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  • 101.
    Larsson, Kristina
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Kallings, Lena
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Blom, Victoria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för idrottspsykologi.
    Andersson, Eva
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Ekblom, Maria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Criterion validity and test-retest reliability of SED-GIH, a single item question for assessment of daily sitting time.2019Ingår i: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 19, nr 1, artikel-id 19:17Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Sedentary behaviour has been closely linked to metabolic and cardiovascular health and is therefore of importance in disease prevention. A user-friendly tool for assessment of sitting time is thus needed. Previous studies concluded that the present tools used to assess a number of sedentary behaviours are more likely to overestimate sitting than single-item questions which often underestimate sitting time, and that categorical answering options are recommended. In line with this, the single-item question with categorical answering options, SED-GIH, was developed. The aim of this study was to investigate the criterion validity of the SED-GIH question using activPAL3 micro as the criterion measure. The second aim was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the SED-GIH questionnaire.

    METHOD: In the validity section of this study, 284 middle-aged adults answered a web questionnaire, which included SED-GIH, wore activPAL and filled in a diary log for one week. Spearman's rho assessed the relationship between the SED-GIH answers and the daily average sitting time as monitored by the activPAL (activPAL-SIT), a Weighted Kappa assessed the agreement, ANOVA assessed differences in activPAL-SIT between the SED-GIH answer categories, and a Chi2 compared the proportions of hazardous sitters between the different SED-GIH answer categories. In the reliability section, 95 elderly participants answered the SED-GIH question twice, with a mean interval of 5.2 days. The reliability was assessed with ICC and a weighted Kappa.

    RESULTS: The SED-GIH question correlated moderately with activPAL-SIT (rho = 0.31), with a poor agreement (weighted Kappa 0.12). In total, 40.8% underestimated and 22.2% overestimated their sitting time. The ANOVA showed significant differences in activPAL-SIT between the different SED-GIH answer categories (p < 0.001). The Chi2 showed a significant difference in proportion of individuals sitting more than 10 h per day within each SED-GIH answer category. ICC for the test-retest reliability of SED-GIH was excellent with ICC = 0.86, and the weighted Kappa showed an agreement of 0.77.

    CONCLUSIONS: The unanchored single item SED-GIH question showed excellent reliability but poor validity in the investigated populations. Validity and reliability of SED-GIH is in line with other questionnaires that are commonly used when assessing sitting time.

  • 102.
    Lindgren, Martin
    et al.
    Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital/Östra.
    Börjesson, Mats
    Department of Food, Nutrition and Sports Science, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy and, Sahlgrenska University Hospital/Östra.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Björn Ekbloms och Mats Börjessons forskningsgrupp.
    Bergström, Göran
    Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital/Östra.
    Lappas, Georgios
    Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital/Östra.
    Rosengren, Annika
    Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital/Östra.
    Physical activity pattern, cardiorespiratory fitness, and socioeconomic status in the SCAPIS pilot trial — A cross-sectional study2016Ingår i: Preventive Medicine Reports, ISSN 0350-1159, E-ISSN 2211-3355, Vol. 4, s. 44-49Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Living in a low socioeconomic status (SES) area is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. Previous studies have suggested a socioeconomic gradient in daily physical activity (PA), but have mainly relied on self-reported data, and individual rather than residential area SES. This study aimed to investigate the relationships between residential area SES, PA pattern, compliance with PA-recommendations and fitness in a Swedish middle-aged population, using objective measurements. We included 948 individuals from the SCAPIS pilot study (Gothenburg, Sweden, 2012, stratified for SES, 49% women, median age: 58years), in three low and three high SES districts. Accelerometer data were summarized into intensity-specific categories: sedentary (SED), low (LIPA), and medium-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). Fitness was estimated by submaximal ergometer testing. Participants of low SES areas had a more adverse cardiovascular disease risk factor profile (smoking: 20% vs. 6%; diabetes: 9% vs. 3%; hypertension: 38% vs. 25%; obesity: 31% vs. 13%), and less frequently reached 150min of MVPA per week (67% vs. 77%, odds ratio [OR]=0.61; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]=0.46–0.82), from 10-minute bouts (19% vs. 31%, OR=0.53, 95% CI=0.39–0.72). Individuals in low SES areas showed lower PA levels (mean cpm: 320 vs. 348) and daily average MVPA (29.9 vs. 35.5min), and 12% lower fitness (25.1 vs. 28.5mL×min−1×kg−1) than did those in high SES areas. Reduced PA and fitness levels may contribute to social inequalities in health, and should be a target for improved public health in low SES areas.

  • 103. Malm, Christer
    et al.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Immune system alteration in response to increased physical training during a five day soccer training camp.2004Ingår i: International Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0172-4622, E-ISSN 1439-3964, Vol. 25, nr 6, s. 471-6Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Leukocyte and monocyte subpopulations were investigated in ten elite male soccer players before and after a 5-day training camp. It was hypothesized that with increased training intensity and duration, the immune system would show signs of depression. Blood samples were taken at rest before and after the training camp and cell surface antigens were investigated by four-colour flow cytometry. After five days of intensified training, there was a significant decrease in the number of T helper, T cytotoxic and B cells, the expression of CD11 b on leukocytes increased and the NK cell population did not change significantly. It is concluded that after a period of intensified training, soccer players may experience decreased T and B cell numbers in circulation, possibly affecting their capability to activate the immune system and resist infections. However, in contrast to the acute decrease in the number of circulating NK cells commonly observed after physical exercise, no change in this cell population was observed at rest after a period of intensified physical training. Exercise-induced immunological changes were highly differentiated between different leukocyte subpopulations.

  • 104. Malm, Christer
    et al.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Immune system alteration in response to two consecutive soccer games.2004Ingår i: Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6772, E-ISSN 1365-201X, Vol. 180, nr 2, s. 143-55Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: Changes in leucocyte and monocyte subpopulations were investigated in 10 elite male soccer players aged 16-19 years. The purpose was to perform a descriptive study of immunological alterations in elite soccer players in response to two consecutive games separated by 20 h. It was hypothesized that in response to two games the players would show signs of short-term immunosuppression. METHODS: Blood samples were taken before the first soccer game, immediately after the second game and after 6, 24, 48 and 72 h. Cell surface antigens, testosterone and cortisol were investigated. RESULTS: During the first 6 h after the second game there was a significant increase in number of circulating neutrophils, mature (CD20+ CD5+) B cells and CD4/CD8 ratio. A significant decrease was observed in the number of natural killer (NK) cells, monocytes and adhesion on lymphocytes and monocytes. In a delayed phase, 48 h after the second game the expression of both adhesion and signalling molecules increased on lymphocytes and monocytes. Changes in adhesion and signalling molecules at 48 h correlated negatively to the subjects VO2max, suggesting larger immunological response to similar exercise in subjects with lower aerobic exercise capacity. CONCLUSION: In response to competitive soccer exercise some immunological variables are enhanced while others are depressed. Observed changes may serve a purpose in adaptation to exercise by signalling via adhesion.

  • 105. Malm, Christer
    et al.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Immunological Alterations Used to Predict Infections in Response to Strenuous Physical Training2011Ingår i: Military medicine, ISSN 0026-4075, E-ISSN 1930-613X, Vol. 176, nr 7, s. 785-790Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to screen leukocyte cell surface markers to identify possible predictors for infection related to physical training. Ten healthy soldiers (mean age, 19.1; mean body mass, 77.4 kg; mean VO ^sub 2^ peak, 4.54 L min ^sup -1^ /58.6 mL min ^sup -1^ kg ^sup -1^ ) were included. Blood samples were collected and number of infections recorded before and after a 6-day training course. White blood cell distributions and expression of surface receptors changed during training. Before training, expression of CD3 on CD8  lymphocytes and percent CD8 CD3 lymphocytes was lower, whereas CD4/CD8 ratio was higher among subjects who failed compared to those who completed the training. A subclinical infection before the start of the military training may alter the CD4/CD8 ratio. Prediction of future infections may be possible from pre-exercise immunological status, fi ndings useful in military settings and exercise, where sudden infections may result in severe consequences.  

  • 106.
    Mattsson, C. Mikael
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Unogård, Olof
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Kunskapsöversikt: Alkohol och idrott2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Alkohol har olika effekter i olika situationer. Innan man med säkerhet kan bedöma dess effekter måste man bestämma vilken situation man är intresserad av. Det gäller dels olika doser av alkohol, och dels olika tidsperspektiv (akut, dagen efter eller under en träningsperiod). Dessutom behöver man ta hänsyn till vilken nivå av idrott som avses. I vissa fall kan alkohol ha små effekter, vilka är försumbara för idrottsmotionärer men kan vara skillnaden mellan succé och fiasko för en elitidrottare.

    Den kunskapsöversikt du nu läser är ett försök att samla och sammanfatta den forskning som i dagsläget finns kring alkohol och idrott. Vår ansats har varit att ta ett så brett grepp som möjligt. I den första halvan avhandlas de fysiologiska aspekterna, som vi grovt sett har delat in i tre delar; effekter idet alkohol påverkade läget (akut), effekter som kvarstår efter att alkoholen lämnat kroppen (kallat ”dagen efter”) och slutligen de effekter som alkoholen har på träningssvaret (kroniska). Den andra halvan av kunskapsöversikten handlar om de psykosociala aspekterna på alkohol och idrott. Även den delen är indelad i tre områden; dryckesmönster bland idrottare, ett externt perspektiv på alkohol och idrott (det vill säga omgivande faktorer, som sponsring och supportrar) samt idrottsrelaterade preventionsinitiativ för alkoholkonsumtion. Utöver dessa områden gör vi i början av vardera kapitel en kort introduktion till området för att klargöra en del grundläggande sammanhang, till exempel under rubrikerna ”Föreningsidrottens roll i ungas liv” och ”Effekter och hälsorisker vid måttlig alkoholkonsumtion”.

  • 107.
    Mattsson, C. Mikael
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Unogård, Olof
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Sämre prestation flera dagar efter festen2014Ingår i: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 23, nr 1, s. 20-25Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Alkohol har effekter på prestationen även långt efter det att den har lämnat kroppen. Försämringen kan hålla i sig upp till 60 timmar efter att det sista glaset är tömt. Det visar en genomgång av de studier som har undersökt alkoholens påverkan på bland annat muskelstyrka och reaktionstider.

  • 108.
    Millischer, Vincent
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet.
    Erhardt, Sophie
    Karolinska institutet.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Forsell, Yvonne
    Karolinska institutet.
    Lavebratt, Catharina
    Karolinska institutet.
    Twelve-week physical exercise does not have a long-lasting effect on kynurenines in plasma of depressed patients2017Ingår i: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, ISSN 1176-6328, E-ISSN 1178-2021, Vol. 13, s. 967-972Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Physical exercise has well-characterized positive effects on depressive symptoms. The underlying biologic mechanisms are, however, far from established. A recently discovered mechanism has linked the enhanced conversion of kynurenine to kynurenic acid (KYNA) to an increased resilience toward stress-induced depression in mice. The aim of this study was to translate these findings to humans.

    Materials and methods: Kynurenine and KYNA levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography in plasma samples from 117 patients affected by mild-to-moderate depression before and within a week after a 12-week training period at three different intensities. The patients were part of the Regassa study.

    Results: No differences in plasma levels of kynurenine and KYNA or in their ratio could be detected between before and after training. No effect of the intensity group could be observed. No correlation with the improvement in cardiovascular fitness (Åstrand score) or the improvement in mood (Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale score) could be observed.

    Limitations: As the Regassa study is based on an intention-to-treat protocol, the exact time and the exact intensity of the physical exercise are not known. Analyses of pulse data as well as personal interviews, however, were used to control the exercise protocols. Furthermore, the observations reflect chronic changes.

    Conclusion: Physical exercise positively affects mood and cardiovascular fitness, but does not lead to long-lasting changes in plasma levels of kynurenine and KYNA in patients affected by mild-to-moderate depression.

  • 109.
    Nilsson, Jonna
    et al.
    Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Lebedev, Alexander
    Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tarassova, Olga
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Moberg, Marcus
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Lövdén, Martin
    Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Acute increases in brain-derived neurotrophic factor in plasma following physical exercise relates to subsequent learning in older adults.2020Ingår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 10, nr 1, artikel-id 4395Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Multidomain lifestyle interventions represents a promising strategy to counteract cognitive decline in older age. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is essential for experience-dependent plasticity and increases following physical exercise, suggesting that physical exercise may facilitate subsequent learning. In a randomized-controlled trial, healthy older adults (65-75 years) completed a 12-week behavioral intervention that involved either physical exercise immediately before cognitive training (n = 25; 13 females), physical exercise immediately after cognitive training (n = 24; 11 females), physical exercise only (n = 27; 15 females), or cognitive training only (n = 21; 12 females). We hypothesized that cognition would benefit more from cognitive training when preceded as opposed to followed by physical exercise and that the relationship between exercise-induced increases in peripheral BDNF and cognitive training outcome would be greater when cognitive training is preceded by physical exercise. Greater increases of plasma BDNF were associated with greater cognitive training gains on trained task paradigms, but only when such increases preceded cognitive training (ß = 0.14, 95% CI [0.04, 0.25]). Average cognitive training outcome did not differ depending on intervention order (ß = 0.05, 95% CI [-0.10, 0.20]). The study provides the first empirical support for a time-critical but advantageous role for post-exercise increases in peripheral BDNF for learning at an interindividual level in older adults, with implications for future multidomain lifestyle interventions.

  • 110.
    Nooijen, Carla F J
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Blom, Victoria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för idrottspsykologi.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Kallings, Lena
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Improving office workers' mental health and cognition: a 3-arm cluster randomized controlled trial targeting physical activity and sedentary behavior in multi-component interventions2019Ingår i: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 19, artikel-id 266Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Physically inactive and sedentary lifestyles are negatively related to both mental health and cognition. For office-workers, who spend two-thirds of their workday sitting, it is important to improve these lifestyles. The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of multi-component interventions, incorporating individual, environmental and organizational changes, to increase physical activity or reduce sedentary behavior among office-workers in order to improve mental health and cognition.

    Methods

    a 3-arm, clustered randomized controlled trial (RCT) with waiting list control group amongst adult office-workers of two large Swedish companies. Cluster teams will be randomized into 6-month interventions or to a passive waiting list control group which will receive the allocated intervention with a 6-month delay. Two multicomponent interventions will be studied of which one focuses on improving physical activity and the other on reducing sedentary behavior. Both interventions include 5 sessions of motivational counselling. In the physical activity intervention persons also get access to a gym and team leaders will organize lunch walks and encourage to exercise. In the sedentary behavior intervention standing- and walking meetings will be implemented and team leaders will encourage to reduce sitting. The recruitment target is 110 office-workers per arm (330 in total). Measurements will be repeated every 6months for a total intended duration of 24months. Proximal main outcomes are physical activity measured with accelerometers and sedentary behavior with inclinometers. Distal outcomes are self-reported mental health and a cognition test battery. Additional outcomes will include cardiovascular fitness, body composition, sleep, self-reported physical activity and sedentary behavior, other health habits, physical health, and working mechanisms from blood samples and questionnaires.

    Discussion

    This cluster RCT will contribute to the currently available evidence by comparing the effectiveness of multi-component interventions targeting physical activity or sedentary behavior with the end goal of improving mental health and cognition. This study is strong in its cluster randomized design, numerous objective outcome measures and long-term follow-up. The exact content of the interventions has been defined by combining theory with results from a larger research project as well as having a continuous dialogue with the involved companies.

  • 111.
    Nooijen, Carla F J
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap. Karolinska Institutet.
    Kallings, Lena
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Blom, Victoria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för idrottspsykologi. Karolinska Institutet.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Forsell, Yvonne
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC). Karolinska Institutet.
    Common Perceived Barriers and Facilitators for Reducing Sedentary Behaviour among Office Workers.2018Ingår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 15, nr 4, artikel-id E792Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Qualitative studies identified barriers and facilitators associated with work-related sedentary behaviour. The objective of this study was to determine common perceived barriers and facilitators among office workers, assess subgroup differences, and describe sedentary behaviour. From two Swedish companies, 547 office workers (41 years (IQR = 35–48), 65% women, 66% highly educated) completed questionnaires on perceived barriers and facilitators, for which subgroup differences in age, gender, education, and workplace sedentary behaviour were assessed. Sedentary behaviour was measured using inclinometers (n = 311). The most frequently reported barrier was sitting is a habit (67%), which was reported more among women than men (X2 = 5.14, p = 0.03) and more among highly sedentary office workers (X2 = 9.26, p < 0.01). The two other most reported barriers were that standing is uncomfortable (29%) and standing is tiring (24%). Facilitators with the most support were the introduction of either standing- or walking-meetings (respectively 33% and 29%) and more possibilities or reminders for breaks (31%). The proportion spent sedentary was 64% at the workplace, 61% on working days, and 57% on non-working days. This study provides a detailed understanding of office workers’ ideas about sitting and means to reduce sitting. We advise to include the supported facilitators and individualized support in interventions to work towards more effective strategies to reduce sedentary behaviour.

  • 112.
    Nooijen, Carla F J
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Kallings, Lena
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Blom, Victoria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för idrottspsykologi.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Forsell, Yvonne
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Common perceived barriers and facilitators for reducing sedentary behaviour among office-workers2018Ingår i: Journal of Physical Activity & Health, Volume 15, Issue 10, Pages S94-S95 Supplement 1, Canadian Consortium on Human Security, 2018, Vol. 15, nr 10, s. S94-S95Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 113.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Stillasittande hos barn och ungdomar2013Ingår i: Långvarigt stillasittande: en hälsofara i tiden / [ed] Elin Ekblom Bak, 2013, s. 57-78Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 114. Nyberg, Gisela
    et al.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Marcus, Claude
    A 4-Year Cluster-Randomised Controlled Intervention Study on Physical Activity Pattern and Sedentary Behaviour in Children2011Ingår i: Medicine and Science in Sport and Exercise, 2011, Vol. 43, suppl 15, s. 24-24Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of a cluster-randomised, controlled school-based intervention (the STOPP-study) on objectively measured sedentary time, time spent in light intensity activity and in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA).

    METHODS: A total of 1538 children in grades 1-4 from ten selected schools in Stockholm county area were included. Schools were randomised as intervention (n=5) or control (n=5). Physical activity was aimed to increase by 30 min -1day during school time and sedentary behavior was restricted during after school care time. Physical activity was measured by accelerometry. Percentage of time spent sedentary (below 1.5 METs), in light (between 1.5 and 3 METs), and in MVPA (above 3 METs) were primary outcome variables.

    RESULTS: Adjusted for age, gender and calendar year, children in intervention schools spent less time sedentary, compared to children in control schools (32.3% vs. 33.4% of registered time, P=0.03) and more time in MVPA (28.5% vs. 27.6%, P=0.05). Children in the intervention group spent more time in MVPA (37.2% vs. 34.9%, P=0.002) and less time sedentary (22.0% vs. 24.3%, P<0.001) during after school care time. Normal weight and overweight children in intervention schools spent more time in MVPA and less time sedentary during after school care time compared to children in the control schools. Overweight children in the intervention group spent more time in light intensity activity during evening time. There was a trend for less sedentary activities in overweight intervention children during evening time. The results were attenuated after adjustment for the sampling variation between schools.

    CONCLUSIONS: There were indications of differences between intervention and control groups in time spent sedentary and in MVPA among normal weight and overweight children. Although differences were not statistically significant after adjustment for the cluster effect, the present paper provides argument for school-based interventions in order to decrease sedentary behaviour and increase physical activity.

  • 115.
    Oddsson, Kristjan
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för tillämpad idrottsvetenskap (LTIV).
    Danielsson, Evelina
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Nilsson, Johnny
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH. Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för tillämpad idrottsvetenskap (LTIV).
    Wahlgren, Lina
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för tillämpad idrottsvetenskap (LTIV).
    Andersson, Eva
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för tillämpad idrottsvetenskap (LTIV).
    Development of physical tests and ratings scales of perceived health in a project with supervised physical activity for elderly.2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Valid and reliable field tests for measuring physical fitness and different health parameters is an important matter for evaluating effects of exercise interventions.

    Purpose: The aim was to study different test parameters such as aerobic capacity, strength, perceived health and life style habits, such as physical activity, in a physical activity intervention for elderly people.

    Method: 117 old-age pensioners (99 women and 18 men). Their mean age (yrs) and BMI (kg/m2 ) was 74 and 26 for the women and 73 and 25 for the men, respectively. Different aerobic, strength and balance tests were measured. Guided physical activity (nordic walking, strength training, aqua gymnastics), were given 45-60 min, 2 times/week for 8-12 weeks. Perceived exertion ratings during the exercises were moderate and/or strong.

    Results: Significant changes (p< 0,05) were seen between pre- and post tests regarding all physical tests except the balance test for men. Even the perceived physical and mental health significantly improved. The mean values for questions concerning self reported inactive/active life style, including sedentary time, were changed to a more active life style.

    Conclusion: 8-12 weeks of guided physical activity can improve several physiological parameters which are positively correlated to decreased risk of numerous diseases. More research is needed to develop reliable and valid field tests for physical capacity and different health parameters.

  • 116.
    Oddsson, Kristjan
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    ”Bra” eller ”dålig” balans – vad är det vi mäter?2004Ingår i: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, nr 4, s. 61-65Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vad är balans? Hur validerar och kvantifierar man förmågan att balansera om man egentligen inte i detalj kan förstå dess uppkomst? Går det att uttala sig generellt kring begreppen ”bra” eller ”dålig” balans/balansförmåga, utan att ta hänsyn till själva kontexten där den studeras? Kan balansförmågan hos barn ses som ett slags ”markör” för andra motoriska kvalitéer eller kognitiva funktioner som t ex koncentrationsförmåga?

  • 117.
    Olsson, Sven Johan Gustav
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Björn Ekbloms och Mats Börjessons forskningsgrupp.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Björn Ekbloms och Mats Börjessons forskningsgrupp.
    Andersson, Eva
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Börjesson, Mats
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Björn Ekbloms och Mats Börjessons forskningsgrupp. Department of Medicine, Unit of Cardiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Solna.
    Kallings, Lena
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Björn Ekbloms och Mats Börjessons forskningsgrupp.
    Categorical answer modes provides superior validity to open answers when asking for level of physical activity: A cross-sectional study2016Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 44, nr 1, s. 70-76, artikel-id 1403494815602830Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS:

    Physical activity (PA) used as prevention and treatment of disease has created a need for effective tools for measuring patients' PA level. Our aim was therefore to assess the validity of two PA questions and their three associated answer modes.

    METHODS:

    Data on PA according to the PA questions and Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometers, aerobic fitness (VO2max), cardiovascular biomarkers, and self-rated general health were collected in 365 Swedish adults (21-66 years). The PA questions ask about weekly PA via categories (Categorical), an open-ended answer (Open), or specified day by day (Table).

    RESULTS:

    The Categorical mode, compared with the Open mode, correlated (Spearman's rho) significantly more strongly (p<0.05) with accelerometer PA (0.31 vs. 0.18) and VO2max (0.27 vs. 0.06), and the level of BMI (-0.20 vs. -0.02), waist circumference (-0.22 vs. -0.03), diastolic blood pressure (-0.16 vs. 0.08), glucose (-0.18 vs. 0.04), triglycerides (-0.31 vs. -0.07), and general health (0.35 vs. 0.19). The validity of the Categorical and Table modes were similar regarding VO2max and accelerometry, but the Categorical mode exhibited more significant and stronger correlations with cardiovascular biomarkers. The capacity of the PA questions to identify insufficiently physically active individuals ranged from 0.57 to 0.76 for sensitivity and from 0.47 to 0.79 for specificity.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    The Categorical mode exhibits the strongest validity and Open mode the weakest. The PA questions may be used on a population level, or as a tool for determining patents' appropriateness for treatment.

  • 118.
    Olsson, Sven Johan Gustav
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Ekblom-Bak, Elin
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Kallings, Lena V
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Börjesson, Mats
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet. Göteborg University.
    Association of perceived physical health and physical fitness in two Swedish national samples from 1990 and 2015.2018Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 28, nr 2, s. 717-724Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Perceived health and physical fitness have been shown to correlate, and low levels of either variable increase the risk for future illness and mortality. However, risk factors and their interrelationship may vary between societies and over time. In this study, the associations of physical fitness and perceived health were therefore assessed in two Swedish national samples 25 years apart.

    METHODS: Perceived physical health, dichotomized as "good" or "bad", maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max), counter movement jump (CMJ), balance (one-legged 60 second stance), and self-reported demographics and lifestyle were recorded in two cross-sectional samples (sample size, number of eligible participants) of Swedish adults, aged 20 - 65 years, in 1990 - 1991 (2203, 1365), and 2013 - 2015 (3357, 422).

    RESULTS: The odds for good perceived physical health increased by 5% per mL · kg(-1) · min(-1) of VO2 max, 3% per cm CMJ height, and decreased by 4% per 1 time of overbalancing, in both samples. Mutually adjusted regression models showed that perceived physical health was best predicted by VO2 max and chronic illness in 1990 and by age, BMI, and educational level in 2015.

    CONCLUSION: Perceived physical health was related to physical fitness in two samples of Swedish adults from 1990 and 2015. However, multivariate, and mutually adjusted models, indicate that the most important covariates of perceived physical health may have changed from VO2 max and chronic illness in 1990, to age, BMI, and educational level in 2015. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  • 119.
    Pantzar, Alexandra
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Jonasson, Lars S.
    Umeå University.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC). Karolinska Institutet.
    Relationships Between Aerobic Fitness Levels and Cognitive Performance in Swedish Office Workers2018Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, artikel-id 2612Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Aerobic exercise influence cognition in elderly, children, and neuropsychiatric populations. Less is known about the influence of aerobic exercise in healthy samples (particularly working age), and of different fitness levels on cognition. Two hypotheses were posed: 1) low fitness levels, compared to moderate and high, will be related to poorer cognitive performance, and 2) breakpoints for the beneficial relationship between VO2 and cognition will be observed within the moderate-to-high fitness span. Design and Methods: The sample consisted of n=362 office workers. A submaximal cycle ergometer test estimated maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max, mL•kg-1•min-1). Based on estimated VO2max participants were split into tertiles; low (n=121), moderate (n=119), and high (n=122). A cognitive test battery (9 tests), assessed processing speed, working memory, executive functions and episodic memory. Results: Both hypotheses were confirmed. Groups of moderate (≈40) and high (≈49) fitness outperformed the group of low (≈31) fitness for inhibition and episodic recognition, whereas no significant differences between moderate and high fitness were observed (ANCOVAs). Breakpoints between benefits fromVO2max for inhibition and recognition were estimated to ≈44/43 mL•kg-1•min-1 (multivariate broken line regressions). Conclusions: Results suggest that it is conceivable to expect a beneficial relationship between VO2max and some cognitive domains up to a certain fitness level. In a sample of healthy office workers, this level was estimated to 44 mL•kg-1•min-1. This has implications on organizational and societal levels; where incentives to improve fitness levels from low to moderate could yield desirable cognitive and health benefits in adults.

  • 120.
    Rahman, Md Shafiqur
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Hallgren, Mats
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Forsell, Yvonne
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Stubbs, Brendon
    King's College London, UK..
    Vancampfort, Davy
    KU Leuven, Belgium.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Cardiorespiratory fitness and response to exercise treatment in depression.2018Ingår i: BJPsych open, ISSN 2056-4724, Vol. 4, nr 5, s. 346-351Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Exercise improves cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and reduces depressive symptoms in people with depression. It is unclear if changes in CRF are a predictor of the antidepressant effect of exercise in people with depression.

    Aims: To investigate whether an increase in CRF is a predictor of depression severity reduction after 12 weeks of exercise (trial registration: DRKS study ID, DRKS00008745).

    Method: The present study includes participants who took part in vigorous (n = 33), moderate (n = 38) and light (n = 39) intensity exercise and had CRF information (as predicted maximal oxygen uptake, O2max) collected before and after the intervention. Depression severity was measured with the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). O2max (L/min) was assessed with the Åstrand-Rhyming submaximal cycle ergometry test. The main analysis was conducted pooling all exercise intensity groups together.

    Results: All exercise intensities improved O2max in people with depression. Regardless of frequency and intensity of exercise, an increase in post-treatment O2max was significantly associated with reduced depression severity at follow-up (B = -3.52, 95% CI -6.08 to -0.96); adjusting for intensity of exercise, age and body mass index made the association stronger (B = -3.89, 95% CI -6.53 to -1.26). Similarly, increased O2max was associated with higher odds (odds ratio = 3.73, 95% CI 1.22-11.43) of exercise treatment response (≥50% reduction in MADRS score) at follow-up.

    Conclusions: Our data suggest that improvements in O2max predict a greater reduction in depression severity among individuals who were clinically depressed. This finding indicates that improvements in O2max may be a marker for the underpinning biological pathways for the antidepressant effect of exercise.

    Declaration of interest: None.

  • 121.
    Salier Eriksson, Jane
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, FoU-gruppen för rörelse, hälsa och miljö.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Blom, Victoria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för idrottspsykologi.
    Kallings, Lena
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Hemmingsson, Erik
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Andersson, G
    Wallin, P
    Stenling, A
    Lindwall, M
    Latent profiles of sedentary time, exercise and cardiorespiratory fitness in adults, and the associations with metabolic and percieved health2019Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 122.
    Salier Eriksson, Jane
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, FoU-gruppen för rörelse, hälsa och miljö.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Kallings, Lena
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Hemmingsson, Erik
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    HPI Health Profile Institute.
    Wallin, Peter
    HPI Health Profile Institute.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Active commuting in Swedish workers between 1998 and 2015 - trends, characteristics and cardiovascular disease risk.2020Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 30, nr 2Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Trend analyses of active commuting and potential variations in trends and association with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk within sub-groups are unknown.

    OBJECTIVES: To a) describe trends in active commuting between 1998 to 2015 and b) to study the association between different amounts of active commuting and the incidence risk of CVD in a large sample of Swedish workers, and analyses of potential variations across sub-groups of socio-demographics, physical activity and BMI.

    METHODS: A total of 318,309 participants (47% women, 18-74 years) who participated in a nationwide occupational health service screening between 1998 and 2015 were included. Commuting habits were self-reported, and data on first-time CVD events were derived from national registers.

    RESULTS: Self-reported passive commuters decreased between 1998 and 2015 (64% to 56%), transferring to an increase in mainly moderate/high-dose active commuters (12% to 19%). Changes were seen in all subgroups. The characteristics and life-style habits of the typical passive and active commuter changed little over the study period. Low- and moderate/high-dose active commuters had significantly decreased risks for a first time CVD during follow-up. This was accentuated in men, middle-aged and in participants with light physical work situations, irregular exercise habits, being overweight/obese and with low fitness.

    CONCLUSION: Increases in active commuting were observed between 1998 and 2015, however still leaving a majority who do not actively commute. As active commuting, regardless dose, is associated with a lower CVD risk, encouraging more people to actively commute may provide an easily accessible and time-efficient possibility to increase physical activity and health in the general population.

    Publikationen är tillgänglig i fulltext från 2020-10-20 01:01
  • 123.
    Svedenkrans, J.
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Sci Intervent & Technol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Norman, M.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Sci Intervent & Technol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Bohlin, K.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Sci Intervent & Technol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    THE EXPRESS/CHARM STUDY: 6.5 YEAR OLD CHILDREN BORN EXTREMELY PRETERM ARE LESS PHYSICALLY ACTIVE THAN TERM PEERS2016Ingår i: European Journal of Pediatrics, ISSN 0340-6199, E-ISSN 1432-1076, Vol. 175, nr 11, s. 1821-1821Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 124. Svensson, Michael B
    et al.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Cotgreave, Ian A
    Norman, Barbara
    Sjöberg, Berit
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Sjödin, Bertil
    Sjödin, Anders
    Adaptive stress response of glutathione and uric acid metabolism in man following controlled exercise and diet.2002Ingår i: Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6772, E-ISSN 1365-201X, Vol. 176, nr 1, s. 43-56Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ergometer cycling performance as well as acute exercise-induced changes in the metabolism of energy-intermediates and glutathione (GSH) were investigated in skeletal muscle (SM) of 15 healthy young male subjects (VO(2max) approximately 54.7 mL kg(-1) min(-1), age approximately 25 years), before and after 3 days of controlled 'ìoverload-training' in combination with either high (62% of energy intake) or low (26% of energy intake) dietary intake of carbohydrates. The intake of a carbohydrate-rich diet clearly reduced the depletion of SM glycogen following the short-term training period, paralleled with a positive effect on the endurance performance, but not on high-intensity work-performance. An 'delayed over-reaching effect', defined as impaired work-performance, was observed after 2.5 days of recovery from the short-term training period, irrespective of the carbohydrate content of the diet and basal glycogen level in SM. Taken together, the main and novel findings of present investigation are: (1) an acute decrease of reduced GSH content and altered thiol-redox homeostasis in SM induced by strenuous high-intensity exercise; (2) an adaptive elevation of basal GSH level following the short-term training period; (3) an adaptive decrease of basal GSH level following 2.5 days recovery from training; (4) evidence of a relationship between the SM fibre type, physical performance capacity and GSH turnover during acute bouts of exercise; and (5) no evident effect of the level of carbohydrate intake on metabolism of GSH or energy intermediates. Furthermore, the induction of acute oxidative stress in exercising human SM and the adaptive responses to training are suggested to provide a protective antioxidant phenotype to the exercising SM during periods with repeated intense intermittent training.

  • 125.
    Väisänen, Daniel
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Andersson, Eva
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Validity in Ekblom-Bak Test and its Ability to Track Changes in an Elderly Population2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) has a high prognostic value for CVD and all cause mortality, however the test is hard to administer and requires a maximal effort, which can be arduous for an elderly population. The submaximal Ekblom-Bak cycle ergometer test (EB test) has shown to be valid in adults, but its applicability in an elderly population is unknown. Aim: The purpose of this study was to validate the submaximal EB test and to examine its ability to detect changes in VO2max in an elderly population. Methods: The sample consisted of 108 elderly participants; aged 65-75 years (54 women, 54 men) with a measured VO2max of 1.42-3.69 L/min. 34 women and 40 men performed a retest (VO2max 1.45-3.59 L/min) after an intervention period. During the intervention, participants performed 30 training sessions over 12 weeks where they cycled for 30 min at 65-75 % of maximal heart rate. On pre- and retests participants completed a submaximal Ekblom-Bak test. Directly after participants completed an individually adjusted VO2max test on a treadmill where VO2 max was measured using indirect calorimetry. Results: For the validation of the EB-test on an elderly population there was a correlation (R) between measured and estimated VO2max of 0.64 for women and 0.47 for men, mean (95% CI) difference was 0.01 (-0.45 - 0.07) for women and -0.05 (-0.11 - 0.07) for men. Standard error of the estimate was 0.17 for women and 0.31 for men. Coefficient of variation was 10 % for women and 11 % for men. When analyzing the ability of the EB test to track change in VO2max after a 12 week training intervention there was a significant (P<0.001) average increase in estimated VO2max of 0.11 L/min for both genders (CI for women 0.06 - 0.16 and for men 0.08 - 0.15), with no change in the measured values. Changes in the estimated values were linked to a decrease of the submaximal HR on both work rates (3.0 bpm and 3.2 bpm on the standard work rate and 5.4 bpm and 6.4 bpm on the higher work rate, for women and men, respectively) Conclusion: Validity of the EB-test in a population between 65-75 years was fairly good but we found larger standard error of the estimate for the men. The higher error for men in contrast to women could be derived from a difference in change of physiological variables that affect VO2max with increasing age. Since there was no change in measured VO2max while there was an improvement in estimated VO2max after the intervention, the EB-test appears to respond to changes in fitness that are not reflected in a VO2max. Grant funding: European Research Council.

  • 126.
    Väisänen, Daniel
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Andersson, Eva
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC). Karolinska institutet.
    Nilsson, Jonna
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Criterion validity of the Ekblom-Bak and the Åstrand submaximal test in an elderly population.2020Ingår i: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 120, nr 2, s. 307-316Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to validate the submaximal Ekblom-Bak test (EB-test) and the Åstrand test (Å-test) for an elderly population.

    METHODS: Participants (n = 104), aged 65-75 years, completed a submaximal aerobic test on a cycle ergometer followed by an individually adjusted indirect calorimetry VO2max test on a treadmill. The HR from the submaximal test was used to estimate VO2max using both the EB-test and Å-test equations.

    RESULTS: The correlation between measured and estimated VO2max using the EB method and Å method in women was r = 0.64 and r = 0.58, respectively and in men r = 0.44 and r = 0.44, respectively. In women, the mean difference between estimated and measured VO2max was - 0.02 L min-1 (95% CI - 0.08 to 0.04) for the EB method and - 0.12 L min-1 (95% CI - 0.22 to - 0.02) for the Å method. Corresponding values for men were 0.05 L min-1 (95% CI - 0.04 to 0.14) and - 0.28 L min-1 (95% CI - 0.42 to - 0.14), respectively. However, the EB method was found to overestimate VO2max in men with low fitness and the Å method was found to underestimate VO2max in both women and men. For women, the coefficient of variance was 11.1%, when using the EB method and 19.8% when using the Å method. Corresponding values for men were 11.6% and 18.9%, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: The submaximal EB-test is valid for estimating VO2max in elderly women, but not in all elderly men. The Å-test is not valid for estimating VO2max in the elderly.

  • 127.
    Yang, Liyun
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Lu, Ke
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Forsman, Mikael
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Lindecrantz, Kaj
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Seoane, Fernando
    University of Borås.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Evaluation of physiological workload assessment methods using heart rate and accelerometry for a smart wearable system.2019Ingår i: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 62, nr 5, s. 694-705Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Work metabolism (WM) can be accurately estimated by oxygen consumption (VO2), which is commonly assessed by heart rate (HR) in field studies. However, the VO2-HR relationship is influenced by individual capacity and activity characteristics. The purpose of this study was to evaluate three models for estimating WM compared with indirect calorimetry, during simulated work activities. The techniques were: the HR-Flex model; HR branched model, combining HR with hip-worn accelerometers (ACC); and HR + arm-leg ACC model, combining HR with wrist- and thigh-worn ACC. Twelve participants performed five simulated work activities and three submaximal tests. The HR + arm-leg ACC model had the overall best performance with limits of agreement (LoA) of -3.94 and 2.00 mL/min/kg, while the HR-Flex model had -5.01 and 5.36 mL/min/kg and the branched model, -6.71 and 1.52 mL/min/kg. In conclusion, the HR + arm-leg ACC model should, when feasible, be preferred in wearable systems for WM estimation. Practitioner Summary: Work with high energy demand can impair employees' health and life quality. Three models were evaluated for estimating work metabolism during simulated tasks. The model combining heart rate, wrist- and thigh-worn accelerometers showed the best accuracy. This is, when feasible, suggested for wearable systems to assess work metabolism.

  • 128. Zou, D.
    et al.
    Wennman, H.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Grote, L.
    Arvidsson, D.
    Blomberg, A.
    Torén, K.
    Bergström, G.
    Börjesson, M.
    Hedner, J.
    Insomnia and cardiorespiratory fitness in a middle-aged population: the swedish cardiopulmonary bioimaging pilot study.2019Ingår i: Sleep Medicine, Volume 64, Supplement 1, December 2019, Elsevier, 2019, Vol. 64, s. S442-S442Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 129.
    Zou, Ding
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Wennman, Heini
    National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Grote, Ludger
    University of Gothenburg.
    Arvidsson, Daniel
    University of Gothenburg.
    Blomberg, Anders
    Umeå University.
    Torén, Kjell
    University of Gothenburg.
    Bergström, Göran
    University of Gothenburg.
    Börjesson, Mats
    University of Gothenburg.
    Hedner, Jan
    University of Gothenburg.
    Insomnia and cardiorespiratory fitness in a middle-aged population: the SCAPIS pilot study.2019Ingår i: Sleep and Breathing, ISSN 1520-9512, E-ISSN 1522-1709, Vol. 23, nr 1, s. 319-326Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The relationship between insomnia and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular disease, has not been extensively studied. We aimed to assess the independent association between insomnia and CRF in a population-based cohort of subjects aged 50 to 64 years.

    METHODS: Subjects participating in the Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImaging Study (SCAPIS) pilot cohort (n = 603, men 47.9%) underwent a submaximal cycle ergometer test for estimation of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). Data on physical activity and sedentary time were collected via waist-worn accelerometers. An insomnia severity index score ≥ 10 was used to define insomnia.

    RESULTS: Insomnia was identified in 31.8% of the population. The VO2max was significantly lower in insomnia subjects compared with the non-insomnia group (31.2 ± 6.3 vs. 32.4 ± 6.5 ml* kg-1 *min-1, p = 0.028). There was no difference in objectively assessed physical activity or time spent sedentary between the groups. In a multivariate generalized linear model adjusting for confounders, an independent association between insomnia status and lower VO2max was found in men, but not in women (β = - 1.15 [95% CI - 2.23-- 0.06] and - 0.09 [- 1.09-0.92], p = 0.038 and 0.866, respectively).

    CONCLUSIONS: We found a modest, but significant, association between insomnia and lower CRF in middle-aged men, but not in women. Our results suggest that insomnia may link to cardiovascular disease via reduced CRF. Insomnia may require a specific focus in the context of health campaigns addressing CRF.

  • 130. Åstrand, Per-Olof
    et al.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Björn Ekbloms och Mats Börjessons forskningsgrupp.
    Ekblom, Bjorn
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Björn Ekbloms och Mats Börjessons forskningsgrupp.
    Född Till rörelse: En bok om kost och motion2011Bok (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Praktiskt taget alla vuxna svenskar anser att regelbunden motion är bra för hälsa och arbetsförmåga. Vi är också upplysta om hur våra matvanor, alkoholintag och rökning påverkar vår hälsa. Varför är det då en minoritet som har en livsstil som styrs av kunskap och förnuft? Finns svaret förankrat i vårt biologiska arv? Hur levde våra förfäder? Att sitta still i flera timmar utan att röra sig alls utgör en risk för utveckling av hjärt- och kärlsjukdom, cancer och annan ohälsa, trots att man kanske motionerar ett par gånger i veckan. Den fysiologiska förklaringen är den att om inte musklerna får arbeta regelbundet, om än mycket lite, så påverkas viktiga processer i musklerna, som sedan påverkar hela kroppen. Det räcker att regelbundet resa sig och gå en liten bit för att undvika de negativa effekterna av långvarigt sittande.I Född till rörelse kan du läsa om faktorer som har betydelse för vår kondition och hälsa. Varför är det så viktigt att vi rör på oss? Hur kan man motverka eller mildra effekten av vissa sjukdomar? Vad innebär det att vara fysiskt aktiv? Hur ska man träna och hur jobbigt bör det vara?

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