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  • 3551.
    Waddington, Carl
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Turunen, Antti
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Meningsfullhet - vägen till elevnärvaro?: En fallstudie om sambandet mellan närvaro och känsla av sammanhang (KASAM)2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudent thesis
  • 3552.
    Waggott, Daryl
    et al.
    Stanford University.
    Mattsson, C. Mikael
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Wheeler, Matthew
    Stanford University.
    Ashley, Euan A.
    Stanford University.
    The Genomics of Extreme Athletes. The ELITE Study (Exercise at the Limit - Inherited Traits of Endurance).2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Health exists as a spectrum from disease to some outlier physiological optimum. To date most molecular genetic research has focused on disease states and less on extreme health populations. We hypothesize that interrogating outlier elite endurance athletes, with strict physiological eligibility criteria, will inform cardiovascular research through the identification of complementary pathways and therapeutic targets. Eligibility criteria for the ELITE study required a lifetime VO2max, which measures maximal oxygen consumption during peak aerobic exercise, at a threshold estimated to be attainable in less than 1 in 50,000 people (men  80ml/kg/min; women 65ml/kg/min). VO2max is reported to have substantial genetic influence (h2~0.5) and is correlated with endurance sport performance along with work efficiency. Several well documented cases of athletic outliers have been tied to rare genetic variants including the Finnish cross country skier Mäntyranta (EPOR) and  Priscilla Lopes-Schliep (LMNA). In the later, the same domain of the LMNA gene is related to rare forms of muscular dystrophy. Additionally, adaptive hypoxia variations have been identified in high altitude populations in Tibet (EPAS1), Andes and Ethiopia. To date we have sequenced 268 ELITE participants using clinically enhanced exomes and run 550 samples on high density multi-ethnic SNP chips. Preliminary analysis has focused on a combination of rare variant curation and common variation association. Rare variation curation included prioritization of LOF variants within candidate genes related to oxygen transport, muscle physiology and metabolism (i.e. PPARA, PPARGC1A, RYR2, ACTN3) and global gene screening using in silico weighted burden testing. Common variant association (the largest GWAS of its kind) has been used to support rare variant findings and identify non-coding and structural variant association signals. We believe that our methodology of combining rare LOF variants with common variation association in a population with extreme endurance physiology will systematically identify pleiotropic genes with both protective and pathogenic features similar to PCSK9.

  • 3553. Wagstaff, Christopher R. D.
    et al.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Thelwell, Richard C.
    The use of acceptance and commitment therapy for stress management interventions in football2019In: Football Psychology: From Theory to Practice / [ed] Erkut Konter, Jürgen Beckmann, Todd M. Loughead, London: Routledge, 2019, p. 198-211Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Stressors have been reported to occur in a wide variety of competitive sports, including football, with numerous positive and negative outcomes. Nevertheless, what is apparent in elite sport is that the demands faced by individuals often require intervention to optimize well-being and performance. The aim of this chapter is to focus on elite-level players’ experiences of stress and describe these within the theoretical framework of acceptance commitment therapy (ACT). A brief hypothetical case is presented to showcase some typical performance issues related to stress in a young emerging player at the age of 18 years. This is followed by a brief overview of stress in competitive sport in general and more specifically in football. Subsequently, the theoretical model of ACT is described together with some specific applied interventions aiming to enhance performance and well-being.

  • 3554.
    Wahlgren, Lina
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Ett hälsosamt bortfall?: En studie av bortfallsgruppens skäl till att avstå från hälsotest2003Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte

    Studiens övergripande syfte var att undersöka vilka skäl som finns till att avstå från hälsotester genomförda inom företagshälsovård. För att synliggöra och öka förståelsen för dessa skäl, var studiens delsyften att undersöka bortfallsgruppens inställning till hälsotesteroch hälsosatsningar, där hälsotester ingår som en del.

    Metod

    Genom kontakt med Liv&Lust AB och Preem Petroleum AB gavs möjlighet attgenomföra en studie av bortfallsgruppen, dvs. de individer som arbetar på Preem, Huvudkontoret på Gärdet i Stockholm, och som avstått från att, på frivillig basis, deltaga i Liv&Lust Första Hälsoplantest under 2002-2003. En kvalitativ intervju genomfördes med nio personer ur bortfallsgruppen under våren 2003 på Preem:s huvudkontor. Intervjuerna var halvstrukturerade och deras längd varierade mellan cirka 35 till cirka 60 minuter.  Resultaten kategoriserades först efter meningsbärande utsagor och analyserades därefter utifrån Antonovskys KASAM-modell innehållande de tre komponenterna: meningsfullhet, begriplighet och hanterbarhet.

    Resultat

    En vanlig orsak som uppgavs som skäl till att avstå från Hälsoplantest var tidsbristpga. arbetsbelastning. Diffusa negativa känslor uttalades i samband med skälen och ibland även en osäkerhetskänsla inför företagets roll i sammanhanget. Uttryck gavs för en medvetenhet kring den egna kroppsstatusen, både positiv och negativ. Ett Hälsoplantest ansågs därmed innebära en onödig bekräftelse. Då den egna kroppsstatusen beskrevs som mindre positiv sammankopplades testet med ett negativt tillrättavisade budskap. Åsikten att man klarade sig själv, utan hälsotester, framfördes och kunde även den kopplas till medvetenheten kring den egna kroppsstatusen. Inställningen till Hälsoplantest och Preem:s beslut att genomföra dessa var positiv trots att man själv avstått från att deltaga. Inom samtliga kategorier saknades den motivationsskapande KASAM-komponenten meningsfullhet.

    Slutsats

    När bortfallsgruppen beskrev den egna kroppsstatusen i mindre positiva termerförknippades  hälsoplantestet med en negativ bekräftelse och ett negativt tillrättavisande budskap, vilka tolkades som styrande faktorer bakom skälet till att avstå. 

  • 3555.
    Wahlgren, Lina
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Från träning för kondition till fysisk aktivitet för hälsa: Om synen på rekommendationer för allmänheten över tid2009In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 45-49Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 3556.
    Wahlgren, Lina
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Färdvägsmiljöer vid cykling till och från arbetet2012In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 38-39Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 3557.
    Wahlgren, Lina
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Studies on bikeability in a metropolitan area using the active commuting route environment scale (ACRES)2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES) was developed to study active commuters’ perceptions of their route environments. The overall aims were to assess the measuring properties of the ACRES and study active bicycle commuters’ perceptions of their commuting route environments.

    Methods: Advertisement- and street-recruited bicycle commuters from Greater Stockholm, Sweden, responded to the ACRES. Expected differences between inner urban and suburban route environments were used to assess criterion-related validity, together with ratings from an assembled expert panel as well as existing objective measures. Reliability was assessed as test-retest reproducibility. Comparisons of ratings between advertisement- and street-recruited participants were used for assessments of representativity. Ratings of inner urban and suburban route environments were used to evaluate commuting route environment profiles. Simultaneous multiple linear regression analyses were used to assess the relation between the outcome variable: whether the route environment hinders or stimulates bicycle-commuting and environmental predictors, such as levels of exhaust fumes, speeds of traffic and greenery, in inner urban areas.

    Results: The ACRES was characterized by considerable criterion-related validity and reasonable test-retest reproducibility. There was a good correspondence between the advertisement- and street-recruited participants’ ratings. Distinct differences in commuting route environment profiles between the inner urban and suburban areas were noted. Suburban route environments were rated as safer and more stimulating for bicycle-commuting. Beautiful, green and safe route environments seem to be, independently of each other, stimulating factors for bicycle-commuting in inner urban areas. On the other hand, high levels of exhaust fumes and traffic congestion, as well as low ‘directness’ of the route, seem to be hindering factors.

    Conclusions: The ACRES is useful for assessing bicyclists’ perceptions of their route environments. A number of environmental factors related to the route appear to be stimulating or hindering for bicycle commuting. The overall results demonstrate a complex research area at the beginning of exploration.

  • 3558.
    Wahlgren, Lina
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Upplevelser av färdvägsmiljöer vid arbetspendling med cykel2013In: Idrottsforum.org, ISSN 1652–7224, Vol. 11 decArticle in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hösten 2011 disputerade jag i ämnet idrott vid Örebro universitet. Den största delen av arbetet med avhandlingen ägde dock rum vid Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan (GIH) i Stockholm. Min avhandling heter Studies on Bikeability in a Metropolitan Area Using the Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES). Syftet med denna text är att på svenska ge en sammanfattning av de tre arbeten som avhandlingen innehåller.

  • 3559.
    Wahlgren, Lina
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Bikeability and methodological issues using the active commuting route environment scale (ACRES) in a metropolitan setting2011In: BMC Medical Research Methodology, ISSN 1471-2288, E-ISSN 1471-2288, Vol. 11, no 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Route environments can positively influence people’s active commuting and thereby contribute to public health. The Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES) was developed to study active commuters’ perceptions of their route environments. However, bicycle commuters represent a small portion of the population in many cities and thus are difficult to study using population-based material. Therefore, the aim of this study is to expand the state of knowledge concerning the criterion-related validity of the ACRES and the representativity using an advertisement-recruited sample. Furthermore, by comparing commuting route environment profiles of inner urban and suburban areas, we provide a novel basis for understanding the relationship between environment and bikeability.

    Methods Bicycle commuters from Greater Stockholm, Sweden, advertisement- (n = 1379) and street-recruited (n = 93), responded to the ACRES. Traffic planning and environmental experts from the Municipality of Stockholm (n = 24) responded to a modified version of the ACRES. The criterion-related validity assessments were based on whether or not differences between the inner urban and the suburban route environments, as indicated by the experts and by four existing objective measurements were reflected by differences in perceptions of these environments. Comparisons of ratings between advertisement- and street-recruited participants were used for the assessments of representativity. Finally, ratings of inner urban and suburban route environments were used to evaluate commuting route environment profiles.

    Results Differences in ratings of the inner urban and suburban route environments by the advertisement-recruited participants were in accord with the existing objective measurements and corresponded reasonably well with those of the experts. Overall, there was a reasonably good correspondence between the advertisement- and street-recruited participants’ ratings. Distinct differences in commuting route environment profiles were noted between the inner urban and suburban areas. Suburban route environments were rated as safer and more stimulating for bicycle-commuting than the inner urban ones. In general, the findings applied to both men and women.

    Conclusions The overall results show: considerable criterion-related validity of the ACRES; ratings of advertisement-recruited participants mirroring those of street-recruited participants; and a higher degree of bikeability in the suburban commuting route environments than in the inner urban ones.

  • 3560.
    Wahlgren, Lina
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Exploring bikeability in a metropolitan setting: stimulating and hindering factors in commuting route environments2012In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 12, no 168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Route environments may influence people’s active commuting positively and thereby contribute to public health. Assessments of route environments are, however, needed in order to better understand the possible relationship between active commuting and the route environment. The aim of this study was, therefore, to assess the potential associations between perceptions of whether the route environment on the whole hinders or stimulates bicycle commuting and perceptions of environmental factors.

    Methods

    The Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES) was used for the assessment of bicycle commuters’ perceptions of their route environments in the inner urban parts of Greater Stockholm, Sweden. Bicycle commuters (n = 827) were recruited by advertisements in newspapers. Simultaneous multiple regression analyses were used to assess the relation between predictor variables (such as levels of exhaust fumes, noise, traffic speed, traffic congestion and greenery) and the outcome variable (hindering – stimulating route environments). Two models were run, (Model 1) without and (Model 2) with the item traffic: unsafe or safe included as a predictor.

    Results

    Overall, about 40% of the variance of hindering – stimulating route environments was explained by the environmental predictors in our models (Model 1, = 0.415, and Model 2, = 0.435). The regression equation for Model 1 was: y = 8.53 + 0.33 ugly or beautiful + 0.14 greenery + (−0.14) course of the route + (−0.13) exhaust fumes + (−0.09) congestion: all types of vehicles (p ≤ 0.019). The regression equation for Model 2 was y = 6.55 + 0.31 ugly or beautiful + 0.16 traffic: unsafe or safe + (−0.13) exhaust fumes + 0.12 greenery + (−0.12) course of the route (p ≤ 0.001).

    Conclusions

    The main results indicate that beautiful, green and safe route environments seem to be, independently of each other, stimulating factors for bicycle commuting in inner urban areas. On the other hand, exhaust fumes, traffic congestion and low ‘directness’ of the route seem to be hindering factors. Furthermore, the overall results illustrate the complexity of a research area at the beginning of exploration.

  • 3561.
    Wahlgren, Lina
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Exploring Bikeability in a Suburban Metropolitan Area Using the Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES)2014In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 11, no 8, p. 8276-8300Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Aim: Commuting by bicycle could contribute to public health, and route environments may influence this behaviour. Therefore, the aim of this study is to assess the potential associations between appraisals of the overall route environment as hindering or stimulating for bicycle commuting, with both perceptions of commuting route environmental factors in a suburban area and background factors. Methods: The Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES) was used for the assessment of bicycle commuters’ perceptions and appraisals of their route environments in the suburban parts of Greater Stockholm, Sweden. A simultaneous multiple regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between the outcome variable whether the overall route environment hinders or stimulates bicycle commuting and environmental factors (e.g., exhaust fumes, speeds of motor vehicles, greenery), as well as background factors (sex, age, education, income) as predictor variables. Results and Conclusions: The results indicate that in suburban areas, the factors aesthetics, greenery and bicycle paths seem to be, independently of each other, stimulating factors for bicycle commuting. On the other hand, flows of motor vehicles, noise, and low “directness” of the route seem to be hindering factors. A comparison of these results with those obtained from an inner urban area points to the importance of studying different types of built-up areas separately.

  • 3562.
    Wahlgren, Lina
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Grönska och skönhet ökar cyklisters upplevelse av trygghet i trafikmiljön2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund

    Regelbunden fysisk aktivitet har positiva hälsoeffekter, och många vill vara fysiskt aktiva, men uppfattar olika hinder för det. Aktiv arbetspendling är en intressant möjlighet i detta sammanhang, då den är tidseffektiv, och avstånden mellan bostad och arbete ofta är lämpliga. Därför är det mycket angeläget att färdvägsmiljöer underlättar cykling, och studier av dem är viktiga för att förstå hur olika miljöfaktorer verkar. Upplevelser av otrygghet i trafikmiljön hindrar cykling. Syftet med denna studie var därför att mäta sambandet mellan upplevelser av trafikmiljön som otrygg eller trygg för cykelpendling, och upplevelser av olika miljöfaktorer i samma färdvägsmiljöer.

    Metod

    797 arbetspendlande cyklister (47 ± 11 år, 40 % män) rekryterades via annonser, och data från deras upplevelser av sina självvalda färdvägsmiljöer i Stor-Stockholms innerstad har nyttjats. För att mäta det användes The Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES), som har utvecklats vid GIH. ACRES innehåller utfallsvariabeln ”otrygga eller trygga trafikmiljöer” och ett antal miljöprediktorer, såsom avgaser, hastigheter hos motorfordon, trängsel bland cyklister, grönska och antal rödljus. ACRES har visat god kriterierelaterad validitet och rimlig reproducerbarhet. För att analysera sambanden mellan utfallsvariabeln otrygg eller trygg trafikmiljö och olika miljöprediktorer samt bakgrundsfaktorerna kön, ålder, utbildnings- och inkomstnivå, användes regressionsanalyser. I utfallsvariabeln otrygg eller trygg trafikmiljö (y) står skattningen 1 för mycket otrygg och 15 för mycket trygg. Miljövariablerna (x) skattades på motsvarande sätt med 15-gradiga skalor, utom variabeln ”andel cykelbana/cykelfält/cykelväg”, som har en 11-gradig skala.

    Resultat

    Resultaten visar att cirka 40 procent av skillnaden hos utfallsvariabeln otrygg eller trygg trafikmiljö (y) förklaras av de olika prediktorerna (x). Regressionsekvationen var: y = 12,05 - (0,25 x trängsel i blandtrafik) - (0,18 x färdvägens dragning) + (0,14 x grönska) - (0,14 x hastigheter hos motorfordon) - (0,13 x konflikter) + (0,11 x andel cykelbana/cykelfält/cykelväg) + (0,10 x fulhet eller skönhet) + (0,07 x backighet)(alla p-värden ≤ 0,017).

    Slutsatser

    Oberoende av varandra verkar således gröna och vackra färdvägsmiljöer med en hög andel cykelbanor/cykelfält/cykelvägar vara faktorer som påverkar tryggheten i trafiken positivt för cykelpendlare i innerstadsmiljöer. Även backighet verkar ha en positiv verkan på trygghetsupplevelsen, vilket är något förvånande och behöver studeras vidare. Å andra sidan verkar trängsel i blandtrafik, högre hastigheter hos motorfordon, konflikter mellan trafikanter och färdvägar som kräver många riktningsändringar vara faktorer som ökar känslan av otrygghet. Studier som denna utgör ett underlag för arbetet med att skapa goda färdvägsmiljöer för cyklister.

  • 3563.
    Wahlgren, Lina
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Stigell, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES) : Validity and Reliability2010In: Proceedings from The 3rd International Congress on Physical Activity and Public Health, Toronto, May, 5-8, 2010, 2010, p. 38-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 3564.
    Wahlgren, Lina
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Stigell, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    The Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES): Development and Evaluation2010In: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, Vol. 7, no 58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Route environments can be a potentially important factor in influencing people’s behaviours in relation to active commuting. To better understand these possiblerelationships, assessments of route environments are needed. We therefore developed a scale; the Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES), for the assessment of bicyclists’ and pedestrians’ perceptions of their commuting route environments. Here we will report on the development and the results of validity and reliability assessments thereof.

    Methods

    Active commuters (n = 54) were recruited when they bicycled in Stockholm, Sweden. Traffic planning and environmental experts from the Municipality of Stockholm were assembled to form an expert panel (n = 24). The active commuters responded to the scale on two occasions, and the expert panel responded to it once. To test criterion-related validity, differences in ratings of the inner urban and suburban environments of Greater Stockholm were compared between the experts and the commuters. Furthermore, four items were compared with existing objective measures. Test-retest reproducibility was assessed with three types of analysis: order effect, typical error and intraclass correlation.

    Results

    There was a concordance in sizes and directions of differences in ratings of inner urban and suburban environments between the experts and the commuters. Furthermore, both groups’ ratings were in line with existing objectively measured differences between the two environmental settings. Order effects between test and retest were observed in 6 of 36 items. The typical errors ranged from 0.93 to 2.54, and the intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from ‘moderate’ (0.42) to ‘almost perfect’ (0.87).

    Conclusions

    The ACRES was characterized by considerable criterion-related validity and reasonable test-retest reproducibility.

  • 3565.
    Wahlgren, Lina
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Wedman, Ingemar
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Fysisk aktivitet som orsak till, vid behandling av, eller för att förebygga artros2005In: SVEBI:s Årsbok 2005, ISSN 0284-4672, p. s 203-218Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 3566.
    Wahlgren, Lina
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Wedman, Ingemar
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Förändring mot ökad knäkontroll2005In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 49-53Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 3567.
    Wahlgren, Lina
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Wedman, Ingemar
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Va´ då en fyra på vardagsmotion?2007In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 41-44Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 3568.
    Wahlström, Emma
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Kroppsideal i Idrott och hälsa: En studie om kvinnors och mäns kroppar i läroböcker i skolämnet Idrott och hälsa.2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The purpose of the study is to examine health and body ideals presented in five teaching materials in physical education addressed to junior high and high school and study if the ideals differ between the sexes.

    • Which body ideals are found in textbooks?
    • Which healthy body ideals and unhealthy bodies are presented in textbooks?
    • Do the ideals differ depending on gender?

    Method

    Five textbooks in physical education addressed to junior high and high school has been used to analyze the presence of body and health ideals. Text and picture analysis has been used to study the material and through a variant of content analysis, the material has been studied and analyzed. The texts and images that have been associated with body and health ideals have been divided into six categories. The categories were a healthy feminine body, unhealthy feminine body, healthy masculine body, unhealthy masculine body, healthy body of  indeterminate sex and unhealthy body indeterminate sex. After a compilation of all the pictures and sections of texts a contexture have been done that shows mutual patterns in the textbooks of the health and body ideals between the sexes and also patterns for each gender.

    Results

    The study shows that women's ideal healthy body is portrayed in the pictures as skinny, fit and young. The unhealthy female body is portrayed as sick, injured, very thin and inactive. The ideal male healthy body is toned, more muscular than the female body and young. The unhealthy body for the man is presented as a body that is overweight and inactive. The common features for both the men's and women's bodies are that a healthy ideal body is physically fit and active body and an unhealthy body is inactive and a body who uses tobacco and drugs.

    Conclusions

    By excluding images of various bodies such as bodies with different skin colour than white, transgendered people, bodies that are wider over thigh/ hip and disabled bodies is a one-sided picture of the ideal healthy and unhealthy body presented in the analysed textbooks, where health and body ideals differ between the sexes.

  • 3569.
    Walker, Imogen J
    et al.
    Trinity Laban Conservatoire of Music and Dance.
    Nordin-Bates, Sanna M
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Redding, Emma
    Trinity Laban Conservatoire of Music and Dance.
    A mixed methods investigation of dropout in young dancers: Findings from the UK Centres for Advanced Training2012In: Journal of Dance Medicine and Science, ISSN 1089-313X, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 65-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to understand reasons for dropout from a dance-talent program in the UK, using a mixed methods design. In-depth interviews were conducted with ten dropout students to explore the influencing factors in their decision to leave the program. In order to triangulate  these findings, reasons for dropout were then examined from descriptive records of 147 young dancers who had withdrawn from the talent program over a four-year period. Overall, the most frequently cited reasons for dropping out were conflicting demands, change in aspirations, course content,  difficulty making friends, and lost passion. Injury, financial factors, low perceived competence, and teacher behavior emerged as minor reasons. Intervention strategies that focus on changes in course content may be the easiest to implement and most effective means to enhance student retention.

  • 3570.
    Walker, Imogen J
    et al.
    Trinity Laban Conservatoire for Music and Dance.
    Redding, Emma
    Trinity Laban Conservatoire for Music and Dance.
    Nordin-Bates, Sanna M
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    The development of young talented dancers: an interdisciplinary perspective2012In: DANCING TIMES, ISSN 0011-605X, Vol. 102, no 1220, p. 21-24Article, review/survey (Other academic)
  • 3571.
    Wall, Simon
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    "Killarna gör och tjejerna kan i alla fall försöka": en studie om lärande, betyg och bedömning i idrott och hälsa2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The study aims to examine the learning that takes place in lessons in physical education and health, and how the teacher makes its assessment, from a gender perspective.

    • How do students and teachers look at learning, grading and assessment in physical education?
    • How do students and teachers look at gender in physical education?

     

    Method

    Interview was used as the method for answering the questions. Three teachers, two men and one woman, who teach physical education, were interviewed individually. Eight students, four girls and four boys, were interviewed in group interviews. There were two group interviews, with two girls and two boys in each. The interviews were semi-structured and questions were based on an interview guide.

     

    Results

    The interviews revealed that the focus of education is on the physical part of the subject and the knowledge sector Movement. The students told the teacher primarily assesses that it is with the lesson and do their best. The teachers told me that they primarily assess students' physical and motor skills. Students and two of the teachers told me that girls take up less space in teaching. This happens especially in ball games, which was the most common activity during lessons in physical education. The girls told me that they feel that teachers underestimate their abilities and do not set equally high standards for them as the boys.

     

    Conclusions

    The theory part of physical education is given very little space. When the teacher makes assessment the physical part weigh heavily and it seems to favor boys. Both teachers and students perceive that the individual feedback from teacher to student is not often enough. The assessment can be said to be summative. Teaching seems to favor boys and girls pull away. It is tragic that there are students who feel that teachers expect less of them, simply because of their gender.

  • 3572.
    Wall, Simon
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Vad gör eleverna på lektionerna i idrott och hälsa?: en observationsstudie om lektionsinnehåll och fysisk aktivitet i idrott och hälsa2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka elevers fysiska aktivitet under lektioner i idrott och hälsa samt att se vad lektionstiden används till. Ytterligare ett syfte är att studera sambandet mellan lektionsinnehållet och den fysiska aktiviteten.

    • Hur är lektionstiden fördelad på olika kategorier av lektionsinnehåll?
    • Hur stor del av lektionstiden för idrott och hälsa är eleverna måttligt till kraftigt fysiskt aktiva?
    • Vilket lektionsinnehåll ger mest respektive minst fysisk aktivitet?

    Metod

    Metoden som användes var systematisk observation. Ett observationsprotokoll utformades och användes vid observationstillfällena. En årskurs 6-9 skola valdes för genomförande av observationen. Åtta lektioner i idrott och hälsa observerades. Elevernas fysiska aktivitet och lektionsinnehåll observerades och data fördes in i observationsprotokollet.

    Resultat

    Resultatet visar att motoriskt innehåll var det lektionsinnehåll som upptog mest lektionstid. Av det motoriska innehållet var spel den kategori som var vanligast, kunskapsinnehåll var minst vanligt. Eleverna var måttligt till kraftigt fysiskt aktiva 43 procent av lektionstiden. Det lektionsinnehåll som gav mest måttlig till kraftig fysisk aktivitet var kategorin fysisk träning. Av det motoriska innehållet var spel den kategori som minst effektivt gav eleverna fysisk aktivitet.

    Slutsats

    Att motoriskt innehåll förekommer mest i undervisningen stämmer överens med Skolinspektionens senaste rapport som visar att kunskapsområdet rörelse prioriteras. Bollspel, som ingår i kategorin spel, har varit dominerande i undervisningen i idrott och hälsa sedan lång tid tillbaka och är det än idag, enligt flera olika undersökningar. Kategorin kunskapsinnehåll tillägnas en väldigt liten del av lektionstiden, detta trots att idrott och hälsa är ett kunskapsämne. Den observerade fysiska aktiviteten är högt i jämförelse med tidigare forskning. Det är bra att eleverna får möjlighet att röra på sig så mycket som möjligt i undervisningen, så länge undervisningen bedrivs i enlighet med kursplanen. Kategorierna fysisk träning och färdighetsträning är att föredra, framför spel, om målet är att få eleverna att vara fysiskt aktiva.

  • 3573.
    Wallberg, Linnea
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Mattsson, C. Mikael
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Enqvist, Jonas K.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Plasma IL-6 concentration during ultra-endurance exercise2011In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 111, no 6, p. 1081-1088Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interleukin 6 (IL-6) response was studied during two ultra endurance events – one laboratory 24 h protocol (9 men) with exercise intensity set to 60 % of VO2max and one Adventure Race over 6 days (12 men/6 women) with a self-selected race pace, including rests, of about 38 % of VO2max. In the 24 h protocol IL-6 level was elevated from 0.76 ± 0.48 pg mL-1 at rest to 7.16 ± 2.70 pg mL-1 at 6 h, and increased further to 10.58 ± 1.04 pg mL-1 at 12 h, but remained thereafter unchanged at 24 h, (10.89±0.36 pg mL-1). All participants had nearly identical values at 12 and 24 h, supporting intensity as main determinant in the IL-6 response since exercise duration did not increase IL-6 level after 12 h. Possible confounding factors do not seem to influence the IL-6 concentration during the longer races (>12h), but might very well do so during shorter exercise bouts. In the 6-day race IL-6 increased from rest to 24 h, but thereafter there was no change in plasma IL-6 value until the end of the race (140 h). There was no elevation of TNF-α in any of the protocols, suggesting that the competitors were free from systemic inflammation. During endurance exercise lasting >12 h intensity and not duration is the main determinant of the IL-6 response, while during shorter exercise bouts both intensity and duration contribute to the accumulation of IL-6 in plasma.

  • 3574.
    Wallbing Engström, Carolina
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Nyström, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Hur går det egentligen till?: Lärares syn på inkluderande undervisning i idrott och hälsa.2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of this study was to investigate teachers views of inclusive education physical education and if the notion of inclusion was similar or different. 

    • How do teachers work with inclusive teaching in physical education?
    • What opportunities and challenges are characteristic for an inclusive education within sports and health science?
    • What past experiences are associated with inclusive education in sports and health teaching?

    Method

    This study had a qualitative approach, and used interviews as data collection method. Five teachers in sport- and health sience from three schools in Stockholm participated in the study. The selection is based on a ”snowball”- and convenience sampling. The study was based on a socio-cultural perspective and refers to Lev Vygotsky's theoretical thinking about learning and development. 

    Results

    The teachers in this study had a relatively similar view of inclusion. According to them the students and their needs should be in focus. The communication between the students and the teachers had a central importance for a successful inclusion. In the different types of schools the teachers in physical education had a coherent view of the possibilities and difficulties that occured in the process of inclusion. The contact with the students, to have a positive attitude to disability and to have common goals within the class in physical education, were some of the factors that created possibilities according to the teachers. The results also show that the teachers believe that there are some difficulties associated to inclusion. A poor communication with the students, that the instances around the pupils had difficulties to cooperate and that their approach to inclusion were inadequate. It was also mentioned that the economic aspect were an additional problem, and that the teachers carried a feeling of insufficiency.

     

    Conclusions

    The teachers in this study felt that the students and their needs had to be in focus and communication between the student and the teacher had a central importance for a successful inclusion. The teachers highlights communication several times in different contexts, and the results showed that the interaction between teachers and teachers were just as important as the communication between student and teacher.    Some differences emerged in the results of the perception of inclusion. The results show that teachers different experiences of children and young people with disabilities had impact on how attitudes towards inclusion was. According to the results was the work of inclusion needs-led and school forms priority work different. Finally, we see that the idea of ​​inclusion was relatively similar between teachers.

  • 3575.
    Wallbing Engström, Carolina
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Nyström, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Hälsa – vad är det?: En studie om elevers syn på hälsa i olika socioekonomiska klasser2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka högstadieelevers syn på hälsa och om denna uppfattning skiljer sig mellan socioekonomiska klasser.

    • Vilken betydelse har fysisk och psykisk hälsa enligt eleverna i de olika skolorna samt vilka faktorer påverkar elevernas välbefinnande enligt dem själva?
    • Vilka likheter och skillnader finns mellan socioekonomiska faktorer och elevers syn på hälsa?
    • Hur ser föräldrarnas och barnens aktivitetsnivå ut i olika socioekonomiska klasser?
    • På vilket sätt arbetar skolorna med hälsa utifrån ett lärarperspektiv och skiljer det sig mot elevernas uppfattning?

    Metod

    Metoden som studien bygger på är en kvantitativ enkätundersökning samt kvalitativa intervjuer med två idrottslärare. De namn skolorna har i studien är fingerade. Etternässlaskolan är placerad i norra Stockholm i en kommun med låg socioekonomisk status medan Kungsljusskolan är placerad centralt i östra Stockholm, i en kommun med hög socioekonomisk status. Det var 414 elever i årskurs 7-9 som svarade på enkäten och 407 svar var fullständiga.

    Resultat

    Resultaten visar att elevernas syn på fysisk hälsa fokuserar på kroppens rörelser och att vara frisk – på utsidan. Den psykiska hälsan innefattar hjärnans tankar och hur kroppen mår – på insidan. Trots skillnader i de socioekonomiska faktorerna är synen på hälsa likstämmig på båda skolorna. Resultatet visar att hög socioekonomisk status och aktiva föräldrar ledde till aktiva elever. Lärarnas arbete med hälsa ser likvärdigt ut skolorna emellan. En del elever var osäkra på hur och om hälsoundervisning bedrevs, men det övergripande resultatet visade på samstämmighet med vad lärarna förmedlade.

    Slutsats

    Studiens slutsats belyser främst att socioekonomisk status i samband med föräldrarnas aktivitetsnivå har betydelse för elevernas inställning till fysisk aktivitet. Oavsett om eleverna gick på Kungsljusskolan som låg i ett område med hög socioekonomisk status eller i Etternässlaskolan som låg i ett område med lägre socioekonomisk status var uppfattningen om hälsa likvärdig.

  • 3576.
    Wallerstein, Fanny
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Brattwall, Melina
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Lika grund men ändå så olika!: En kvalitativ studie om lärare i idrott och hälsas tolkning och bedömning utifrån kunskapskraven för takt och rytm.2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The purpose of the study was to examine how newly graduated physical education teachers are working with the demands of knowledge concerning pace, rhythm and how they appraise students in year 6 on the basis of these;

    • How do teachers judge students on the basis of the value words ”quite well”, ”relatively well” and ”well” within the demands of knowledge for pace and rhythm in Lgr 11?
    • How do the teachers define the concepts of pace and rhythm?
    • Which resources do the teachers think are of importance when judging on the basis of the demands of knowledge for pace and rhythm.

    Method: A film was produced where the knowledge and skill of two students concerning pace and rhythm, were in focus. Newly graduated physical education teachers then got to study the movie and judge the students from the value words ”ok”, ”relatively well” and ”well” within the demands of knowledge for pace and rhythm in Lgr 11? After that, interviews were carried out with all the participating teachers, in order to get an insight to how they used the value words and how they work with appraising pace and rhythm and also how they reason about which resources can affect the education and the judgment.

    Results: The physical education teachers had different opinions on both the definition of the value words and in appraising the students. They had individual demands on what was required for each value word. This resulted in that the same student was given both the highest and the lowest value word on the basis of what the teachers had seen in the film. The teachers definitions of pace and rhythm was also interpreted differently. How they defined the concepts was also something correlated with how they had been reasoning in appraising the students. When it came to resources, the teachers mentioned mirrors, music equipment, dancing ward and props as valuable for the education of pace and rhythm. The teachers said that resources can aid but that it still is possible to teach pace and rhythm with simple means.

    Conclusion: Definition of concepts and interpretation concerning the value words in the knowledge demands was differentiated between the teachers. This could result in consequences when it comes to the intention of judging the students equally. Resources can aid the education of pace and rhythm but does not have to be a decisive consideration for the education of these abilities.

  • 3577.
    Wallerstein, Fanny
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Brattwall, Melina
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Skolmatslotteriet: En kvalitativ studie om leverantörernas del i skolmatens näringsriktighet2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med vår studie var att undersöka i vilken mån leverantörerna av skolmat i Lidingö kommun uppfyller de Svenska näringsrekommendationerna (SNR) som skollagen innefattar. Frågeställningar till näringsberäkningen: Hur ser energi- och näringsinnehållet i skolmat ut i förhållande till SNR? Finns skillnader, och i så fall vilka, i energi- och näringsinnehåll i förhållande till SNR? Frågeställningar till intervjuerna: Hur resonerar leverantörerna av skolmat kring vilka faktorer i planering och hantering som kan påverka näringsinnehållet i skolmaten? Finns skillnader, och i så fall vilka, i hur leverantörerna resonerar?

    Metod

    De metoder som använts i studien har varit kvalitativa intervjuer i kombination med en näringsberäkning. Intervjuerna har gjorts med de ansvariga för skolmatens planering och tillagning hos två leverantörer av skolmat i Lidingö kommun. Näringsberäkningen har gjorts utifrån recept som använts under en exempelvecka vardera som vi fått ta del av från leverantörerna. Som verktyg för att genomföra näringsberäkningen har ett kostdataprogram, Dietist XP, använts.

    Resultat

    Resultaten har varit att leverantörerna tillsammans får ett värde i näringsberäkningen som ligger nära SNR:s rekommendationer. Sett var för sig kan man se stora skillnader då ena leverantören ligger relativt nära riktlinjerna i samtliga avseenden medan den andra brister på fler punkter näringsmässigt. Vi har även sett skillnader i leverantörernas rutiner, avtal med kommunen, resurser samt personalnens kompetens. De faktorer som kan påverka näringsinnehållet i skolmaten enligt leverantörerna var bland annat olika tillagningsmetoder som kokning och stekning samt även långvarig varmhållning.

    Slutsats

    Den slutsats vi kan dra är att näringsberäkningar som är gjorde på ett korrekt sätt är en förutsättning för att kunna kvalitetssäkra skolmatens energi- och näringsinnehåll. Utbildning och kompetens är en betydande faktor i arbetet med skolmaten.

  • 3578.
    Wallin Forsell, Felicia
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Bok, Tove
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Kroppen är gjord för rörelse: en interventionsstudie om kunskapens betydelse för ökad fysisk aktivitet2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syfte

    Föreliggande studie syftar till att undersöka om kunskap om fysisk aktivitet och hälsa kan bidra till en ökad fysisk aktivitetsnivå och medvetenhet om eget rörelsemönster hos individer på en stillasittande arbetsplats.

    Metod

    En kvantitativ studie har genomförts på en arbetsplats med stillasittande arbete. Interventionen har bestått av workshops om hälsa och fysisk aktivitet. Studiedeltagarna slumpades till en interventionsgrupp som fick workshops och till en kontrollgrupp som fick tillgång till workshop-materialet efter studieperioden. Tjugo deltagare deltog i studien, tio i respektive grupp. Fysisk aktivitetsnivå mättes med stegräknare och en enkät med extrafrågor om fysisk aktivitet från GIH:s hälsoenkät. En utvärderingsenkät användes för att mäta upplevd medvetenhet kring rörelsemönster i interventionsgruppen.

    Resultat

    Interventionsgruppens medelvärde i antal steg ökade med 759 steg från baslinjemätningen till vecka fyra. Kontrollgruppens medelvärde i antal steg minskade med 455 steg från baslinjemätningen jämfört med vecka fyra. Resultaten visade att skillnaden mellan baslinjemätningen och sista veckan inte var signifikant varken i kontroll- eller interventionsgruppen. I utvärderingsenkäten svarade 90 % av deltagarna i interventionsgruppen att de blivit mer medvetna om eget rörelsemönster under interventionen och 70 % i interventionsgruppen svarade att de hade förändrat sitt rörelsemönster under interventionen.

    Slutsats

    Författarna anser att interventionen delvis uppfyllde sitt syfte och skulle kunna användas på arbetsplatser för att öka fysisk aktivitet hos de anställda. Studien visar på att förmedling av kunskap kan vara ett alternativt tillvägagångssätt för öka medvetenheten om sitt stillasittande beteende och rörelsemönster och därmed lättare kan förändra sina vanor utifrån sin egen livssituation. Interventioner på arbetsplatser kan spela en betydelsefull roll i det framtida hälsofrämjande arbetet.

  • 3579.
    Wallin, Frida
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Pokemon Go: Har applikationen Pokemon Go fått barn att röra på sig mer på sin fritid?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte

    Syftet med den här studien är att undersöka om spelet Pokemon Go kan få elever att röra på sig mer på sin fritid och på så sätt minska stillasittandet där ofta mobil/tv-spel och tv-tittande ingår. Kan ett mobilspel motivera barnen till en aktivare fritid? Hur kan skolan ta hjälp av den nya tekniken för att motivera elever till mer rörelse i skolan?

    • Hur många steg tar eleverna de dagar de inte letar efter Pokemons?
    •  Hur många steg tar eleverna de dagar de letar efter Pokemons?                
    • Sitter de mindre framför datorn/tv och spelar nu än innan de började spela Pokemon GO?

    Metod

    För att besvara syftet användas främst en kvantitativ metod dels genom enkätundersökning och stegräknare men även kvalitativa intervjuer har genomförts. I enkätundersökningen fick en lågstadieskola i årskurs 2-6 svara på ett antal frågor om Pokemon Go. 108 elever besvarade enkäten. Genom ett strategiskt urval valdes fem elever i årskurs 6 där deras stegräknare avlästes av varje dag under en månad för att få reda på antal steg de tog när de spelade applikationen och hur många steg det tog när de inte spelade.  

     

    Resultat

    De eleverna som fick sin stegräknare avläst rörde på sig mer de dagar de spelade applikationen. Eleverna fick sin stegräknare avläst i två månader. Två veckor valdes ut avlästes och i snitt gick de fem elever 12458 steg när de spelade Pokemon Go och 1587 steg de dagar som de inte spelade. Enkätundersöknigen visade att 72 av eleverna spelade och 36 elever spelade inte Pokemon Go. Motivationen var en viktig faktor visades sig under intervjuerna, de som spelande gjorde det för att det var roligt och de som inte spelade gjorde det för att de tyckte att det var tråkigt eller att de inte ägde en mobiltelefon.

     

    Slutsats

    Slutsatsen blev att så länge eleverna tyckte att de är roligt så var de ute och spelade. De spelade för att det var kul inte för att må bättre ur ett hälsoperspektiv. De flesta svarade att de satt mindre framför dator/Ipad sedan de började spela Pokemon Go. Barnen tog mer antal steg de dagar dem spelade Pokemon Go.

  • 3580.
    Wallin, Marcus
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Høgmo Utstøl, Gustav
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Ekologisk dynamik inom svensk elitfotboll: Ett paradigmskifte för taktisk träning2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte

    Studiens syfte är att undersöka hur svenska elittränare i fotboll tränar taktik med en analytisk utgångspunkt från ekologisk dynamik och den pedagogik/metodik den förespråkar (icke-linjär pedagogik och constraints-led approach).

    Frågeställningar

    • Arbetar tränarna enligt principerna inom icke-linjär pedagogik (rörelsevariation, representativ övningsdesign och perception-aktion)?
    • Vilka främjande och begränsande faktorer utifrån constraints-led approach tar tränarna hänsyn till samt påverkar medvetet?
    • Har tränarna i svensk elitfotboll kunskap om icke-linjär pedagogik, constraints-led approach och ekologisk dynamik?

    Metod

    Studien genomfördes med en kvalitativ metod där semistrukturerade intervjuer användes för att ta reda på hur tränarna genomförde taktisk träning och om det var i enlighet med ramverket ekologisk dynamiks nyckelprinciper. Deltagarna var fem manliga tränare från Allsvenskan som innehöll UEFA PRO. Två pilotintervjuer genomfördes. Innan intervjuerna informerades intervjupersonerna om de etiska huvudkraven och gav sitt samtycke. Datainsamling gjordes via transkribering och analyserades efteråt genom en tematisk innehållsanalys.

    Resultat

    Enligt intervjuunderlaget visar det sig att tränarna till stor grad arbetar med principerna inom icke-linjär pedagogik, däremot skiljer sig deras åsikter sig med hur de praktiserar. Trots att tränarna medvetet inte använder sig av constraints-led approach så säger resultatet att de använder de sig av olika främjande och begränsande faktorer i sin övningsdesign, främst uppgiftsfaktorer. Det framkom även andra faktorer som påverkar de beslut som spelarna fattar på plan såsom de individuella faktorerna. Ingen av deltagarna har någon djupare förståelse om icke-linjär pedagogik, constraints-led approach eller ekologisk dynamik.

    Slutsats

    De åsikter och argument som framfördes under studien var en kombination av praktisk erfarenhet på svensk elitnivå och utbildning som tränarna genomgått. Det går att argumentera för att icke-linjär pedagogik och constraints-led approach är ett relevant pedagogiskt ramverk för taktisk träning på svensk elitnivå.

  • 3581.
    Wallmann-Sperlich, Birgit
    et al.
    Institute of Sport Science, Julius-Maximilians University Würzburg, D-97082 Würzburg, Germany.
    Froboese, Ingo
    Institute of Health Promotion and Clinical Movement Science, German Sport University, D-50933 Cologne, Germany.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Physical Activity and the Perceived Neighbourhood Environment: Looking at the Association the Other Way Around2014In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 11, no 8, p. 8093-8111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     The associationbetween physical activity (PA) and variables of the perceived environmentmainly originate from cross-sectional studies that introduced the idea that theenvironment influences the PA level of residents. However, the direction ofcause and effect has not been solved with finality. The aim of this study wasto investigate whether residents’ perception of their proximate environmentdiffers depending on their level of PA in transport and recreation. Weconducted a cross-sectional survey with residents of six different parts of thecity of Cologne, Germany. The sample of 470 adults (52.8% females; mean age =35.5 ± 13.8 years) filled in the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ),as well as the European Environmental Questionnaire ALPHA. To distinguishbetween residents with ‘low’ and ‘high’ PA, we split the samples into two on the basisof the specific median in transport- and recreation-related PA. In the ‘high’ vs. ‘low’ PA group of the overall sample,we noted 4–16% more ‘PA favourable’ environmental perceptions in seven of the15 environmental variables. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to investigateassociations of socio-demographic correlates and transport- andrecreation-related PA on the dependent variables of the environmentalperception. In this case,levels of PA were significant predictors for eight of the 15 items concerningenvironmental perceptions. Thus, the present study introduces the idea that residents withhigher levels of transport and recreational PA may perceive their environmentin a more ‘PA-favourable’ way than residents with lower levels.

  • 3582.
    Wallman-Sperlich, Birgit
    et al.
    Institute of Health Promotion and Clinical Movement Science, German Sports University Cologne, Germany.
    Buksch, Jens
    WHO Collaborating Centre for Child and Adolescent Health Promotion, School of Public Health, Bielefeld University, Germany.
    Hansen, Sylvia
    Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, Maastricht University, The Netherlands.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Froboese, Ingo
    Institute of Health Promotion and Clinical Movement Science, German Sports University Cologne, Germany.
    Sitting Time in Germany: An Analysis of Socio-demographic and Environmental Correlates2013In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 196, no 13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Sedentary behaviour in general and sitting time in particular is an emerging global health concern. The aim of this study was to provide data on the prevalence of sitting time in German adults and to examine socio-demographic and environmental correlates of sitting time.

    Methods: A representative sample of German adjults (n = 2000; 967 men, 1033 women; 49.3 ±17.6 years of age) filled in the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire, including one question on overall sitting time and answered questions about the neighbourhood environment, as well as concerning demographics. Daily sitting time was stratified by gender, age group, BMI, educational and income level, as well as physical activity (PA). To identify socio-demographic and environmental correlates of sitting time, we used a series of linear regressions.

    Results: The overall median was 5 hours (299 minutes) of sitting time/day and men sat longer than women (5 vs. 4 hours/day; p < 0.05). In both genders age and PA were negatively and the educational level positively associated with sitting time. The level of income was not a correlate of sitting time in multivariate analyses. Sitting time was significantly positively associated with higher neighbourhood safety for women. The variance ranged from 16.5% for men to 8.9% for women.

    Conclusions: The overall sitting time was unequally distributed in the German adult population. Our findings suggest implementing specific interventions to reduce sitting time for subgroups such as men, younger aged adults and adults with a higher education and lower PA. Future studies should enhance our understanding of the specific correlates of different types and domains of sitting in order to guide the development of effective public health strategies.

     

     

  • 3583. Walsh, B
    et al.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Söderlund, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Hultman, E
    Saks, V
    Sahlin, Kent
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Research group for Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    The role of phosphorylcreatine and creatine in the regulation of mitochondrial respiration in human skeletal muscle.2001In: Journal of Physiology, ISSN 0022-3751, E-ISSN 1469-7793, Vol. 537, no Pt 3, p. 971-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. The role of phosphorylcreatine (PCr) and creatine (Cr) in the regulation of mitochondrial respiration was investigated in permeabilised fibre bundles prepared from human vastus lateralis muscle. 2. Fibre respiration was measured in the absence of ADP (V(0)) and after sequential additions of submaximal ADP (0.1 mM ADP, V(submax)), PCr (or Cr) and saturating [ADP] (V(max)). 3. V(submax) increased by 55 % after addition of saturating creatine (P < 0.01; n = 8) and half the maximal effect was obtained at 5 mM [Cr]. In contrast, V(submax) decreased by 54 % after addition of saturating phosphorylcreatine (P < 0.01; n = 8) and half the maximal effect was obtained at 1 mM [PCr]. V(max) was not affected by Cr or PCr. 4. V(submax) was similar when PCr and Cr were added simultaneously at concentrations similar to those in muscle at rest (PCr/Cr = 2) and at low-intensity exercise (PCr/Cr = 0.5). At conditions mimicking high-intensity exercise (PCr/Cr = 0.1), V(submax) increased to 60 % of V(max) (P < 0.01 vs. rest and low-intensity exercise). 5. Eight of the subjects participated in a 16 day Cr supplementation programme. Following Cr supplementation, V(0) decreased by 17 % (P < 0.01 vs. prior to Cr supplementation), whereas ADP-stimulated respiration (with and without Cr or PCr) was unchanged. 6. For the first time evidence is given that PCr is an important regulator of mitochondrial ADP-stimulated respiration. Phosphorylcreatine decreases the sensitivity of mitochondrial respiration to ADP whereas Cr has the opposite effect. During transition from rest to high-intensity exercise, decreases in the PCr/Cr ratio will effectively increase the sensitivity of mitochondrial respiration to ADP. The decrease in V(0) after Cr supplementation indicates that intrinsic changes in membrane proton conductance occur.

  • 3584. Wang, Li
    et al.
    Mascher, Henrik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Psilander, Niklas
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Sahlin, Kent
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Research group for Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Resistance exercise enhances the effect of endurance training on molecular signaling in human skeletal muscleManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 3585. Wang, Li
    et al.
    Psilander, Niklas
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Research group for Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Mascher, Henrik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Research group for Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Sahlin, Kent
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Research group for Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Resistance exercise enhances the molecular signaling of mitochondrial biogenesis induced by endurance exercise in human skeletal muscle.2011In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 111, no 5, p. 1335-1344Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Combining endurance and strength training (concurrent training) may change the adaptation compared with single mode training. However, the site of interaction and the mechanisms are unclear. We have investigated the hypothesis that molecular signaling of mitochondrial biogenesis after endurance exercise is impaired by resistance exercise. Ten healthy subjects performed either only endurance exercise (E: 1h cycling at ~65% of VO(2max)) or endurance exercise followed by resistance exercise (ER: 1h cycling + 6 sets of leg press at 70-80% of 1 repetition maximum) in a randomized cross-over design. Muscle biopsies were obtained before and after exercise (1 and 3h Post cycling). The mRNA of genes related to mitochondrial biogenesis (PGC-1α, PRC) and substrate regulation (PDK4) increased after both E and ER, but the mRNA levels were about 2-fold higher after ER (P<0.01). Phosphorylation of proteins involved in the signaling cascade of protein synthesis (mTOR, S6K1 and eEF2) was altered after ER but not after E. Moreover, ER induced a larger increase in mRNA of genes associated with positive mTOR signaling (cMyc and Rheb). Phosphorylation of AMPK, ACC and Akt increased similarly at 1h Post (P<0.01) after both types of exercise. Contrary to our hypothesis, the results demonstrate that resistance exercise, performed after endurance exercise, amplifies the adaptive signaling response of mitochondrial biogenesis compared with single-mode endurance exercise. The mechanism may relate to a crosstalk between signaling pathways mediated by mTOR. The results suggest that concurrent training may be beneficial for the adaptation of muscle oxidative capacity.

  • 3586.
    Wang, Li
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Research group for Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Psilander, Niklas
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Research group for Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Ding, Shuzhe
    Sahlin, Kent
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Research group for Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Similar expression of oxidative genes after interval and continuous exercise.2009In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 41, no 12, p. 2136-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: There is a debate whether interval or traditional endurance training is the most effective stimulus of mitochondrial biogenesis. Here, we compared the effects of acute interval exercise (IE) or continuous exercise (CE) on the muscle messenger RNA (mRNA) content for several genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and lipid metabolism. METHODS: Nine sedentary subjects cycled for 90 min with two protocols: CE (at 67% VO2max) and IE (12 s at 120% and 18 s at 20% of VO2max). The duration of exercise and work performed with CE and IE was identical. Muscle biopsies were taken before and 3 h after exercise. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the two exercise protocols in the increases in VO2 and HR, the reduction in muscle glycogen (35%-40% with both protocols) or the changes in blood metabolites (lactate, glucose, and fatty acids). The mRNA content for major regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis [peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma coactivator 1alpha (PGC-1alpha), PGC-1-related coactivator, PPARbeta/delta] and of lipid metabolism [pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isozyme 4 (PDK4)] increased after exercise, but there was no significant difference between IE and CE. However, the mRNA content for several downstream targets of PGC-1alpha increased significantly only after CE, and mRNA content for nuclear respiratory factor 2 was significantly higher after CE (P < 0.025 vs IE). CONCLUSIONS: The present findings demonstrate that, when the duration of exercise and work performed is the same, IE and CE influence the transcription of genes involved in oxidative metabolism in a similar manner.

  • 3587.
    Wang, Li
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Research group for Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Sahlin, Kent
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Research group for Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    The effect of continuous and interval exercise on PGC-1α and PDK4 mRNA in type I and type II fibres of human skeletal muscle.2012In: Acta Physiologica, ISSN 1748-1708, E-ISSN 1748-1716, Vol. 204, no 4, p. 525-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: Differences in fibre-type recruitment during exercise may induce a heterogenic response in fibre-type gene expression. We have investigated the effect of two different exercise protocols on the fibre-type-specific expression of master genes involved in oxidative metabolism [proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) and Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4)].

    METHODS: Untrained subjects (n = 7) completed 90-min cycling either at a constant intensity [continuous exercise (CE): approximately 60% of VO(2max) ] or as interval exercise (IE: approximately 120/20% VO(2max) , duty cycle 12/18s). Muscle samples were taken before (pre) and 3 h after (post) exercise. Single fibres were isolated from freeze-dried muscle and characterized as type I or type II. The cDNA from two fibres of the same type was pooled and mRNA analysed with reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR.

    RESULTS: Continuous exercise and IE elicited a small increase in blood lactate (<2.5 mM) and moderate glycogen depletion (<40%) without difference between exercise modes. The mRNA of PGC-1α and PDK4 increased 5- to 8-fold in both fibre types after exercise, and the relative increase was negatively correlated with the basal level. However, the mRNA of PGC-1α and PDK4 was not different between type I and II fibres neither pre nor post, and there was no difference in the exercise-induced response between fibre types or exercise modes.

    CONCLUSION: We conclude that the mRNA of PGC-1α and PDK4 increases markedly in both fibre types after prolonged exercise without difference between CE and IE. The similar response between fibre types may relate to that subjects were sedentary and that the metabolic stress was low.

  • 3588.
    Wangler, Anna-Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Aj - Kliv av min fot!: - En studie angående hästrelaterade olyckor hos vuxna ridskoleryttare2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka förekomsten av olyckor hos vuxna ridskoleryttare. Frågeställningarna var: Hur stor har förekomsten av olyckor varit hos vuxna ridskoleryttare under de senaste 5 åren? Hur stor har förekomsten av olyckor varit i samband med hantering av häst i förhållande till olyckor relaterade till fall från häst?

    Vilka typer av skador är mest förekommande?

    Vilka typer av olyckor är beroende på ålder, kön och ridvana?Metod

    Studien genomfördes kvantitativt med enkäter som delades ut till vuxna på tre olika ridskolor i Stockholms län. 100 enkäter besvarades och kodades i Excel, dessa analyserades sedan med hjälp av statistikprogrammet SPSS.Resultat

    Resultatet i denna studie visar på att 68 % av ryttarna inte varit med om en olycka medan

    32 % varit med om en eller fler. 79 % av olyckorna inträffar då ryttaren ramlar av och de skador som är vanligast är hjärnskakning och mindre frakturer på revben och fingrar. Endast 21 % av olyckorna som skett var då ryttaren hanterat hästen. De flesta skador som uppkommer vid dessa tillfällen är sårskador då de blivit bitna av hästen samt frakturer och knäskador då ryttaren blivit sparkad. Påverkansfaktorer gällande förekomsten av olyckor var framförallt vilken ridvana ryttaren hade, ju längre denna ridit desto större risk. Även lektionens innehåll spelade roll, där hoppning och ridning i naturen visade sig inneha den största olycksfrekvensen.Slutsats

    Förekomsten av olyckor i denna studie visade sig bero framförallt av hur länge ryttaren ridit på ridskola. Ridvana visade sig vara statistiskt signifikant även då man tagit hänsyn till andra störningsfaktorer. Ju längre ryttaren ridit desto större olycksrisk, sannolikt beror detta antagligen på svårare moment i ridningen. Även om skador sker i stallet så är det betydligt större risk att råka ut för en olycka vid ridning och då framförallt vid hoppning eller ridning i skogen.

  • 3589.
    Wareborn, Oscar
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Varför och vilka bollspel i skolan?2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Drygt en tredjedel av idrottslektionerna innehåller någon form av boll, enligt statistiken. Så behöver det inte vara på alla skolor men den generella statistiken säger det. Skolan som studien gjordes på är en av många skolor som har mycket bollspel på idrottsundervisningen. Syftet med den här undersökningen är att undersöka varför man använder bollspel till så stor del av idrottsundervisningen.

    • Vad lär sig eleverna av bollspel?
    • Vilka bollspel används mest under idrottsundervisningen?
    • Vilka bollspel används minst under idrottsundervisningen?
    • Vilka för- och nackdelar finns det med bollspel?

    Metod

    Det här är en kvalitativ undersökningsstudie med intervjuer som hjälp. Detta för att få så djupgående svar som möjligt. Intervjupersonerna valdes genom ett bekvämlighetsurval och bestod av två idrottslärare och fyra elever.

    Resultat

    Under skolans idrottslektioner använder man sig av flera olika bollspel på grund av att få elever att lära sig komplexa rörelser så som springa, kasta, fånga och hoppa. Det visar sig även vara bra för det sociala samspelet mellan olika individer. Elevernas samarbetsförmåga provas samt deras sida av att visa respekt för lagkamrater och motståndare. Det tas även upp vilka bollspel som används mest och minst.

    Slutsats

    Bollspel har länge varit en central del i idrottsundervisningen och kommer säkerligen vara länge framöver. De traditionella bollspelen som fotboll, handboll, basket och innebandy är fortfarande stora och står stadigt som de viktigaste bollspelen att lära ut till eleverna medan tennis och de mer kulturella spelen som lacrosse och softball inte alls slagit i genom i undervisningen. Dels för att intresset inte finns för dem men också för att flera olika ramfaktorer spelar in.

  • 3590.
    Wasserman, Anders
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, For Sports Coaches (Tränarlänken).
    Hur blir vi mer specifika?: En träningsplanering för ungdomsfotboll med speciell inriktning mot agility2011Student paper otherStudent thesis
  • 3591.
    Wasserman, Anders
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, For Sports Coaches (Tränarlänken).
    Krav- och Kapacitetsprofil Fotboll: Elitungdomsfotboll: Nationell vs. Internationell2011Student paper other, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 3592.
    Wasserman, Anders
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Kreativitet inom Fotboll: En tvärsnittsstudie om ungdomsfotbollsspelares kreativitet och tränares träningsmetodik och aktioner2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The purpose of this study is to study whether there is any correlation between soccer coaches’ actions and the creativity of the players, as well as whether soccer players' creative actions differ in number between play form and training form. What does the relationship look like between soccer coaches’ actions and the creativity of players? Are there any differences in the number of creative actions per minute between play form and training form? The study's hypothesis is that soccer players perform more creative soccer actions in trainings where the coach uses more play form and questions.

    Method

    The coach's actions, training methodsand players' creativity were measured using systematic observations. To measure training methods and training actions, a modified version of the Coach Analysis and Intervention System (CAIS) was used, while the creative actions of players were subjectively assessed by two expert coaches, similar to the Consensual Assessment Technique (CAT) creativity test.

    Results

    The results generally supported the study's hypothesis. The Wilcoxon sign-rank test showed differences in the number of creative actions/min between play form and training form (Z =  -3,059; p <0.05). Most creative actions/min were performed in play form. In addition, there was a positive correlation between the creative actions and the frequency of open questions (rs= 0.71, p <0.01) and instructions – positive (rs= 0.82, p <0.01), and a negative relationship between the creative actions and silence – focus on training (rs= -0.70, p <0.05).

    Conclusions

    The results of this study have highlighted the relationship between creativity, coaches’ actions and training methods. The intention is not that the results should be interpreted as recommendations for how soccer coaches should work to promote creativity. In fact, much more research is needed before such recommendations can be given. However, it is possible to see tendencies that point to the fact that it’s important for soccer coaches to be active in their coachingand support the players with questions and instructions, as well as use training methods that challenges the players’ flexibility.

  • 3593.
    Wasserman, Anders
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, For Sports Coaches (Tränarlänken).
    Återerövring & Försvarspress – FC Barcelona vs. Real Madrid CF2011Student paper other, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 3594.
    Watson, Debbie
    et al.
    Trinity Laban Conservatoire of Music and Dance.
    Nordin-Bates, Sanna M
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Chappell, Kerry
    University of Exeter.
    Facilitating and nurturing creativity in pre-vocational dancers: Findings from the UK Centres for Advanced Training2012In: Research in Dance Education, ISSN 1464-7893, E-ISSN 1470-1111, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 153-173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a case study investigation into creativity involving young dancers and faculty members on the UK government-funded pre-vocational contemporary dance training programme. Qualitative research techniques were used to gather and interpret data on how individuals nurtured and viewed creativity at an individual level, as well as how the facilitation of creativity was perceived and manifested at a teaching and institutional level. Findings suggest that nurturing creativity at a within-person level involves the evolution and development of personality characteristics and abilities in both direct and indirect ways. Two other factors were influential at this level, namely inspiration and motivation. At an interpersonal and environmental level, the study found that a communal and collaborative approach underpinned the nurture of creativity in the setting. Additionally, teaching styles which supported the development of dancers’ own voice alongside dance skills were critical in helping to encourage and realise creativity in young people. The study sheds light on the constantly evolving and dynamic processes involved when nurturing and facilitating creativity.

  • 3595.
    Watterdal, Øyvind
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    The impact of warm up intensity and duration on sprint performance2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A traditional warm-up (WU) for track sprinters usually includes a general WU, a series of mobility drills and some short sprint strides lasting 30-60 min in total. A WU of this duration might cause significant fatigue and impair sprint performance.

    Aim: To test the hypothesis that a traditional high intense warm-up of long duration would elicit fatigue and impair sprint performance.

    Methods: Five highly trained males competitive in endurance sports performed three different WU protocols on separate days in their postseason period. Their mean ± SD age, body mass and height were 24.2 ± 1.6 years, 78.4 ± 7.8 kg, 179.6 ± 8.8 cm. The study participants performed a timed 60 meter sprint on an indoor track. The traditional warm-up (LONG), started with 10 min of easy running; then 7 min of mobility drills followed by five sprints performed with 3-min break in between. The total duration of LONG was 35 minutes. The experimental warm-up (SHORT) was shorter and less intense; 10 min of easy running was followed by just one sprint. Both warm-up protocols were followed by 10 min of recovery, where participants were not allowed to sit down. A third test occasion served as control (CON), where participants did not conduct physical activity prior to the time trial, only 10 min of recovery. Participants also rated the satisfaction of their performance on a 10 point scale.

    Results: The results of 60 m time trial performance showed no significant differences among the different WU protocols (P = 0.20). The 60 m performance was better for SHORT (8.02 ± 0.10 sec) than for LONG (8.08 ± 0.16 sec) and CON (8.20 ± 0.21 sec). 4 of 5 participants experienced their fastest time trial following SHORT. It appeared that participants were significantly faster following SHORT (7.99 ± 0.22 ms-1) compared to LONG (7.77 ± 0.33 ms-1) in the final 10 m of the time trial (P = 0.05). The satisfaction after SHORT scored highest (6.9), followed by LONG (5.9) and CON (4.5).

    Conclusions: There is no significant difference between a traditional WU compared to a WU of shorter duration and lower intensity. The traditional WU showed a significant decline in running speed in the final stage of the time trial, which might be caused by fatigue.

  • 3596.
    Webrink, Ludvig
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Axelsson, Oscar
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Mål och verklighet, är det samma sak?: Överensstämmer elevers självskattade kunskap med de nationella målen i kursen Idrott och hälsa A2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of this study is to examine students' estimates of knowledge in regards of the goals in the national curriculum, in the course Physical Education A, as well as to examine whether there is a difference when comparing a big city and a smaller town.

    Are students´ real knowledge equal to the national goals to be achieved after completing the course in Physical Education A 100 p? How does self-rated knowledge differ from students in a big city versus students in a small town?

    Method

    In our thesis, we have used a quantitative method in form a questionnaire.  A quantitative study was suitable for this study because it considered a relatively broad view of students´ self-rated knowledge regarding the achievements of goals in the course Physical Education A.

    A total of 170 students from eight classes - four classes from a big city, and four from a smaller town - participated in the study. The basis for the survey is the National School Board's goals for the Physical Education course. The goals were made to question and the students rated their knowledge on a six-point scale.  

    Results

    The results showed that about 50 % of the students felt that they have the knowledge which is printed in the National School Board's goals. The subject that differed most from the other questions were outdoor life and dance. The survey question that students are estimated to have a minimum knowledge of was the question as to whether the students were familiar with some selected dances, such as jive, salsa and waltz.  The goal that most students estimate that they have knowledge in was the goal: how different factors affect human health.

    Conclusion

    The conclusion is that there is a clear weakness regarding students' goals achievement. If this study reflects reality, it is obvious that a change is required, when 50 % of all pupils do not estimate that they achieve the National School Board's goals.

    It requires a discussion of where physical education is heading; should it be a knowledge-topic or is it only to be viewed as a relief from the substance of the theoretical teaching?

  • 3597.
    Wecke, Liliane
    et al.
    Dep of Cardiology, Karolinska sjukhuset & Karolinska Institutet.
    Andersson, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Laboratory of Applied Sports Science (LTIV).
    Nilsson, Johnny
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Laboratory of Applied Sports Science (LTIV).
    Lundahl, Gunilla
    Bergfeldt, Lennart
    Younger People Show More Changes in Repolarization with Exercise2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Cardiac repolarization is a complex phenomenon that depends on heart rate (HR), autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity, age, gender and diseases/pathological conditions etc. Cardiovascular events in LQT1 mutation carriers are also typically related to age, gender, and QT interval, and are triggered by physical exercise. We studied the repolarization response to heavy exercise in healthy subjects.

    Material and methods:

    Vectorcardiography (VCG) was recorded with the Coronet II system (Ortivus AB, Danderyd, Sweden) using the Frank orthogonal leads (X, Y and Z) at supine rest before and after a maximal cycle ergometer test in 42 healthy subjects. They were of different age and gender, 21 old (64-79 years) and 21 young (20-32 years), 23 were women and 19 men. Maximum T-vector amplitude and direction were assessed as well as T-area, QTc-interval and other VCG parameters.

    Results:

    At baseline most parameters differed between old and young subjects, but only QRS-duration, QRS-area and T-amplitude between women and men. Younger subjects had lower HR (59 vs 72 bpm; p<0.01), higher T-amplitude (530 vs 395 μV; p<0.01), larger T-area (73 vs 48 μVs; p<0.001), shorter QTc (417 vs 430 ms; p<0.01) and a narrower QT-angle (25 vs 59°; p<0.01).

    The response to strenuous exercise was much more pronounced in the younger subjects with an increase in resting HR by 35 bpm compared with 17 bpm for the old subjects (p<0.001). This was accompanied by a more pronounced decrease in T-amplitude (-138 vs -27 μV; p<0.01) and T-area (-20 vs -7 μVs; p<0.01) but a larger prolongation of QTc (54 vs 10 ms; p<0.001).

    Conclusion:

    Young people seem to have a more active ANS, which results in a more pronounced repolarization response to heavy exercise. This might explain why patients with LQT1 more likely suffer from malignant arrhythmias at ages below 40 years.

  • 3598.
    Wecke, Liliane
    et al.
    Dept of Cardiology, Karolinska sjukhuset & Karolinska Institutet.
    Andersson, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Laboratory of Applied Sports Science (LTIV).
    Nilsson, Johnny
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Laboratory of Applied Sports Science (LTIV).
    Lundahl, Gunilla
    Bergfeldt, Lennart
    Younger People Show More Changes in Repolarization with Exercise2012In: Younger People Show More Changes in Repolarization with Exercise, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose:

    Cardiac repolarization is a complex phenomenon that depends on heart rate (HR), autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity, age, gender and diseases/pathological conditions etc. Cardiovascular events in LQT1 mutation carriers are also typically related to age, gender, and QT interval, and are triggered by physical exercise. We studied the repolarization response to heavy exercise in healthy subjects.

    Method:

    Vectorcardiography (VCG) was recorded with the Coronet II system (Ortivus AB, Danderyd, Sweden) using the Frank orthogonal lead system (X, Y and Z) at supine rest before and after a maximal cycle ergometer test in 42 healthy subjects. They were of different age and gender, 21 old (64-79 years) and 21 young (20-32 years), 23 were women and 19 men. Maximum T-vector amplitude and direction were assessed as well as T-area, QTc-interval and other VCG parameters.

    Summary:

    At baseline most parameters differed between old and young subjects, but only QRS-duration, QRS-area and T-amplitude between women and men. Younger subjects had lower HR (59 vs 72 bpm; p<0.01), higher T-amplitude (530 vs 395 μV; p<0.01), larger T-area (73 vs 48 μVs; p<0.001), shorter QTc (417 vs 430 ms; p<0.01) and a narrower QT-angle (25 vs 59°; p<0.01).

    The response to strenuous exercise was much more pronounced in the younger subjects with an increase in resting HR by 35 bpm compared with 17 bpm for the old subjects (p<0.001). This was accompanied by a more pronounced decrease in T-amplitude (-138 vs -27 μV; p<0.01) and T-area (-20 vs -7 μVs; p<0.01) but a larger prolongation of QTc (54 vs 10 ms; p<0.001).

    Conclusion:

    Young people seem to have a more active ANS, which results in a more pronounced repolarization response to heavy exercise. This might explain why patients with LQT1 more likely suffer from malignant arrhythmias at ages below 40 years.

  • 3599.
    Wedberg, Helen
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Lexell, Hanna
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Friluftsliv i skolan?: en kvantitativ studie om idrottslärarstudenters attityder till friluftsliv i skolan2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how PE teacher-students at The Swedish School of Sports and Health sciences experience the school segment Outdoor teaching, and to find what internal factors that may influence the teacher's decision to teach it.

    1. What are the PE-teacher student’s views on the different areas of the subject outdoors?
    2. What are the PE-teacher student’s views on teaching the subject outdoors?
    3. How do the PE-teacher student’s knowledge in and experience of outdoor education affect on their attitude towards teaching the subject?

     Method

    This study is a quantitative survey where the data collection has been done through a questionnaire survey consisting of 24 questions. The questionnaire was answered by PE-teacher students in grade 2-5 at the Swedish school of sports and health sciences In Stockholm. The total loss of responses in the study on the entire population is 15%. Collected data were analyzed using the statistical program Statistica 64 version 11 using frequency analysis and Pearsons and M-L Chi Square – test.

     Results

    Of the total of 148 participant student 22 % feel insecure about teaching the green outdoor education, 51 % of the respondents feel insecure about teaching the blue outdoor education and 58 % of the respondents feel insecure about teaching the white outdoor education.  The majority of these respondents indicate a lack of knowledge as the main reason for the uncertainty. Which is also shown in compared results between students' own estimates of their knowledge and their attitude towards the subject and towards teaching it.

     Conclusions

    The majority of the students have little experience with outdoor activities from their own schooling. Green outdoors is the type of outdoors most of the students have experience of from their own schooling. Green outdoors is also the type of outdoors that most of the students have a positive experience of and feel secure teaching in school. The majority of the respondents consider themselves to have basic knowledge of the three different types of outdoors. Lack of knowledge is the superior reason for the feeling of insecurity towards teaching the subject. The students who have completed courses in the various types of outdoors indicates less insecurity towards teaching the different types of outdoors.

     

  • 3600.
    Wedman, Ingemar
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Wahlgren, Lina
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Franke-Wikberg, Sara
    Examination med kvalitet: en undersökning av examinationsförfarandet vid några svenska högskolor2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I föreliggande rapport har syftet varit att granska examination och examinationsprocessen vid fyra utbildningsprogram, nämligen läkar-, psykolog-, civilingenjörs- och lärarprogrammen. Särskild tonvikt i granskningen har legat på examinationens kvalitet. Studien genomfördes under perioden 1 april, 2005 till 30 mars, 2006.

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