Change search
Refine search result
123 1 - 50 of 133
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Ek, Amanda
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology. Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Kallings, Lena
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Ekström, Mattias
    Danderyd Hospital, Sweden ; Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Börjesson, Mats
    Sahlgrenska Academy & Sahlgrenska University Hospital/Ostra, Sweden ; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Subjective reports of physical activity levels and sedentary time prior to hospital admission can predict utilization of hospital care and all-cause mortality among patients with cardiovascular disease.2020In: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, ISSN 1474-5151, E-ISSN 1873-1953, article id 1474515120921986Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: In prevention, sedentary behaviour and physical activity have been associated with risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. Less is known about associations with utilization of hospital care.

    AIM: To investigate whether physical activity level and sedentary behaviour prior to cardiac ward admission can predict utilization of hospital care and mortality among patients with cardiovascular disease.

    METHODS: Longitudinal observational study including 1148 patients admitted and treated in cardiac wards in two hospitals. Subjective reports of physical activity levels and sedentary time prior to admission were collected during inpatient care and categorized as low, medium or high. The associations between physical activity level and sedentary time with hospital stay, readmission and mortality were analysed using linear, logistic and Cox regressions.

    RESULTS: Median hospital stay was 2.1 days. One higher step in the physical activity level, or lower sedentary time, was related to an approximately 0.9 days shorter hospital stay. Sixty per cent of patients were readmitted to hospital. The risk of being readmitted was lower for individuals reporting high physical activity and low sedentary time (odds ratios ranging between 0.44 and 0.91). A total of 200 deaths occurred during the study. Mortality was lower among those with high and medium physical activity levels and low sedentary time (hazard ratios ranging between 0.36 and 0.90).

    CONCLUSION: Both physical activity level and sedentary time during the period preceding hospitalization for cardiac events were predictors of hospital utilization and mortality. This highlights the prognostic value of assessing patients' physical activity and sedentary behaviour.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 2.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Salier Eriksson, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Hemmingsson, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Kallings, Lena
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    HPI Health Profile Institute, Danderyd, Sweden.
    Wallin, Peter
    HPI Health Profile Institute, Danderyd, Sweden.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Latent profile analysis patterns of exercise, sitting and fitness in adults - Associations with metabolic risk factors, perceived health, and perceived symptoms.2020In: PLoS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 15, no 4, article id e0232210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: To identify and describe the characteristics of naturally occurring patterns of exercise, sitting in leisure time and at work and cardiorespiratory fitness, and the association of such profiles with metabolic risk factors, perceived health, and perceived symptoms.

    METHODS: 64,970 participants (42% women, 18-75 years) participating in an occupational health service screening in 2014-2018 were included. Exercise and sitting were self-reported. Cardiorespiratory fitness was estimated using a submaximal cycle test. Latent profile analysis was used to identify profiles. BMI and blood pressure were assessed through physical examination. Perceived back/neck pain, overall stress, global health, and sleeping problems were self-reported.

    RESULTS: Six profiles based on exercise, sitting in leisure time and at work and cardiorespiratory fitness were identified and labelled; Profile 1 "Inactive, low fit and average sitting in leisure, with less sitting at work"; Profile 2 "Inactive, low fit and sedentary"; Profile 3 "Active and average fit, with less sitting at work"; Profile 4 "Active, average fit and sedentary in leisure, with a sedentary work" (the most common profile, 35% of the population); Profile 5 "Active and fit, with a sedentary work"; Profile 6 "Active and fit, with less sitting at work". Some pairwise similarities were found between profiles (1 and 2, 3 and 4, 5 and 6), mainly based on similar levels of exercise, leisure time sitting and fitness, which translated into similar dose-response associations with the outcomes. In general, profile 1 and 2 demonstrated most adverse metabolic and perceived health, profile 4 had a more beneficial health than profile 3, as did profile 6 compared to profile 5.

    CONCLUSIONS: The present results implies a large variation in exercise, sitting, and fitness when studying naturally occurring patterns, and emphasize the possibility to target exercise, sitting time, and/or fitness in health enhancing promotion intervention and strategies.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 3.
    Hemmingsson, Erik
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Kallings, Lena
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Health Profile Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wallin, Peter
    Health Profile Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Söderling, Jonas
    Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Blom, Victoria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Prevalence and time trends of overweight, obesity and severe obesity in 447,925 Swedish adults, 1995–20172020In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: The purpose of this research was to describe the current prevalence and historic trends in overweight, obesity and severe obesity in Sweden. Methods: Data on BMI, age, gender, education and geographic region were obtained in n=447,925 Swedish adults through a nationwide screening test (1995?2017). To account for sampling variations, we quantified prevalence estimates and time trends using standardized values (direct method) to all 18?74-year-old Swedes, using nationwide databases. Rates of overweight (BMI ?25 kg/m2), obesity (BMI ?30 kg/m2) and severe obesity (BMI ?35 kg/m2) were calculated across gender, age, education and geographic categories. Years were grouped into two-year sampling periods (except the first period where we used three years) for increased power. We used multivariable logistic regression to quantify independent associations between age, gender, education and region with obesity development and current prevalence rates. Results: In 2016/17 the unstandardized prevalence of overweight, obesity and severe obesity were 55.1%, 16.6% and 4.2%, respectively. Factors associated with a higher obesity prevalence were male gender, older age, lower education and residing in a rural region (all P<0.001). Between 1995 and 2017 the prevalence of severe obesity increased by 153%, compared to obesity (+86%) and overweight (+23%). While there were similar increases in obesity across gender and age groups, people with low education (vs high) and rural areas (vs urban) had a higher prevalence increase (both P<0.001). Conclusions: Rates of overweight, obesity and severe obesity have increased markedly in Swedish adults since 1995. Priority groups for prevention efforts include individuals with low education and those living in rural areas.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 4.
    Godhe, Manne
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Helge, Torbjörn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Mattsson, C. Mikael
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Physiological Factors of Importance for Load Carriage in Experienced and Inexperienced Men and Women.2020In: Military medicine, ISSN 0026-4075, E-ISSN 1930-613X, article id usaa050Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: The ability to carry heavy loads is an important and necessary task during numerous outdoor activities and especially in military operations. The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with load-carrying ability in men and women with and without extensive load-carrying experience.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The energy expenditure during carrying no load, 20, 35, and 50 kg at 2 walking speeds, 3 and 5 km h-1, was studied in 36 healthy participants, 19 men (30 ± 6 years, 82.5 ± 7.0 kg) and 17 women (29 ± 6 years, 66.1 ± 8.9 kg), experienced (>5 years) in carrying heavy loads (n = 16, 8 women) or with minor or no such experience (n = 20, 9 women). A standard backpack filled with weights to according carry load was used during the walks. Anthropometric data, leg muscle strength, as well as trunk muscle endurance and muscle fiber distribution of the thigh, were also obtained. Extra Load Index (ELI)-the oxygen uptake (VO2) during total load over unloaded walking-was used as a proxy for load-carrying ability at 20, 35, and 50 kg (ELI20, ELI35, and ELI50, respectively). In addition to analyzing factors of importance for the ELI values, we also conducted mediator analyses using sex and long-term carrying experience as causal variables for ELI as the outcome value. The study was approved by the Regional Ethics Committee in Stockholm, Sweden.

    RESULTS: For the lowest load (20 kg), ELI20, was correlated with body mass but no other factors. Walking with 35 and 50 kg load at 5 km h-1 body mass, body height, leg muscle strength, and absolute VO2max were correlated, while relative VO2max, trunk muscle endurance, and leg muscle fiber distribution were not correlated to ELI35 and ELI50.ELI50 at 5 km h-1 differed between the sexes. This difference was only mediated by the difference in body mass. Neither muscle fiber distribution, leg muscle strength, trunk muscle endurance, and body height nor did absolute or relative VO2max explain the difference.Participants with long-term experience of heavy load carrying had significant lower ELI20 and ELI50 values than those with minor or no experience, but none of the above studied factors could explain this difference.

    CONCLUSION: The study showed that body mass, without sex differences, and experience of carrying heavy loads are the dominant factors for the ability to carry heavy loads. Even though the effect of experience alludes to the need for extensive carrying training, no causality can be proven. Load carry training intervention studies is suggested for future investigations.

    The full text will be freely available from 2021-04-06 10:00
  • 5.
    Drake, Emma
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Kallings, Lena
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Blom, Victoria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Device-Measured Sedentary Behaviour are Associated with Sickness Absence in Office Workers.2020In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 17, no 2, article id E628Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Physical activity reduces the risk of several noncommunicable diseases, and a number of studies have found self-reported physical activity to be associated with sickness absence. The aim of this study was to examine if cardiorespiratory fitness, device-measured physical activity, and sedentary behaviour were associated with sickness absence among office workers. Participants were recruited from two Swedish companies. Data on sickness absence (frequency and duration) and covariates were collected via questionnaires. Physical activity pattern was assessed using ActiGraph and activPAL, and fitness was estimated from submaximal cycle ergometry. The sample consisted of 159 office workers (67% women, aged 43 ± 8 years). Higher cardiorespiratory fitness was significantly associated with a lower odds ratio (OR) for both sickness absence duration (OR = 0.92, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.87-0.96) and frequency (OR = 0.93, 95% CI 0.90-0.97). Sedentary time was positively associated with higher odds of sickness absence frequency (OR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.99-1.08). No associations were found for physical activity at any intensity level and sickness absence. Higher sickness absence was found among office workers with low cardiorespiratory fitness and more daily time spent sedentary. In contrast to reports using self-reported physical activity, device-measured physical activity was not associated with sickness absence.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 6.
    Nilsson, Jonna
    et al.
    Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Lebedev, Alexander
    Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tarassova, Olga
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Moberg, Marcus
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Lövdén, Martin
    Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Acute increases in brain-derived neurotrophic factor in plasma following physical exercise relates to subsequent learning in older adults.2020In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 10, no 1, article id 4395Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multidomain lifestyle interventions represents a promising strategy to counteract cognitive decline in older age. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is essential for experience-dependent plasticity and increases following physical exercise, suggesting that physical exercise may facilitate subsequent learning. In a randomized-controlled trial, healthy older adults (65-75 years) completed a 12-week behavioral intervention that involved either physical exercise immediately before cognitive training (n = 25; 13 females), physical exercise immediately after cognitive training (n = 24; 11 females), physical exercise only (n = 27; 15 females), or cognitive training only (n = 21; 12 females). We hypothesized that cognition would benefit more from cognitive training when preceded as opposed to followed by physical exercise and that the relationship between exercise-induced increases in peripheral BDNF and cognitive training outcome would be greater when cognitive training is preceded by physical exercise. Greater increases of plasma BDNF were associated with greater cognitive training gains on trained task paradigms, but only when such increases preceded cognitive training (ß = 0.14, 95% CI [0.04, 0.25]). Average cognitive training outcome did not differ depending on intervention order (ß = 0.05, 95% CI [-0.10, 0.20]). The study provides the first empirical support for a time-critical but advantageous role for post-exercise increases in peripheral BDNF for learning at an interindividual level in older adults, with implications for future multidomain lifestyle interventions.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 7.
    Fridolfsson, Jonatan
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Börjesson, Mats
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Arvidsson, Daniel
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Stronger Association between High Intensity Physical Activity and Cardiometabolic Health with Improved Assessment of the Full Intensity Range Using Accelerometry.2020In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 20, no 4, article id E1118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An improved method of physical activity accelerometer data processing, involving a wider frequency filter than the most commonly used ActiGraph filter, has been shown to better capture variations in physical activity intensity in a lab setting. The aim of the study was to investigate how this improved measure of physical activity affected the relationship with markers of cardiometabolic health. Accelerometer data and markers of cardiometabolic health from 725 adults from two samples, LIV 2013 and SCAPIS pilot, were analyzed. The accelerometer data was processed using both the original ActiGraph method with a low-pass cut-off at 1.6 Hz and the improved method with a low-pass cut-off at 10 Hz. The relationship between the physical activity intensity spectrum and a cardiometabolic health composite score was investigated using partial least squares regression. The strongest association between physical activity and cardiometabolic health was shifted towards higher intensities with the 10 Hz output compared to the ActiGraph method. In addition, the total explained variance was higher with the improved method. The 10 Hz output enables correctly measuring and interpreting high intensity physical activity and shows that physical activity at this intensity is stronger related to cardiometabolic health compared to the most commonly used ActiGraph method.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 8.
    Fröberg, Andreas
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindroos, Anna-Karin
    Swedish Food Agency, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Organised physical activity during leisure time is associated with more objectively measured physical activity among Swedish adolescents.2020In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate associations between participation in organised physical activity (PA), such as sport and exercise during leisure time, and objectively measured PA and sedentary time in a large representative sample of Swedish adolescents.

    METHODS: This study was part of the school-based cross-sectional Swedish national dietary survey Riksmaten Adolescents 2016-17. Data from 3477 adolescents aged 11-12, 14-15 and 17-18 years were used in the analyses. Participation in organised PA and parental education were reported in questionnaires. PA and sedentary time were objectively measured through accelerometry during seven consecutive days.

    RESULTS: Adolescents who participated in organised PA had significantly higher total PA (14%, p<0.001), more time spent on moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) (eight minutes, p<0.001) and had less sedentary time (15 minutes, p<0.001). Those who participated in organised PA were more likely to reach recommended PA levels. Total PA and MVPA did not differ by parental education among those who participated in organised PA.

    CONCLUSION: Adolescents who participated in organised PA were more physically active, less sedentary and more likely to reach PA recommendations than those who did not.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 9.
    Blom, Victoria
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group. Karolinska institutet.
    Kallings, Lena
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Wallin, Peter
    HPI Health Profile Institute AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    HPI Health Profile Institute AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hemmingsson, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Söderling, Jonas
    Karolinska institutet.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Self-Reported General Health, Overall and Work-Related Stress, Loneliness, and Sleeping Problems in 335,625 Swedish Adults from 2000 to 2016.2020In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 17, no 2, article id E511Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The prevalence of poor health, in particular stress-related mental ill-health, is increasing over time and birth cohorts. As rapid societal changes have occurred in the last decade and still are occurring, there is an interest in investigating the trends in health-related factors. The aim of the present study was to investigate trends in self-reported general health, overall stress, work-related stress, feelings of loneliness, and sleeping problems in 335,625 Swedish adults across categories of gender, geographic regions, length of education, and age from 2000 to 2016. On population level, sleeping problems and poor general health have increased markedly and significantly, while experiences of work stress decreased between 2000 and 2016 (p < 0.05). Overall stress and level of loneliness were unchanged (p > 0.05). The risk of having ≥3 symptoms (any of poor or very poor general health, often or very often perceived overall stress, loneliness, or sleeping problems) has increased significantly from 2000 to 2016 (ß = 1034 (1027-1040)). This increase was significantly higher in young (ß = 1052 (1038-1065)) and individuals with lower education (ß = 1056 (1037-1076)) compared to older and high length of education.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 10.
    Salier Eriksson, Jane
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Blom, Victoria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Kallings, Lena
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Hemmingsson, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Andersson, G
    Wallin, P
    Stenling, A
    Lindwall, M
    Latent profiles of sedentary time, exercise and cardiorespiratory fitness in adults, and the associations with metabolic and percieved health2019Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Söderling, J
    Börjesson, M
    Blom, Victoria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Kallings, Lena
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Hemmingsson, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Andersson, G
    Wallin, P
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Sex- and age-specific associations between cardiorespiratory fitness, CVD morbidity and all-cause mortality in 316.137 Swedish adults2019Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Larsson, Kristina
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Kallings, Lena
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Blom, Victoria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Job demands control model as related to objectively measured physical activity and sitting time in working women and men2019Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Hemmingsson, Erik
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Kallings, Lena
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Wallin, Peter
    Söderling, Jonas
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Blom, Victoria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Objectively measured prevalence and time trends of obesity and severe obesity in 447 925 Swedish adults, 1995-20172019Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 14. Zou, D.
    et al.
    Wennman, H.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Grote, L.
    Arvidsson, D.
    Blomberg, A.
    Torén, K.
    Bergström, G.
    Börjesson, M.
    Hedner, J.
    Insomnia and cardiorespiratory fitness in a middle-aged population: the swedish cardiopulmonary bioimaging pilot study.2019In: Sleep Medicine, Volume 64, Supplement 1, December 2019, Elsevier, 2019, Vol. 64, p. S442-S442Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Ekblom, Maria
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control. Karolinska institutet.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Börjesson, Mats
    University of Gothenburg.
    Bergström, Göran
    University of Gothenburg.
    Jern, Christina
    University of Gothenburg.
    Wallin, Anders
    University of Gothenburg.
    Device-Measured Sedentary Behavior, Physical Activity and Aerobic Fitness Are Independent Correlates of Cognitive Performance in Healthy Middle-Aged Adults-Results from the SCAPIS Pilot Study.2019In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, no 24, article id E5136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High aerobic fitness, more moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and less sedentary behavior (SED) have all been suggested to promote cognitive functions, but it is unclear whether they are independent predictors of specific cognitive domains. This study aimed to investigate to what extent aerobic fitness MVPA and SED are independently associated with cognitive performance among middle-aged Swedish adults. We acquired device-based measures of aerobic fitness, cognitive performance and percent daily time spent in MVPA and SED in Swedish adults (n = 216; 54-66 years old). Aerobic fitness was associated with better performance at one out of two tests of speed/attention and one out of four tests of executive attention, and with worse performance at one of seven tests of memory. Increasing %MVPA was associated with better performance at one out of seven tests of memory and two out of three tests of verbal ability, whereas increasing %SED was associated with better performance at all four tests of executive attention and four out of seven tests of memory. These findings suggest that aerobic fitness, %MVPA and %SED are partly independent correlates of cognitive performance. To fully understand the association between SED and performance at several tests of cognitive function, future investigations might attempt to investigate intellectually engaging SED (such as reading books) separately from mentally undemanding SED (such as watching TV).

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 16.
    Väisänen, Daniel
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Andersson, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control. Karolinska institutet.
    Nilsson, Jonna
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Criterion validity of the Ekblom-Bak and the Åstrand submaximal test in an elderly population.2020In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 120, no 2, p. 307-316Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to validate the submaximal Ekblom-Bak test (EB-test) and the Åstrand test (Å-test) for an elderly population.

    METHODS: Participants (n = 104), aged 65-75 years, completed a submaximal aerobic test on a cycle ergometer followed by an individually adjusted indirect calorimetry VO2max test on a treadmill. The HR from the submaximal test was used to estimate VO2max using both the EB-test and Å-test equations.

    RESULTS: The correlation between measured and estimated VO2max using the EB method and Å method in women was r = 0.64 and r = 0.58, respectively and in men r = 0.44 and r = 0.44, respectively. In women, the mean difference between estimated and measured VO2max was - 0.02 L min-1 (95% CI - 0.08 to 0.04) for the EB method and - 0.12 L min-1 (95% CI - 0.22 to - 0.02) for the Å method. Corresponding values for men were 0.05 L min-1 (95% CI - 0.04 to 0.14) and - 0.28 L min-1 (95% CI - 0.42 to - 0.14), respectively. However, the EB method was found to overestimate VO2max in men with low fitness and the Å method was found to underestimate VO2max in both women and men. For women, the coefficient of variance was 11.1%, when using the EB method and 19.8% when using the Å method. Corresponding values for men were 11.6% and 18.9%, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: The submaximal EB-test is valid for estimating VO2max in elderly women, but not in all elderly men. The Å-test is not valid for estimating VO2max in the elderly.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 17.
    Kallings, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Olsson, Sven Johan Gustav
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Börjesson, Mats
    Göteborg Universitet.
    The SED-GIH: A Single-Item Question for Assessment of Stationary Behavior-A Study of Concurrent and Convergent Validity.2019In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, no 23, article id E4766Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The unfavorable health consequences of prolonged time spent sedentary (stationary) make accurate assessment in the general population important. However, for many existing questionnaires, validity for identifying stationary time has not been shown or has shown low validity. This study aimed to assess the concurrent and convergent validity of the GIH stationary single-item question (SED-GIH). Data were obtained in 2013 and 2014 from two Swedish cohorts. A total of 711 men and women provided valid accelerometer data (Actigraph GT3X+) and were included for concurrent validity analyses. A total of 560 individuals answered three additional commonly used sedentary questions, and were included for convergent validity analysis. The SED-GIH displayed a significant correlation with total stationary time (rs = 0.48) and time in prolonged stationary time (rs = 0.44). The ROC analysis showed an AUC of 0.72 for identifying individuals with stationary time over 600 min/day. The SED-GIH correlated significantly with other previously used questions (r = 0.72-0.89). The SED-GIH single-item question showed a relatively high agreement with device-assessed stationary behavior and was able to identify individuals with high levels of stationary time. Thus, the SED-GIH may be used to assess total and prolonged stationary time. This has important implications, as simple assessment tools of this behavior are needed in public health practice and research.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 18.
    Kuster, Roman P
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Grooten, Wilhelmus J A
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Baumgartner, Daniel
    ZHAW Zurich University of Applied Sciences, Winterthur, Switzerland..
    Blom, Victoria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hagströmer, Maria
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Detecting Prolonged Sitting Bouts with the ActiGraph GT3X.2020In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 572-582Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ActiGraph has a high ability to measure physical activity, however, it lacks an accurate posture classification to measure sedentary behaviour. The aim of the present study was to develop an ActiGraph (waist-worn, 30Hz) posture classification to detect prolonged sitting bouts, and to compare the classification to proprietary ActiGraph data. The activPAL, a highly valid posture classification device, served as reference criterion.1 Both sensors were worn by 38 office workers over a median duration of 9 days. An automated feature selection extracted the relevant signal information for a minute based posture classification. The machine-learning algorithm with optimal feature number to predict the time in prolonged sitting bouts (≥5 and ≥10 minutes) was searched and compared to the activPAL using Bland-Altman statistics. The comparison included optimised and frequently used cut-points (100 and 150 counts-per-minute (cpm), with and without low-frequency-extension (LFE) filtering). The new algorithm predicted the time in prolonged sitting bouts most accurate (bias ≤7 minutes/day). Of all proprietary ActiGraph methods, only 150 cpm without LFE predicted the time in prolonged sitting bouts non-significantly different from the activPAL (bias ≤18 minutes/day). However, the frequently used 100 cpm with LFE accurately predicted total sitting time (bias ≤7 minutes/day). To study the health effects of ActiGraph measured prolonged sitting, we recommend using the new algorithm. In case a cut-point is used, we recommend 150 cpm without LFE to measure prolonged sitting, and 100 cpm with LFE to measure total sitting time. However, both cpm cut-points are not recommended for a detailed bout analysis.

  • 19.
    Bojsen-Møller, Emil
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Blom, Victoria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control. Karolinska institutet.
    Relationships between Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour and Cognitive Functions in Office Workers.2019In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, no 23, article id E4721Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing evidence from animal experiments suggests that physical activity (PA) promotes neuroplasticity and learning. For humans, most research on the relationship between PA, sedentary behaviour (SB), and cognitive function has relied on self-reported measures of behaviour. Office work is characterised by high durations of SB combined with high work demands. While previous studies have shown that fitter office workers outperform their less fit colleagues in cognitive tests, the importance of PA and SB remains unknown. This study investigated associations between objectively measured PA and SB, using hip-worn accelerometers, and cognitive functions in 334 office workers. Time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) was not associated with any cognitive outcome. However, time spent in SB tended to be positively associated with words recalled in free recall (β = 0.125). For the least fit participants, the average length of MVPA bouts was favourably related to Stroop performance (β = -0.211), while for the fitter individuals, a longer average length of MVPA bouts was related to worse recognition (β = -0.216). While our findings indicate that the length of MVPA bouts was associated with better Stroop performance in the least fit participants, our findings do not support the notion that more time spent in MVPA or less time in SB is associated with better cognitive function.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 20.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Placebo "exercise drink" study provides a welcome wake-up call about the importance of rigorous research.2020In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 109, no 2, p. 226-227Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Salier Eriksson, Jane
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Kallings, Lena
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Hemmingsson, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    HPI Health Profile Institute.
    Wallin, Peter
    HPI Health Profile Institute.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Active commuting in Swedish workers between 1998 and 2015 - trends, characteristics and cardiovascular disease risk.2020In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 30, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Trend analyses of active commuting and potential variations in trends and association with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk within sub-groups are unknown.

    OBJECTIVES: To a) describe trends in active commuting between 1998 to 2015 and b) to study the association between different amounts of active commuting and the incidence risk of CVD in a large sample of Swedish workers, and analyses of potential variations across sub-groups of socio-demographics, physical activity and BMI.

    METHODS: A total of 318,309 participants (47% women, 18-74 years) who participated in a nationwide occupational health service screening between 1998 and 2015 were included. Commuting habits were self-reported, and data on first-time CVD events were derived from national registers.

    RESULTS: Self-reported passive commuters decreased between 1998 and 2015 (64% to 56%), transferring to an increase in mainly moderate/high-dose active commuters (12% to 19%). Changes were seen in all subgroups. The characteristics and life-style habits of the typical passive and active commuter changed little over the study period. Low- and moderate/high-dose active commuters had significantly decreased risks for a first time CVD during follow-up. This was accentuated in men, middle-aged and in participants with light physical work situations, irregular exercise habits, being overweight/obese and with low fitness.

    CONCLUSION: Increases in active commuting were observed between 1998 and 2015, however still leaving a majority who do not actively commute. As active commuting, regardless dose, is associated with a lower CVD risk, encouraging more people to actively commute may provide an easily accessible and time-efficient possibility to increase physical activity and health in the general population.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-10-20 01:01
  • 22.
    Larsson, Kristina
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences. Sophiahemmet University.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Kallings, Lena
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control. Karolinska institutet.
    Blom, Victoria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group. Karolinska institutet.
    Job Demand-Control-Support Model as Related to Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Time in Working Women and Men.2019In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, no 18, article id E3370Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A physically active lifestyle incurs health benefits and physically active individuals show reduced reactivity to psychosocial stressors. However, the findings are inconclusive and are based on self-reported physical activity and sedentary time. The present study aimed at studying the associations between psychological stressors (job demand, control, support, JD-C-S) and objectively measured physical activity (PA) on various intensities from sedentary (SED) to vigorous physical activity. The participants were 314 employees from a cross-sectional study. PA data were collected with the accelerometer ActiGraph GT3X (Pensacola, FL, USA), SED data with the inclinometer activPAL (PAL Technologies Ltd., Glasgow, Scotland, UK), and psychosocial stressors with a web questionnaire. Results showed that vigorous-intensity PA was negatively associated with demand (β -0.15, p < 0.05), even when adjusted for the covariates. SED was negatively associated to support (β -0.13, p < 0.05). Stress significantly moderated relations between support and sedentary time (β -0.12, p < 0.05). Moderate PA (MVPA) was negatively associated with demand, but only when controlling for overtime (β -0.13, p < 0.05). MVPA was also negatively associated with control (β -0.15, p < 0.05) but not when work engagement was included in the model. Being more physically active and spending less time sedentary may help to handle job situations with high demand and low support.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 23.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Söderling, Jonas
    Karolinska institutet.
    Börjesson, Mats
    University of Gothenburg.
    Blom, Victoria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Kallings, Lena
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Hemmingsson, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    HPI Health Profile Institute, Danderyd.
    Wallin, Peter
    HPI Health Profile Institute, Danderyd.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Sex- and age-specific associations between cardiorespiratory fitness, CVD morbidity and all-cause mortality in 266.109 adults.2019In: Preventive Medicine, ISSN 0091-7435, E-ISSN 1096-0260, Vol. 127, article id 105799Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to investigate sex- and age-specific associations between cardiorespiratory fitness, all-cause and cause-specific mortality, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity. 266.109 participants (47% women, 18-74 years) free from CVD, participating in occupational health service screenings in 1995-2015 were included. CRF was assessed as estimated maximal oxygen consumption (estVO2max) using a submaximal cycle test. Incident cases of first-time CVD event and death from any cause were ascertained through national registers. There were 4244 CVD events and 2750 cases of all-cause mortality during mean 7.6 years follow-up. Male gender, higher age and lower estVO2max were associated with higher all-cause mortality and CVD morbidity incidence rates. Risk reductions with increasing estVO2max were present in all age-groups of men and women. No obvious levelling off in risk was identified in the total cohort. However, women and older age-groups showed no further reduction in higher aggregated estVO2max levels. CVD specific mortality was more associated with estVO2max compared to tumor specific mortality. The risk for all-cause mortality and CVD morbidity decreased by 2.3% and 2.6% per increase in 1 ml·min-1·kg-1 with no significant sex-differences but more pronounced in the three lower estVO2max categories for all-cause mortality (9.1%, 3.8% and 3.3%, respectively). High compared to lower levels of estVO2max was not related to a significantly elevated mortality or morbidity. In this large cohort study, CVD morbidity and all-cause mortality were inversely related to estVO2max in both men and women of all age-groups. Increasing cardiorespiratory fitness is a clear public health priority.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 24.
    Arvidsson, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Fridolfsson, Jonatan
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Buck, Christoph
    Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology-BIPS, Bremen, Germany..
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Lissner, Lauren
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hunsberger, Monica
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Börjesson, Mats
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Reexamination of Accelerometer Calibration with Energy Expenditure as Criterion: VO2net Instead of MET for Age-Equivalent Physical Activity Intensity.2019In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 19, no 15, article id E3377Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accelerometer calibration for physical activity (PA) intensity is commonly performed using Metabolic Equivalent of Task (MET) as criterion. However, MET is not an age-equivalent measure of PA intensity, which limits the use of MET-calibrated accelerometers for age-related PA investigations. We investigated calibration using VO2net (VO2gross - VO2stand; mL⋅min-1⋅kg-1) as criterion compared to MET (VO2gross/VO2rest) and the effect on assessment of free-living PA in children, adolescents and adults. Oxygen consumption and hip/thigh accelerometer data were collected during rest, stand and treadmill walk and run. Equivalent speed (Speedeq) was used as indicator of the absolute speed (Speedabs) performed with the same effort in individuals of different body size/age. The results showed that VO2net was higher in younger age-groups for Speedabs, but was similar in the three age-groups for Speedeq. MET was lower in younger age-groups for both Speedabs and Speedeq. The same VO2net-values respective MET-values were applied to all age-groups to develop accelerometer PA intensity cut-points. Free-living moderate-and-vigorous PA was 216, 115, 74 and 71 min/d in children, adolescents, younger and older adults with VO2net-calibration, but 140, 83, 74 and 41 min/d with MET-calibration, respectively. In conclusion, VO2net calibration of accelerometers may provide age-equivalent measures of PA intensity/effort for more accurate age-related investigations of PA in epidemiological research.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 25.
    Fridolfsson, Jonatan
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Börjesson, Mats
    University of Gothenburg.
    Buck, Christoph
    Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and epidemiology (BIPS), Bremen, Germany.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Hunsberger, Monica
    University of Gothenburg.
    Lissner, Lauren
    University of Gothenburg.
    Arvidsson, Daniel
    University of Gothenburg.
    Effects of Frequency Filtering on Intensity and Noise in Accelerometer-Based Physical Activity Measurements.2019In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 19, no 9, article id E2186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In objective physical activity (PA) measurements, applying wider frequency filters than the most commonly used ActiGraph (AG) filter may be beneficial when processing accelerometry data. However, the vulnerability of wider filters to noise has not been investigated previously. This study explored the effect of wider frequency filters on measurements of PA, sedentary behavior (SED), and capturing of noise. Apart from the standard AG band-pass filter (0.29-1.63 Hz), modified filters with low-pass component cutoffs at 4 Hz, 10 Hz, or removed were analyzed. Calibrations against energy expenditure were performed with lab data from children and adults to generate filter-specific intensity cut-points. Free-living accelerometer data from children and adults were processed using the different filters and intensity cut-points. There was a contribution of acceleration related to PA at frequencies up to 10 Hz. The contribution was more pronounced at moderate and vigorous PA levels, although additional acceleration also occurred at SED. The classification discrepancy between AG and the wider filters was small at SED (1-2%) but very large at the highest intensities (>90%). The present study suggests an optimal low-pass frequency filter with a cutoff at 10 Hz to include all acceleration relevant to PA with minimal effect of noise.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 26.
    Arvidsson, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Fridolfsson, Jonatan
    University of Gothenburg.
    Börjesson, Mats
    University of Gothenburg.
    Andersen, Lars Bo
    Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Campus Sogndal, Norway..
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Dencker, Magnus
    Lund University.
    Brønd, Jan Christian
    University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Re-examination of accelerometer data processing and calibration for the assessment of physical activity intensity.2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 29, no 10, p. 1442-1452Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This review reexamines use of accelerometer and oxygen uptake data for assessment of activity intensity. Accelerometers capture mechanical work, while oxygen uptake captures the energy cost of this work. Frequency filtering needs to be considered when processing acceleration data. A too restrictive filter attenuates the acceleration signal for walking and, to a higher degree, for running. This measurement error affects shorter (children) more than taller (adults) individuals due to their higher movement frequency. Less restrictive filtering includes more movement related signals and provide measures that better capture mechanical work, but may include more noise. An optimal filter cut-point is determined where most relevant acceleration signals are included. Further, accelerometer placement affects what part of mechanical work being captured. While the waist placement captures total mechanical work and therefore contributes to measures of activity intensity equivalent by age and stature, the thigh and wrist placements capture more internal work and do not provide equivalent measures. Value calibration of accelerometer measures is usually performed using measured oxygen uptake with the metabolic equivalent of task (MET) as reference measure of activity intensity. However, the use of MET is not stringent and is not a measure of activity intensity equivalent by age and stature. A candidate measure is the mass-specific net oxygen uptake, VO2 net (VO2 tot - VO2 stand). To improve measurement of physical activity intensity using accelerometers, research developments are suggested concerning processing of accelerometer data, use of energy expenditure as reference for activity intensity, and calibration procedure with absolute versus relative intensity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  • 27.
    Godhe, Manne
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control. Karolinska Institutet.
    Pontén, Marjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Andersson, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control. Karolinska Institutet.
    Improved daily movement patterns in an accelerometer-assessed 8-weeks exercise project in older adults2019In: British Journal of Sports Medicine Vol 53, suppl 1, BMJ Publishing Group Ltd, 2019, Vol. 53, p. A2-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Ekblom, Maria
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control. Karolinska Institutet.
    Bojsen-Möller, Emil
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Tarassova, Olga
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Day-to day variations in physical activity patterns affect corticospinal excitability on the following day2019In: Brain Stimulation March-April 2019, vol 12, issue 2, Elsevier, 2019, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 468-, article id 437Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Yang, Liyun
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Lu, Ke
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Forsman, Mikael
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Lindecrantz, Kaj
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Seoane, Fernando
    University of Borås.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Evaluation of physiological workload assessment methods using heart rate and accelerometry for a smart wearable system.2019In: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 62, no 5, p. 694-705Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Work metabolism (WM) can be accurately estimated by oxygen consumption (VO2), which is commonly assessed by heart rate (HR) in field studies. However, the VO2-HR relationship is influenced by individual capacity and activity characteristics. The purpose of this study was to evaluate three models for estimating WM compared with indirect calorimetry, during simulated work activities. The techniques were: the HR-Flex model; HR branched model, combining HR with hip-worn accelerometers (ACC); and HR + arm-leg ACC model, combining HR with wrist- and thigh-worn ACC. Twelve participants performed five simulated work activities and three submaximal tests. The HR + arm-leg ACC model had the overall best performance with limits of agreement (LoA) of -3.94 and 2.00 mL/min/kg, while the HR-Flex model had -5.01 and 5.36 mL/min/kg and the branched model, -6.71 and 1.52 mL/min/kg. In conclusion, the HR + arm-leg ACC model should, when feasible, be preferred in wearable systems for WM estimation. Practitioner Summary: Work with high energy demand can impair employees' health and life quality. Three models were evaluated for estimating work metabolism during simulated tasks. The model combining heart rate, wrist- and thigh-worn accelerometers showed the best accuracy. This is, when feasible, suggested for wearable systems to assess work metabolism.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 30.
    Nooijen, Carla F J
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Blom, Victoria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Kallings, Lena
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Improving office workers' mental health and cognition: a 3-arm cluster randomized controlled trial targeting physical activity and sedentary behavior in multi-component interventions2019In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 19, article id 266Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Physically inactive and sedentary lifestyles are negatively related to both mental health and cognition. For office-workers, who spend two-thirds of their workday sitting, it is important to improve these lifestyles. The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of multi-component interventions, incorporating individual, environmental and organizational changes, to increase physical activity or reduce sedentary behavior among office-workers in order to improve mental health and cognition.

    Methods

    a 3-arm, clustered randomized controlled trial (RCT) with waiting list control group amongst adult office-workers of two large Swedish companies. Cluster teams will be randomized into 6-month interventions or to a passive waiting list control group which will receive the allocated intervention with a 6-month delay. Two multicomponent interventions will be studied of which one focuses on improving physical activity and the other on reducing sedentary behavior. Both interventions include 5 sessions of motivational counselling. In the physical activity intervention persons also get access to a gym and team leaders will organize lunch walks and encourage to exercise. In the sedentary behavior intervention standing- and walking meetings will be implemented and team leaders will encourage to reduce sitting. The recruitment target is 110 office-workers per arm (330 in total). Measurements will be repeated every 6months for a total intended duration of 24months. Proximal main outcomes are physical activity measured with accelerometers and sedentary behavior with inclinometers. Distal outcomes are self-reported mental health and a cognition test battery. Additional outcomes will include cardiovascular fitness, body composition, sleep, self-reported physical activity and sedentary behavior, other health habits, physical health, and working mechanisms from blood samples and questionnaires.

    Discussion

    This cluster RCT will contribute to the currently available evidence by comparing the effectiveness of multi-component interventions targeting physical activity or sedentary behavior with the end goal of improving mental health and cognition. This study is strong in its cluster randomized design, numerous objective outcome measures and long-term follow-up. The exact content of the interventions has been defined by combining theory with results from a larger research project as well as having a continuous dialogue with the involved companies.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 31. Berg, Ulrika
    et al.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Fysisk aktivitet för barn och ungdomar - allmänna rekommendationer2018In: Fysisk aktivitet som medicin: en praktisk handbok utifrån FYSS / [ed] Ing-Marie Dohrn, Stockholm: SISU idrottsböcker , 2018, p. 31-41Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 32.
    Väisänen, Daniel
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Andersson, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Validity in Ekblom-Bak Test and its Ability to Track Changes in an Elderly Population2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) has a high prognostic value for CVD and all cause mortality, however the test is hard to administer and requires a maximal effort, which can be arduous for an elderly population. The submaximal Ekblom-Bak cycle ergometer test (EB test) has shown to be valid in adults, but its applicability in an elderly population is unknown. Aim: The purpose of this study was to validate the submaximal EB test and to examine its ability to detect changes in VO2max in an elderly population. Methods: The sample consisted of 108 elderly participants; aged 65-75 years (54 women, 54 men) with a measured VO2max of 1.42-3.69 L/min. 34 women and 40 men performed a retest (VO2max 1.45-3.59 L/min) after an intervention period. During the intervention, participants performed 30 training sessions over 12 weeks where they cycled for 30 min at 65-75 % of maximal heart rate. On pre- and retests participants completed a submaximal Ekblom-Bak test. Directly after participants completed an individually adjusted VO2max test on a treadmill where VO2 max was measured using indirect calorimetry. Results: For the validation of the EB-test on an elderly population there was a correlation (R) between measured and estimated VO2max of 0.64 for women and 0.47 for men, mean (95% CI) difference was 0.01 (-0.45 - 0.07) for women and -0.05 (-0.11 - 0.07) for men. Standard error of the estimate was 0.17 for women and 0.31 for men. Coefficient of variation was 10 % for women and 11 % for men. When analyzing the ability of the EB test to track change in VO2max after a 12 week training intervention there was a significant (P<0.001) average increase in estimated VO2max of 0.11 L/min for both genders (CI for women 0.06 - 0.16 and for men 0.08 - 0.15), with no change in the measured values. Changes in the estimated values were linked to a decrease of the submaximal HR on both work rates (3.0 bpm and 3.2 bpm on the standard work rate and 5.4 bpm and 6.4 bpm on the higher work rate, for women and men, respectively) Conclusion: Validity of the EB-test in a population between 65-75 years was fairly good but we found larger standard error of the estimate for the men. The higher error for men in contrast to women could be derived from a difference in change of physiological variables that affect VO2max with increasing age. Since there was no change in measured VO2max while there was an improvement in estimated VO2max after the intervention, the EB-test appears to respond to changes in fitness that are not reflected in a VO2max. Grant funding: European Research Council.

  • 33.
    Larsson, Kristina
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Kallings, Lena
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Blom, Victoria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Andersson, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Criterion validity and test-retest reliability of SED-GIH, a single item question for assessment of daily sitting time.2019In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 19, no 1, article id 19:17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Sedentary behaviour has been closely linked to metabolic and cardiovascular health and is therefore of importance in disease prevention. A user-friendly tool for assessment of sitting time is thus needed. Previous studies concluded that the present tools used to assess a number of sedentary behaviours are more likely to overestimate sitting than single-item questions which often underestimate sitting time, and that categorical answering options are recommended. In line with this, the single-item question with categorical answering options, SED-GIH, was developed. The aim of this study was to investigate the criterion validity of the SED-GIH question using activPAL3 micro as the criterion measure. The second aim was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the SED-GIH questionnaire.

    METHOD: In the validity section of this study, 284 middle-aged adults answered a web questionnaire, which included SED-GIH, wore activPAL and filled in a diary log for one week. Spearman's rho assessed the relationship between the SED-GIH answers and the daily average sitting time as monitored by the activPAL (activPAL-SIT), a Weighted Kappa assessed the agreement, ANOVA assessed differences in activPAL-SIT between the SED-GIH answer categories, and a Chi2 compared the proportions of hazardous sitters between the different SED-GIH answer categories. In the reliability section, 95 elderly participants answered the SED-GIH question twice, with a mean interval of 5.2 days. The reliability was assessed with ICC and a weighted Kappa.

    RESULTS: The SED-GIH question correlated moderately with activPAL-SIT (rho = 0.31), with a poor agreement (weighted Kappa 0.12). In total, 40.8% underestimated and 22.2% overestimated their sitting time. The ANOVA showed significant differences in activPAL-SIT between the different SED-GIH answer categories (p < 0.001). The Chi2 showed a significant difference in proportion of individuals sitting more than 10 h per day within each SED-GIH answer category. ICC for the test-retest reliability of SED-GIH was excellent with ICC = 0.86, and the weighted Kappa showed an agreement of 0.77.

    CONCLUSIONS: The unanchored single item SED-GIH question showed excellent reliability but poor validity in the investigated populations. Validity and reliability of SED-GIH is in line with other questionnaires that are commonly used when assessing sitting time.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 34.
    Nooijen, Carla F J
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Kallings, Lena
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Blom, Victoria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Forsell, Yvonne
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Common perceived barriers and facilitators for reducing sedentary behaviour among office-workers2018In: Journal of Physical Activity & Health, Volume 15, Issue 10, Pages S94-S95 Supplement 1, Canadian Consortium on Human Security, 2018, Vol. 15, no 10, p. S94-S95Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Pantzar, Alexandra
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Jonasson, Lars S.
    Umeå University.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control. Karolinska Institutet.
    Relationships Between Aerobic Fitness Levels and Cognitive Performance in Swedish Office Workers2018In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 2612Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Aerobic exercise influence cognition in elderly, children, and neuropsychiatric populations. Less is known about the influence of aerobic exercise in healthy samples (particularly working age), and of different fitness levels on cognition. Two hypotheses were posed: 1) low fitness levels, compared to moderate and high, will be related to poorer cognitive performance, and 2) breakpoints for the beneficial relationship between VO2 and cognition will be observed within the moderate-to-high fitness span. Design and Methods: The sample consisted of n=362 office workers. A submaximal cycle ergometer test estimated maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max, mL•kg-1•min-1). Based on estimated VO2max participants were split into tertiles; low (n=121), moderate (n=119), and high (n=122). A cognitive test battery (9 tests), assessed processing speed, working memory, executive functions and episodic memory. Results: Both hypotheses were confirmed. Groups of moderate (≈40) and high (≈49) fitness outperformed the group of low (≈31) fitness for inhibition and episodic recognition, whereas no significant differences between moderate and high fitness were observed (ANCOVAs). Breakpoints between benefits fromVO2max for inhibition and recognition were estimated to ≈44/43 mL•kg-1•min-1 (multivariate broken line regressions). Conclusions: Results suggest that it is conceivable to expect a beneficial relationship between VO2max and some cognitive domains up to a certain fitness level. In a sample of healthy office workers, this level was estimated to 44 mL•kg-1•min-1. This has implications on organizational and societal levels; where incentives to improve fitness levels from low to moderate could yield desirable cognitive and health benefits in adults.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 36.
    Zou, Ding
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Wennman, Heini
    National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Grote, Ludger
    University of Gothenburg.
    Arvidsson, Daniel
    University of Gothenburg.
    Blomberg, Anders
    Umeå University.
    Torén, Kjell
    University of Gothenburg.
    Bergström, Göran
    University of Gothenburg.
    Börjesson, Mats
    University of Gothenburg.
    Hedner, Jan
    University of Gothenburg.
    Insomnia and cardiorespiratory fitness in a middle-aged population: the SCAPIS pilot study.2019In: Sleep and Breathing, ISSN 1520-9512, E-ISSN 1522-1709, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 319-326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The relationship between insomnia and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular disease, has not been extensively studied. We aimed to assess the independent association between insomnia and CRF in a population-based cohort of subjects aged 50 to 64 years.

    METHODS: Subjects participating in the Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImaging Study (SCAPIS) pilot cohort (n = 603, men 47.9%) underwent a submaximal cycle ergometer test for estimation of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). Data on physical activity and sedentary time were collected via waist-worn accelerometers. An insomnia severity index score ≥ 10 was used to define insomnia.

    RESULTS: Insomnia was identified in 31.8% of the population. The VO2max was significantly lower in insomnia subjects compared with the non-insomnia group (31.2 ± 6.3 vs. 32.4 ± 6.5 ml* kg-1 *min-1, p = 0.028). There was no difference in objectively assessed physical activity or time spent sedentary between the groups. In a multivariate generalized linear model adjusting for confounders, an independent association between insomnia status and lower VO2max was found in men, but not in women (β = - 1.15 [95% CI - 2.23-- 0.06] and - 0.09 [- 1.09-0.92], p = 0.038 and 0.866, respectively).

    CONCLUSIONS: We found a modest, but significant, association between insomnia and lower CRF in middle-aged men, but not in women. Our results suggest that insomnia may link to cardiovascular disease via reduced CRF. Insomnia may require a specific focus in the context of health campaigns addressing CRF.

  • 37.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ek, Amanda
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Cider, Åsa
    University of Gothenburg.
    Hambraeus, Kristina
    Falun Hospital.
    Börjesson, Mats
    University of Gothenburg.
    Increased Physical Activity Post-Myocardial Infarction Is Related to Reduced Mortality; Results From the SWEDEHEART Registry2018In: Journal of the American Heart Association: Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Disease, ISSN 2047-9980, E-ISSN 2047-9980, Vol. 7, no 24, article id e010108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    With increasing survival rates among patients with myocardial infarction (MI), more demands are placed on secondary prevention. While physical activity (PA) efforts to obtain a sufficient PA level are part of secondary preventive recommendations, it is still underutilized. Importantly, the effect of changes in PA after MI is largely unknown. Therefore, we sought to investigate the effect on survival from changes in PA level, post‐MI.

    Methods and Results

    Data from Swedish national registries were combined, totaling 22 227 patients with MI. PA level was self‐reported at 6 to 10 weeks post‐MI and 10 to 12 months post‐MI. Patients were classified as constantly inactive, increased activity, reduced activity, and constantly active. Proportional hazard ratios were calculated. During 100 502 person‐years of follow‐up (mean follow‐up time 4.2 years), a total of 1087 deaths were recorded. Controlling for important confounders (including left ventricular function, type of MI, medication, smoking, participation in cardiac rehabilitation program, quality of life, and estimated kidney function), we found lower mortality rates among constantly active (hazard ratio: 0.29, 95% confidence interval: 0.21–0.41), those with increased activity (0.41, 95% confidence interval: 0.31–0.55), and those with reduced activity (hazard ratio: 0.56, 95% confidence interval: 0.45–0.69) during the first year post‐MI, compared with those being constantly inactive. Stratified analyses indicated strong effect of PA level among both sexes, across age, MI type, kidney function, medication, and smoking status.

    Conclusions

    The present article shows that increasing the PA level, compared with staying inactive the first year post‐MI, was related to reduced mortality.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 38.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    HPI Health Profile Institute.
    Wallin, Peter
    HPI Health Profile Institute.
    Söderling, Jonas
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Hemmingsson, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences. Karolinska Institutet.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Decline in cardiorespiratory fitness in the Swedish working force between 1995 and 2017.2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 232-239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Long-term trend analyses of cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2 max) in the general population are limited.

    OBJECTIVES: To describe trends in VO2 max from 1995 to 2017 in the Swedish working force and to study developments across categories of sex, age, education, and geographic regions.

    METHODS: 354.277 participants (44% women, 18-74 years) who participated in a nationwide occupational health service screening between 1995 and 2017 were included. Changes in standardized mean values of absolute (L·min-1 ) and relative (ml·min-1 ·kg-1 ) VO2 max, and the proportion with low (<32) relative VO2 max are reported. VO2 max was estimated using a submaximal cycle test.

    RESULTS: Absolute VO2 max decreased by -6.7% (-0.19 L·min-1 ) in the total population. Relative VO2 max decreased by -10.8% (-4.2 ml·min-1 ·kg-1 ) with approximately one-third explained by a simultaneous increase in body mass. Decreases in absolute fitness were more pronounced in men vs. women (8.7% vs. 5.3%), in younger vs. older (6.5% vs 2.3%), in short (11.4%) vs. long (4.5%) education, and in rural vs. urban regions (6.5% vs 3.5%), all p<0.001. The proportions with low VO2 max increased from 27% to 46% (p<0.001).

    CONCLUSION: Between 1995 and 2017, there was a steady and pronounced decline in mean cardiorespiratory fitness in Swedish adults. Male gender, young age, short education and living in a rural area were predictive of greater reductions. The proportion with low cardiorespiratory fitness almost doubled. Given the strong associations between cardiorespiratory fitness and multiple morbidities and mortality, preventing further decreases is a clear public health priority, especially for vulnerable groups. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 39.
    Ekblom, Maria
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Blom, Victoria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Kallings, Lena
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Nooijen, Carla F J
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Fysisk aktivitet och hjärnhälsa2018In: Fysioterapi, ISSN 1653-5804, no 5, p. 32-35Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Psykisk ohälsa är den vanligaste orsaken till sjukskrivning. Fysisk aktivitet kan förebygga många former av ohälsa, men vilka fysiska aktivitetsmönster som gynnar psykisk hälsa och kognitiva förmågor är fortfarande okänt. Denna typ av forskning är komplex och kräver samarbete med många olika aktörer i samhället.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 40.
    Ek, Amanda
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology. Karolinska University Hospital.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Hambraeus, Kristina
    Falun Hospital.
    Cider, Åsa
    Gothenburg University and Sahlgrenska University Hospital.
    Kallings, Lena
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology. Uppsala University.
    Börjesson, Mats
    Gothenburg University and Sahlgrenska University Hospital.
    Physical inactivity and smoking after myocardial infarction as predictors for readmission and survival: results from the SWEDEHEART-registry.2019In: Clinical Research in Cardiology, ISSN 1861-0684, E-ISSN 1861-0692, Vol. 108, no 3, p. 324-332Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) and smoking cessation are included in the secondary prevention guidelines after myocardial infarction (MI), but they are still underutilised. This study aims to explore how PA level and smoking status (6-10 weeks post-MI) were associated with 1-year readmission and mortality during full follow-up time, and with the cumulative 5-year mortality.

    METHODS: A population-based cohort of all hospitals providing MI-care in Sweden (SWEDEHEART-registry) in 2004-2014. PA was expressed as the number of exercise sessions of ≥ 30 min in the last 7 days: 0-1 (low), 2-4 (medium) and 5-7 (high) sessions/week. Individuals were categorised as smokers, former smokers or never-smokers. The associations were analysed by unadjusted and adjusted logistic and Cox regressions.

    RESULTS: During follow-up (M = 3.58 years), a total of 1702 deaths occurred among 30 644 individuals (14.1 cases per 1000 person-years). For medium and high PA, the hazard ratios (HRs) for mortality were 0.39 and 0.36, respectively, compared with low PA. For never-smokers, the HR was 0.45 and former smokers 0.56 compared with smokers. Compared with low PA, the odds ratios (ORs) for readmission in medium PA were 0.65 and 0.59 for CVD and non-CVD causes, respectively. For high PA, the corresponding ORs were 0.63 and 0.55. The association remained in adjusted models. There were no associations between smoking status and readmission.

    CONCLUSIONS: The PA level and smoking status are strong predictors of mortality post-MI and the PA level also predicts readmission, highlighting the importance of adherence to the secondary prevention guidelines.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 41.
    Rahman, Md Shafiqur
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Hallgren, Mats
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Forsell, Yvonne
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Stubbs, Brendon
    King's College London, UK..
    Vancampfort, Davy
    KU Leuven, Belgium.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Cardiorespiratory fitness and response to exercise treatment in depression.2018In: BJPsych open, ISSN 2056-4724, Vol. 4, no 5, p. 346-351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Exercise improves cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and reduces depressive symptoms in people with depression. It is unclear if changes in CRF are a predictor of the antidepressant effect of exercise in people with depression.

    Aims: To investigate whether an increase in CRF is a predictor of depression severity reduction after 12 weeks of exercise (trial registration: DRKS study ID, DRKS00008745).

    Method: The present study includes participants who took part in vigorous (n = 33), moderate (n = 38) and light (n = 39) intensity exercise and had CRF information (as predicted maximal oxygen uptake, O2max) collected before and after the intervention. Depression severity was measured with the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). O2max (L/min) was assessed with the Åstrand-Rhyming submaximal cycle ergometry test. The main analysis was conducted pooling all exercise intensity groups together.

    Results: All exercise intensities improved O2max in people with depression. Regardless of frequency and intensity of exercise, an increase in post-treatment O2max was significantly associated with reduced depression severity at follow-up (B = -3.52, 95% CI -6.08 to -0.96); adjusting for intensity of exercise, age and body mass index made the association stronger (B = -3.89, 95% CI -6.53 to -1.26). Similarly, increased O2max was associated with higher odds (odds ratio = 3.73, 95% CI 1.22-11.43) of exercise treatment response (≥50% reduction in MADRS score) at follow-up.

    Conclusions: Our data suggest that improvements in O2max predict a greater reduction in depression severity among individuals who were clinically depressed. This finding indicates that improvements in O2max may be a marker for the underpinning biological pathways for the antidepressant effect of exercise.

    Declaration of interest: None.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 42.
    Gripeteg, Lena
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Arvidsson, Daniel
    University of Gothenburg.
    Johannesson, Elias
    University of Gothenburg.
    Larsson, Christel
    University of Gothenburg.
    Sjöberg, Agneta
    University of Gothenburg.
    Angerås, Oskar
    University of Gothenburg.
    Fagman, Erika
    University of Gothenburg.
    Brandberg, John
    University of Gothenburg.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Bergström, Göran
    University of Gothenburg.
    Börjesson, Mats
    University of Gothenburg.
    Concomitant Associations of Healthy Food Intake and Cardiorespiratory Fitness With Coronary Artery Calcium.2018In: American Journal of Cardiology, ISSN 0002-9149, E-ISSN 1879-1913, Vol. 122, no 4, p. 560-564, article id S0002-9149(18)31060-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conflicting findings remain regarding associations between lifestyle behaviors and coronary artery calcium (CAC). We investigated concomitant associations of healthy food intake and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) with CAC. Data from 706 men and women 50 to 64 years old from the Swedish SCAPIS pilot trial were analyzed. A CAC score was calculated using the Agatston method. A Healthy Food Index (HFI) was established using data from a web-based food frequency questionnaire. CRF was assessed from a bike exercise test. Regression analyses were performed with occurrence of CAC (dichotomous) and level of CAC score in patients with CAC (continuous) as outcomes. 58% had 0 CAC score. HFI was significantly associated with having no CAC (standardized coefficient β = 0.18, p <0.001) but not with level of CAC score (β = -0.09, p = 0.34). CRF showed no significant association with having no CAC (β = -0.08, p = 0.12) or with the level of CAC score (β = -0.04, p = 0.64). However, there was an interaction between HFI and CRF (β = -0.23, p = 0.02); for increasing levels of CRF there was stronger negative association between HFI and level of CAC score, reaching β = -0.48, p = 0.045 for the highest CRF level. In conclusion, these results emphasize the importance of a healthy food intake in combination with higher CRF to counteract CAC development.

  • 43.
    Hallgren, Mats
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet.
    Skott, Maria
    Karolinska institutet.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Firth, Joseph
    Western Sydney University, Australia.
    Schembri, Adrian
    Cogstate Pty Ltd, Melbourne, Australia..
    Forsell, Yvonne
    Karolinska institutet.
    Exercise effects on cognitive functioning in young adults with first-episode psychosis: FitForLife.2019In: Psychological Medicine, ISSN 0033-2917, E-ISSN 1469-8978, Vol. 49, no 3, p. 431-439Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Exercise has mood-enhancing effects and can improve cognitive functioning, but the effects in first-episode psychosis (FEP) remain understudied. We examined the feasibility and cognitive effects of exercise in FEP.

    METHOD: Multi-center, open-label intervention study. Ninety-one outpatients with FEP (mean age = 30 years, 65% male) received usual care plus a 12-week supervised circuit-training program, consisting of high-volume resistance exercises, aerobic training, and stretching. Primary study outcome was cognitive functioning assessed by Cogstate Brief Battery (processing speed, attention, visual learning, working memory) and Trailmaking A and B tasks (visual attention and task shifting). Within-group changes in cognition were assessed using paired sample t tests with effect sizes (Hedges' g) reported for significant values. Relationships between exercise frequency and cognitive improvement were assessed using analysis of covariance. Moderating effects of gender were explored with stratified analyses.

    RESULTS: Participants exercised on average 13.5 (s.d. = 11.7) times. Forty-eight percent completed 12 or more sessions. Significant post-intervention improvements were seen for processing speed, visual learning, and visual attention; all with moderate effect sizes (g = 0.47-0.49, p < 0.05). Exercise participation was also associated with a positive non-significant trend for working memory (p < 0.07). Stratified analyses indicated a moderating effect of gender. Positive changes were seen among females only for processing speed, visual learning, working memory, and visual attention (g = 0.43-0.69). A significant bivariate correlation was found between total training frequency and improvements in visual attention among males (r = 0.40, p < 0.05).

    CONCLUSION: Supported physical exercise is a feasible and safe adjunct treatment for FEP with potential cognitive benefits, especially among females.

  • 44.
    Nooijen, Carla F J
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences. Karolinska Institutet.
    Kallings, Lena
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Blom, Victoria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group. Karolinska Institutet.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Forsell, Yvonne
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control. Karolinska Institutet.
    Common Perceived Barriers and Facilitators for Reducing Sedentary Behaviour among Office Workers.2018In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 15, no 4, article id E792Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Qualitative studies identified barriers and facilitators associated with work-related sedentary behaviour. The objective of this study was to determine common perceived barriers and facilitators among office workers, assess subgroup differences, and describe sedentary behaviour. From two Swedish companies, 547 office workers (41 years (IQR = 35–48), 65% women, 66% highly educated) completed questionnaires on perceived barriers and facilitators, for which subgroup differences in age, gender, education, and workplace sedentary behaviour were assessed. Sedentary behaviour was measured using inclinometers (n = 311). The most frequently reported barrier was sitting is a habit (67%), which was reported more among women than men (X2 = 5.14, p = 0.03) and more among highly sedentary office workers (X2 = 9.26, p < 0.01). The two other most reported barriers were that standing is uncomfortable (29%) and standing is tiring (24%). Facilitators with the most support were the introduction of either standing- or walking-meetings (respectively 33% and 29%) and more possibilities or reminders for breaks (31%). The proportion spent sedentary was 64% at the workplace, 61% on working days, and 57% on non-working days. This study provides a detailed understanding of office workers’ ideas about sitting and means to reduce sitting. We advise to include the supported facilitators and individualized support in interventions to work towards more effective strategies to reduce sedentary behaviour.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 45.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    HPI Health Profile Institute AB.
    Wallin, Peter
    HPI Health Profile Institute AB.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Physical Education and Leisure-Time Physical Activity in Youth Are Both Important for Adulthood Activity, Physical Performance, and Health.2018In: Journal of Physical Activity and Health, ISSN 1543-3080, E-ISSN 1543-5474, Vol. 15, no 9, p. 661-670Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The importance of youth physical activity (PA) for adulthood PA, performance, and health was retrospectively evaluated. Methods: A total of 258,146 participants (49% women), aged 19–70, with a first-time health-profile assessment between 1982 and 2015, provided self-reported data on current perceived health, PA, lifestyle, and physical education class participation, and PA outside school hours before age 20. Data on anthropometrics, blood pressure, and estimated maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) were obtained. Results: Women participating in physical education class, compared with those who did not, had significantly lower OR (range: 0.81–0.87) for perceiving poor overall health, general obesity, and high diastolic blood pressure after adjustment for potential confounders, and increased OR (range: 1.17–1.23) for exercising regularly and a normal/high VO2max in adulthood. For men, the ORs were significantly lower (range: 0.66–0.86) for poor perceived overall health, general, and abdominal obesity. These associations were seen for participants up to 70 years. Increased PA outside school hours revealed even stronger beneficial associations. In joint analyses, both youth and current PA were important for lower OR of poor health and being obese in adulthood. Conclusions: Physical education class participation and additional PA after school hours were both important for perceived health, PA, VO2max, and metabolic health in adulthood up to 70 years.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 46.
    Hallgren, Mats
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet.
    Andersson, Victoria
    Center for Psychiatric Research, Stockholm.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Andréasson, Sven
    Karolinska institutet.
    Physical activity as treatment for alcohol use disorders (FitForChange): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.2018In: Trials, ISSN 1745-6215, E-ISSN 1745-6215, Vol. 19, no 1, article id 106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Help-seeking for alcohol use disorders (AUDs) is low and traditional treatments are often perceived as stigmatizing. Physical activity has positive effects on mental and physical health which could benefit this population. We propose to compare the effects of aerobic training, yoga, and usual care for AUDs in physically inactive Swedish adults.

    METHODS: This is a three-group, parallel, single-blind, randomized controlled trial (RCT). In total, 210 adults (aged 18-75 years) diagnosed with an AUD will be invited to participate in a 12-week intervention. The primary study outcome is alcohol consumption measure by the Timeline Follow-back method and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Secondary outcomes include: depression, anxiety, perceived stress, sleep quality, physical activity levels, fitness, self-efficacy, health-related quality of life, and cognition. Blood samples will be taken to objectively assess heavy drinking, and saliva to measure cortisol. Acute effects of exercise on the urge to drink alcohol, mood, and anxiety will also be assessed.

    DISCUSSION: The treatment potential for exercise in AUDs is substantial as many individuals with the disorder are physically inactive and have comorbid health problems. The study is the first to assess the effects of physical activity as a stand-alone treatment for AUDs. Considerable attention will be given to optimizing exercise adherence. Both the feasibility and treatment effects of exercise interventions in AUDs will be discussed. The Ethical Review Board (EPN) at Karolinska Institutet has approved the study (DNR: 2017/1380-3).

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: German Clinical Trials Register, ID: DRKS00012311. Registered on 26 September 2017.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 47.
    Ekblom-Bak, Elin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Fagman, Erika
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Angerås, Oskar
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Schmidt, Caroline
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Rosengren, Annika
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Börjesson, Mats
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Bergström, Göran
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Fitness attenuates the prevalence of increased coronary artery calcium in individuals with metabolic syndrome.2018In: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, ISSN 2047-4873, E-ISSN 2047-4881, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 309-316, article id 2047487317745177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background The association between cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity and coronary artery calcium (CAC) is unclear, and whether higher levels of fitness attenuate CAC prevalence in subjects with metabolic syndrome is not fully elucidated. The present study aims to: a) investigate the independent association of fitness on the prevalence of CAC, after adjustment for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary time, and b) study the possible attenuation of increased CAC by higher fitness, in participants with metabolic syndrome. Design Cross-sectional. Methods In total 678 participants (52% women), 50-65 years old, from the SCAPIS pilot study were included. Fitness (VO2max) was estimated by submaximal cycle ergometer test and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary time were assessed using hip-worn accelerometers. CAC score (CACS) was quantified using the Agatston score. Results The odds of having a significant CACS (≥100) was half in participants with moderate/high fitness compared with their low fitness counterparts. Further consideration of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, sedentary time and number of components of the metabolic syndrome did only slightly alter the effect size. Those with metabolic syndrome had 47% higher odds for significant CAC compared with those without metabolic syndrome. However, moderate/high fitness seems to partially attenuate this risk, as further joint analysis indicated an increased odds for having significant CAC only in the unfit metabolic syndrome participants. Conclusions Being fit is associated with a reduced risk of having significant CAC in individuals with metabolic syndrome. While still very much underutilized, fitness should be taken into consideration in everyday clinical risk prediction in addition to the traditional risk factors of the metabolic syndrome.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 48.
    Godhe, Manne
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Helge, Torbjörn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Mattsson, C. Mikael
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Physiological factors of importance for load carriage2017In: ICSPP Abstracts: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, November 2017 20 Supplement 2:S105, 2017, Vol. 20, no Supplement 2, p. S105-, article id 176Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Godhe, Manne
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Helge, Torbjörn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Mattsson, C Mikael
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Physiological factors of importance for load carriageManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The energy expenditure during carrying no load, 20, 35 and 50 kg at two walking speeds, 3 and 5 km/h, was studied in 36 healthy participants, 19 men (30 ± 6 yrs, 82.5 ± 7.0 kg) and 17 women (29 ± 6 yrs, 66.1 ± 8.9 kg). Anthropometric data, leg muscle strength as well as trunk muscle endurance and muscle fibre distribution of the thigh were also obtained. To load the participant a standard backpack filled with extra weight according to the carrying weight tested was used. Extra Load Index (ELI), the oxygen uptake (VO2) during total load over no-load-exercise, was used as a proxy for load carrying ability. In addition to analyzing factors of importance for the ELI values, we also conducted mediator analyzes using sex and long term carrying experience as causal variables for ELI as the outcome value. For the lowest load (20 kg), ELI20, was correlated with body mass but no other factors. Walking at 5 km/h body mass, body height, leg muscle strength and absolute VO2max were correlated to ELI35 and ELI50, but relative VO2max, trunk muscle endurance and leg muscle fibre distribution were not. Sex as causal factor was evaluated in a mediator analyses with ELI50 as outcome. ELI50 at 5 km/h differed between the sexes. The limit for acceptable body load, 40% of VO2max (according to Astrand, 1967), was nearly reached for women carrying 35 kg (39%) and surpassed at 50 kg at 3 km/h, and for men carrying 50 kg at 5 km/h. This difference was only mediated by difference in body mass. Neither muscle fibre distribution, leg muscle strength, trunk muscle endurance and body height nor did absolute or relative VO2max explain the difference. Participants with long term experience of heavy load carrying had significant lower ELI20 and ELI50 values than those with minor or non-experience, but none of the above studied factors could explain this difference. The study showed that body mass and experience of carrying heavy loads are important factors for the ability to carry heavy loads.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 50.
    Björkman, Frida
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Eggers, Andrea
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Stenman, Adam
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Bohman, Tony
    Karolinska institutet.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Sex and maturity status affected the validity of a submaximal cycle test in adolescents.2018In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 107, no 1, p. 126-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: This study assessed the validity and reliability of the Ekblom-Bak (EB) submaximal cycle test in adolescents and identified any sex- or maturity-related factors for prediction errors.

    METHODS: We recruited 50 healthy subjects through a public announcement in Stockholm, Sweden, in 2016. The 27 boys and 23 girls were aged 10-15 years and in Tanner stages I-IV. They performed an EB test and incremental treadmill running test for direct measurement of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max).

    RESULTS: The estimation error of VO2 max was 0.09 L/min. The correlation (r) was 0.86, and the standard error of the estimate (SEE) was 0.29 L/min. The largest overestimation was seen in prepubertal boys (0.49 L/min). The best precision of the EB test was achieved when boys in Tanner stages I and II were re-calculated using the prediction equation developed for adult women. This yielded a mean difference of -0.05 L/min, r = 0.92 and SEE 0.23 L/min, in the entire sample. The prediction error was lowered in boys, but not girls, with increasing pubertal maturity.

    CONCLUSION: The EB test was reasonably valid in adolescents, seemed to be related to sex and maturity status, and our findings support its use.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
123 1 - 50 of 133
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf