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  • 1.
    Askling, Carl
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Akuta hamstringskador2018Ingår i: Idrottsskada: från prevention till säker återgång till idrott / [ed] Eva Rasmussen Barr & Anette Heijne, Studentlitteratur AB, 2018, 1, s. 243-246Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    I detta kapitel avhandlas de två huvudtyperna av hamstringskada, hur hamstringmuskulaturen ska tränas, preventivt samt efter skada, och slutligen tester som underlättar beslutet om när återgång i idrott är lämplig.

  • 2.
    Askling, Carl
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Are exercises the best medicine?2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 3.
    Askling, Carl Magnus
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    ACUTE HAMSTRING INJURIES IN ELITE FOOTBALL: REHABILITATION - RETURN - PREVENTION2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 4.
    Askling, Carl
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Hamstrings – så hanterar du fotbollens vanligaste skada2016Ingår i: Idrottsforskning.se, ISSN 2002-3944, artikel-id 13 juniArtikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Hamstrings är fotbollsspelarens mest skadedrabbade muskelgrupp. Återfallsskador är också ett stort problem. Rehabiliteringstiden kan halveras med rätt övningar. Och Asklings H-test ger vägledning om när det är dags för spel igen.

  • 5.
    Askling, Carl Magnus
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    LENGTHENING EXERCISES - THE KEY TO REHABILITATION SUCCESS?2016Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 6.
    Askling, Carl Magnus
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    MANAGING RETURN TO PLAY IN PLAYERS WITH RECURRENT HAMSTRING INJURIES2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 7.
    Askling, Carl
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Acute hamstring injurise in sports - types, rehabilitation, prevention2015Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 8.
    Askling, Carl M.
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Heiderscheit, Bryan C.
    Acute Hamstring Muscle Injury: Types, Rehabilitation, and Return to Sports2015Ingår i: Sports injuries: Prevention, Diagnosis, Treatment and Rehabilitation / [ed] Mahmut Nedim Doral, Jon Karlsson, Berlin: Springer, 2015, s. 2137-2147Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Acute hamstring muscle injury is the most frequent cause of acute posterior thigh pain, but referred pain to this area is also common. This chapter will focus only on acute hamstring injuries that are detectable on MRI (structural hamstring injuries). Hamstring injuries remain a challenge for clinicians, athletes, and coaches given the high incidence rate and often with persistent symptoms. The primary objective of all rehabilitation protocols is to return the athlete as soon as possible to the prior level of performance with a minimal risk of injury recurrence. The aim of this chapter is to describe the management of acute hamstring injuries including clinical examination, rehabilitation exercises, and return-to-sport criteria.

  • 9.
    Askling, Carl
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Lengthening hamstring exercises - the key to rehabilitation success?2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 10.
    Askling, Carl
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Prevention of hamstring injuries2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 11.
    Askling, Carl
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Why do so many hamstring injuries occur/recur?2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 12.
    Askling, Carl M
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Tengvar, Magnus
    Tarassova, Olga
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Thorstensson, Alf
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Acute hamstring injuries in Swedish elite sprinters and jumpers: a prospective randomised controlled clinical trial comparing two rehabilitation protocols.2014Ingår i: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 48, nr 7, s. 532-9Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Hamstring strain is a common injury in sprinters and jumpers, and therefore time to return to sport and secondary prevention become of particular concern.

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of two rehabilitation protocols after acute hamstring injury in Swedish elite sprinters and jumpers by evaluating time needed to return to full participation in the training process.

    STUDY DESIGN: Prospective randomised comparison of two rehabilitation protocols.

    METHODS: Fifty-six Swedish elite sprinters and jumpers with acute hamstring injury, verified by MRI, were randomly assigned to one of two rehabilitation protocols. Twenty-eight athletes were assigned to a protocol emphasising lengthening exercises, L-protocol, and 28 athletes to a protocol consisting of conventional exercises, C-protocol. The outcome measure was the number of days to return to full training. Re-injuries were registered during a period of 12 months after return.

    RESULTS: Time to return was significantly shorter for the athletes in the L-protocol, mean 49 days (1SD±26, range 18-107 days), compared with the C-protocol, mean 86 days (1SD±34, range 26-140 days). Irrespective of protocol, hamstring injuries where the proximal free tendon was involved took a significantly longer time to return than injuries that did not involve the free tendon, L-protocol: mean 73 vs 31 days and C-protocol: mean 116 vs 63 days, respectively. Two reinjuries were registered, both in the C-protocol.

    CONCLUSIONS: A rehabilitation protocol emphasising lengthening type of exercises is more effective than a protocol containing conventional exercises in promoting time to return in Swedish elite sprinters and jumpers.

  • 13. Eriksson, Karl
    et al.
    Askling, Carl
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Kirurgi vid proximal hamstringsruptur ger oftast bra resultat2014Ingår i: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 111, nr 36Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Proximala hamstringsrupturer från fästet vid tuber ischiadicum är relativt ovanligt förekommande. Det är dock viktigt att inte missa dem, eftersom tidig kirurgisk behandling kan innebära bättre resultat och snabbare normalisering av funktion.

    Skadan drabbar såväl yngre elitaktiva idrottare som medelålders motionärer och inte sällan icke-idrottsaktiva individer.

    Klinisk undersökning i kombination med MR-undersökning ger information om skadans utbredning, svårighetsgrad och eventuell indikation för kirurgi.

    Total eller subtotal avslitning från fästet med 2 cm retraktion eller mer innebär som regel indikation för kirurgi med reinsertion av fästet.

    Morbiditeten efter tidig kirurgi är låg, och resultaten är goda. Kroniska skador med funktionsbortfall kan ibland utgöra grund för kirurgi.

    Sen kirurgi är mer tekniskt krävande men leder oftast till klar funktionell förbättring.

    Ortos är sällan indicerad post­operativt. Strukturerad rehabilitering är viktig postoperativt; total rehabiliteringstid får beräknas till 6–12 månader.

  • 14.
    Askling, Carl M
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Tengvar, Magnus
    Thorstensson, Alf
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Acute hamstring injuries in Swedish elite football: a prospective randomised controlled clinical trial comparing two rehabilitation protocols.2013Ingår i: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 47, nr 15, s. 953-9Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Hamstring injury is the single most common injury in European professional football and, therefore, time to return and secondary prevention are of particular concern.

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of two rehabilitation protocols after acute hamstring injury in Swedish elite football players by evaluating time needed to return to full participation in football team-training and availability for match selection.

    STUDY DESIGN: Prospective randomised comparison of two rehabilitation protocols.

    METHODS: Seventy-five football players with an acute hamstring injury, verified by MRI, were randomly assigned to one of two rehabilitation protocols. Thirty-seven players were assigned to a protocol emphasising lengthening exercises, L-protocol and 38 players to a protocol consisting of conventional exercises, C-protocol. The outcome measure was the number of days to return to full-team training and availability for match selection. Reinjuries were registered during a period of 12 months after return.

    RESULTS: Time to return was significantly shorter for the players in the L-protocol, mean 28 days (1SD±15, range 8-58 days), compared with the C-protocol, mean 51 days (1SD±21, range 12-94 days). Irrespective of protocol, stretching-type of hamstring injury took significantly longer time to return than sprinting-type, L-protocol: mean 43 vs 23 days and C-protocol: mean 74 vs 41 days, respectively. The L-protocol was significantly more effective than the C-protocol in both injury types. One reinjury was registered, in the C-protocol.

    CONCLUSIONS: A rehabilitation protocol emphasising lengthening type of exercises is more effective than a protocol containing conventional exercises in promoting time to return in Swedish elite football.

  • 15.
    Askling, Carl
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Akut hamstringsskada vanlig inom svensk elitfotboll2013Ingår i: Idrottsmedicin, ISSN 2001-3302, nr 2, s. 26-27Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 16.
    Askling, Carl
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Schache, Anthony
    Posterior thigh pain2013Ingår i: Brukner & Khan's clinical sports medicine / [ed] Brukner & Khan, Australia: McGraw-Hill, 2013, 4, s. 594-625Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 17. Ekstrand, Jan
    et al.
    Askling, Carl
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Magnusson, Henrik
    Mithoefer, Kai
    Return to play after thigh muscle injury in elite football players: implementation and validation of the Munich muscle injury classification.2013Ingår i: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 47, nr 12, s. 769-74Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Owing to the complexity and heterogeneity of muscle injuries, a generally accepted classification system is still lacking.

    AIMS: To prospectively implement and validate a novel muscle injury classification and to evaluate its predictive value for return to professional football.

    METHODS: The recently described Munich muscle injury classification was prospectively evaluated in 31 European professional male football teams during the 2011/2012 season. Thigh muscle injury types were recorded by team medical staff and correlated to individual player exposure and resultant time-loss.

    RESULTS: In total, 393 thigh muscle injuries occurred. The muscle classification system was well received with a 100% response rate. Two-thirds of thigh muscle injuries were classified as structural and were associated with longer lay-off times compared to functional muscle disorders (p<0.001). Significant differences were observed between structural injury subgroups (minor partial, moderate partial and complete injuries) with increasing lay-off time associated with more severe structural injury. Median lay-off time of functional disorders was 5-8 days without significant differences between subgroups. There was no significant difference in the absence time between anterior and posterior thigh injuries.

    CONCLUSIONS: The Munich muscle classification demonstrates a positive prognostic validity for return to play after thigh muscle injury in professional male football players. Structural injuries are associated with longer average lay-off times than functional muscle disorders. Subclassification of structural injuries correlates with return to play, while subgrouping of functional disorders shows less prognostic relevance. Functional disorders are often underestimated clinically and require further systematic study.

  • 18.
    Askling, Carl M
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Koulouris, George
    Saartok, Tönu
    Werner, Suzanne
    Best, Thomas M
    Total proximal hamstring ruptures: clinical and MRI aspects including guidelines for postoperative rehabilitation.2013Ingår i: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy, ISSN 0942-2056, E-ISSN 1433-7347, Vol. 21, nr 3, s. 515-33Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to provide a state-of-the-art review for treatment of acute, total proximal hamstring tendon ruptures. For total proximal hamstring tendon ruptures, early (<2-3 w) surgical refixation minimizes muscle atrophy and facilitates a somewhat predictable time course for healing and rehabilitation. A postoperative rehabilitation program is detailed that has been used by one physical therapist for the past 7 years on over 200 patients with surgical repair for total proximal hamstring tendon rupture. One re-rupture has occurred, 7 months after surgery, following the rehabilitation program described herein. The rehabilitation program, including avoidance of postoperative bracing, appears effective for total proximal hamstring ruptures. Early surgery together with a specific rehabilitation program appears to be the treatment of choice for timely and safe return to sport and an active lifestyle. Level of evidence V.

  • 19.
    Askling, Carl Magnus
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Karlsson, Jon
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Malliaropoulos, N
    High-speed running type or stretching-type of hamstring injuries makes a difference to treatment and prognosis2012Ingår i: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 46, nr 2, s. 86-87Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The article focuses on the two distinct types of hamstring muscle strains, highlighting the applicable rehabilitation approaches. It notes that acute hamstring strains are distinguished by the injury situations, namely the high-speed running type, and the stretching type, with the former requiring shorter rehabilitation period than the latter. It cites a comparative study of two rehabilitation protocols, pointing out that rehabilitation is shorter with lengthening exercises.

  • 20.
    Askling, Carl
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Nilsson, Johnny
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Thorstensson, Alf
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    A new hamstring test to complement the common clinical examination before return to sport after injury2010Ingår i: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy, ISSN 0942-2056, E-ISSN 1433-7347, Vol. 18, nr 12, s. 1788-1803Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: The aim was to introduce and evaluate the reliability and validity of an active hamstring flexibility test as a complement to common clinical examination when determining safe return to sport after hamstring injury.

    METHODS: Eleven healthy subjects (28 years) were tested on repeated occasions, and 11 athletes (21 years) with MRI-verified acute hamstring strain were tested when common clinical examination revealed no signs of remaining injury, i.e. there was no differences between the legs in palpation pain, manual strength tests, and passive straight leg raise. Flexibility, i.e. highest range of motion of three consecutive trials, was calculated from electrogoniometer data during active ballistic hip flexions and conventional passive slow hip-flexions in a supine position. A VAS-scale (0-100) was used to estimate experience of insecurity during active tests.

    RESULTS: No significant test-retest differences were observed. Intra-class correlation coefficients ranged 0.94-0.99 and coefficients of variation 1.52-4.53%. Active flexibility was greater (23%) than passive flexibility. In the athletes, the injured leg showed smaller (8%) active, but not passive, flexibility than the uninjured leg. Average insecurity estimation was 52 (range 28-98) for the injured and 0 for the uninjured leg, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: The new test showed high reliability and construct validity; furthermore, it seems to be sensitive enough to detect differences both in active flexibility and in insecurity after acute hamstring strains at a point in time when the commonly used clinical examination fails to reveal injury signs. Thus, the test could be a complement to the common clinical examination before the final decision to return to sport is made.

  • 21.
    Askling, Carl
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Hamstring muscle strain2008Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Acute hamstring strains are common injuries in different sports. They are often serious, causing long rehabilitation times and a proneness for re-injury. Preliminary observations indicate that the injuries can be of at least two types, one occurring during high-speed running and the other during motions where the hamstring muscles reach extreme lengths.

    Aims: To investigate the possible existence of different types of acute hamstring strains in two specific athletic groups, namely sprinters and dancers, as well as the generality of these findings in other sports.

    Methods: In the first project, 18 sprinters and 15 dancers with acute first time hamstring strains were prospectively included. All subjects were examined, clinically and with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), on 4 occasions after injury: at day 2-4, 10, 21 and 42. The follow-up period was 2 years. In the second project, 30 subjects from 21 different sports were prospectively included. All subjects were examined clinically and with MRI. The follow-up period lasted until the subjects returned to sport or finished their sport activity due to the injury.

    Results: All sprinters sustained their injuries during competitive high-speed running. In contrast, all dancers encountered their injuries during slow-speed stretching type of exercises. The initial loss of strength and flexibility was significantly greater in sprinters than in dancers. At 42 days after injury, both groups could perform more than 90% of the test values of the uninjured leg. All the sprinters’ injuries were primarily located in biceps femoris long head, whereas the dancers’ injuries were mainly (87%) involving the proximal free tendon of semimembranosus. For the sprinters, involvement of the proximal free tendon, as estimated by MRI, and proximity to the ischial tuberosity, as estimated both by palpation and MRI, were associated with significantly longer time to return to pre-injury level. In the dancers, there were no significant correlations between clinical or MRI parameters and time to return to per-injury level. The time to pre-injury level was significantly longer (median 50 weeks, range 30-76) for the dancers compared to the sprinters (16, 6-50). In the second project, all injuries occurred during movements reaching a position with combined extensive hip flexion and knee extension. They were all located close to the ischial tuberosity and 83% involved the proximal free tendon of semimembranosus. Fourteen subjects (47%) decided to end their sport activity and for the remaining 16 subjects the median time back to sport was 31 (range 9-104) weeks. There were no significant correlations between clinical and MRI parameters and time to return to sport.

    Conclusions: There seems to be a link between the injury situation and the two types of acute hamstring strain in sprinters and dancers with respect to clinical findings, injury location, muscles and tissues involved, and time to return to pre-injury level. Proximity of the injury to the ischial tuberosity, as estimated both by palpation and MRI, is associated with longer recovery time. Also in other sports, an injury situation where the hamstrings reach extensive lengths caused a specific injury to the proximal posterior thigh similar to that described in dancers. Due to the prolonged recovery time associated with this type of injury, correct diagnosis based on history, clinical and MRI investigation, and adequate information to the athletes are essential.

  • 22.
    Askling, Carl M
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Tengvar, Magnus
    Saartok, Tönu
    Thorstensson, Alf
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Proximal hamstring strains of stretching type in different sports: injury situations, clinical and magnetic resonance imaging characteristics, and return to sport.2008Ingår i: The American journal of sports medicine, ISSN 1552-3365, Vol. 36, nr 9, s. 1799-804Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Hamstring strains can be of at least 2 types, 1 occurring during high-speed running and the other during motions in which the hamstring muscles reach extreme lengths, as documented for sprinters and dancers. HYPOTHESIS: Hamstring strains in different sports, with similar injury situations to dancers, also show similarities in symptoms, injury location, and recovery time. STUDY DESIGN: Case series (prognosis); Level of evidence, 4. METHODS: Thirty subjects from 21 different sports were prospectively included. All subjects were examined clinically and with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The follow-up period lasted until the subjects returned to or finished their sport activity. RESULTS: All injuries occurred during movements reaching a position with combined extensive hip flexion and knee extension. They were located proximally in the posterior thigh, close to the ischial tuberosity. The injuries were often complex, but 83% involved the semimembranosus and its proximal free tendon. Fourteen subjects (47%) decided to end their sports activity. For the remaining 16 subjects, the median time for return to sport was 31 weeks (range, 9-104). There were no significant correlations between specific clinical or MRI parameters and time to return to sport. CONCLUSIONS: In different sports, an injury situation in which the hamstring muscles reach extensive length causes a specific injury to the proximal posterior thigh, earlier described in dancers. Because of the prolonged recovery time associated with this type of injury, correct diagnosis, based on history and palpation, and adequate information to the subject are essential.

  • 23.
    Askling, Carl M
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Tengvar, Magnus
    Saartok, Tönu
    Thorstensson, Alf
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Acute first-time hamstring strains during high-speed running: a longitudinal study including clinical and magnetic resonance imaging findings.2007Ingår i: American Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0363-5465, E-ISSN 1552-3365, Vol. 35, nr 2, s. 197-206Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Hamstring muscle strain is one of the most common injuries in sports. Still, knowledge is limited about the progression of clinical and magnetic resonance imaging characteristics and their association with recovery time in athletes. HYPOTHESIS: Knowing the anatomical location and extent of an acute first-time hamstring strain in athletes is critical for the prognosis of recovery time. STUDY DESIGN: Case series (prognosis); Level of evidence, 2. METHODS: Eighteen elite sprinters with acute first-time hamstring strains were prospectively included in the study. All subjects were examined, clinically and with magnetic resonance imaging, on 4 occasions after injury: at day 2 to 4, 10, 21, and 42. The clinical follow-up period was 2 years. RESULTS: All sprinters were injured during competitive sprinting, and the primary injuries were all located in the long head of the biceps femoris muscle. There was an association between the time to return to pre-injury level (median, 16; range, 6-50 weeks) and the extent of the injury, as indicated by the magnetic resonance imaging parameters. Involvement of the proximal free tendon, as estimated by MRI, and proximity to the ischial tuberosity, as estimated both by palpation and magnetic resonance imaging, were associated with longer time to return to pre-injury level. CONCLUSION: Careful palpation during the first 3 weeks after injury and magnetic resonance imaging investigation performed during the first 6 weeks after injury provide valuable information that can be used to predict the time to return to pre-injury level of performance in elite sprinting.

  • 24.
    Askling, Carl M
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Tengvar, Magnus
    Saartok, Tönu
    Thorstensson, Alf
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Acute first-time hamstring strains during slow-speed stretching: clinical, magnetic resonance imaging, and recovery characteristics.2007Ingår i: The American journal of sports medicine, ISSN 1552-3365, Vol. 35, nr 10, s. 1716-24Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Hamstring strains can be of 2 types with different injury mechanisms, 1 occurring during high-speed running and the other during stretching exercises. HYPOTHESIS: A stretching type of injury to the proximal rear thigh may involve specific muscle-tendon structures that could affect recovery time. STUDY DESIGN: Case series (prognosis); Level of evidence, 2. METHODS: Fifteen professional dancers with acute first-time hamstring strains were prospectively included in the study. All subjects were examined, clinically and with magnetic resonance imaging, on 4 occasions after injury: at day 2 to 4, 10, 21, and 42. The clinical follow-up period was 2 years. RESULTS: All dancers were injured during slow hip-flexion movements with extended knee and experienced relatively mild acute symptoms. All injuries were located proximally in the posterior thigh close to the ischial tuberosity. The injury involved the semimembranosus (87%), quadratus femoris (87%), and adductor magnus (33%). All injuries to the semimembranosus involved its proximal free tendon. There were no significant correlations between clinical or magnetic resonance imaging parameters and the time to return to preinjury level (median, 50 weeks; range, 30-76 weeks). CONCLUSION: Stretching exercises can give rise to a specific type of strain injury to the posterior thigh. A precise history and careful palpation provide the clinician enough information to predict a prolonged time until return to preinjury level. One factor underlying prolonged recovery time could be the involvement of the free tendon of the semimembranosus muscle.

  • 25.
    Askling, Carl
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Saartok, Tönö
    Thorstensson, Alf
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Type of acute hamstring strain affects flexiblility, strength and time to return to pre-injury level2006Ingår i: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 40, s. 40-44Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 26.
    Askling, Carl
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Karlsson, J
    Thorstensson, Alf
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Hamstring injury occurrence in elite soccer players after preseason strength training with eccentric overload.2003Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 13, nr 4, s. 244-50Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a preseason strength training programme for the hamstring muscle group - emphasising eccentric overloading - could affect the occurrence and severity of hamstring injuries during the subsequent competition season in elite male soccer players. Thirty players from two of the best premier-league division teams in Sweden were divided into two groups; one group received additional specific hamstring training, whereas the other did not. The extra training was performed 1-2 times a week for 10 weeks by using a special device aiming at specific eccentric overloading of the hamstrings. Isokinetic hamstring strength and maximal running speed were measured in both groups before and after the training period and all hamstring injuries were registered during the total observational period of 10 months. The results showed that the occurrence of hamstring strain injuries was clearly lower in the training group (3/15) than in the control group (10/15). In addition, there were significant increases in strength and speed in the training group. However, there were no obvious coupling between performance parameters and injury occurrence. These results indicate that addition of specific preseason strength training for the hamstrings - including eccentric overloading - would be beneficial for elite soccer players, both from an injury prevention and from performance enhancement point of view.

  • 27.
    Askling, Carl
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Lund, H
    Saartok, T
    Thorstensson, Alf
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Self-reported hamstring injuries in student-dancers.2002Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 12, nr 4, s. 230-5Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Dancing involves powerful movements as well as flexibility exercises, both of which may be related to specific injuries to the musculo-tendinosus tissue, e.g., the hamstring muscle complex. In this study, the occurrence of acute and overuse injuries to the rear thigh in dancers was investigated retrospectively by means of a questionnaire. All but one (n = 98) of the student-dancers (age 17-25 years) at the Ballet Academy in Stockholm participated. The results demonstrated that, during the past 10 years, every third dancer (34%) reported that they had acute injuries and every sixth dancer (17%) had overuse injuries to the rear thigh. Most (91%) of the acute injuries were subjectively located to an area close to tuber ischiadicum. The majority (88%) stated that the acute injury occurred during slow activities in flexibility training, e.g., splits, and only a few (12%) in powerful movements. Continuing problems were reported by 70% of the acutely injured dancers. Many of the dancers neglected their acute injury (14 did not even stop the ongoing dance activity) and they also greatly underestimated the recovery time. Only 4 dancers (12%) received acute medical assistance. Thus the results, based on the recollection of the subjects, indicated that stretching could induce severe strain injuries to the proximal hamstrings in dancers. Extrapolating these results to the practice, it can be recommended that stretching exercises be executed with caution in connection with dancing sessions and training, and that, information about the seriousness and acute treatment of such injuries be added to the student-dancers' curriculum.

  • 28.
    Askling, Carl
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Tengvar, M
    Saartok, T
    Thorstensson, Alf
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Sports related hamstring strains--two cases with different etiologies and injury sites.2000Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 10, nr 5, s. 304-7Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Hamstring strains are common injuries in sports. Knowledge about their etiology and localization is, however, limited. The two cases described here both had acute hamstring strains, but the etiologies were entirely different. The sprinter was injured when running at maximal speed, whereas the hamstring strain in the dancer occurred during slow stretching. Also the anatomical localizations of the injuries clearly differed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed pathological changes in the distal semitendinosus muscle in the sprinter and the proximal tendon of the semimembranosus muscle in the dancer. Subjectively, both athletes severely underestimated the recovery time. These case observations suggest a possible link between etiology and localization of hamstring strains.

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