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  • 1.
    Redelius, Karin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Larsson, Lena
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Larsson, Håkan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Physical education teacher education in Sweden2019In: European physical education teacher education practices: initial, induction, and professional development / [ed] Ann MacPhail, Deborah Tannehill, Zuleyha Avsar, Meyer & Meyer Sport, 2019, p. 379-396Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Redelius, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Idrott för unga - mellan idealism och kommersialism2018In: Sport management: Idrottens organisationer i en svensk kontext. Del 1 / [ed] Bäckström, Å., Book, K., Carlsson, B., & Fahlström, P., Stockholm: SISU idrottsböcker , 2018, 1, p. 146-171Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Redelius, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Idrotten vill och Barnkonventionen: stöd för tränaren2018In: Idrottens ledarskap, Stockholm: SISU idrottsböcker , 2018, p. 23-39Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Idrottsrörelsen och dess idrottsföreningar ska vara en inkluderande rörelse där alla ska få möjlighet att delta och utvecklas - oavsett ålder, ambitionsnivå, kön, etnicitet eller sexuell läggning. Det kapitel som nu följer tar främst upp barn- och ungdomsidrotten. [...]

  • 4.
    Engström, Lars-Magnus
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Redelius, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Larsson, Håkan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Logics of practice in movement culture: Lars-Magnus Engström’s contribution to understanding participation in movement cultures2018In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243, p. 892-904Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we present a framework for exploring participation in and social stratification of movement culture based on Pierre Bourdieu?s concept logic of practice. The background to our approach is Lars-Magnus Engström?s struggle to understand the impact of social stratification on participation in movement culture in a now nearly fifty-year follow-up study. The aim of the article is to elaborate further a framework, which Engström drafted in one of his last publications. Here, we assume that participation in movement cultures is guided by a number of logics of practice that are historically, culturally and socially constituted, and which relate to people?s tastes in particular ways that lead to social stratification. These logics are grouped into three overarching kinds of practices: performing, improving and experiencing, which engender both practice and social stratification. Further, the different logics of practice are linked to a principle of uncertainty, which means that quantitative empirical data must be interpreted rather than measured in a strict sense. The here outlined framework suggests that future research about participation in movement culture needs to take into account information about the structure, rhythm and tempo of the practice, as well as of the directionality of the actions. Information about these issues can hopefully contribute to a more elaborated understanding of the impact of social stratification on participation in movement culture, and in what forms movements are pursued.

  • 5.
    Thedin Jakobsson, Britta
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Sundblad, Gunilla Brun
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Redelius, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Participation patterns in Swedish youth sport.: A longitudinal study of participants aged 10-19 years.2018In: Swedish Journal of Sport Research, ISSN 2001-6018, E-ISSN 2001-9475, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 25-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden almost everyone participate in youth sport at one time or another. In recent years, however, overall participation rates have declined and many stop early. The aspiration of the sport confederation as well as the Swedish state is that young people should stay longer in sport which raises questions about participation patterns during adolescence, the ease of joining a sport club, and the barriers to remaining a participant. Drawing on a nine-year longitudinal study, this article reports on the participation patterns among a group of 241 youth that were followed from 10 to 19 years. They took part in four surveys (when they were 10, 13, 16 and 19 years of age). The results show a clear polarisation, one fourth did not take part at all or had only participated for a short time, one fourth participated all the time from the age of 10 to 19. Few started after the age of 10. The pathways for those continuing were characterised by diversification and not specialisation.

  • 6.
    Svennberg, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Meckbach, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Redelius, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Swedish PE teachers struggle with assessment in a criterion-referenced grading system2018In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 381-393Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the field of education, the international trend is to turn to criterion-referenced grading in the hope of achieving accountable and consistent grades. Despite a national criterion-referenced grading system emphasising knowledge as the only base for grading, Swedish physical education (PE) grades have been shown to value non-knowledge factors, such as students’ characteristics and behaviour. In 2011, a new national curriculum was implemented which attempts to deal with the problem by prescribing specific knowledge requirements with a clear progression as the only basis for different grades. The aim of the present study is to explore the impact of the new knowledge requirements on what teachers consider important when assigning grades. It is also to discuss what non-knowledge-related aspects (if any) teachers continue to look for and why these seem to remain resilient to the reform. The Repertory Grid technique was employed to interview the teachers before (2009) and after the implementation (2013). During the interviews, the grading of 45 students was discussed, which generated 125 constructs. After the implementation, there was a near doubling of knowledge constructs, half as many motivation constructs and an almost total elimination of constructs based on confidence and social skills. While motivational factors were still considered valuable for the award of a higher grade, clear criteria seemed to be important, but too limited for the teachers’ needs. In order to understand the persistence of motivational factors, we discuss the results in relation to Bernstein’s interrelated message systems of curriculum, pedagogy and assessment. We emphasise the need to discuss how valid grades can be achieved and, at the same time, give value to the regulative discourse in order to realise the overarching national goals of values and norms in education and PE.

  • 7.
    Redelius, Karin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Svensson, Andreas
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Allt vanligare med kommersiell barn- och ungdomsidrott2017In: Idrottsforskning, E-ISSN 2002-3944, article id 12 oktArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Allt fler kommersiella aktörer etablerar sig inom barn- och ungdomsidrotten. Företagen lockar med ”topptränare” och ”inkluderande ledarskap” och en verksamhet som man menar är kvalitativt annorlunda än den föreningsdrivna verksamheten.

  • 8.
    Tidén, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Redelius, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    The social construction of ability in movment assessment tools.2017In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243, Vol. 22, no 6, p. 697-709Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on how 'ability' is conceptualised, configured and produced in movement assessment tools. The aim of the study was to critically analyse assessment tools used for healthy and typically developed children. The sample consists of 10 tools from 6 different countries. In the study, we pay special attention to content and evaluation methods. The theoretical analysis explores and discusses what kind of movement ability the tools construct. The theoretical framework is inspired by Bourdieu's concepts of habitus, capital and field which are used as analytical tools to explore how the testing processes and content shape what is regarded as ability. Our findings show both a great variation of concepts and evaluation methods and a narrow view of what is regarded as valuable to assess. The assessed movements are strongly related to traditional sports and construct a specific form of physical capital. None of the tasks assessed take place in natural outdoor environments. Open skills, rhythmical movements to music or tasks including a wider range of flexibility are also absent in the assessment tools. The explored tools and tests assess a limited number of decontextualised movements and produce a narrow view of 'ability'. Hence, the testing process itself often promotes a child who is physically mature and benefits those who have experience of traditional sports. In other words, the assessed 'taste for sport' and the 'embodied physical capital' construct what is considered to be legitimate knowledge in relation to movement and physical culture. Accordingly, the social construction of movement ability through assessment tools is far from a neutral concept and could affect how children see themselves and their 'ability'.

  • 9.
    Redelius, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Where are the kids? They are in Scandinavia!: recension av boken Ungdom og idrett / Ørnulf Seippel, Mari Kristin Sisjord & Åse Strandbu (red) 20162017In: Idrottsforum.org/Nordic sport science forum, ISSN 1652-7224, article id 4 majArticle, book review (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Redelius, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Elitidrottssatsningar för barn - ett demokratiskt dilemma2016In: Föreningen, laget och jaget: 7 perspektiv på idrottens demokratiska effekter / [ed] Christine Dartsch, Johan R. Norberg & Johan Pihlblad, Stockholm: Centrum för idrottsforskning, CIF , 2016, p. 107-116Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 11.
    Redelius, Karin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Kempe Bergman, Matthis
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Larsson, Bengt
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Linghede, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Gör idrotten som Idrotten vill?: Barn- och ungdomsidrottens utformning i retorik och praktik2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här studien handlar om idrottsrörelsens policydokument Idrotten vill och dess väg från visionär retorik, beslutad i styrelserum och på stämmor, till praktisk handling när idéerna ska realiseras av tränare i lokala föreningar. Riktlinjerna har i stort sett varit desamma under de 20 år som gått sedan beslutet om Idrotten vill togs. Forskning visar dock att riktlinjerna inte alltid är normgivande, och att idrotten inte självklart gör som Idrotten vill. Kunskap saknas om i vilken utsträckning  föreningsledare och tränare känner till idrottsrörelsens övergripande riktlinjer samt varför andemeningen i Idrotten vill inte är vägledande i alla sammanhang.

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka i vilken mån centralt formulerade idéer i Idrotten vill har fått genomslag på lokal nivå där barn- och ungdomsidrotten utformas och utövas. Ytterligare ett syfte är att studera tränares erfarenhet av hur riktlinjerna följs, samt att analysera vilka övergripande idéer som det verkar vara svårast att tillämpa. Följande frågor är centrala: I vilken utsträckning har idrottsföreningar egna riktlinjer för barn- och ungdomsidrott och vad utmärker dessa? Vad känner tränare till om de övergripande idéerna i Idrotten vill, och vad anser de om idéernas genomslag? Vilka idéer verkar svårast att tillämpa och hur legitimerar tränare sina ställningstaganden i relation till dessa idéer? Förhoppningen är att resultaten ska tillföra ny och värdefull kunskap om hur arbeta för att öka kännedomen om och tillämpningen av Idrotten vill kan ske.

    En utgångspunkt är att resultatet av riktlinjernas genomslag har att göra med vad tränare känner till om de övergripande idéerna, vilka faktiska möjligheter de har att praktisera och konkretisera riktlinjerna och av enskilda ledares uppfattningar om hur och varför barn ska idrotta. För att besvara frågorna har flera metoder använts och olika urval av ledare har skett enligt följande: en kartläggning av policydokument och tillhörande riktlinjer från 100 slumpvis utvalda föreningar i alpin skidåkning, fotboll, ishockey, konståkning och tennis, intervjuer med 15 tränare från både bredd- och elitinriktade föreningar i ovan nämnda idrotter samt enkätsvar från 466 tränare i ett 40-tal idrotter från föreningar i 13 distriktsförbund.

    Resultaten visar att drygt hälften av föreningarna har utformat egna riktlinjer för barn- och ungdomsidrott. Riktlinjerna varierar dock stort i omfattning och vad de innebär är sällan konkretiserat. Även om ett fåtal tränare känner till Idrotten vill som dokument betraktat, verkar merparten vara bekanta med de övergripande idéerna. En majoritet av tränarna anser också att riktlinjerna mestadels är vägledande vid utformningen av idrott för unga, särskilt då de själva är ansvariga. Däremot sympatiserar inte alla tränare med alla riktlinjer. Särskilt frågan som rör värdet av tidiga satsningar och selektion kontra en mer lekfull inriktning med mindre fokus på tävlingsresultat delar tränarkåren. Frågan engagerar och väcker känslor. Tränarna är eniga om att det gäller att hålla de ungas idrottsintresse vid liv – men hur det ska ske finns det skilda uppfattningar om.

  • 12.
    Redelius, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Idrottens barn- och ungdomsledare och ledarskapet villkor2016In: Idrottsvetenskap: En introduktion / [ed] Susanna Hedenborg, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2016, 1, p. 279-300Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 13.
    Linghede, Eva
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Larsson, Håkan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Redelius, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    (Re)presenting equestrian histories—storytelling as a method of inquiry.2016In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 82-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Responding to calls about the need to ‘give voice’ to groups previously marginalized in research and to challenge meta-narratives about men in sports this paper explores the use of a narrative approach to illuminate men's experiences—and the doing of gender—within equestrian sports, a sport dominated by women in Sweden. Adopting the position of a storyteller three literary short-stories were constructed from interviews with men active in equestrianism. (Re)presenting research findings in this way evoke a lot of questions in academic circles. We have often been askedhowthe stories were constructed and how one judges whether they are representative and trustworthy. These are legitimate questions, no doubt. But questions that are of importance to all qualitative research. It is as if the writing of stories is some kind of mysterious abracadabra activity and not a deliberate and theoretically informed creative process. While reading critique of narrative ways to (re)present research findings, where some researchers suggest that narrative inquiry is a retreat from the difficult academic work of generating new and important ideas, our assumption is that it stems from this misunderstanding about story writing. And maybe the construction of stories has not been given enough attention in narrative research. The purpose of this article is therefore to illustrate the difficult but inspiring activity of transforming 19 interviews into literary short-stories and to highlight methodological concerns relating to presenting these stories. We also demonstrate that creative analytical writing is not just a way of presenting research findings but also a method of inquiry. [ABSTRACT FROM PUBLISHER]

  • 14.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Meckbach, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Redelius, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Mattsson, Torun
    Malmö högskola.
    Some early and later female pioneers in physical education, dance and sports in Sweden: three different portraits2016In: Inspirational Women in Europe: Making a difference in Physical Education, Sport and Dance / [ed] Rosa Diketmüller, Juiz de Fora: NGIME/UFJF , 2016, p. 86-124Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    According to the latest Gender Gap Report by the World Economic Forum, Sweden is one of the most equal countries in the world (www.weforum.org). The equality is described by for example the proportion of women working outside the home and their economical distribution. The Swedish parliament has also one of the world’s highest representation numbers of women parliament members. To be able to understand this development of equality, factors like a long period with a social democracy government and a strong popular movement are often put forward as explanations for the Swedish gender policy development. But an unproven hypothesis is also that the early education of both men and women in bodily exercise and physical activity played a role in this development. The purpose of this chapter is to pay attention to three Swedish women who, through their engagement in physical culture and sports in different time periods, made difference to the lives for girls and women. The first pioneer, Martina Bergman Österberg, established a female Physical Education Teaching Training Program (PETE), the second, Ann Elefalk, broke the way for female coaches in a male dominated sport and the third Cecilia Dahlgren brought dance into compulsory schools in Sweden. The three portraits differ, but together they illustrate how education, passion and strategies can move mountains.

  • 15.
    Redelius, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Student voices about assessment efficacy in physical education2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Redelius, Karin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Larsson, Håkan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Youth's participation rights in relation to dominant movement cultures2016In: Routledge Handbook of Youth Sport / [ed] Ken Green, Andy Smith, Routledge, 2016, p. 332-339Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Redelius, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Att utveckla idrott med ett barnrättsperspektiv2015In: Idéer för idrottsutveckling / [ed] Josef Fahlén och Staffan Karp, Stockholm: SISU idrottsböcker , 2015, p. 9-22Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 18.
    Redelius, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Children’s rights in sport: a Swedish Perspective2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Redelius, Karin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    Örebro universitet.
    Öhman, Marie
    Örebro universitet.
    Communicating aims and learning goals in physical education: part of a subject for learning?2015In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243, Vol. 20, no 5, p. 641-655Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on a socio-cultural perspective on learning, the aim of this article is to examine how aims and learning goals are communicated in physical education (PE) practice. A special focus is on scrutinising how teaching practices are framed in terms of whether and how the aims and learning goals are made explicit or not to students. The aim is also to relate these kinds of communications to different movement cultures. The result shows that many of the students taking part in the study do not understand what they are supposed to learn in PE. However, if the goals are well articulated by teachers, the students are more likely to both understand and be aware of the learning outcomes and what to learn in PE. The opposite is also true. If the goals and objectives are not clarified, students find it difficult to state the learning objectives and know what they are supposed to learn.

  • 20.
    Tidén, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Redelius, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Movement Assessment Tools: A Critical Examination2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    In contemporary society there are calls to increase young people’s physical activity. In the wake of this concern we find a growing interest in studying and assessing children’s and adolescents’ movement abilities. Consequently, there are a number of tools developed for assessing children’s movement abilities. However, many scholars have suggested that ability is far from a neutral concept and the notion of ability is often taken for granted as simply a measureable and observable capacity. The aim with this study is to critically examine assessment tools used for healthy and typically developed children. (Evans, 2004; Hay & Macdonald, 2013; Wright & Burrows, 2006).

    Methods

    The examination comprises ten tools from six different countries. In the study we pay special attention to selected movement tasks in the tools and the evaluation methods. The theoretical framework is inspired by Bourdieu’s concepts of habitus and capital, (Bourdieu, 1988) which are used as analytical tools. The analysis explores and discusses what kind of movement ability the tools may construct.

    Results

    The findings show both a great variation of concepts and evaluation methods and a narrow view of what is regarded as valuable to assess. The assessment tools are strongly related to traditional sports and represent a specific form of physical capital. Rhythm and dance, for example, are never or seldom assessed, neither movements in a broader perspective as open skills or movement tasks taking place in an outdoor environment. The examined tools and tests assess a limited number of decontextualised movements and produce a narrow view of movement ability.

    Discussion

    The study gives an overview of what kind of movements and abilities that is valued and promoted in movement assessment. Evaluation processes often promotes a child who is physically mature and benefits those who have experience of traditional sports. In other words, the assessed ‘taste for sport’ and the ‘embodied physical capital’ construct what is considered to be legitimate knowledge in relation to movement culture. Accordingly, the construction of movement ability through assessment tools could affect how children see themselves and their ‘ability’. The results raises questions about how the assessments influence children’s desire to move or their interest for physical activity in broader perspectives.

    References

    Bourdieu, P. (1988). Program for Sociology of Sport. Sociology of Sport Journal, 5, 153-161.

    Evans, J. (2004). Making a difference? Education and ‘ability’ in physical education. European Physical Education Review, 10, 95-108.

    Hay, P.J., & Macdonald, D. (2013). Evidence for the social construction of ability in physical education. Sport Education and Society, 15, 1-18.

    Wright, J. & Burrows, L. (2006). Re-conceiving ability in physical education: a social analysis. Sport Education and Society, 11, 275-291.

  • 21.
    Svennberg, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Meckbach, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Redelius, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Swedish PE Teachers’ Grading Practice in a Standard Based Grading System2015In: Book of Abstracts / [ed] Radman, A., Hedenborg, S., & Tsolakidis,E, 2015, Vol. 1, p. 153-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A standard based grading system is supposed to support equality and accountability. Nevertheless teachers sometimes refer to an internalized grading (Hay & McDonald, 2008; Svennberg, Meckbach & Redelius, 2014) and the validity of the grades have been questioned (Annerstedt & Larsson, 2008). Our aim is to explore Swedish PE teachers’ grading practice and what they value in the grades they have given their students.

    Four PE teachers in compulsory school were interviewed with the Repertory Grid (RG) technique. The RG technique can be used to reveal a person’s perception of a specific topic that the person is familiar with, by examining the similarities and differences between well-known elements (Fransella, Bell & Bannister, 2004). In the first step, the teacher was asked to select seven to eight students from a class that he or she was teaching and grading in PE. The students selected must represent all possible grades (Fransella et al., 2004). In the second step, the names of three of the students at the time were presented to the teacher who was asked in what way, relevant for the grades, two of the students were similar and different from the third (Fransella et al., 2004). In the third step the teachers were asked to rate the students on how they corresponded to the similarities and differences mentioned. The resulting grids were analysed with the programme WEBGRID5.

    Besides knowledge and skills all four teachers valued standard irrelevant criteria. Their rating of the students on the standard irrelevant criteria generally matched the grades given. Among the national standards mentioned there were differences in how they matched the given grades. Other national standards were not mentioned at all. It seems like some standards have been better implemented then others.

    The results indicate the need for a discussion of why it seems to be an urge to use standard irrelevant criteria such as motivation and effort that is stronger than the desire for compliance to the national grading criteria. Bernsteins’ interrelated systems of curriculum, pedagogy and assessment (2003) can contribute to the understanding. It is also important to discuss why some national grading criteria are easier for the teachers to implement then others.

    References

    Annerstedt C, Larsson S. (2010). European Physical Education Review, 16(2), 97-115.

    Bernstein B. (2003). Class, codes and control. (Vol. 3) Towards a theory of educational transmission, Routledge & Kegan Paul, London.

    Fransella, F., Bell, R. & Bannister, D. (2004). A manual for repertory grid technique. (2nd. ed.). Wiley, Chichester, West Sussex.

    Hay P, MacDonald D. (2008). Assessment In Education: Principles, Policy & Practice 15(2): 153-168.

    Svennberg L, Meckbach J, Redelius K. (2014). European Physical Education Review, 20(2), 199-214.

  • 22.
    Redelius, Karin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Fagrell, Birgitta
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Larsson, Håkan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Symbolic capital and the hetero norm as doxa in physical education2015In: Pierre Bourdieu and Physical Culture / [ed] lisahunter, Smith & Emerald, New York: Routledge, 2015, 1, p. 126-133Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Svennberg, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur. University of Gävle.
    Meckbach, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Redelius, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    To Grade or not to Grade Motivation and Effort: Swedish PE Teachers’ Grading Practice in Relation to National Grading Standards2015In: ECER conference: Education and Transition - Contributions from Educational Research, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To Grade or not to Grade Motivation and Effort: Swedish PE Teachers’ Grading Practice in Relation to National Grading StandardsGeneral description

    There has been an international trend to turn to standard-based grading in order to obtain accountable and consistent grades. Countries have different solutions to meet the challenge to find a balance between curriculum regulation and providing space for adjustment to local context and student populations (Kuiper & Berkvens, 2013). In Sweden a national standard-based grading system has been in use for the last 20 years. Nevertheless, the validity of grades has been questioned in Sweden as elsewhere. PE teachers’ internalized criteria or gut-feeling (Annerstedt & Larsson, 2010; Hay and MacDonald, 2008; Svennberg, Meckbach & Redelius, 2014), as well as standard irrelevant factors such as motivation and effort (Chan, Hay & Tinning, 2011; Larsson, Fagrell & Redelius, 2009), have been identified to influence the grades. Curriculum regulation has been employed in Sweden to improve the validity of the grades and the grading standards have been reformed in 2011 (Swedish National Agency for Education [SNAE]) to make clear that only specified knowledge requirement are to be considered when grading. But will the implementation of more specific standards be enough to keep the teachers’ judgment focused on knowledge only?

    Our intention is to study PE teachers’ alignment with national grading criteria when exposed to a government’s attempt to prescribe the knowledge requirements for different grades. More specific, this is done by enlightening the teachers’ use of nonachievement standard irrelevant factors before and after the implementation of more specific standards and more support. The results will be discussed in light of Bernstein’s three interrelated message systems of curriculum, pedagogy, and assessment (2003). Several scholars have discussed assessment as an important message system of what count as important knowledge and the influence of assessment on learning (Chan et al., 2011; Hay and Penney, 2013; Redelius & Hay, 2009; Thorburn, 2007). To better understand teachers’ grading practices, we are also interested in how the interrelation works in the other direction—how curriculum and pedagogy influence assessment and grading. We take a starting point in our study of the teachers grading practice before and after the implementation of more specific grading standards and relate the results to the Swedish national curriculum and Bernstein’s definition of a pedagogic discourse. The official message in the Swedish curriculum is that both knowledge and values and norms are important in order to reach the overarching goals of education and the goals for PE (SNAE, 2011). However, only knowledge is to be graded and no attention is to be given to values and norms in the grades. To bring light to the influence of values and norms in the teachers pedagogic work we turn to Bernstein’s (1996) pedagogic discourse that comprise both an instructional discourse, which creates specialized skills (knowledge), and a regulative discourse that creates order and relations (values and norms). In Bernstein’s (1996) concept of the pedagogic discourse, the instructional discourse is embedded in the regulative discourse, with the regulative discourse being the dominant of the two. They are to be considered as one inseparable discourse (Bernstien 1996). Applied in a classroom situation this is illustrated by Lund and Veal (2008): “Student teachers know that if they lose control of a class from a managerial standpoint, desired learning will not occur” (p. 503).

     

    Method

    To enable the teachers to verbalise the explicit as well as the implicit criteria they use when grading, the Repertory Grid (RG) interview technique was employed. The RG technique can be used to reveal a person’s perception of a specific topic that the person has experienced and is familiar with by examining the similarities and differences between well-known elements (Fransella, Bell & Bannister, 2004). For instance, even if the teachers find it difficult to express what they find important to get a high grade they can still tell the difference between a student with a high grade and another student, if it is their own students that they know well. George Kelly (1955), who first developed the technique, believed that our behavior can be understood through personally constructed patterns that we use to explain how the world works. These patterns are called constructs, and they enable us to predict our surroundings and choose a direction of our behavior. The method helps us to reveal not only the presence of standard irrelevant constructs but also their content. Three PE teachers, one woman and two men, were interviewed in 2009 and in 2013, before and after the implementation of the new curriculum. Each of them was grading a class of students, 15 to 16 years of age, in different compulsory schools. All grades were represented in the class they were teaching and they had all received a teacher education in PE. In total, 45 students were discussed during the six interviews. The RG interviews lasted for about 90 minutes. In the first step, the teacher was asked to select seven to eight students from the same class that he or she was teaching and grading in PE. The selected students must represent all possible grades (Fransella et al., 2004). In the second step, the names of three of the students at a time were presented to the teacher who was asked in what way, relevant for the grades, two of the students were similar and different from the third (Fransella et al., 2004). By letting the teachers generate their own constructs around a topic they are familiar with, the risk to direct the interview with questions based on another precondition than their own is minimized. The RG interviews generated 125 constructs about aspects that teachers thought were relevant for grades in PE.

     

    Results

    The use of national grading standards in Sweden illustrates how professional judgment is not reliant on the stated standards only. The results indicate that more specific criteria guide the teachers to pay less attention to what Hay and Penney (2009) label “irrelevant factors such as students’ dispositional and behavioral characteristics” (p. 398). Standards seem to be important but not enough. All three teachers still valued standard irrelevant criteria that reflect the norms and values in the curriculum and the goals for the subject. The standard irrelevant criteria used by the teachers also put focus on their concern of the impact of the regulative discourse on the students learning.

    Since the regulative discourse is always present in the pedagogic discourse (Bernstein, 1996) and values and norms are important goals of the curriculum and of the PE subject, it can cause confusion in teachers’ interpretation of the alignment of curriculum, pedagogy, and assessment in a grading system in which the regulative discourse is not to be graded. Future research is needed about how to achieve valid grades while simultaneously acknowledge the need to give value to the regulative discourse. Grades are often regarded as a reward for achieving knowledge requirements in the curriculum, but what are the rewards for achieving norms and values?

    References

    Annerstedt, C. & Larsson, S. (2010). ‘I have my own picture of what the demands are ... ’: Grading in Swedish PEH - problems of validity, comparability and fairness. European Physical Education Review, 16(2), 97-115.

    Bernstein, B. (1996). Pedagogy, Symbolic Control and Identity: Theory, Research, Critique. London, England:Taylor & Francis Ltd.,

    Bernstein, B. (2003). Class, codes and control. (Vol. 3) Towards a theory of educational transmission. London, England: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

    Chan, K., Hay, P. & Tinning, R. (2011). Understanding the pedagogic discourse of assessment in Physical Education. Asia-Pacific Journal Of Health, Sport & Physical Education, 2(1), 3-18.

    Fransella, F., Bell, R. & Bannister, D. (2004). A manual for repertory grid technique. (2nd. ed.). Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley.

    Hay, P. & MacDonald, D. (2008) (Mis)appropriations of criteria and standards-referenced assessment in a performance-based subject. Assessment In Education: Principles, Policy & Practice 15(2): 153-168.

    Hay, P., & Penney, D. (2009). Proposing Conditions for Assessment Efficacy in Physical Education. European Physical Education Review, 15(3), 389-405.

    Hay, P. & Penney, D. (2013). Assessment in Physical Education: a sociocultural perspective. London: Routledge.

    Kelly, G. (1955). The Psychology of Personal Construct. A Theory of Personality (Vol. 1). New York: W.W. Norton & Company Inc.

    Kuiper, W., & Berkvens, J. (Eds.). (2013). Balancing curriculum regulation and freedom across Europe. CIDREE Yearbook 2013. Enschede, the Netherlands: SLO.

    Lund, J.L. & Veal, M. (2008). Chapter 4: Measuring Pupil Learning – How Do Student Teacher Assess Within Instructional Models?. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 27(4), 487-511.

    Redelius, K. & Hay, P. (2009). Defining, acquiring and transacting cultural capital through assessment in physical education. European Physical Education Review, 15(3), 275-294.

    Redelius, K., Fagrell, B. & Larsson, H. (2009). Symbolic capital in physical education and health: to be, to do or to know? That is the gendered question. Sport, Education & Society, 14(2), 245-260.

    Svennberg, L., Meckbach, J. & Redelius, K. (2014). Exploring PE teachers’ ‘gut feeling’: An attempt to verbalise and discuss teachers’ internalised grading criteria. European Physical Education Review, 20(2), 199-214.

    Swedish National Agency for Education. (2011). Curriculum for the compulsory school system, the pre-school class and the leisure-time centre 2011. Stockholm: Author.

    Thorburn, M. (2007). Achieving conceptual and curriculum coherence in high-stakes school examinations in Physical Education. Physical Education & Sport Pedagogy, 12(2), 163-184.

  • 24.
    Backman, Erik
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Larsson, Håkan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Nyberg, Marie
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Redelius, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Tidén, Anna
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Bedömningsstöd i ämnet Idrott och hälsa: gymnasiet2014Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 25.
    Larsson, Håkan
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Nyberg, Marie
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Redelius, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Tiden, Anna
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Thedin Jakobsson, Britta
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Bedömningsstöd idrott och hälsa årskurs 4-62014Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Som stöd för bedömning i idrott och hälsa i årskurs 6 finns ett material som ger tydliga exempel på bedömningar av de kunskaper som eleverna visar upp utifrån kunskapskraven. Bedömningsstödet syftar till att konkretisera delar av kunskapskraven genom elevexempel och lärares samtal kring bedömning.

  • 26.
    Redelius, Karin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    Örebro universitet.
    Öhman, Marie
    Örebro universitet.
    Communicating goals and aims in Physical Education – part of a subject for learning?2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Svennberg, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur. Högskolan i Gävle.
    Meckbach, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Redelius, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Exploring PE teachers’ ‘gut feeling’: An attempt to verbalise and discuss teachers’ internalised grading criteria2014In: European Physical Education Review, ISSN 1356-336X, E-ISSN 1741-2749, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 199-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research shows that teachers’ grading is influenced by non-achievement factors in addition to official criteria, such as knowledge and skills. Some grading criteria are internalised by the teacher, who is sometimes unable to verbalise the criteria used and refers to what is called a ‘gut feeling’. Therefore, transparency, validity and reliability are problematic. The aim of this study was to explore which criteria physical education teachers consider important when grading. Such an exploration makes it possible to discuss how the verbalised criteria and the value they are given by the teachers can be understood. Four Year 9 teachers at different Swedish compulsory schools were interviewed using Kelly’s Repertory Grid technique. Among the verbalised criteria, four themes were identified: motivation, knowledge and skills, self-confidence and interaction with others. The teachers sometimes had difficulties predicting which criteria had relevance to the grades given, and the criteria considered important by the teachers were not always reflected in the grade. The verbalised criteria revealed teachers using grades to encourage such student behaviours that helped them to handle the classroom situation and to facilitate students learning. To become cognisant of and develop their grading, methods to verbalise their individual grading criteria were needed, and Kelly’s Repertory Grid technique is one possible option. The results provide discussion points about reasons for the way teachers are grading.

  • 28.
    Thedin Jakobsson, Britta
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Brun Sundblad, Gunilla
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Redelius, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    In- and outflow in club sport: A longitudinal study among Swedish youth aged 10-19 years2014Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Unogård, Olof
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Redelius, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Inkilningar hotar idrottens trovärdighet2014In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 27-31Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Få huvudet rakat, bli fastbunden naken eller tvingad att äta äcklig mat. Många har upplevt kränkande och ofta sexuellt laddade situationer inom idrotten. Nästan hälften av eleverna på idrottsgymnasier har någon gång blivit inkilade. I en studie som nyligen genomförts på Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan (GIH) framkommer att 40 procent av ungdomar som studerar på idrottsgymnasium någon gång har blivit inkilade inom idrotten. Samma erfarenhet har 25 procent av en grupp studenter på GIH. En majoritet av de inkilade ungdomarna (drygt 70 procent) uppger att de blivit inkilade en gång. Hälften av idrottsstudenterna (drygt 50 procent) uppger att de varit med om det två gånger eller fler. En inkilning eller nollning är de aktiviteter som idrottsutövare ibland får i uppdrag att utföra när de kommer till ett nytt lag eller en ny grupp. Aktiviteter iscensätts av de befintliga medlemmarna men de utförs av de nya – ofta i åsyn av de gamla medlemmarna. Aktiviteterna kan variera från lättsamma inslag, som att leka olika lekar, till mer grövre aktiviteter.

  • 30.
    Redelius, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    "Mange" satte avtryck i idrottsforskningen2014In: RV-bulletinen, no Höstbulletinen, p. 25-27p. 25-27Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Lars-Magnus Engström – Mange kallad – gick bort den 2 januari i år. En månad tidigare firade han sin 75 årsdag. På pappret, som Mange skulle ha sagt, var han alltså pensionär sedan många år, men i realiteten var han fortfarande forskningsaktiv. Som professor emeritus hade han en rad uppdrag; han var sakkunnig vid tjänstetillsättningar, deltog i uppbyggnaden av en seminarieverksamhet vid Malmö högskola, var ledamot i GIH:s forsknings- och forskarutbildningsnämnd, handledde doktorander och dessutom ägnade han sig åt vetenskapligt skrivande. Vilken kunskap är det han ägnat sitt arbetsliv åt att utveckla? Och vad har han betytt för svensk idrott?

  • 31.
    Engström, Lars-Magnus
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Larsson, Håkan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Redelius, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Pedagogisk forskning2014In: Från Kungl. Gymnastiska Centralinstitutet till Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan: en betraktelse av de senaste 25 åren som del av en 200-årig historia / [ed] Suzanne Lundvall, Stockholm: Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH , 2014, p. 210-239Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 32.
    Thedin Jakobsson, Britta
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Redelius, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Reasons to stay: A study of 19 year old Swedish club sport participants2014In: Sport Science Review, ISSN 2069-7244, Vol. 23, no 5-6, p. 205-224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A vital part of many teenagers’ lives is participation in club sports. Despite this, many adolescents drop out of club sports. Since physical inactivity is increasing among young people, this is of great political concern. One aim of this study is to explore why young people in their late teens continue to participate in organized club sports. Another aim is to examine the perceived levels and intensity of physical activity among participants and non-participants (n = 377). The results show that primary reasons to continue participating in club sports are having fun and the sense of enjoyment, the sense of belonging, and the sense of improving sport skills. Of lesser importance, however, is the desire to compete. A large amount of club sports participants (74%) report that they are regularly physically active in an intense form of exercise compared to a significantly smaller amount (12%) of non-participants. The findings are discussed in relation to Aaron Antonovsky’s salutogenic approach and his concepts of sense of coherence (SOC).

  • 33.
    Svennberg, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur. Högskolan i Gävle.
    Meckbach, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Redelius, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Repertory Grid: - makes people talk2014In: ECER 2014, The Past, the Present and the Future of Educational Research: Network 18. Research in Sports Pedagogy, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Teachers sometimes have difficulties expressing what they value when grading students in Physical Education and refer to a “gut-feeling” or internalised criteria (Annerstedt and Larsson, 2010; Hay and MacDonald, 2008). The internalised criteria consists of the teacher’s own values that have an impact on the grades regardless if they are consistent with the official grading criteria or not (cp. Penney et al., 2009). In this line research also suggests that teachers use a “hodge-podge grade of attitude, effort and achievement” (Brookhart, 1991: 36). Assessment and grading in Physical Education (PE) are no exceptions (Chan, Hay and Tinning, 2011; Redelius, Fagrell and Larsson, 2009; Svennberg, Meckbach and Redelius; 2014). In a criterion-referenced grading system the criteria need to be transparent to ensure validity and fairness. Otherwise the students do not know the reason for their grades and the grades are not possible to be discussed and evaluated. When the stated criteria are inconsistent with how the grading is done, it affects the learning-teaching process since the assessment is sending out a different message regarding what is important to learn (Chan, Hay and Tinning, 2011; Hay and Penney, 2012; James, Griffin and France, 2005; Redelius and Hay, 2009). In Sweden a criterion-referenced grading system was introduced in 1994, and grades are supposed to be awarded on the basis of how well the student meets the knowledge criteria or learning outcomes stated in the national curriculum. Conversely several studies carried out on Swedish PE indicate that how the student behaves is just as important as knowledge and skills (Annerstedt and Larsson, 2010; Redelius, Fagrell and Larsson, 2009).

    The aim of this study is to explore what four Swedish PE teachers consider important when talking about grading and to analyse the relevance the expressed criteria have to the grades they have given their students. Such an exploration makes it possible to discuss how the verbalised criteria and the value they are given by the teacher can be understood in relation to the official grading criteria

    Bernstein (2003: 85) points out the importance of the curriculum: ‘Curriculum defines what counts as valid knowledge, pedagogy defines what counts as valid transmission of knowledge, and evaluation defines what counts as a valid realisation of the knowledge on the part of the taught’. Linde (2012) discusses Bernstein’s thesis that curriculum defines what counts as valid knowledge and raises the question as to whether it is the written official curriculum that counts, or the mediated curriculum that results from the teachers’ transformations. He then points to the fact that the content and subject matters taught by teachers or learnt by students are not always the content expressed in the written official curriculum. The impact of the teachers’ transformation of the curriculum can also be applied on grading. How is it possible to understand the teachers’ transformation of the official grading criteria?

    According to the Personal Construct Theory (PCT) by George Kelly (1955) our behaviour can be understood in the light of personally constructed patterns. These patterns of constructs help us to explain our experiences, to predict our surroundings and to choose a direction of our behaviour. The constructs are sometimes articulated, but they can also be unarticulated and experienced as a vague feeling. Constructs are sometimes described as the intuition, gut feeling or perception that guides our actions without necessarily being verbalised (Björklund, 2008).

    Method

    For this study we used the Repertory Grid (RG) technique, which is based on PCT. It can enable people to verbalise what they intuitively feel (Björklund, 2008). The technique used in interviews is employed to map and find patterns in the individual constructs, the ones a person is both aware and unaware of, in a given area (Fransella, Bell and Bannister D, 2004). Four Swedish PE teachers who were about to grade a group of 15 year old students were interviewed using the RG technique. The interview with each teacher was performed in different steps (Fransella, Bell and Bannister D, 2004). In the first step the teachers were asked to select eight of their own students that represented the different grades (step one: generating elements). Thereafter they were asked to compare three students at the time and describe in what way two of them were similar and how they differed from the third concerning things that mattered for the grades. The similarities and differences made up the two poles of the constructs, for instance doesn’t care - takes responsibility (step two: generating constructs). To understand the meaning of the first pole, it is important to know the opposite pole (Fransella, Bell and Bannister, 2004). In the third step, the teachers were asked to rate the eight students on a five-point scale for every construct they had generated in the grid. On the scale, one represents the first pole in the construct, for instance doesn’t care, and five the opposite pole, takes responsibility. When all eight of the students were rated between one and five on every construct, the results composed a grid (step three: rating elements). In addition to the Repertory Grid interviews the teachers were asked to rate how important they considered their constructs to be on a five-grade scale, with five being the most important.  To explore what the teachers valued in their grading, their constructs were summarised and categorised. Thereafter the data in the four grids were analysed with the software WEBGRID5. The resulting PrinGrid maps were analysed to investigate how well the constructs matched the grades given. 

    Expected Outcomes

    Data from the four teachers, concerning together 32 students, resulted in 86 constructs. The constructs were categorised in four themes: Motivation, Knowledge and skills, Confidence and Interaction with others. Only Knowledge and skills is acknowledged to have influence on the grades in the official grading criteria.  The need to pay attention to the teachers’ beliefs and values and their influence on professional practice has been stressed by Penney et al. (2009). The teachers’ beliefs and values are also reflected in what criteria that are relevant for the grades given. Some common patterns can be detected in the official criteria that have low relevance or are missing in the constructs. The teachers sometimes had difficulties predicting which criteria had relevance to the grades given, and the criteria considered important by the teachers were not always reflected in the grades. Repertory Grid can be one conceivable option to make teachers’ grading visible and possible to understand. Drawing on the results of the study we want to discuss how to understand the inconsistency between teachers’ constructs and the official grading criteria. In particular we are interested in why the teachers tend to use internalised criteria and to discuss why they use curriculum-irrelevant criteria, why official criteria are missing and how to understand teachers’ inability to predict some constructs’ relevance to the grades. 

    References

    Annerstedt C and Larsson S (2010) ‘I have my own picture of what the demands are ... ’: Grading in Swedish PEH - problems of validity, comparability and fairness. European Physical Education Review 16(2): 97-115. Bernstein B (2003) Class, codes and control. Vol. 3, Towards a theory of educational transmission. London: Routledge. Björklund L-E (2008) The repertory grid technique, Making Tacit Knowledge Explicit: Assessing Creative work and Problem solving skills. In: Middleton H (ed) Researching Technology Education: Methods and techniques. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers, pp. 46-69. Brookhart SM (1991) Grading practices and validity. Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice 10(1): 35-36.  Chan K, Hay P and Tinning R (2011) Understanding the pedagogic discourse of assessment in Physical Education. Asia-Pacific Journal Of Health, Sport & Physical Education 2(1): 3-18.  Fransella F, Bell R and Bannister D (2004) A manual for repertory grid technique. 2. ed. Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley. Hay P and MacDonald D (2008) (Mis)appropriations of criteria and standards-referenced assessment in a performance-based subject. Assessment In Education: Principles, Policy & Practice 15(2): 153-168. Hay P and Penney D (2012) Assessment in Physical Education: a sociocultural perspective,, London: Routledge James A, Griffin L and France T (2005) Perceptions of Assessment in Elementary Physical Education: A Case Study. Physical Educator 62(2): 85-95. Kelly GA (1955) The psychology of personal constructs vol. 1. A theory of personality. New York: W.W. Norton & Company Inc. Linde G (2012) Det ska ni veta!: En introduktion till läroplans teori (This you should know!:An introduction to the theory of curriculum). 3rd ed. Lund: Studentlitteratur. Penney D, Brooker R, Hay P and Gillespie L (2009) Curriculum, pedagogy and assessment: three message systems of schooling and dimensions of quality physical education, Sport, Education and Society, 14(4): 421-442. Redelius K and Hay P (2009) Defining, acquiring and transacting cultural capital through assessment in physical education. European Physical Education Review 15(3 ): 275-294. Redelius K, Fagrell B and Larsson H (2009) Symbolic capital in physical education and health: to be, to do or to know? That is the gendered question. Sport, Education & Society 14(2): 245-260.  Svennberg L, Meckbach J, and Redelius K (2014) Exploring PE teachers’ ‘gut feelings’: An attempt to verbalise and discuss teachers’ internalised grading criteria European Physical Education Review, first published on January 20, 2014 as doi:10.1177/1356336X13517437 

  • 34.
    Tidén, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Redelius, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    The social construction of ability in movement assessment tools2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    THE SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION OF ABILITY IN MOVEMENT ASSESSMENT TOOLS

    Anna Tidén

    Karin Redelius

    Suzanne Lundvall

    The Swedish School of Sport and Health Studies, Stockholm, Sweden (GIH)

    The notion of ability is often taken for granted as simply a measureable and observable capacity. Consequently, there is a number of assessment tools developed for evaluation children’s movement abilities. However, many scholars have suggested that ability is far from a neutral concept. The aim with this study is to investigate how ability is conceptualized and socially configured in a number of movement tests. Questions of particular interest are: What are the purposes of the tests? What kinds of evaluation methods are used and what movement ‘abilities’ are valued? Different assessment tools used in research and education have been examined regarding purpose, content, and assessment orientation. The tests have been analyzed from a sociocultural perspective and Bernstein’s models of pedagogies and Bourdieu’s concept of physical capital have been used. Preliminary findings indicate that the kind of abilities or physical capital that renders high scores on many tests is integral to traditional sports. Rhythm and dance, for example, are never or seldom assessed, neither movements in a broader perspective. The construction of ability in the tests seems to be related to Bernstein’s hierarchical model of pedagogy, performance codes, rather than to competence codes which relates to a more holistic perspective on human movement. The study gives a picture about what kind of movements and abilities that is valued in movement assessment. It raises question about which child benefits from the testing and which child does not. How will the testing influence children’s desire to move or their interest for physical activity in a broader perspective?

    References

    Burton, A. W., & Miller, D. E. (1998). Movement Skill Assessment. Champaign. IL: Human Kinetics.

    Bernstein, B. (1990). The Structuring of Pedagogic Discourse. London: Routledge.

    Bourdieu, P. (1988). Program for Sociology of Sport. Sociology of Sport Journal.5, 153-161.

    Evans, J. (2004). Making a difference? Education and ‘ability’ in physical education. European Physical Education Review, 10, 95-108.

    Evans, J., & Penney, D. (2008). Levels on the playing field: The social construction of physical ‘ability’ in physical education curriculum. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 13(1), 31-47.

    Hay, P.J., & Macdonald, D. (2013). Evidence for the social construction of ability in physical education. Sport Education and Society, 15(1), 1-18.

    Wright, J. & Burrows, L. (2006). Re-conceiving ability in physical education: a social analysis. Sport Education and Society, 11(3), 275-291.

    Anna Tidén – anna.tiden@gih.se

  • 35. Quennerstedt, Mikael
    et al.
    Annerstedt, Claes
    Barker, Dean
    Karlefors, Inger
    Larsson, Håkan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Redelius, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Öhman, Marie
    What did they learn in school today?: A method for exploring aspects of learning in physical education.2014In: European Physical Education Review, ISSN 1356-336X, E-ISSN 1741-2749, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 282-302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper outlines a method for exploring learning in educational practice. The suggested method combines an explicit learning theory with robust methodological steps in order to explore aspects of learning in school physical education. The design of the study is based on sociocultural learning theory, and the approach adds to previous research within the field, both in terms of the combination of methods used and the claims made in our studies. The paper describes a way of collecting and analysing the retrieved data and discusses and illustrates the results of a study using this combination of explicit learning theory and robust methodological steps.

  • 36.
    Redelius, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Att vilja och kunna fortsätta: Om idrottens utformning och tillgänglighet2013In: Spela vidare: en antologi om vad som får unga att fortsätta idrotta / [ed] Christine Dartsch och Johan Pihlblad, Stockholm: Centrum för Idrottsforskning , 2013, p. 19-40Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 37. Norberg, Johan R
    et al.
    Redelius, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Idrotten och kommersen: Marknaden som hot eller möjlighet?2013In: Civilsamhället i samhällskontraktet: En antologi om vad som står på spel / [ed] Filip Wijkström, Stockholm: European Civil Society Press , 2013, 2, p. 175-194Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Redelius, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Making the grade in Physical Education – a gendered issue?2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Redelius, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Making the grade in Physical Education – a gendered issue?2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Redelius, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Recension av Children and Organised Sport av Stafford & Alexander: Viktig forskning om barn och idrott, men med brister i metodredovisningen2013In: idrottsforum.org, ISSN 1652–7224Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Redelius, Karin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    Örebro universitet.
    Öhman, Marie
    Örebro universitet.
    The hidden learning object – problematic or not?2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Thedin Jakobsson, Britta
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Redelius, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Engström, Lars-Magnus
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Almost All Start But Who Continue?: A Longitudinal Study of Youth Participation in Swedish Club Sports2012In: European Physical Education Review, ISSN 1356-336X, E-ISSN 1741-2749, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 3-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many young people in Sweden stop participating in club sports during their teens but some continue. Drawing on a longitudinal study, the aim of this article is to highlight some of the characteristics of teenagers who continue with club sports and to discuss the relation between club-sport participation, and social and cultural conditions with the help of Bourdieu’s theoretical framework. This is done by studying the characteristics of teenagers who do club sports at thirteen and sixteen years of age and comparing them with non-participants at the age of sixteen. In focus, are girls and boys (n = 289) who participated in both 2004 and 2007 by answering self-reported questionnaires on sporting activity in their leisure time, their academic success, and the social position of their families. The conclusion is that young people who possess specific dispositions and certain assets in terms of a habitus with a taste for sport and a cultural capital remain more often in club sports.

  • 43.
    Backman, Erik
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Larsson, Håkan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Redelius, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Thedin Jacobsson, Britta
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Nyberg, Marie
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Bedömningsstöd i idrott och hälsa: årskurs 7-92012Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 44.
    Redelius, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Betygssättning i idrott och hälsa: en didaktisk utmaning med pedagogiska konsekvenser2012In: Idrottsdidaktiska utmaningar / [ed] Larsson, H. & Meckbach, J., Stockholm: Liber, 2012, 2, p. 217-232Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Redelius, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Children’s Rights in Swedish sport – what do coaches know?2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Redelius, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Idrott och kohesion: recension av Inclusion and Exclusion Through Youth Sport, Dagkas, S. & Armour, K. (red) Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge2012In: Idrottsforum.org/Nordic sport science forum, ISSN 1652-7224, no 9 majArticle, book review (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Kempe-Bergman, Matthis
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Larsson, Håkan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Redelius, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Idrottslyftet lyfter vadå?2012In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, ISSN 1103-4629, no 1, p. 46-50Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Larsson, Håkan
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Redelius, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Kempe-Bergman, Matthis
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Idrottslyftets externa utvärdering: Svenska Badmintonförbundet, Svenska Bordtennisförbundet, Svenska Fotbollförbundet och Svenska Volleybollförbundet2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten utgör resultatet av en uppföljning av satsningarna inom Idrottslyftet i idrotterna badminton, bordtennis, fotboll och volleyboll. Uppföljningen har genomförts av tre forskare från Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, i Stockholm på uppdrag av Riksidrottsförbundet (RF). Samtliga RF:s medlemsförbund fick möjlighet att anmäla sitt intresse för att ingå i uppföljningen. De förbund som visade intresse fördelades på sex forskargrupper från lärosäten i landet med idrottsvetenskaplig verksamhet.

    Rapporten inleds med några allmänna ord om Idrottslyftet, vad vår uppföljning går ut på och hur den har genomförts. Därefter följer ett avsnitt om RF:s riktlinjer när det gäller barn- och ungdomsidrott. På detta följer ett kapitel om var och en av de i uppföljningen ingående idrotterna badminton, bordtennis, fotboll och volleyboll avseende hur man ser på och har arbetat med Idrottslyftets intentioner när det gäller 1) att öppna dörrarna för fler och utveckla verksamheten så att fler väljer att fortsätta idrotta, 2) jämlikhet och jämställdhet och 3) Idrotten vill. Därtill har vi undersökt hur man inom de fyra förbunden ser på administrationen av satsningen. Rapporten avslutas med en jämförande analys av idrottslyftssatsningarna inom dessa idrotter och några slutsatser och reflektioner kring arbetet med satsningen.

  • 49.
    Redelius, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Ledare osäkra om barns rättigheter2012In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 14-18Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur ser ledare på barns rättigheter? Svaren från närmare 200 ledare visar att många är ovana att resonera i termer av att idrottande barn har rättigheter och att kunskapen om barnkonventionens innehåll är låg.

  • 50.
    Svender, Jenny
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Larsson, Håkan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Redelius, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Promoting girls' participation in sport: discursive constructions of girls in a sports initiative2012In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 463-478Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What does it mean to promote girls’ participation in sports and which girls are seen as needing support? In this article we focus a government-financed sports venture and scrutinize the frames governing what is possible to say about girls and their participation in sports. By analyzing project applications from local sport clubs we investigate how the category of girls is discursively constructed in projects designed to promote girls’ sports participation. The study employs the Foucauldian concepts of governmentality, power, biopower and normalization. The analyses show that teenage girls in particular are in focus and a number of ideas are presented about what becoming a teenage girl means. We consider the projects as part of governmentality. Framing girls as both ‘capable’ and ‘at risk’ is reasonable in liberal governing, where they become subjects of scrutiny, regulation and productivity.

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