 360 degrees s-1, plus an isometric test (torque was always recorded at a 60 degree knee angle). Fifty-hertz stimulation was applied percutaneously at the maximum tolerated voltage (140-200 V). By superimposing electrical stimulation, eccentric torque could be increased by an average of 21-24% above the voluntary level (P less than 0.05). No corresponding differences were observed between superimposed and voluntary torques under isometric or concentric conditions. Electrically evoked torque also exceeded voluntary torque under eccentric conditions (11-12%, P less than 0.05), but was less under isometric and concentric conditions (-10 to -52%, P less than 0.05). Within the limitations of the study, it was concluded that eccentric knee extension torque under maximal voluntary conditions does not represent the maximal torque-producing capacity. The action of a neural inhibitory mechanism was proposed as an explanation for this finding. If active, this mechanism may protect against the extreme muscle tension that could otherwise develop under truly maximal eccentric conditions.

  • 3694. Westing, Stephen
    et al.
    Seger, Jan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Thorstensson, Alf
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Isoacceleration: a new concept of resistive exercise1991In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 631-635Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents the concept of constant (iso-) accelerative and decelerative exercise and compares concentric and eccentric torque output during isoaccelerative and isodecelerative movements with that during comparable constant velocity (isokinetic) conditions. Twelve men (19-42 yr) performed maximal voluntary concentric and eccentric knee extensions at velocities of 120 and 240 degrees.s-1 (isokinetic) and at accelerations of 180 and 720 degrees.s-2 (both isoaccelerative and isodecelerative) between 10 degrees and 90 degrees knee angles. At 50 degrees, the 180 and 720 degrees.s-2 tests had velocities of 120 and 240 degrees.s-1, respectively, and thus torque comparisons could be made at a corresponding position and velocity. No difference was seen among the isoaccelerative, isodecelerative, or isokinetic angle- and velocity-specific torques for either the concentric or eccentric tests (P greater than 0.05). The results demonstrated that, under conditions of maximal voluntary effort, movement speed as such (within the range studied) was the essential determinant of muscle force--not whether this speed was attained during accelerative, decelerative, or constant velocity movements. As a testing and training modality, the controlled acceleration technique, particularly eccentric deceleration and concentric accleration, appears to offer advantages as compared with existing methods, since it more faithfully reflects the contraction conditions during natural strength-requiring movements.

  • 3695.
    Westin-Thorén, Malin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Vad är bra undervisning?: vad elever i högstadiet anser om undervisningen i Idrott och Hälsa2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka hur en god undervisningsmiljö ser ut. För att uppfylla mitt syfte kommer jag att undersöka högstadieelevers syn på ämnet Idrott och Hälsa.

    Studien fokuserar på vilken sorts undervisning som elever anser är meningsfull samt vad den undervisningen innehåller. Undersökningen syftar även till att undersöka om elevers syn stämmer överens med läroplanens mål. Studiens frågeställningar är:

    - Vad är elevers syn på bra undervisning?

    - Vad innefattar en bra undervisning?

    - Finns det samband mellan hur elever ser på vad en bra undervisning är och läroplanens mål?

    Inför studien har jag fördjupat mig i Aaron Antonovskys teorier kring KASAM samt litteratur gällande studiens ämne. Den metod som tillämpats är kvalitativa intervjuundersökningar. Syftet med detta var att ta reda på elevers syn på idrottsundervisningen i högstadiet. I studien intervjuades åtta elever i högstadiet. Intervjufrågorna fokuserade på frågor innehållande vad bra undervisning i Idrott och Hälsa är samt vad den innefattar. Utöver detta ingick även delar utifrån KASAM:s tre delkomponenter: Att ha begriplighet, hanterbarhet och meningsfullhet. Efter insamlat och transkriberat material kunde syfte och frågeställningar besvaras samt diskuteras i relation till teoretiskt perspektiv, litteratur och tidigare forskning.

    Intervjuerna visar att eleverna anser att Idrott och Hälsa främst handlar om att ha roligt samt att de känner sig delaktiga och engagerade på lektionerna. Flertalet ansåg även att de behövde få mer förståelse för innehållet för att kunna känna att ämnet hade relevans. Det framkom likaså att läraren roll var central på så sätt att han/hon har ansvar att forma undervisningen så att den passar alla. En bra undervisning i Idrott och Hälsa innefattar enligt eleverna mycket rörelse, samt att den måste vara varierad. Reflektion ansågs även relevant, där de helst ville diskutera innehållet samt ha en gemensam frågestund. Studiens resultat visar på att hälften av eleverna känner sig bekväma med läroplanen, varav resterande hälften känner det motsatta. Dock visar resultatet på att det eleverna talar om gällande bra undervisning, stämmer överens med läroplanens tankar kring om ämnet.

  • 3696.
    Westling, Linnéa
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Tänk på Figuren, konferera i naturen!: Hur en konferensanläggning kan påverka gästernas hälsa.2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar: Syftet med denna uppsats var att undersöka hur konferensanläggningen, Finnhamns Arkipelag, skulle kunna arbeta med hälsoaktiviteter för sina gäster med framförallt naturen som redskap.

    - Hur påverkar naturen konferensgästernas hälsa?

    - Hur arbetar redan hälsonischade konferensanläggningar?

    - Hur kan naturen användas inom hälsoarbetet på konferensanläggningar?

    - Vad kan utvecklas på Finnhamns konferensanläggning?

    Metod: Forskningen är avsedd att kartlägga behov, önskemål, erfarenhet och åsikter kring ämnet och slutsatsen drogs att den kvalitativa metoden, intervjuer, var mest lämpad för att kunna besvara frågeställningarna. Data har samlats in via fyra intervjuer, två ansikte mot ansikte och två via telefon utefter respondentens önskemål. Respondenterna har erfarenhet och kompetens inom området samt arbetar med friskvård eller är konferensansvariga på anläggningarna De jobbar med aktiviteter och hälsa för deras konferensgäster och har alla sett de positiva resultaten av vistelse i naturen.

    Resultat: Resultaten visar att naturen har återuppbyggande och en rad andra positiva effekter på konferensgäster som har aktiviteter utomhus. De nischade konferensanläggningarna har en mängd aktiviteter och är flexibla utefter önskemål. De menar att gästerna får mer energi och blir mer mottagliga för information efter en aktivitet. Utomhus erbjuds allt från stavgång till hinderbanor och inomhus kan bland annat yoga och massage erbjudas. Finnhamn har många möjligheter att utveckla och nischa sig mot hälsoaktiviter. Finnhamn är omgivet av liknande natur som de redan nischade konferensanläggningarna och kan även se de positiva effekterna av att erbjuda aktiviteter som inte är alltför tidskrävande.

    Slutsats: Slutsatsen är att stor vikt måste läggas vid att påpeka för företaget som bokar konferens, hur viktigt hälsa och naturvistelse är och hur det påverkar deras medarbetare. Informationen som ges under konferensen kan påverka gästen och leda till kunskap som kan förbättra deras hälsa även i framtiden.

  • 3697.
    Westling, Linus
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Vart tog den söta lilla flickan vägen?: En kvantitativ studie av talangutvecklingen inom dam- och flickfotbollen i Stockholm2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of this study was to look into the development of talents regarding women’s soccer in Stockholm. The aim was furthermore to see what results the investments in the talents has generated. Questions at issue were: What does the talents do today? Do they still play soccer and in that case on what level? Have they quit playing soccer and in that case why? Are they in any other way than as a player involved in the organisation of soccer today? How has their course of studies been like and have that in any way affected their careers as soccer players? Has the amount and the intensity of time invested in soccer affected their careers as soccer players?

    Method

    The data for this study was collected by a survey sent by mail to a group of 245 individuals born between the years of 1983 to 1989. These players were at the age of 14 selected to attend a special camp called “Bosölägret”.

    Results

    27 of the 102 still active players were at the time playing for an elite club. 117 of the players had quit playing soccer and a majority of those did so between the ages of 16 to 18. The main reasons for the drop out were that their youth team was splitted and that they didn’t consider playing for the senior squad as fun as playing for the youth squad. Another reason was that school occupied too much of their time, yet those individuals who studied a programme in upper secondary school with a soccer profile tended to have continued playing soccer to a larger extent.

    Conclusion

    On the basis of the results it’s up to the federation and to the clubs, on the basis of their criterion, to evaluate if the distribution from the investments are satisfactory from an elite perspective. Still more than half of them have quit playing soccer and a very small amount of the players are today involved in the organization of soccer in any other way than as a player. If one take in account all the investments made by the federation, the clubs and the people involved, the investments haven’t given enough returns from a wider perspective.

  • 3698. Westman, Bo
    et al.
    Johansson, Gunnar
    Luo, Jia-Li
    Söderlund, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Wernerman, Jan
    Hammarqvist, Folke
    Effects on skeletal muscle glutathione status of ischemia and reperfusion following abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery.2006In: Annals of Vascular Surgery, ISSN 0890-5096, E-ISSN 1615-5947, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 99-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Glutathione (GSH) is an important endogenous scavenger against reactive oxygen species. Elective abdominal surgery without ischemia and reperfusion leads to decreased muscle GSH concentrations 4-72 hr postoperatively without altering GSH redox status. In the present study, we investigated to what extent muscle GSH status was affected during and following elective abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. From patients (n = 10) undergoing abdominal aortic repair, thigh muscle specimens were taken preoperatively, at maximal ischemia, and at 10 min and 4, 24, and 48 hr of reperfusion. Specimens were analyzed for GSH, amino acids, and energy-rich compounds. At maximal ischemia, phosphocreatine decreased by 37% (p < 0.05) and lactate and creatine increased by 274% and 57% (p < 0.001 and 0.05), respectively, indicating ischemia during the clamping of aorta. Adenosine triphosphate, on the other hand, remained unaltered during the entire study period. Total GSH (tGSH) decreased by 46% at 24 hr and by 43% at 48 hr of reperfusion (p < 0.001), while reduced GSH decreased by 48% at 24 hr and by 44% at 48 hr (p < 0.001). The redox status (GSH/tGSH) of GSH and oxidized GSH remained unaltered. Among the constituent amino acids of GSH, glycine and cysteine remained unaltered while glutamine and glutamate decreased by 55% and 55%, respectively (p < 0.001). Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair induces metabolic alterations characteristic for ischemia. The antioxidative capacity in terms of muscle levels of GSH was decreased. However, the oxidative stress during reperfusion did not change GSH status more than what has been reported following abdominal surgery without ischemia and reperfusion. The results indicate that the oxidative stress elicited by elective abdominal aortic aneurysm repair is outbalanced by a compensated GSH metabolism not giving rise to an increased amount of oxidized GSH or an altered GSH redox status.

  • 3699.
    Westman, Lisa
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, For Sports Coaches (Tränarlänken).
    Kapacitet & kravanalys för golfare: fysiska delkapaciteter2007Student paper otherStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Detta arbete är ett delmoment i kursen Träningslära 1, 7.5 hp på tränarprogrammet på Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan i Stockholm. Uppgiften är att skapa en krav- och kapacitetsanalys på vår idrott. Min idrott är golf vilket många kanske inte ser som någon fysisk "hårt" ansträngande sport, men på senare år har förståelsen för en breddning av träning ökat inte minst genom att två otroliga idrottsmänniskor som dominerar golfvärden just nu. De personer jag menar är inte helt oväntat Annika Sörenstam och Tiger Woods. Syftet är att försöka ta fram en kapacitetsanalys på elitgolfare för att kunna skapa en kravprofil, och se vilka prestations krav som ställs för golfens fysiska delkapaciteter. I den första delen av detta arbete granskas vilka tester som har utförts i Sverige och den andra delen ska man få en inblick i hur det ser ut i världen genom att granska vilken forskning som finns för fysiskträning för golfare. I detta arbete kommer jag inte att gå in på teknik, taktik eller mentala delkapaciteter utan fokusera på de fysiska, men det betyder inte att de fysiska är mer viktiga. För att lyckas inom golfen måste man se helhetsbilden!

    Metod

    Först har jag använt mig av kurslitteratur "Tests for elite athlethes" och "Träningslära" för att få en grund att gå vidare ifrån. Sedan sökt information på GIH:s bibliotek som är det största idrottsbiblioteket i Sverige. Jag har granskat främst två databaser PUBMED och SportDiscus för vetenskapliga artiklar. I den första delen av detta arbete har jag tagit fram fystester som används i Sverige på ett golfgymnasium samt på golfförbundet genom John Hellstöms "Golfpyramid" för att se vad som utförts och sedan granskat dess relevans. I den andra delen har jag tittat närmare på hur forskningen ser ut i världen genom vetenskapliga artiklar i ämnet.

    Resultat

    I dag utförs kapacitetstester både på gym, golfklubbar, golfgymnasium, distriktslag, landslag osv. i Sverige och dessa är ständigt under arbete/utveckling. Det som visas tydligt är att fysisk träning har blivit allt viktigare inom golfen både i Sverige och i hela världen. Jag har tagit fram vilka några tester som utförs på delkapaciteterna rörlighet, koordination, styrka och aerob kapacitet i Sverige. De tester jag har granskat är ett golfgymnasium som har få och grundläggande tester därefter har jag kompletterat dessa tester med tester som utförs genom golfpyramid på elitspelare, dessa är mer ingående, golf specifika och väldigt många. Forskningen stödjer att med hjälp av fysisk träning kan man slå längre samt undvika skador, men forskningen säger inget om att det sänker scoren på touren. De vanligaste skadorna för golfare är på ländryggen, handlederna, och armbågarna. Vissa av dessa tester kan undvikas om man tränar fysiskt.

    Slutsats

    Golf är en individuell idrott och det är svårt att göra en kapacitets & kravanalys som är för mer än en person. Elitidrottare måste alltid se helheten och skulle gynnas av en individ anpassad testning. Jag tycker att testerna bör vara speciellt framtagna för individen och göras under samtal med spelaren som är delaktig och insatt i varje delmoment. Ett problem på hemma plan som jag ser det är att det inte finns några specifika kravanalyser att gå efter, visst kan man testa men vilka riktvärden ska man sträva efter? Ett annat problem är att elitspelare i Sverige idag kan testas av olika håll och ibland få olika resultat vilket kan leda till viss vilsenhet hos den aktive. Det viktiga är inte att testa utan att gå vidare med resultaten och lägga upp sin träning därefter. Ett mål för framtiden tycker jag bör vara att ha ett samarbete (spelarens nätverk) för att få fram det optimala för elitspelaren.

  • 3700.
    Westring, Robin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Ska vi ha idrott ihop? Ja, nej eller kanske?: En studie av gymnasieelevers uppfattning om sam- respektive könsuppdelad undervisning i ämnet idrott och hälsa2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte & frågeställningar

    Idag finns det inget krav på vilken undervisningsform som skall användas i ämnet idrott och hälsa vilket ger läraren stor möjlighet till att ändra utefter vad hen ser som mest lämpligt och mest gynnande för eleverna. För att göra detta enklare för idrottsläraren är det viktigt att få elevernas perspektiv och få veta hur de ser på olika undervisningsformer. Detta självständiga arbete hade som syfte att undersöka vad gymnasieelevers (i årskurs tre) uppfattning gällande sam- och könsuppdelad undervisning i ämnet idrott och hälsa. För att undersöka syftet fanns följande frågeställningar: (1) Vilken undervisningsform föredrar pojkar respektive flickor? (2) Vilka för- och nackdelar finns det med respektive undervisningsform? (3) Finns det vissa moment då eleverna skulle föredra att ha sam- respektive könsuppdelad undervisning? (4) Anser eleverna att bedömningen påverkas av vilken undervisningsform som råder?

    Metod

    För att undersöka syfte och frågeställningar har 50 stycken enkäter blivit besvarade och tre intervjuer har utförts, samtliga av gymnasieelever i årskurs tre. Enkäterna sammanställdes så snabbt som möjligt efter att de blivit ifyllda och intervjuerna transkriberades också omgående. Bearbetning av enkäterna skedde genom en statisk analys och intervjuerna genom en innehållsanalys.

    Resultat

    Resultat kommer fram till att det finns en majoritet av eleverna som tycker att samundervisning är att föredra framför könsuppdelad. Dock är det inte alla elever som anser att samundervisningen alltid är att föredra utan en del elever anser att idrottsundervisningen ska vara uppdelad i någon utsträckning. Detta kan gälla vissa specifika moment medan några elever tyckte att undervisningen alltid skulle vara könsuppdelad. Det finns några moment som framförallt framkommer som fördelaktiga med en könsuppdelad undervisningsform.

    Slutsats

    Elevernas svar har sedan diskuterats gentemot genussystemet och annan forskning på området. De slutsatser man kunde komma fram till av resultaten i denna studie var att de speglar tidigare studiers resultat väldigt väl men det krävs fortsatt forskning för att kunna dra slutsatser som är applicerbara på svensk idrottsundervisning som helhet.

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