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  • 3601.
    von Schewelov, Martinique
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Jag kan inte serva!: en studie om skador hos ungdomar i samband med tennisserven2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syfte och frågeställning

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka vilka som är de vanligaste skadorna inom tennis i samband med serverörelsen. Studien ämnar undersöka om det finns några skillnader i förekomst av skada vid utförandet av de tre olika servetyperna kick-, flack- och sliceserve, samt om det förekommer några skillnader mellan pojkar och flickor.

    Frågorna som undersöks är vilka skador som är vanliga i samband med serverörelsen, vilka skillnader som förekommer gällande skadeförekomst vid de tre serveteknikerna, samt upplevd orsak till skadeuppkomst. Hypotesen är baserad på Kovacs och Ellenbeckers modell om teknikskillnader i serverörelsen, och att skadorna i samband med serverörelsen uppstår på grund av bristfällig teknik och/eller bristfällig fysisk kapacitet.

    Metod

    Studien är utförd med en enkätstudie på 14 i Sverige tävlingsaktiva juniorer i åldrarna 13-16 år. Enkäten är skapad och analyserad i det webbaserade programmet SurveyMonkey. Resultaten är sammanställda och analyserade utifrån en 8-stegs serveanalysmodell som tagits fram specifikt för tennis.

    Resultat

    Studiens resultat visade att axelskador, rygg- och bålskador är vanligt förekommande bland spelarna (5,5 skador/pojke och 1,8 skador/flicka). Det var ingen skillnad i skadetyp eller grad av smärta beroende på vilken typ av serveteknik som användes. Skillnader mellan könen förekommer enbart i förmågan att utföra samtliga tre servetekniker. Inga bevis för att bristfällig teknik och fysisk kapacitet skulle vara orsaken till skada kunde hittas, för detta behövs mer omfattande studier utföras.

    Slutsats

    Studien bekräftade resultat i tidigare studier med avseende på att de vanligaste skadorna i samband med serverörelsen i tennis är i övre delen av kroppen, framför allt axel och rygg. Resultaten kunde inte visa någon skillnad i skadetyp beroende på vilken serveteknik som utövas.

  • 3602.
    von Schewelov, Martinique
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Vadå tekniska och taktiska förmågor?: En studie om hur specialidrottslärare förhåller sig till bedömning av tekniska och taktiska förmågor2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim The purpose of this study was to determine how teachers in the subject "Specialised physical" education relate to assessment of technical and tactical skills in a chosen sport.

    Questions at issue

    • How are technical and tactical skills assessed?
    • Other than technical and tactical skills, what factors play a part in the assessment of the subject Specialized physical education?

    Method A qualitative method was implemented on five of Sweden’s tennis coaches teaching in the subject Specialized physical education. The questions formed for the interviews where semi structured in aim of making sure more detailed answers could be given and supplementary questions could be posed. Pierre Bourdieu’s theory with the concepts Habitus, Capital and Field where used as a theoretical framework.

    Results The coaches experienced difficulties with interpreting and using curricula and assessment tools presented by Skolverket. Therefore, they also find difficulties in knowing what to assess regarding tactical and technical skills. The coaches mainly work with technical, tactical and physical skills, mental development, work effort and behaviour. These are also the factors that are most noted when it comes to assessment in the subject.

    Conclusion The coaches in this study experience difficulties in relating to both The national agency for education curricula and the assessment tools regarding assessment of the specific abilities technique and tactics. Many of the coaches therefore base their assessment on their personal habitus, meaning, they build their teaching and assessment methods on their own experiences and their own beliefs of what should be taught and learnt by the students. Despite some differences in both educational background and training philosophy amongst the coaches, they all work and relate to technical and tactical skills in more or less equivalent ways and with equal goals. Viewed from Bourdieu’s notions, the coaches could therefore be considered being in the same field, with a equivalent capital.

  • 3603. Von Thiele-Schwarz, Ulrika
    et al.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Leading on the highest competitive level without burning out: recovery buffer profiles among Olympic coaches and their association with burnout and positive health2012In: Proceedings from The 10th Annual Conference of the European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3604.
    Väisänen, Daniel
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Effekten av 10 veckors styrketräning på markörer för hypertrofi, translation och proteolys2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There have been much research on signaling pathways in the human genome, but there still remain many questions. This paper examines some of them.

    Aim: Investigate changes in gene expression and mRNA levels of hypertrophy (MRF4), translation (5.8S & 18S) and proteolysis regulating genes (GDF-8) after a 10-week strength training period in men and women.

    Research questions: (1) Is there a change in the total amount of RNA before and after a 10-week strength training intervention. (2) Is there a change in the expression of MRF4, 5.8S, 18S, Murf1 and GDF-8 after 10 weeks of strength training. (3) Is there a gender difference in the change of total RNA and the expression of MRF4, 5.8S, Murf1 and GDF-8 after a 10-week long strength training intervention.

    Method: The sample for analysis consisted of 16 untrained subjects, of whom 8 were men and 8 were women. The subjects performed unilateral resistance training of lower extremities for 10 weeks, during two of these weeks blood flow restriction training were performed. The training was undulating (70-90% of 1RM, 5-12 cord, 3 times / week). Muscle biopsies were taken from the working leg before the start and 3-7 days after the training period. Gene expression was analyzed by qPCR.

    Results: There was no significant gender difference in total RNA or gene expression. Total RNA was significantly increased (p <0.01) with 19.2 %. The women had a significant increase (P <0.05) of RNA at 27.6 %, while the men had a significant increase (p <0.05) at 14 %. MRF4 had a significant (P> 0.05) percentage increase in gene expression by 55.7 %, and women had a significant (P> 0.05) increase of 64 %. GDF-8 increased significantly (P> 0.05) with 55.5 %, while GAPDH increased significantly (P> 0.05) for both sexes with 70.6 % and for men with 87.8 %. Murf1 and 5.8S had no significant changes in gene expression.

    Conclusions: It seems that both men and women experience a similar percentage difference of total RNA and mRNA gene expression 3-7 days after a 10 weeks long strength training period. To measure the gene expression of MRF4 3-7 days after a 10-week weight-training period seems to be a time when there still is a anabolic responses in the skeletal muscle. Of the proteolysis regulating genes GDF-8 and Murf1 there was an upregulation of GDF-8, which could be a sign that the inhibition of hypertrophy started. An unexpected finding is that GAPDH was found to be unsuitable as a control gene at a strength training intervention at 10 weeks and rRNA 18S was very stable, which could mean that GAPDH should not be used as control gene in longer strength training studies.

  • 3605.
    Väisänen, Daniel
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Andersson, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Validity in Ekblom-Bak Test and its Ability to Track Changes in an Elderly Population2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) has a high prognostic value for CVD and all cause mortality, however the test is hard to administer and requires a maximal effort, which can be arduous for an elderly population. The submaximal Ekblom-Bak cycle ergometer test (EB test) has shown to be valid in adults, but its applicability in an elderly population is unknown. Aim: The purpose of this study was to validate the submaximal EB test and to examine its ability to detect changes in VO2max in an elderly population. Methods: The sample consisted of 108 elderly participants; aged 65-75 years (54 women, 54 men) with a measured VO2max of 1.42-3.69 L/min. 34 women and 40 men performed a retest (VO2max 1.45-3.59 L/min) after an intervention period. During the intervention, participants performed 30 training sessions over 12 weeks where they cycled for 30 min at 65-75 % of maximal heart rate. On pre- and retests participants completed a submaximal Ekblom-Bak test. Directly after participants completed an individually adjusted VO2max test on a treadmill where VO2 max was measured using indirect calorimetry. Results: For the validation of the EB-test on an elderly population there was a correlation (R) between measured and estimated VO2max of 0.64 for women and 0.47 for men, mean (95% CI) difference was 0.01 (-0.45 - 0.07) for women and -0.05 (-0.11 - 0.07) for men. Standard error of the estimate was 0.17 for women and 0.31 for men. Coefficient of variation was 10 % for women and 11 % for men. When analyzing the ability of the EB test to track change in VO2max after a 12 week training intervention there was a significant (P<0.001) average increase in estimated VO2max of 0.11 L/min for both genders (CI for women 0.06 - 0.16 and for men 0.08 - 0.15), with no change in the measured values. Changes in the estimated values were linked to a decrease of the submaximal HR on both work rates (3.0 bpm and 3.2 bpm on the standard work rate and 5.4 bpm and 6.4 bpm on the higher work rate, for women and men, respectively) Conclusion: Validity of the EB-test in a population between 65-75 years was fairly good but we found larger standard error of the estimate for the men. The higher error for men in contrast to women could be derived from a difference in change of physiological variables that affect VO2max with increasing age. Since there was no change in measured VO2max while there was an improvement in estimated VO2max after the intervention, the EB-test appears to respond to changes in fitness that are not reflected in a VO2max. Grant funding: European Research Council.

  • 3606.
    Väisänen, Daniel
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Andersson, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control. Karolinska institutet.
    Nilsson, Jonna
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Criterion validity of the Ekblom-Bak and the Åstrand submaximal test in an elderly population.2019In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to validate the submaximal Ekblom-Bak test (EB-test) and the Åstrand test (Å-test) for an elderly population.

    METHODS: Participants (n = 104), aged 65-75 years, completed a submaximal aerobic test on a cycle ergometer followed by an individually adjusted indirect calorimetry VO2max test on a treadmill. The HR from the submaximal test was used to estimate VO2max using both the EB-test and Å-test equations.

    RESULTS: The correlation between measured and estimated VO2max using the EB method and Å method in women was r = 0.64 and r = 0.58, respectively and in men r = 0.44 and r = 0.44, respectively. In women, the mean difference between estimated and measured VO2max was - 0.02 L min-1 (95% CI - 0.08 to 0.04) for the EB method and - 0.12 L min-1 (95% CI - 0.22 to - 0.02) for the Å method. Corresponding values for men were 0.05 L min-1 (95% CI - 0.04 to 0.14) and - 0.28 L min-1 (95% CI - 0.42 to - 0.14), respectively. However, the EB method was found to overestimate VO2max in men with low fitness and the Å method was found to underestimate VO2max in both women and men. For women, the coefficient of variance was 11.1%, when using the EB method and 19.8% when using the Å method. Corresponding values for men were 11.6% and 18.9%, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: The submaximal EB-test is valid for estimating VO2max in elderly women, but not in all elderly men. The Å-test is not valid for estimating VO2max in the elderly.

  • 3607.
    Väisänen, Daniel
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Tengbom, Sebastian
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Uppvärmningens effekt på 1RM: En utvärdering av fyra olika uppvärmningar på maxprestation vid knäböj2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med denna studie var att utvärdera om det finns en skillnad mellan specifika uppvärmningar (samma övning som ska utföras fast med mindre belastning) jämfört med kombinerad generell (aerob) och specifik uppvärmning på maxprestation vid 1RM i knäböj i Smithmaskin. Studiens frågeställningar var: (1) Finns det en skillnad i prestation på 1RM vid knäböj i Smithmaskin vid kombinerad generell och kort- respektive lång specifik uppvärmning jämfört med en längre specifik uppvärmning? (2) Påverkar inlärningseffekten prestationen vid 1RM i knäböj i Smithmaskin?

     

    Metod

    Detta är en experimentell randomiserad crossoverstudie med ett urval på åtta män med medelåldern 24,5 ± 2,96 år och med minst 24 månaders styrketräningsvana samt vana med styrkeövningen knäböj. Studien hade sammanlagt 4 testtillfällen för varje testperson (tp) som utvärderade en längre specifik uppvärmning i jämförelse med kombinerad generell och kort specifik uppvärmning, generell och längre specifik uppvärmning samt en kortare specifik uppvärmning. Testordningen för tp var randomiserad och effekten av de olika uppvärmningsprotokollen utvärderas med 1RM vid knäböj i Smithmaskin.

     

    Resultat

    I studiens resultat visades ingen signifikant skillnad (p>0,05) då de olika uppvärmningsprotokollen jämfördes med varandra inför 1 RM vid knäböj i Smithmaskin. Vid den kronologiska testordningen syntes en signifikant skillnad (p<0,05) på prestation vid 1RM i knäböj då samtliga uppvärmningsprotokoll jämfördes med varandra.

     

    Slutsats

    I denna studie hittades inga signifikanta skillnader mellan olika uppvärmningars effekt på 1RM i knäböj vilket kan betyda att det inte finns några skillnader i prestationsökning på 1RM vid knäböj beroende på uppvärmningstyp eller att det är andra faktorer som inverkar. Resultaten av den kronologiska testordningen bekräftar relevansen av en inlärningsperiod för att minimera inlärningseffekten av 1 RM vid knäböj i Smithmaskin hos styrketräningsvana män i åldern 20-26 år.  Resultatet tyder på att det behövs minst fem inlärningstillfällen för att uppnå ett stabilt utgångsvärde för 1RM vid knäböj i Smithmaskin hos styrketräningsvana män.

  • 3608.
    Vångell, Fredrika
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Andersson, Frida
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Tränar du som jag?: en studie av orienteringslitteraturen samt en jämförelse av elitorienterares träning på 1980-talet och år 20102010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet i studien var tvådelat, dels avsågs att analysera vad orienteringslitteraturen skriver om träning, dels att jämföra hur svenska elitorienterare tränade på 1980-talet och år 2010.

    Frågeställningar till källanalysen: Vad skriver orienteringslitteraturen om träningsupplägg, mental träning och mentala faktorer som påverkar prestationen samt tränarrollen?

    Frågeställningar kring hur elitorienterare tränade på 1980-talet jämfört med år 2010: Vilka skillnader och likheter i träningsupplägg bland kvinnor och män finns det mellan 1980-talet och år 2010? Har tränarrollen förändrats? Varifrån får elitorienterare sin kunskap om hur de ska lägga upp sin träning?

    Metod

    De metoder som användes i studien var källanalys och enkätundersökning. De källor som analyserats är fem böcker som handlar om orienteringsträning. Respondenterna till enkäten var de som var landslagsaktiva under 1980-talet samt de som var det år 2010. Antalet respondenter var 13 från 1980-talet och 14 från år 2010.

    Resultat

    De viktigaste resultaten i studien var att det finns både skillnader och likheter i vad som ingår i en elitorienterares träningsupplägg på 1980-talet jämfört med år 2010. I enkätstudien kan vi se följande resultat; träningstiden bland kvinnorna har ökat, de högintensiva konditionspassen har ökat bland båda könen, den mentala träningen likaså. Även tränare har ökat i förekomst hos de som var landslagsaktiva år 2010, men det är fortfarande svårt att definiera tränarbegreppet. Kunskap om träningsupplägg fick de aktiva år 2010 till störst del från vetenskaplig forskning medan de på 1980-talet ansåg att de baserade sitt träningsupplägg till störst del på andra orienterares erfarenheter och på egen beprövad erfarenhet.

    Slutsats

    Den slutsats vi kan dra är att det är ett komplext område att förstå hur elitorienterare lägger upp sin träning. Det finns inte något universellt träningsupplägg som passar alla. Det fanns dock stora skillnader när vi jämförde landslagsorienterarna som grupp under 1980-talet med år 2010, vilket tyder på att de förändringar sporten har genomgått har påverkat elitorienterarnas träningsupplägg. Dessutom verkar definitioner kring tränarrollen saknas, antagligen på grund av den allmänt förekommande åsikten inom sporten att man ska sträva efter att bli sin egen tränare. Detta gör det svårt för de aktiva år 2010 att definiera personer runt omkring dem som de får hjälp av.

  • 3609.
    Waara, Kristin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Kroppens fysiologiska reaktioner vid arbete i värme: en studie på brandmän2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The purpose was to compare physical work in a normal temperature to physical work during heat exposure and in that way investigate how physical work during heat exposure affects the human body in a physiological perspective. My questions were: How does submaximal work during heat, affect heart rate, water loss, body temperature, lactate level and blood glucose level? How does smoke-diving affect heart rate, water loss, and body temperature? How is the heart rate, lactate level and blood glucose level affected in work during heat exposure compared to work in a normal temperature?

    Method

    Six firefighters performed at three different occasions four tests. VO2 tests in cycle-ergometer (submaximal and maximal) in a normal temperature. A smoke-diving test during heat exposure and a submaximal cycle test in a sauna. VO2, heart rate, lactate level and blood glucose level was measured during the tests in the normal temperature. Heart rate, water loss, body temperature, lactate level and blood glucose level was measured during the smoke-diving test and the submaximal cycle test in sauna.

    Results

    Mean heart rate during the smoke-diving test was 174 ± 7,7 bpm (93 ± 1,4 % of maximal heart rate attained in the cycle-ergometer test). Water loss measured to 1,1 ± 0,1 % from bodyweight, body temperature was increased with 2,1 ± 1,2 °C. The blood glucose levels were higher compared to the maximum test during cycling. Concentration at start was 5,04 ± 0,59 vs. 5,64 ± 1,00 mmol/l and 2 min after the test 6,79 ± 1,26 vs. 6,46 ± 1,25 mmol/l. Water loss during the submaximal cycling in sauna was 0,6 ± 0,1 % of bodyweight, body temperature were increased with 0,8 ± 0,3 °C. Lactate levels during the submaximal cycling in sauna were significant lower than cycling in a normal temperature 1,23 ± 0,17 mmol/l vs 3,43 ± 1,46 mmol/l (175W).

    Conclusions

    During the smoke-diving test the firefighters had a mean heart rate which was near the maximal heart rate attained in the cycle-ergometer test. The smoke-diving test was physically very demanding for the subjects since the tasks lasted in 13-18 min and the heart rate was in such high levels in general. During physical work in  85 °C wearing a self-contained breathing apparatus and fire-protective clothing, no difference in heart rate compared to work in a normal temperature could be measured. Water loss and increased body temperatures depends on which kind of physical work and heat exposure the firefighters was exposed to. Lactate levels during physical work in  85 °C was significant lower than the same work in a normal temperature. This might result from the cool air from the breathing apparatus, which lead to a higher oxygen uptake in the muscles. There were no difference in blood glucose levels during physical work in  85 °C compared to work in a normal temperature. After more physically demanding work during higher temperature, elevated levels was measured.

  • 3610.
    Waddington, Carl
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Turunen, Antti
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Meningsfullhet - vägen till elevnärvaro?: En fallstudie om sambandet mellan närvaro och känsla av sammanhang (KASAM)2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudent thesis
  • 3611.
    Waggott, Daryl
    et al.
    Stanford University.
    Mattsson, C. Mikael
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Wheeler, Matthew
    Stanford University.
    Ashley, Euan A.
    Stanford University.
    The Genomics of Extreme Athletes. The ELITE Study (Exercise at the Limit - Inherited Traits of Endurance).2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Health exists as a spectrum from disease to some outlier physiological optimum. To date most molecular genetic research has focused on disease states and less on extreme health populations. We hypothesize that interrogating outlier elite endurance athletes, with strict physiological eligibility criteria, will inform cardiovascular research through the identification of complementary pathways and therapeutic targets. Eligibility criteria for the ELITE study required a lifetime VO2max, which measures maximal oxygen consumption during peak aerobic exercise, at a threshold estimated to be attainable in less than 1 in 50,000 people (men  80ml/kg/min; women 65ml/kg/min). VO2max is reported to have substantial genetic influence (h2~0.5) and is correlated with endurance sport performance along with work efficiency. Several well documented cases of athletic outliers have been tied to rare genetic variants including the Finnish cross country skier Mäntyranta (EPOR) and  Priscilla Lopes-Schliep (LMNA). In the later, the same domain of the LMNA gene is related to rare forms of muscular dystrophy. Additionally, adaptive hypoxia variations have been identified in high altitude populations in Tibet (EPAS1), Andes and Ethiopia. To date we have sequenced 268 ELITE participants using clinically enhanced exomes and run 550 samples on high density multi-ethnic SNP chips. Preliminary analysis has focused on a combination of rare variant curation and common variation association. Rare variation curation included prioritization of LOF variants within candidate genes related to oxygen transport, muscle physiology and metabolism (i.e. PPARA, PPARGC1A, RYR2, ACTN3) and global gene screening using in silico weighted burden testing. Common variant association (the largest GWAS of its kind) has been used to support rare variant findings and identify non-coding and structural variant association signals. We believe that our methodology of combining rare LOF variants with common variation association in a population with extreme endurance physiology will systematically identify pleiotropic genes with both protective and pathogenic features similar to PCSK9.

  • 3612. Wagstaff, Christopher R. D.
    et al.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Thelwell, Richard C.
    The use of acceptance and commitment therapy for stress management interventions in football2019In: Football Psychology: From Theory to Practice / [ed] Erkut Konter, Jürgen Beckmann, Todd M. Loughead, London: Routledge, 2019, p. 198-211Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Stressors have been reported to occur in a wide variety of competitive sports, including football, with numerous positive and negative outcomes. Nevertheless, what is apparent in elite sport is that the demands faced by individuals often require intervention to optimize well-being and performance. The aim of this chapter is to focus on elite-level players’ experiences of stress and describe these within the theoretical framework of acceptance commitment therapy (ACT). A brief hypothetical case is presented to showcase some typical performance issues related to stress in a young emerging player at the age of 18 years. This is followed by a brief overview of stress in competitive sport in general and more specifically in football. Subsequently, the theoretical model of ACT is described together with some specific applied interventions aiming to enhance performance and well-being.

  • 3613.
    Wahlgren, Lina
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Ett hälsosamt bortfall?: En studie av bortfallsgruppens skäl till att avstå från hälsotest2003Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte

    Studiens övergripande syfte var att undersöka vilka skäl som finns till att avstå från hälsotester genomförda inom företagshälsovård. För att synliggöra och öka förståelsen för dessa skäl, var studiens delsyften att undersöka bortfallsgruppens inställning till hälsotesteroch hälsosatsningar, där hälsotester ingår som en del.

    Metod

    Genom kontakt med Liv&Lust AB och Preem Petroleum AB gavs möjlighet attgenomföra en studie av bortfallsgruppen, dvs. de individer som arbetar på Preem, Huvudkontoret på Gärdet i Stockholm, och som avstått från att, på frivillig basis, deltaga i Liv&Lust Första Hälsoplantest under 2002-2003. En kvalitativ intervju genomfördes med nio personer ur bortfallsgruppen under våren 2003 på Preem:s huvudkontor. Intervjuerna var halvstrukturerade och deras längd varierade mellan cirka 35 till cirka 60 minuter.  Resultaten kategoriserades först efter meningsbärande utsagor och analyserades därefter utifrån Antonovskys KASAM-modell innehållande de tre komponenterna: meningsfullhet, begriplighet och hanterbarhet.

    Resultat

    En vanlig orsak som uppgavs som skäl till att avstå från Hälsoplantest var tidsbristpga. arbetsbelastning. Diffusa negativa känslor uttalades i samband med skälen och ibland även en osäkerhetskänsla inför företagets roll i sammanhanget. Uttryck gavs för en medvetenhet kring den egna kroppsstatusen, både positiv och negativ. Ett Hälsoplantest ansågs därmed innebära en onödig bekräftelse. Då den egna kroppsstatusen beskrevs som mindre positiv sammankopplades testet med ett negativt tillrättavisade budskap. Åsikten att man klarade sig själv, utan hälsotester, framfördes och kunde även den kopplas till medvetenheten kring den egna kroppsstatusen. Inställningen till Hälsoplantest och Preem:s beslut att genomföra dessa var positiv trots att man själv avstått från att deltaga. Inom samtliga kategorier saknades den motivationsskapande KASAM-komponenten meningsfullhet.

    Slutsats

    När bortfallsgruppen beskrev den egna kroppsstatusen i mindre positiva termerförknippades  hälsoplantestet med en negativ bekräftelse och ett negativt tillrättavisande budskap, vilka tolkades som styrande faktorer bakom skälet till att avstå. 

  • 3614.
    Wahlgren, Lina
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Från träning för kondition till fysisk aktivitet för hälsa: Om synen på rekommendationer för allmänheten över tid2009In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 45-49Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 3615.
    Wahlgren, Lina
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Färdvägsmiljöer vid cykling till och från arbetet2012In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 38-39Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 3616.
    Wahlgren, Lina
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Studies on bikeability in a metropolitan area using the active commuting route environment scale (ACRES)2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES) was developed to study active commuters’ perceptions of their route environments. The overall aims were to assess the measuring properties of the ACRES and study active bicycle commuters’ perceptions of their commuting route environments.

    Methods: Advertisement- and street-recruited bicycle commuters from Greater Stockholm, Sweden, responded to the ACRES. Expected differences between inner urban and suburban route environments were used to assess criterion-related validity, together with ratings from an assembled expert panel as well as existing objective measures. Reliability was assessed as test-retest reproducibility. Comparisons of ratings between advertisement- and street-recruited participants were used for assessments of representativity. Ratings of inner urban and suburban route environments were used to evaluate commuting route environment profiles. Simultaneous multiple linear regression analyses were used to assess the relation between the outcome variable: whether the route environment hinders or stimulates bicycle-commuting and environmental predictors, such as levels of exhaust fumes, speeds of traffic and greenery, in inner urban areas.

    Results: The ACRES was characterized by considerable criterion-related validity and reasonable test-retest reproducibility. There was a good correspondence between the advertisement- and street-recruited participants’ ratings. Distinct differences in commuting route environment profiles between the inner urban and suburban areas were noted. Suburban route environments were rated as safer and more stimulating for bicycle-commuting. Beautiful, green and safe route environments seem to be, independently of each other, stimulating factors for bicycle-commuting in inner urban areas. On the other hand, high levels of exhaust fumes and traffic congestion, as well as low ‘directness’ of the route, seem to be hindering factors.

    Conclusions: The ACRES is useful for assessing bicyclists’ perceptions of their route environments. A number of environmental factors related to the route appear to be stimulating or hindering for bicycle commuting. The overall results demonstrate a complex research area at the beginning of exploration.

  • 3617.
    Wahlgren, Lina
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Upplevelser av färdvägsmiljöer vid arbetspendling med cykel2013In: Idrottsforum.org, ISSN 1652–7224, Vol. 11 decArticle in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hösten 2011 disputerade jag i ämnet idrott vid Örebro universitet. Den största delen av arbetet med avhandlingen ägde dock rum vid Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan (GIH) i Stockholm. Min avhandling heter Studies on Bikeability in a Metropolitan Area Using the Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES). Syftet med denna text är att på svenska ge en sammanfattning av de tre arbeten som avhandlingen innehåller.

  • 3618.
    Wahlgren, Lina
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Bikeability and methodological issues using the active commuting route environment scale (ACRES) in a metropolitan setting2011In: BMC Medical Research Methodology, ISSN 1471-2288, E-ISSN 1471-2288, Vol. 11, no 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Route environments can positively influence people’s active commuting and thereby contribute to public health. The Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES) was developed to study active commuters’ perceptions of their route environments. However, bicycle commuters represent a small portion of the population in many cities and thus are difficult to study using population-based material. Therefore, the aim of this study is to expand the state of knowledge concerning the criterion-related validity of the ACRES and the representativity using an advertisement-recruited sample. Furthermore, by comparing commuting route environment profiles of inner urban and suburban areas, we provide a novel basis for understanding the relationship between environment and bikeability.

    Methods Bicycle commuters from Greater Stockholm, Sweden, advertisement- (n = 1379) and street-recruited (n = 93), responded to the ACRES. Traffic planning and environmental experts from the Municipality of Stockholm (n = 24) responded to a modified version of the ACRES. The criterion-related validity assessments were based on whether or not differences between the inner urban and the suburban route environments, as indicated by the experts and by four existing objective measurements were reflected by differences in perceptions of these environments. Comparisons of ratings between advertisement- and street-recruited participants were used for the assessments of representativity. Finally, ratings of inner urban and suburban route environments were used to evaluate commuting route environment profiles.

    Results Differences in ratings of the inner urban and suburban route environments by the advertisement-recruited participants were in accord with the existing objective measurements and corresponded reasonably well with those of the experts. Overall, there was a reasonably good correspondence between the advertisement- and street-recruited participants’ ratings. Distinct differences in commuting route environment profiles were noted between the inner urban and suburban areas. Suburban route environments were rated as safer and more stimulating for bicycle-commuting than the inner urban ones. In general, the findings applied to both men and women.

    Conclusions The overall results show: considerable criterion-related validity of the ACRES; ratings of advertisement-recruited participants mirroring those of street-recruited participants; and a higher degree of bikeability in the suburban commuting route environments than in the inner urban ones.

  • 3619.
    Wahlgren, Lina
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Exploring bikeability in a metropolitan setting: stimulating and hindering factors in commuting route environments2012In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 12, no 168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Route environments may influence people’s active commuting positively and thereby contribute to public health. Assessments of route environments are, however, needed in order to better understand the possible relationship between active commuting and the route environment. The aim of this study was, therefore, to assess the potential associations between perceptions of whether the route environment on the whole hinders or stimulates bicycle commuting and perceptions of environmental factors.

    Methods

    The Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES) was used for the assessment of bicycle commuters’ perceptions of their route environments in the inner urban parts of Greater Stockholm, Sweden. Bicycle commuters (n = 827) were recruited by advertisements in newspapers. Simultaneous multiple regression analyses were used to assess the relation between predictor variables (such as levels of exhaust fumes, noise, traffic speed, traffic congestion and greenery) and the outcome variable (hindering – stimulating route environments). Two models were run, (Model 1) without and (Model 2) with the item traffic: unsafe or safe included as a predictor.

    Results

    Overall, about 40% of the variance of hindering – stimulating route environments was explained by the environmental predictors in our models (Model 1, = 0.415, and Model 2, = 0.435). The regression equation for Model 1 was: y = 8.53 + 0.33 ugly or beautiful + 0.14 greenery + (−0.14) course of the route + (−0.13) exhaust fumes + (−0.09) congestion: all types of vehicles (p ≤ 0.019). The regression equation for Model 2 was y = 6.55 + 0.31 ugly or beautiful + 0.16 traffic: unsafe or safe + (−0.13) exhaust fumes + 0.12 greenery + (−0.12) course of the route (p ≤ 0.001).

    Conclusions

    The main results indicate that beautiful, green and safe route environments seem to be, independently of each other, stimulating factors for bicycle commuting in inner urban areas. On the other hand, exhaust fumes, traffic congestion and low ‘directness’ of the route seem to be hindering factors. Furthermore, the overall results illustrate the complexity of a research area at the beginning of exploration.

  • 3620.
    Wahlgren, Lina
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Exploring Bikeability in a Suburban Metropolitan Area Using the Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES)2014In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 11, no 8, p. 8276-8300Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Aim: Commuting by bicycle could contribute to public health, and route environments may influence this behaviour. Therefore, the aim of this study is to assess the potential associations between appraisals of the overall route environment as hindering or stimulating for bicycle commuting, with both perceptions of commuting route environmental factors in a suburban area and background factors. Methods: The Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES) was used for the assessment of bicycle commuters’ perceptions and appraisals of their route environments in the suburban parts of Greater Stockholm, Sweden. A simultaneous multiple regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between the outcome variable whether the overall route environment hinders or stimulates bicycle commuting and environmental factors (e.g., exhaust fumes, speeds of motor vehicles, greenery), as well as background factors (sex, age, education, income) as predictor variables. Results and Conclusions: The results indicate that in suburban areas, the factors aesthetics, greenery and bicycle paths seem to be, independently of each other, stimulating factors for bicycle commuting. On the other hand, flows of motor vehicles, noise, and low “directness” of the route seem to be hindering factors. A comparison of these results with those obtained from an inner urban area points to the importance of studying different types of built-up areas separately.

  • 3621.
    Wahlgren, Lina
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Grönska och skönhet ökar cyklisters upplevelse av trygghet i trafikmiljön2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund

    Regelbunden fysisk aktivitet har positiva hälsoeffekter, och många vill vara fysiskt aktiva, men uppfattar olika hinder för det. Aktiv arbetspendling är en intressant möjlighet i detta sammanhang, då den är tidseffektiv, och avstånden mellan bostad och arbete ofta är lämpliga. Därför är det mycket angeläget att färdvägsmiljöer underlättar cykling, och studier av dem är viktiga för att förstå hur olika miljöfaktorer verkar. Upplevelser av otrygghet i trafikmiljön hindrar cykling. Syftet med denna studie var därför att mäta sambandet mellan upplevelser av trafikmiljön som otrygg eller trygg för cykelpendling, och upplevelser av olika miljöfaktorer i samma färdvägsmiljöer.

    Metod

    797 arbetspendlande cyklister (47 ± 11 år, 40 % män) rekryterades via annonser, och data från deras upplevelser av sina självvalda färdvägsmiljöer i Stor-Stockholms innerstad har nyttjats. För att mäta det användes The Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES), som har utvecklats vid GIH. ACRES innehåller utfallsvariabeln ”otrygga eller trygga trafikmiljöer” och ett antal miljöprediktorer, såsom avgaser, hastigheter hos motorfordon, trängsel bland cyklister, grönska och antal rödljus. ACRES har visat god kriterierelaterad validitet och rimlig reproducerbarhet. För att analysera sambanden mellan utfallsvariabeln otrygg eller trygg trafikmiljö och olika miljöprediktorer samt bakgrundsfaktorerna kön, ålder, utbildnings- och inkomstnivå, användes regressionsanalyser. I utfallsvariabeln otrygg eller trygg trafikmiljö (y) står skattningen 1 för mycket otrygg och 15 för mycket trygg. Miljövariablerna (x) skattades på motsvarande sätt med 15-gradiga skalor, utom variabeln ”andel cykelbana/cykelfält/cykelväg”, som har en 11-gradig skala.

    Resultat

    Resultaten visar att cirka 40 procent av skillnaden hos utfallsvariabeln otrygg eller trygg trafikmiljö (y) förklaras av de olika prediktorerna (x). Regressionsekvationen var: y = 12,05 - (0,25 x trängsel i blandtrafik) - (0,18 x färdvägens dragning) + (0,14 x grönska) - (0,14 x hastigheter hos motorfordon) - (0,13 x konflikter) + (0,11 x andel cykelbana/cykelfält/cykelväg) + (0,10 x fulhet eller skönhet) + (0,07 x backighet)(alla p-värden ≤ 0,017).

    Slutsatser

    Oberoende av varandra verkar således gröna och vackra färdvägsmiljöer med en hög andel cykelbanor/cykelfält/cykelvägar vara faktorer som påverkar tryggheten i trafiken positivt för cykelpendlare i innerstadsmiljöer. Även backighet verkar ha en positiv verkan på trygghetsupplevelsen, vilket är något förvånande och behöver studeras vidare. Å andra sidan verkar trängsel i blandtrafik, högre hastigheter hos motorfordon, konflikter mellan trafikanter och färdvägar som kräver många riktningsändringar vara faktorer som ökar känslan av otrygghet. Studier som denna utgör ett underlag för arbetet med att skapa goda färdvägsmiljöer för cyklister.

  • 3622.
    Wahlgren, Lina
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Stigell, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES) : Validity and Reliability2010In: Proceedings from The 3rd International Congress on Physical Activity and Public Health, Toronto, May, 5-8, 2010, 2010, p. 38-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 3623.
    Wahlgren, Lina
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Stigell, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    The Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES): Development and Evaluation2010In: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, Vol. 7, no 58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Route environments can be a potentially important factor in influencing people’s behaviours in relation to active commuting. To better understand these possiblerelationships, assessments of route environments are needed. We therefore developed a scale; the Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES), for the assessment of bicyclists’ and pedestrians’ perceptions of their commuting route environments. Here we will report on the development and the results of validity and reliability assessments thereof.

    Methods

    Active commuters (n = 54) were recruited when they bicycled in Stockholm, Sweden. Traffic planning and environmental experts from the Municipality of Stockholm were assembled to form an expert panel (n = 24). The active commuters responded to the scale on two occasions, and the expert panel responded to it once. To test criterion-related validity, differences in ratings of the inner urban and suburban environments of Greater Stockholm were compared between the experts and the commuters. Furthermore, four items were compared with existing objective measures. Test-retest reproducibility was assessed with three types of analysis: order effect, typical error and intraclass correlation.

    Results

    There was a concordance in sizes and directions of differences in ratings of inner urban and suburban environments between the experts and the commuters. Furthermore, both groups’ ratings were in line with existing objectively measured differences between the two environmental settings. Order effects between test and retest were observed in 6 of 36 items. The typical errors ranged from 0.93 to 2.54, and the intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from ‘moderate’ (0.42) to ‘almost perfect’ (0.87).

    Conclusions

    The ACRES was characterized by considerable criterion-related validity and reasonable test-retest reproducibility.

  • 3624.
    Wahlgren, Lina
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Wedman, Ingemar
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Fysisk aktivitet som orsak till, vid behandling av, eller för att förebygga artros2005In: SVEBI:s Årsbok 2005, ISSN 0284-4672, p. s 203-218Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 3625.
    Wahlgren, Lina
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Wedman, Ingemar
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Förändring mot ökad knäkontroll2005In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 49-53Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 3626.
    Wahlgren, Lina
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Wedman, Ingemar
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Va´ då en fyra på vardagsmotion?2007In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 41-44Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 3627.
    Wahlström, Emma
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Kroppsideal i Idrott och hälsa: En studie om kvinnors och mäns kroppar i läroböcker i skolämnet Idrott och hälsa.2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The purpose of the study is to examine health and body ideals presented in five teaching materials in physical education addressed to junior high and high school and study if the ideals differ between the sexes.

    • Which body ideals are found in textbooks?
    • Which healthy body ideals and unhealthy bodies are presented in textbooks?
    • Do the ideals differ depending on gender?

    Method

    Five textbooks in physical education addressed to junior high and high school has been used to analyze the presence of body and health ideals. Text and picture analysis has been used to study the material and through a variant of content analysis, the material has been studied and analyzed. The texts and images that have been associated with body and health ideals have been divided into six categories. The categories were a healthy feminine body, unhealthy feminine body, healthy masculine body, unhealthy masculine body, healthy body of  indeterminate sex and unhealthy body indeterminate sex. After a compilation of all the pictures and sections of texts a contexture have been done that shows mutual patterns in the textbooks of the health and body ideals between the sexes and also patterns for each gender.

    Results

    The study shows that women's ideal healthy body is portrayed in the pictures as skinny, fit and young. The unhealthy female body is portrayed as sick, injured, very thin and inactive. The ideal male healthy body is toned, more muscular than the female body and young. The unhealthy body for the man is presented as a body that is overweight and inactive. The common features for both the men's and women's bodies are that a healthy ideal body is physically fit and active body and an unhealthy body is inactive and a body who uses tobacco and drugs.

    Conclusions

    By excluding images of various bodies such as bodies with different skin colour than white, transgendered people, bodies that are wider over thigh/ hip and disabled bodies is a one-sided picture of the ideal healthy and unhealthy body presented in the analysed textbooks, where health and body ideals differ between the sexes.

  • 3628.
    Walker, Imogen J
    et al.
    Trinity Laban Conservatoire of Music and Dance.
    Nordin-Bates, Sanna M
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Redding, Emma
    Trinity Laban Conservatoire of Music and Dance.
    A mixed methods investigation of dropout in young dancers: Findings from the UK Centres for Advanced Training2012In: Journal of Dance Medicine and Science, ISSN 1089-313X, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 65-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to understand reasons for dropout from a dance-talent program in the UK, using a mixed methods design. In-depth interviews were conducted with ten dropout students to explore the influencing factors in their decision to leave the program. In order to triangulate  these findings, reasons for dropout were then examined from descriptive records of 147 young dancers who had withdrawn from the talent program over a four-year period. Overall, the most frequently cited reasons for dropping out were conflicting demands, change in aspirations, course content,  difficulty making friends, and lost passion. Injury, financial factors, low perceived competence, and teacher behavior emerged as minor reasons. Intervention strategies that focus on changes in course content may be the easiest to implement and most effective means to enhance student retention.

  • 3629.
    Walker, Imogen J
    et al.
    Trinity Laban Conservatoire for Music and Dance.
    Redding, Emma
    Trinity Laban Conservatoire for Music and Dance.
    Nordin-Bates, Sanna M
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    The development of young talented dancers: an interdisciplinary perspective2012In: DANCING TIMES, ISSN 0011-605X, Vol. 102, no 1220, p. 21-24Article, review/survey (Other academic)
  • 3630.
    Wall, Simon
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    "Killarna gör och tjejerna kan i alla fall försöka": en studie om lärande, betyg och bedömning i idrott och hälsa2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The study aims to examine the learning that takes place in lessons in physical education and health, and how the teacher makes its assessment, from a gender perspective.

    • How do students and teachers look at learning, grading and assessment in physical education?
    • How do students and teachers look at gender in physical education?

     

    Method

    Interview was used as the method for answering the questions. Three teachers, two men and one woman, who teach physical education, were interviewed individually. Eight students, four girls and four boys, were interviewed in group interviews. There were two group interviews, with two girls and two boys in each. The interviews were semi-structured and questions were based on an interview guide.

     

    Results

    The interviews revealed that the focus of education is on the physical part of the subject and the knowledge sector Movement. The students told the teacher primarily assesses that it is with the lesson and do their best. The teachers told me that they primarily assess students' physical and motor skills. Students and two of the teachers told me that girls take up less space in teaching. This happens especially in ball games, which was the most common activity during lessons in physical education. The girls told me that they feel that teachers underestimate their abilities and do not set equally high standards for them as the boys.

     

    Conclusions

    The theory part of physical education is given very little space. When the teacher makes assessment the physical part weigh heavily and it seems to favor boys. Both teachers and students perceive that the individual feedback from teacher to student is not often enough. The assessment can be said to be summative. Teaching seems to favor boys and girls pull away. It is tragic that there are students who feel that teachers expect less of them, simply because of their gender.

  • 3631.
    Wall, Simon
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Vad gör eleverna på lektionerna i idrott och hälsa?: en observationsstudie om lektionsinnehåll och fysisk aktivitet i idrott och hälsa2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka elevers fysiska aktivitet under lektioner i idrott och hälsa samt att se vad lektionstiden används till. Ytterligare ett syfte är att studera sambandet mellan lektionsinnehållet och den fysiska aktiviteten.

    • Hur är lektionstiden fördelad på olika kategorier av lektionsinnehåll?
    • Hur stor del av lektionstiden för idrott och hälsa är eleverna måttligt till kraftigt fysiskt aktiva?
    • Vilket lektionsinnehåll ger mest respektive minst fysisk aktivitet?

    Metod

    Metoden som användes var systematisk observation. Ett observationsprotokoll utformades och användes vid observationstillfällena. En årskurs 6-9 skola valdes för genomförande av observationen. Åtta lektioner i idrott och hälsa observerades. Elevernas fysiska aktivitet och lektionsinnehåll observerades och data fördes in i observationsprotokollet.

    Resultat

    Resultatet visar att motoriskt innehåll var det lektionsinnehåll som upptog mest lektionstid. Av det motoriska innehållet var spel den kategori som var vanligast, kunskapsinnehåll var minst vanligt. Eleverna var måttligt till kraftigt fysiskt aktiva 43 procent av lektionstiden. Det lektionsinnehåll som gav mest måttlig till kraftig fysisk aktivitet var kategorin fysisk träning. Av det motoriska innehållet var spel den kategori som minst effektivt gav eleverna fysisk aktivitet.

    Slutsats

    Att motoriskt innehåll förekommer mest i undervisningen stämmer överens med Skolinspektionens senaste rapport som visar att kunskapsområdet rörelse prioriteras. Bollspel, som ingår i kategorin spel, har varit dominerande i undervisningen i idrott och hälsa sedan lång tid tillbaka och är det än idag, enligt flera olika undersökningar. Kategorin kunskapsinnehåll tillägnas en väldigt liten del av lektionstiden, detta trots att idrott och hälsa är ett kunskapsämne. Den observerade fysiska aktiviteten är högt i jämförelse med tidigare forskning. Det är bra att eleverna får möjlighet att röra på sig så mycket som möjligt i undervisningen, så länge undervisningen bedrivs i enlighet med kursplanen. Kategorierna fysisk träning och färdighetsträning är att föredra, framför spel, om målet är att få eleverna att vara fysiskt aktiva.

  • 3632.
    Wallberg, Linnea
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Mattsson, C. Mikael
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Enqvist, Jonas K.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Plasma IL-6 concentration during ultra-endurance exercise2011In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 111, no 6, p. 1081-1088Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interleukin 6 (IL-6) response was studied during two ultra endurance events – one laboratory 24 h protocol (9 men) with exercise intensity set to 60 % of VO2max and one Adventure Race over 6 days (12 men/6 women) with a self-selected race pace, including rests, of about 38 % of VO2max. In the 24 h protocol IL-6 level was elevated from 0.76 ± 0.48 pg mL-1 at rest to 7.16 ± 2.70 pg mL-1 at 6 h, and increased further to 10.58 ± 1.04 pg mL-1 at 12 h, but remained thereafter unchanged at 24 h, (10.89±0.36 pg mL-1). All participants had nearly identical values at 12 and 24 h, supporting intensity as main determinant in the IL-6 response since exercise duration did not increase IL-6 level after 12 h. Possible confounding factors do not seem to influence the IL-6 concentration during the longer races (>12h), but might very well do so during shorter exercise bouts. In the 6-day race IL-6 increased from rest to 24 h, but thereafter there was no change in plasma IL-6 value until the end of the race (140 h). There was no elevation of TNF-α in any of the protocols, suggesting that the competitors were free from systemic inflammation. During endurance exercise lasting >12 h intensity and not duration is the main determinant of the IL-6 response, while during shorter exercise bouts both intensity and duration contribute to the accumulation of IL-6 in plasma.

  • 3633.
    Wallbing Engström, Carolina
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Nyström, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Hur går det egentligen till?: Lärares syn på inkluderande undervisning i idrott och hälsa.2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of this study was to investigate teachers views of inclusive education physical education and if the notion of inclusion was similar or different. 

    • How do teachers work with inclusive teaching in physical education?
    • What opportunities and challenges are characteristic for an inclusive education within sports and health science?
    • What past experiences are associated with inclusive education in sports and health teaching?

    Method

    This study had a qualitative approach, and used interviews as data collection method. Five teachers in sport- and health sience from three schools in Stockholm participated in the study. The selection is based on a ”snowball”- and convenience sampling. The study was based on a socio-cultural perspective and refers to Lev Vygotsky's theoretical thinking about learning and development. 

    Results

    The teachers in this study had a relatively similar view of inclusion. According to them the students and their needs should be in focus. The communication between the students and the teachers had a central importance for a successful inclusion. In the different types of schools the teachers in physical education had a coherent view of the possibilities and difficulties that occured in the process of inclusion. The contact with the students, to have a positive attitude to disability and to have common goals within the class in physical education, were some of the factors that created possibilities according to the teachers. The results also show that the teachers believe that there are some difficulties associated to inclusion. A poor communication with the students, that the instances around the pupils had difficulties to cooperate and that their approach to inclusion were inadequate. It was also mentioned that the economic aspect were an additional problem, and that the teachers carried a feeling of insufficiency.

     

    Conclusions

    The teachers in this study felt that the students and their needs had to be in focus and communication between the student and the teacher had a central importance for a successful inclusion. The teachers highlights communication several times in different contexts, and the results showed that the interaction between teachers and teachers were just as important as the communication between student and teacher.    Some differences emerged in the results of the perception of inclusion. The results show that teachers different experiences of children and young people with disabilities had impact on how attitudes towards inclusion was. According to the results was the work of inclusion needs-led and school forms priority work different. Finally, we see that the idea of ​​inclusion was relatively similar between teachers.

  • 3634.
    Wallbing Engström, Carolina
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Nyström, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Hälsa – vad är det?: En studie om elevers syn på hälsa i olika socioekonomiska klasser2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka högstadieelevers syn på hälsa och om denna uppfattning skiljer sig mellan socioekonomiska klasser.

    • Vilken betydelse har fysisk och psykisk hälsa enligt eleverna i de olika skolorna samt vilka faktorer påverkar elevernas välbefinnande enligt dem själva?
    • Vilka likheter och skillnader finns mellan socioekonomiska faktorer och elevers syn på hälsa?
    • Hur ser föräldrarnas och barnens aktivitetsnivå ut i olika socioekonomiska klasser?
    • På vilket sätt arbetar skolorna med hälsa utifrån ett lärarperspektiv och skiljer det sig mot elevernas uppfattning?

    Metod

    Metoden som studien bygger på är en kvantitativ enkätundersökning samt kvalitativa intervjuer med två idrottslärare. De namn skolorna har i studien är fingerade. Etternässlaskolan är placerad i norra Stockholm i en kommun med låg socioekonomisk status medan Kungsljusskolan är placerad centralt i östra Stockholm, i en kommun med hög socioekonomisk status. Det var 414 elever i årskurs 7-9 som svarade på enkäten och 407 svar var fullständiga.

    Resultat

    Resultaten visar att elevernas syn på fysisk hälsa fokuserar på kroppens rörelser och att vara frisk – på utsidan. Den psykiska hälsan innefattar hjärnans tankar och hur kroppen mår – på insidan. Trots skillnader i de socioekonomiska faktorerna är synen på hälsa likstämmig på båda skolorna. Resultatet visar att hög socioekonomisk status och aktiva föräldrar ledde till aktiva elever. Lärarnas arbete med hälsa ser likvärdigt ut skolorna emellan. En del elever var osäkra på hur och om hälsoundervisning bedrevs, men det övergripande resultatet visade på samstämmighet med vad lärarna förmedlade.

    Slutsats

    Studiens slutsats belyser främst att socioekonomisk status i samband med föräldrarnas aktivitetsnivå har betydelse för elevernas inställning till fysisk aktivitet. Oavsett om eleverna gick på Kungsljusskolan som låg i ett område med hög socioekonomisk status eller i Etternässlaskolan som låg i ett område med lägre socioekonomisk status var uppfattningen om hälsa likvärdig.

  • 3635.
    Wallerstein, Fanny
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Brattwall, Melina
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Lika grund men ändå så olika!: En kvalitativ studie om lärare i idrott och hälsas tolkning och bedömning utifrån kunskapskraven för takt och rytm.2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The purpose of the study was to examine how newly graduated physical education teachers are working with the demands of knowledge concerning pace, rhythm and how they appraise students in year 6 on the basis of these;

    • How do teachers judge students on the basis of the value words ”quite well”, ”relatively well” and ”well” within the demands of knowledge for pace and rhythm in Lgr 11?
    • How do the teachers define the concepts of pace and rhythm?
    • Which resources do the teachers think are of importance when judging on the basis of the demands of knowledge for pace and rhythm.

    Method: A film was produced where the knowledge and skill of two students concerning pace and rhythm, were in focus. Newly graduated physical education teachers then got to study the movie and judge the students from the value words ”ok”, ”relatively well” and ”well” within the demands of knowledge for pace and rhythm in Lgr 11? After that, interviews were carried out with all the participating teachers, in order to get an insight to how they used the value words and how they work with appraising pace and rhythm and also how they reason about which resources can affect the education and the judgment.

    Results: The physical education teachers had different opinions on both the definition of the value words and in appraising the students. They had individual demands on what was required for each value word. This resulted in that the same student was given both the highest and the lowest value word on the basis of what the teachers had seen in the film. The teachers definitions of pace and rhythm was also interpreted differently. How they defined the concepts was also something correlated with how they had been reasoning in appraising the students. When it came to resources, the teachers mentioned mirrors, music equipment, dancing ward and props as valuable for the education of pace and rhythm. The teachers said that resources can aid but that it still is possible to teach pace and rhythm with simple means.

    Conclusion: Definition of concepts and interpretation concerning the value words in the knowledge demands was differentiated between the teachers. This could result in consequences when it comes to the intention of judging the students equally. Resources can aid the education of pace and rhythm but does not have to be a decisive consideration for the education of these abilities.

  • 3636.
    Wallerstein, Fanny
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Brattwall, Melina
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Skolmatslotteriet: En kvalitativ studie om leverantörernas del i skolmatens näringsriktighet2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med vår studie var att undersöka i vilken mån leverantörerna av skolmat i Lidingö kommun uppfyller de Svenska näringsrekommendationerna (SNR) som skollagen innefattar. Frågeställningar till näringsberäkningen: Hur ser energi- och näringsinnehållet i skolmat ut i förhållande till SNR? Finns skillnader, och i så fall vilka, i energi- och näringsinnehåll i förhållande till SNR? Frågeställningar till intervjuerna: Hur resonerar leverantörerna av skolmat kring vilka faktorer i planering och hantering som kan påverka näringsinnehållet i skolmaten? Finns skillnader, och i så fall vilka, i hur leverantörerna resonerar?

    Metod

    De metoder som använts i studien har varit kvalitativa intervjuer i kombination med en näringsberäkning. Intervjuerna har gjorts med de ansvariga för skolmatens planering och tillagning hos två leverantörer av skolmat i Lidingö kommun. Näringsberäkningen har gjorts utifrån recept som använts under en exempelvecka vardera som vi fått ta del av från leverantörerna. Som verktyg för att genomföra näringsberäkningen har ett kostdataprogram, Dietist XP, använts.

    Resultat

    Resultaten har varit att leverantörerna tillsammans får ett värde i näringsberäkningen som ligger nära SNR:s rekommendationer. Sett var för sig kan man se stora skillnader då ena leverantören ligger relativt nära riktlinjerna i samtliga avseenden medan den andra brister på fler punkter näringsmässigt. Vi har även sett skillnader i leverantörernas rutiner, avtal med kommunen, resurser samt personalnens kompetens. De faktorer som kan påverka näringsinnehållet i skolmaten enligt leverantörerna var bland annat olika tillagningsmetoder som kokning och stekning samt även långvarig varmhållning.

    Slutsats

    Den slutsats vi kan dra är att näringsberäkningar som är gjorde på ett korrekt sätt är en förutsättning för att kunna kvalitetssäkra skolmatens energi- och näringsinnehåll. Utbildning och kompetens är en betydande faktor i arbetet med skolmaten.

  • 3637.
    Wallin Forsell, Felicia
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Bok, Tove
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Kroppen är gjord för rörelse: en interventionsstudie om kunskapens betydelse för ökad fysisk aktivitet2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syfte

    Föreliggande studie syftar till att undersöka om kunskap om fysisk aktivitet och hälsa kan bidra till en ökad fysisk aktivitetsnivå och medvetenhet om eget rörelsemönster hos individer på en stillasittande arbetsplats.

    Metod

    En kvantitativ studie har genomförts på en arbetsplats med stillasittande arbete. Interventionen har bestått av workshops om hälsa och fysisk aktivitet. Studiedeltagarna slumpades till en interventionsgrupp som fick workshops och till en kontrollgrupp som fick tillgång till workshop-materialet efter studieperioden. Tjugo deltagare deltog i studien, tio i respektive grupp. Fysisk aktivitetsnivå mättes med stegräknare och en enkät med extrafrågor om fysisk aktivitet från GIH:s hälsoenkät. En utvärderingsenkät användes för att mäta upplevd medvetenhet kring rörelsemönster i interventionsgruppen.

    Resultat

    Interventionsgruppens medelvärde i antal steg ökade med 759 steg från baslinjemätningen till vecka fyra. Kontrollgruppens medelvärde i antal steg minskade med 455 steg från baslinjemätningen jämfört med vecka fyra. Resultaten visade att skillnaden mellan baslinjemätningen och sista veckan inte var signifikant varken i kontroll- eller interventionsgruppen. I utvärderingsenkäten svarade 90 % av deltagarna i interventionsgruppen att de blivit mer medvetna om eget rörelsemönster under interventionen och 70 % i interventionsgruppen svarade att de hade förändrat sitt rörelsemönster under interventionen.

    Slutsats

    Författarna anser att interventionen delvis uppfyllde sitt syfte och skulle kunna användas på arbetsplatser för att öka fysisk aktivitet hos de anställda. Studien visar på att förmedling av kunskap kan vara ett alternativt tillvägagångssätt för öka medvetenheten om sitt stillasittande beteende och rörelsemönster och därmed lättare kan förändra sina vanor utifrån sin egen livssituation. Interventioner på arbetsplatser kan spela en betydelsefull roll i det framtida hälsofrämjande arbetet.

  • 3638.
    Wallin, Frida
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Pokemon Go: Har applikationen Pokemon Go fått barn att röra på sig mer på sin fritid?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte

    Syftet med den här studien är att undersöka om spelet Pokemon Go kan få elever att röra på sig mer på sin fritid och på så sätt minska stillasittandet där ofta mobil/tv-spel och tv-tittande ingår. Kan ett mobilspel motivera barnen till en aktivare fritid? Hur kan skolan ta hjälp av den nya tekniken för att motivera elever till mer rörelse i skolan?

    • Hur många steg tar eleverna de dagar de inte letar efter Pokemons?
    •  Hur många steg tar eleverna de dagar de letar efter Pokemons?                
    • Sitter de mindre framför datorn/tv och spelar nu än innan de började spela Pokemon GO?

    Metod

    För att besvara syftet användas främst en kvantitativ metod dels genom enkätundersökning och stegräknare men även kvalitativa intervjuer har genomförts. I enkätundersökningen fick en lågstadieskola i årskurs 2-6 svara på ett antal frågor om Pokemon Go. 108 elever besvarade enkäten. Genom ett strategiskt urval valdes fem elever i årskurs 6 där deras stegräknare avlästes av varje dag under en månad för att få reda på antal steg de tog när de spelade applikationen och hur många steg det tog när de inte spelade.  

     

    Resultat

    De eleverna som fick sin stegräknare avläst rörde på sig mer de dagar de spelade applikationen. Eleverna fick sin stegräknare avläst i två månader. Två veckor valdes ut avlästes och i snitt gick de fem elever 12458 steg när de spelade Pokemon Go och 1587 steg de dagar som de inte spelade. Enkätundersöknigen visade att 72 av eleverna spelade och 36 elever spelade inte Pokemon Go. Motivationen var en viktig faktor visades sig under intervjuerna, de som spelande gjorde det för att det var roligt och de som inte spelade gjorde det för att de tyckte att det var tråkigt eller att de inte ägde en mobiltelefon.

     

    Slutsats

    Slutsatsen blev att så länge eleverna tyckte att de är roligt så var de ute och spelade. De spelade för att det var kul inte för att må bättre ur ett hälsoperspektiv. De flesta svarade att de satt mindre framför dator/Ipad sedan de började spela Pokemon Go. Barnen tog mer antal steg de dagar dem spelade Pokemon Go.

  • 3639.
    Wallin, Marcus
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Høgmo Utstøl, Gustav
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Ekologisk dynamik inom svensk elitfotboll: Ett paradigmskifte för taktisk träning2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte

    Studiens syfte är att undersöka hur svenska elittränare i fotboll tränar taktik med en analytisk utgångspunkt från ekologisk dynamik och den pedagogik/metodik den förespråkar (icke-linjär pedagogik och constraints-led approach).

    Frågeställningar

    • Arbetar tränarna enligt principerna inom icke-linjär pedagogik (rörelsevariation, representativ övningsdesign och perception-aktion)?
    • Vilka främjande och begränsande faktorer utifrån constraints-led approach tar tränarna hänsyn till samt påverkar medvetet?
    • Har tränarna i svensk elitfotboll kunskap om icke-linjär pedagogik, constraints-led approach och ekologisk dynamik?

    Metod

    Studien genomfördes med en kvalitativ metod där semistrukturerade intervjuer användes för att ta reda på hur tränarna genomförde taktisk träning och om det var i enlighet med ramverket ekologisk dynamiks nyckelprinciper. Deltagarna var fem manliga tränare från Allsvenskan som innehöll UEFA PRO. Två pilotintervjuer genomfördes. Innan intervjuerna informerades intervjupersonerna om de etiska huvudkraven och gav sitt samtycke. Datainsamling gjordes via transkribering och analyserades efteråt genom en tematisk innehållsanalys.

    Resultat

    Enligt intervjuunderlaget visar det sig att tränarna till stor grad arbetar med principerna inom icke-linjär pedagogik, däremot skiljer sig deras åsikter sig med hur de praktiserar. Trots att tränarna medvetet inte använder sig av constraints-led approach så säger resultatet att de använder de sig av olika främjande och begränsande faktorer i sin övningsdesign, främst uppgiftsfaktorer. Det framkom även andra faktorer som påverkar de beslut som spelarna fattar på plan såsom de individuella faktorerna. Ingen av deltagarna har någon djupare förståelse om icke-linjär pedagogik, constraints-led approach eller ekologisk dynamik.

    Slutsats

    De åsikter och argument som framfördes under studien var en kombination av praktisk erfarenhet på svensk elitnivå och utbildning som tränarna genomgått. Det går att argumentera för att icke-linjär pedagogik och constraints-led approach är ett relevant pedagogiskt ramverk för taktisk träning på svensk elitnivå.

  • 3640.
    Wallmann-Sperlich, Birgit
    et al.
    Institute of Sport Science, Julius-Maximilians University Würzburg, D-97082 Würzburg, Germany.
    Froboese, Ingo
    Institute of Health Promotion and Clinical Movement Science, German Sport University, D-50933 Cologne, Germany.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Physical Activity and the Perceived Neighbourhood Environment: Looking at the Association the Other Way Around2014In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 11, no 8, p. 8093-8111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     The associationbetween physical activity (PA) and variables of the perceived environmentmainly originate from cross-sectional studies that introduced the idea that theenvironment influences the PA level of residents. However, the direction ofcause and effect has not been solved with finality. The aim of this study wasto investigate whether residents’ perception of their proximate environmentdiffers depending on their level of PA in transport and recreation. Weconducted a cross-sectional survey with residents of six different parts of thecity of Cologne, Germany. The sample of 470 adults (52.8% females; mean age =35.5 ± 13.8 years) filled in the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ),as well as the European Environmental Questionnaire ALPHA. To distinguishbetween residents with ‘low’ and ‘high’ PA, we split the samples into two on the basisof the specific median in transport- and recreation-related PA. In the ‘high’ vs. ‘low’ PA group of the overall sample,we noted 4–16% more ‘PA favourable’ environmental perceptions in seven of the15 environmental variables. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to investigateassociations of socio-demographic correlates and transport- andrecreation-related PA on the dependent variables of the environmentalperception. In this case,levels of PA were significant predictors for eight of the 15 items concerningenvironmental perceptions. Thus, the present study introduces the idea that residents withhigher levels of transport and recreational PA may perceive their environmentin a more ‘PA-favourable’ way than residents with lower levels.

  • 3641.
    Wallman-Sperlich, Birgit
    et al.
    Institute of Health Promotion and Clinical Movement Science, German Sports University Cologne, Germany.
    Buksch, Jens
    WHO Collaborating Centre for Child and Adolescent Health Promotion, School of Public Health, Bielefeld University, Germany.
    Hansen, Sylvia
    Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, Maastricht University, The Netherlands.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Froboese, Ingo
    Institute of Health Promotion and Clinical Movement Science, German Sports University Cologne, Germany.
    Sitting Time in Germany: An Analysis of Socio-demographic and Environmental Correlates2013In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 196, no 13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Sedentary behaviour in general and sitting time in particular is an emerging global health concern. The aim of this study was to provide data on the prevalence of sitting time in German adults and to examine socio-demographic and environmental correlates of sitting time.

    Methods: A representative sample of German adjults (n = 2000; 967 men, 1033 women; 49.3 ±17.6 years of age) filled in the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire, including one question on overall sitting time and answered questions about the neighbourhood environment, as well as concerning demographics. Daily sitting time was stratified by gender, age group, BMI, educational and income level, as well as physical activity (PA). To identify socio-demographic and environmental correlates of sitting time, we used a series of linear regressions.

    Results: The overall median was 5 hours (299 minutes) of sitting time/day and men sat longer than women (5 vs. 4 hours/day; p < 0.05). In both genders age and PA were negatively and the educational level positively associated with sitting time. The level of income was not a correlate of sitting time in multivariate analyses. Sitting time was significantly positively associated with higher neighbourhood safety for women. The variance ranged from 16.5% for men to 8.9% for women.

    Conclusions: The overall sitting time was unequally distributed in the German adult population. Our findings suggest implementing specific interventions to reduce sitting time for subgroups such as men, younger aged adults and adults with a higher education and lower PA. Future studies should enhance our understanding of the specific correlates of different types and domains of sitting in order to guide the development of effective public health strategies.

     

     

  • 3642. Walsh, B
    et al.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Söderlund, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Hultman, E
    Saks, V
    Sahlin, Kent
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Research group for Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    The role of phosphorylcreatine and creatine in the regulation of mitochondrial respiration in human skeletal muscle.2001In: Journal of Physiology, ISSN 0022-3751, E-ISSN 1469-7793, Vol. 537, no Pt 3, p. 971-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. The role of phosphorylcreatine (PCr) and creatine (Cr) in the regulation of mitochondrial respiration was investigated in permeabilised fibre bundles prepared from human vastus lateralis muscle. 2. Fibre respiration was measured in the absence of ADP (V(0)) and after sequential additions of submaximal ADP (0.1 mM ADP, V(submax)), PCr (or Cr) and saturating [ADP] (V(max)). 3. V(submax) increased by 55 % after addition of saturating creatine (P < 0.01; n = 8) and half the maximal effect was obtained at 5 mM [Cr]. In contrast, V(submax) decreased by 54 % after addition of saturating phosphorylcreatine (P < 0.01; n = 8) and half the maximal effect was obtained at 1 mM [PCr]. V(max) was not affected by Cr or PCr. 4. V(submax) was similar when PCr and Cr were added simultaneously at concentrations similar to those in muscle at rest (PCr/Cr = 2) and at low-intensity exercise (PCr/Cr = 0.5). At conditions mimicking high-intensity exercise (PCr/Cr = 0.1), V(submax) increased to 60 % of V(max) (P < 0.01 vs. rest and low-intensity exercise). 5. Eight of the subjects participated in a 16 day Cr supplementation programme. Following Cr supplementation, V(0) decreased by 17 % (P < 0.01 vs. prior to Cr supplementation), whereas ADP-stimulated respiration (with and without Cr or PCr) was unchanged. 6. For the first time evidence is given that PCr is an important regulator of mitochondrial ADP-stimulated respiration. Phosphorylcreatine decreases the sensitivity of mitochondrial respiration to ADP whereas Cr has the opposite effect. During transition from rest to high-intensity exercise, decreases in the PCr/Cr ratio will effectively increase the sensitivity of mitochondrial respiration to ADP. The decrease in V(0) after Cr supplementation indicates that intrinsic changes in membrane proton conductance occur.

  • 3643. Wang, Li
    et al.
    Mascher, Henrik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Psilander, Niklas
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Sahlin, Kent
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Research group for Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Resistance exercise enhances the effect of endurance training on molecular signaling in human skeletal muscleManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 3644. Wang, Li
    et al.
    Psilander, Niklas
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Research group for Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Mascher, Henrik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Research group for Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Sahlin, Kent
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Research group for Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Resistance exercise enhances the molecular signaling of mitochondrial biogenesis induced by endurance exercise in human skeletal muscle.2011In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 111, no 5, p. 1335-1344Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Combining endurance and strength training (concurrent training) may change the adaptation compared with single mode training. However, the site of interaction and the mechanisms are unclear. We have investigated the hypothesis that molecular signaling of mitochondrial biogenesis after endurance exercise is impaired by resistance exercise. Ten healthy subjects performed either only endurance exercise (E: 1h cycling at ~65% of VO(2max)) or endurance exercise followed by resistance exercise (ER: 1h cycling + 6 sets of leg press at 70-80% of 1 repetition maximum) in a randomized cross-over design. Muscle biopsies were obtained before and after exercise (1 and 3h Post cycling). The mRNA of genes related to mitochondrial biogenesis (PGC-1α, PRC) and substrate regulation (PDK4) increased after both E and ER, but the mRNA levels were about 2-fold higher after ER (P<0.01). Phosphorylation of proteins involved in the signaling cascade of protein synthesis (mTOR, S6K1 and eEF2) was altered after ER but not after E. Moreover, ER induced a larger increase in mRNA of genes associated with positive mTOR signaling (cMyc and Rheb). Phosphorylation of AMPK, ACC and Akt increased similarly at 1h Post (P<0.01) after both types of exercise. Contrary to our hypothesis, the results demonstrate that resistance exercise, performed after endurance exercise, amplifies the adaptive signaling response of mitochondrial biogenesis compared with single-mode endurance exercise. The mechanism may relate to a crosstalk between signaling pathways mediated by mTOR. The results suggest that concurrent training may be beneficial for the adaptation of muscle oxidative capacity.

  • 3645.
    Wang, Li
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Research group for Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Psilander, Niklas
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Research group for Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Ding, Shuzhe
    Sahlin, Kent
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Research group for Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Similar expression of oxidative genes after interval and continuous exercise.2009In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 41, no 12, p. 2136-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: There is a debate whether interval or traditional endurance training is the most effective stimulus of mitochondrial biogenesis. Here, we compared the effects of acute interval exercise (IE) or continuous exercise (CE) on the muscle messenger RNA (mRNA) content for several genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and lipid metabolism. METHODS: Nine sedentary subjects cycled for 90 min with two protocols: CE (at 67% VO2max) and IE (12 s at 120% and 18 s at 20% of VO2max). The duration of exercise and work performed with CE and IE was identical. Muscle biopsies were taken before and 3 h after exercise. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the two exercise protocols in the increases in VO2 and HR, the reduction in muscle glycogen (35%-40% with both protocols) or the changes in blood metabolites (lactate, glucose, and fatty acids). The mRNA content for major regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis [peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma coactivator 1alpha (PGC-1alpha), PGC-1-related coactivator, PPARbeta/delta] and of lipid metabolism [pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isozyme 4 (PDK4)] increased after exercise, but there was no significant difference between IE and CE. However, the mRNA content for several downstream targets of PGC-1alpha increased significantly only after CE, and mRNA content for nuclear respiratory factor 2 was significantly higher after CE (P < 0.025 vs IE). CONCLUSIONS: The present findings demonstrate that, when the duration of exercise and work performed is the same, IE and CE influence the transcription of genes involved in oxidative metabolism in a similar manner.

  • 3646.
    Wang, Li
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Research group for Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Sahlin, Kent
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Research group for Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    The effect of continuous and interval exercise on PGC-1α and PDK4 mRNA in type I and type II fibres of human skeletal muscle.2012In: Acta Physiologica, ISSN 1748-1708, E-ISSN 1748-1716, Vol. 204, no 4, p. 525-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: Differences in fibre-type recruitment during exercise may induce a heterogenic response in fibre-type gene expression. We have investigated the effect of two different exercise protocols on the fibre-type-specific expression of master genes involved in oxidative metabolism [proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) and Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4)].

    METHODS: Untrained subjects (n = 7) completed 90-min cycling either at a constant intensity [continuous exercise (CE): approximately 60% of VO(2max) ] or as interval exercise (IE: approximately 120/20% VO(2max) , duty cycle 12/18s). Muscle samples were taken before (pre) and 3 h after (post) exercise. Single fibres were isolated from freeze-dried muscle and characterized as type I or type II. The cDNA from two fibres of the same type was pooled and mRNA analysed with reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR.

    RESULTS: Continuous exercise and IE elicited a small increase in blood lactate (<2.5 mM) and moderate glycogen depletion (<40%) without difference between exercise modes. The mRNA of PGC-1α and PDK4 increased 5- to 8-fold in both fibre types after exercise, and the relative increase was negatively correlated with the basal level. However, the mRNA of PGC-1α and PDK4 was not different between type I and II fibres neither pre nor post, and there was no difference in the exercise-induced response between fibre types or exercise modes.

    CONCLUSION: We conclude that the mRNA of PGC-1α and PDK4 increases markedly in both fibre types after prolonged exercise without difference between CE and IE. The similar response between fibre types may relate to that subjects were sedentary and that the metabolic stress was low.

  • 3647.
    Wangler, Anna-Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Aj - Kliv av min fot!: - En studie angående hästrelaterade olyckor hos vuxna ridskoleryttare2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka förekomsten av olyckor hos vuxna ridskoleryttare. Frågeställningarna var: Hur stor har förekomsten av olyckor varit hos vuxna ridskoleryttare under de senaste 5 åren? Hur stor har förekomsten av olyckor varit i samband med hantering av häst i förhållande till olyckor relaterade till fall från häst?

    Vilka typer av skador är mest förekommande?

    Vilka typer av olyckor är beroende på ålder, kön och ridvana?Metod

    Studien genomfördes kvantitativt med enkäter som delades ut till vuxna på tre olika ridskolor i Stockholms län. 100 enkäter besvarades och kodades i Excel, dessa analyserades sedan med hjälp av statistikprogrammet SPSS.Resultat

    Resultatet i denna studie visar på att 68 % av ryttarna inte varit med om en olycka medan

    32 % varit med om en eller fler. 79 % av olyckorna inträffar då ryttaren ramlar av och de skador som är vanligast är hjärnskakning och mindre frakturer på revben och fingrar. Endast 21 % av olyckorna som skett var då ryttaren hanterat hästen. De flesta skador som uppkommer vid dessa tillfällen är sårskador då de blivit bitna av hästen samt frakturer och knäskador då ryttaren blivit sparkad. Påverkansfaktorer gällande förekomsten av olyckor var framförallt vilken ridvana ryttaren hade, ju längre denna ridit desto större risk. Även lektionens innehåll spelade roll, där hoppning och ridning i naturen visade sig inneha den största olycksfrekvensen.Slutsats

    Förekomsten av olyckor i denna studie visade sig bero framförallt av hur länge ryttaren ridit på ridskola. Ridvana visade sig vara statistiskt signifikant även då man tagit hänsyn till andra störningsfaktorer. Ju längre ryttaren ridit desto större olycksrisk, sannolikt beror detta antagligen på svårare moment i ridningen. Även om skador sker i stallet så är det betydligt större risk att råka ut för en olycka vid ridning och då framförallt vid hoppning eller ridning i skogen.

  • 3648.
    Wareborn, Oscar
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Varför och vilka bollspel i skolan?2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Drygt en tredjedel av idrottslektionerna innehåller någon form av boll, enligt statistiken. Så behöver det inte vara på alla skolor men den generella statistiken säger det. Skolan som studien gjordes på är en av många skolor som har mycket bollspel på idrottsundervisningen. Syftet med den här undersökningen är att undersöka varför man använder bollspel till så stor del av idrottsundervisningen.

    • Vad lär sig eleverna av bollspel?
    • Vilka bollspel används mest under idrottsundervisningen?
    • Vilka bollspel används minst under idrottsundervisningen?
    • Vilka för- och nackdelar finns det med bollspel?

    Metod

    Det här är en kvalitativ undersökningsstudie med intervjuer som hjälp. Detta för att få så djupgående svar som möjligt. Intervjupersonerna valdes genom ett bekvämlighetsurval och bestod av två idrottslärare och fyra elever.

    Resultat

    Under skolans idrottslektioner använder man sig av flera olika bollspel på grund av att få elever att lära sig komplexa rörelser så som springa, kasta, fånga och hoppa. Det visar sig även vara bra för det sociala samspelet mellan olika individer. Elevernas samarbetsförmåga provas samt deras sida av att visa respekt för lagkamrater och motståndare. Det tas även upp vilka bollspel som används mest och minst.

    Slutsats

    Bollspel har länge varit en central del i idrottsundervisningen och kommer säkerligen vara länge framöver. De traditionella bollspelen som fotboll, handboll, basket och innebandy är fortfarande stora och står stadigt som de viktigaste bollspelen att lära ut till eleverna medan tennis och de mer kulturella spelen som lacrosse och softball inte alls slagit i genom i undervisningen. Dels för att intresset inte finns för dem men också för att flera olika ramfaktorer spelar in.

  • 3649.
    Wasserman, Anders
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, For Sports Coaches (Tränarlänken).
    Hur blir vi mer specifika?: En träningsplanering för ungdomsfotboll med speciell inriktning mot agility2011Student paper otherStudent thesis
  • 3650.
    Wasserman, Anders
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, For Sports Coaches (Tränarlänken).
    Krav- och Kapacitetsprofil Fotboll: Elitungdomsfotboll: Nationell vs. Internationell2011Student paper other, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
70717273747576 3601 - 3650 of 3855
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