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  • 1.
    Väisänen, Daniel
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Andersson, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control. Karolinska institutet.
    Nilsson, Jonna
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Criterion validity of the Ekblom-Bak and the Åstrand submaximal test in an elderly population.2020In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 120, no 2, p. 307-316Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to validate the submaximal Ekblom-Bak test (EB-test) and the Åstrand test (Å-test) for an elderly population.

    METHODS: Participants (n = 104), aged 65-75 years, completed a submaximal aerobic test on a cycle ergometer followed by an individually adjusted indirect calorimetry VO2max test on a treadmill. The HR from the submaximal test was used to estimate VO2max using both the EB-test and Å-test equations.

    RESULTS: The correlation between measured and estimated VO2max using the EB method and Å method in women was r = 0.64 and r = 0.58, respectively and in men r = 0.44 and r = 0.44, respectively. In women, the mean difference between estimated and measured VO2max was - 0.02 L min-1 (95% CI - 0.08 to 0.04) for the EB method and - 0.12 L min-1 (95% CI - 0.22 to - 0.02) for the Å method. Corresponding values for men were 0.05 L min-1 (95% CI - 0.04 to 0.14) and - 0.28 L min-1 (95% CI - 0.42 to - 0.14), respectively. However, the EB method was found to overestimate VO2max in men with low fitness and the Å method was found to underestimate VO2max in both women and men. For women, the coefficient of variance was 11.1%, when using the EB method and 19.8% when using the Å method. Corresponding values for men were 11.6% and 18.9%, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: The submaximal EB-test is valid for estimating VO2max in elderly women, but not in all elderly men. The Å-test is not valid for estimating VO2max in the elderly.

  • 2.
    Väisänen, Daniel
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Andersson, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Validity in Ekblom-Bak Test and its Ability to Track Changes in an Elderly Population2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) has a high prognostic value for CVD and all cause mortality, however the test is hard to administer and requires a maximal effort, which can be arduous for an elderly population. The submaximal Ekblom-Bak cycle ergometer test (EB test) has shown to be valid in adults, but its applicability in an elderly population is unknown. Aim: The purpose of this study was to validate the submaximal EB test and to examine its ability to detect changes in VO2max in an elderly population. Methods: The sample consisted of 108 elderly participants; aged 65-75 years (54 women, 54 men) with a measured VO2max of 1.42-3.69 L/min. 34 women and 40 men performed a retest (VO2max 1.45-3.59 L/min) after an intervention period. During the intervention, participants performed 30 training sessions over 12 weeks where they cycled for 30 min at 65-75 % of maximal heart rate. On pre- and retests participants completed a submaximal Ekblom-Bak test. Directly after participants completed an individually adjusted VO2max test on a treadmill where VO2 max was measured using indirect calorimetry. Results: For the validation of the EB-test on an elderly population there was a correlation (R) between measured and estimated VO2max of 0.64 for women and 0.47 for men, mean (95% CI) difference was 0.01 (-0.45 - 0.07) for women and -0.05 (-0.11 - 0.07) for men. Standard error of the estimate was 0.17 for women and 0.31 for men. Coefficient of variation was 10 % for women and 11 % for men. When analyzing the ability of the EB test to track change in VO2max after a 12 week training intervention there was a significant (P<0.001) average increase in estimated VO2max of 0.11 L/min for both genders (CI for women 0.06 - 0.16 and for men 0.08 - 0.15), with no change in the measured values. Changes in the estimated values were linked to a decrease of the submaximal HR on both work rates (3.0 bpm and 3.2 bpm on the standard work rate and 5.4 bpm and 6.4 bpm on the higher work rate, for women and men, respectively) Conclusion: Validity of the EB-test in a population between 65-75 years was fairly good but we found larger standard error of the estimate for the men. The higher error for men in contrast to women could be derived from a difference in change of physiological variables that affect VO2max with increasing age. Since there was no change in measured VO2max while there was an improvement in estimated VO2max after the intervention, the EB-test appears to respond to changes in fitness that are not reflected in a VO2max. Grant funding: European Research Council.

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