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  • 1.
    Baltzell, Amy
    et al.
    USA.
    Röthlin, Philipp
    Swiss Federal Institute of Sport, Magglingen, Schweiz.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Self-compassion in sport for courage and performance2020In: Mindfulness and Acceptance in Sport: How to Help Athletes Perform and Thrive under Pressure / [ed] Kristoffer Hendriksen, Jakob Hansen and Carsten Hvid Larsen, Routledge, 2020, p. 178-190Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Hassmén, Peter
    et al.
    School of Health and Human Sciences, Southern Cross University, Australia.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group. School of Human Kinetics, University of Ottawa, Canada.
    Hjälm, Sören
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Lundkvist, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Sweden; Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Burnout symptoms and recovery processes in eight elite soccer coaches over 10 years2019In: International journal of sports science & coaching, ISSN 1747-9541, E-ISSN 2048-397X, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 431-443Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Elite sport can be stressful, which increases the risk for burnout symptoms to develop. Especially when not balanced with sufficient recovery. To study the burnout–recovery process, eight elite soccer coaches were followed for 10 years. All eight were active elite coaches at the inception of this study and reported elevated emotional exhaustion scores on Maslach’s Burnout Inventory Educators Survey (MBI-ES). The coaches completed MBI-ES three additional times (year 3, 7, and 10), and they were also interviewed on the same occasions. At the 3-year follow-up, seven of the eight coaches reduced their exhaustion scores. The coach presenting with unchanged scores both at the 3 - and 7-year follow-up was the only one still coaching at the elite level. All coaches revealed during the interviews that they struggled to manage their work–life balance well; some worked too many hours, some experienced difficulty in managing conflicting role-demands, and some wrestled with external pressures. Their approach to recovery was, however, similar. Apart from moving away from coaching at the elite level, they unanimously mentioned that they changed their approach to coaching to make recovery possible. They achieved the latter by, for example, increasing control and delegating responsibility. According to our longitudinal results, burnout frequently regarded as an end-state can decrease over time. Provided that decisive action is taken to change situational factors and personal demands. This frequently meant withdrawing from coaching, which in turn explains why coach retention remains a serious challenge for most organizations with teams/athletes competing at the elite level.

  • 3.
    Van Slingerland, Krista J
    et al.
    University of Ottawa, Canada.
    Durand-Bush, Natalie
    University of Ottawa, Canada.
    Bradley, Lindsay
    Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada..
    Goldfield, Gary
    Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Ottawa, Canada.
    Archambault, Roger
    University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada..
    Smith, Danika
    University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada..
    Edwards, Carla
    McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada..
    Delenardo, Samantha
    Student-Athlete Mental Health Initiative, Ottawa, Canada..
    Taylor, Shaunna
    Canadian Sport Psychology Association..
    Werthner, Penny
    Canadian Sport Psychology Association..
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group. University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada..
    Canadian Centre for Mental Health and Sport (CCMHS) Position Statement: Principles of Mental Health in Competitive and High-Performance Sport.2019In: Clinical Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 1050-642X, E-ISSN 1536-3724, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 173-180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The brave decision made by many Canadian athletes to share their experience with mental illness has fed a growing dialogue surrounding mental health in competitive and high-performance sport. To affect real change for individuals, sport culture must change to meet demands for psychologically safe, supportive, and accepting sport environments. This position statement addresses mental health in competitive and high-performance sport in Canada, presenting solutions to current challenges and laying a foundation for a unified address of mental health by the Canadian sport community. The paper emerged from the first phase of a multidisciplinary Participatory Action Research (PAR) project, in which a sport-focused mental health care model housed within the Canadian Centre for Mental Health and Sport (CCMHS) is currently being designed, implemented, and evaluated by a team of 20 stakeholders, in collaboration with several community partners and advisors.

  • 4.
    Olusoga, Peter
    et al.
    Sheffield Hallam Univ, Acad Sport &, Sheffield, England.
    Bentzen, Marte
    Norwegian Sch Sport Sci, Oslo, Norway.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Coach Burnout: A Scoping Review2019In: International Sport Coaching Journal, ISSN 2328-918X, E-ISSN 2328-9198, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 42-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coaches' experiences of burnout and stress have been popular topics for research within sport psychology, particularly over the last decade. The purpose of this scoping review was to provide an up-to-date and critical review of the coaching burnout literature, consolidate research findings, assess current methodological and conceptual trends, and identify avenues for research in this area. Five electronic databases were used to conduct the literature search up to September 30th, 2017 (PsycINFO, Web of Science, PubMed, SPORTDiscus, ORIA, Google Scholar). Initially, 65 papers, reviews, and books chapter were identified, but through an iterative process, 45 peer-reviewed, published articles satisfied the inclusion criteria, and the data from these studies was charted. Findings indicated that coach burnout literature is explored from a number of different theoretical perspectives, and shortcomings were identified regarding constructs and concepts used, and research quality. Based on consolidated findings, key challenges are identified, and recommendations for future research are suggested. Recommendations include the use of designs that fully capture the enduring nature of the burnout experience, further consideration being given to the measurement of coach burnout, and further research exploring the clinical treatment and prevention of burnout in coaching contexts.

  • 5.
    Hägglund, Karin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Thelwell, Richard
    University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, United Kingdom.
    Wagstaff, Christopher R. D.
    University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, United Kingdom.
    Is there an upside of vulnerability in sport?: A mindfulness approach applied in the pursuit of psychological strength2019In: Journal of Sport Psychology in Action, ISSN 2152-0704, E-ISSN 2152-0712Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article proposes a strength-based approach to vulnerability. Moreover, a mindfulness-based self-reflection intervention designed to enhance well-being and sustainability in high-performance coaches is described. The intervention organically uncovered the potential value and upside of vulnerability. Furthermore, in this article we highlight some of the recent criticisms and progress within the area of psychological strengths, before encouraging the reader to consider the value of self-awareness for exploring a more comprehensive understanding of vulnerability beyond its traditional association with weakness. We conclude with a suggested definition of the upside of vulnerability and invite practitioners and researchers alike to consider this within their work.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-02-01 10:00
  • 6.
    Roberts, Claire-Marie
    et al.
    University of the West of England, UK.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Knowing when, and how, to step out: coach retirement2019In: Professional advances in sports coaching: research and practice / [ed] Richard Thelwell and Matt Dicks, Routledge, 2019, p. 397-414Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Roberts, Claire-Marie
    et al.
    University of the West of England, Bristol, UK.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Motherhood in the exercising female2019In: The exercising female: science and its application / [ed] Jacky Forsyth and Claire-Marie Roberts, Routledge, 2019, p. 224-235Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Åkesdotter, Cecilia
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Balans, återhämtning och utveckling i rollen som tränare2018In: Idrottens ledarskap, Stockholm: SISU idrottsböcker , 2018, p. 111-125Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Tränare behöver precis som idrottare hitta vägar för att utvecklas, må bra och prestera över tid. [...] Detta kapitel handlar om hur viktigt det är att ha en balanserad totalbelastning vilket innebär att de grundläggande förutsättningarna finns på plats: äta bra, sova och ha möjlighet till psykosocial återhämtning.

  • 9.
    Lundqvist, Carolina
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Ståhl, Linda
    Stockholm University.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Thulin, Ulrika
    Karolinska institutet.
    Evaluation of a mindfulness intervention for Paralympic leaders prior to the Paralympic Games.2018In: International journal of sports science & coaching, ISSN 1747-9541, E-ISSN 2048-397X, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 62-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents an evaluation of the effectiveness of an applied mindfulness intervention for stress reduction delivered to Paralympic leaders prior to the Paralympic Games. The intervention group of Swedish Paralympic leaders (n = 10) received a mindfulness intervention of eight web-based seminars, while a Norwegian reference group (n = 6) received no intervention. Three assessments were performed for both samples: at baseline, post-intervention and six weeks post-intervention. The evaluation indicated intervention effects of higher psychological flexibility (p = .03), less rumination (p = .02) and lower perceived stress (p = .001), and offers initial support for the applied usefulness of a web-based mindfulness training program as a supplement in stress-reduction programs for elite sport leaders. General challenges from an applied sport psychology perspective related to the implementation of mindfulness interventions in samples with experienced high levels of stress and perceived time-constraints are discussed. 

  • 10.
    Moesch, Karin
    et al.
    RF, Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Kleinert, Jens
    German Sport University Cologne, Köln, Tyskland.
    Quignon-Fleuret, Cédric
    National Institute of Sport, Expertise and Performance, Paris, Frankrike.
    Cecil, Sarah
    “G. d’Annunzio” University of Chieti-Pescara, Italien.
    Bertollo, Maurizio
    “G. d’Annunzio” University of Chieti-Pescara, Italien, University of Suffolk, UK.
    FEPSAC position statement: Mental health disorders in elite athletes and models of service provision2018In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 38, p. 61-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mental health disorders (MHD) in elite athletes is a topic that has received increased attention in recent years. The overall aim of this position statement is to enhance awareness of this important topic and to critically discuss optimal service provision for athletes who suffer from MHD. In the first part of the paper a short overview of the research on MHD in elite athletes is provided. Elite athletes seem to have comparable prevalence rates for the most common MHD when compared to non-athletic peers, but there are still many disorders that have not been investigated in athletes. Sport specific situations such as injuries, periods of overtraining and career termination may put athletes at an increased risk of developing MHD. In the second part of the paper, models of service provision for elite athletes suffering from MHD from six European countries are presented, focusing on 1) professional service providers, 2) support systems, 3) diagnostic assessment, 4) clinical treatment, 5) performance during treatment, 6) screening, and 7) education systems. It emerges that competencies, certification issues, and professional boundaries of the involved service providers, as well as the structure of the National Health Care systems differ strongly across European countries, which makes defining a golden standard difficult. In the third part of this paper, the authors provide general recommendations for athletes and coaches, clubs, federations, organizations and scholars that hopefully will inspire stakeholders to optimize their support systems.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-05-23 12:00
  • 11.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Going Back to the Roots: Rediscovering Core Values2018In: Proceedings from the 33rd Annual Conference of the Association for the Applied Sport Psychology, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Åkesdotter, Cecilia
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Idrottens psykologi2018In: Specialidrott: Tränings- och tävlingslära, Stockholm: SISU idrottsböcker , 2018, p. 109-141Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 13.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Mental health support for high performance coaches: through the lens of theory and practice2018In: Proceedings from the 33rd Annual Conference of the Association for the Applied Sport Psychology., 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Moesch, Karin
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Bäckström, Martin
    Lunds universitet.
    Mattsson, C. Mikael
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Nonverbal post-shot celebrations and their relationship with performance in elite handball2018In: International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, ISSN 1612-197X, E-ISSN 1557-251X, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 235-249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nonverbal behaviour has an important function in team sports, but research is limited. Adopting a psychological momentum (PM) framework, this study explores the relationship between a team’s history of events, nonverbal post-shot celebrations in the form of gestures and touch shown by the shooter after scoring, and subsequent team performance during handball matches. A naturalistic design with systematic observation was chosen for the present study. Based on an existing coding scheme, 616 post-shot periods from 18 high-stake matches of the highest league in Sweden were analysed. Results showed that the better a team’s prior performance, the more gestures were displayed after scoring in the following period. A high degree of touch when playing well, and a low degree of touch when playing poorly were related to positive subsequent team performance, while, showing much touch when playing poorly, or showing little touch when playing well were related to negative subsequent team performance. The amount of displayed gesture and touch alone was not significantly related to subsequent team performance. To conclude, nonverbal post-shot celebrations were related to subsequent team performance, but only when the ongoing history of events was taken into account, and only for touch. Based on these results, the history of events emerges as an important variable when the dynamics of ongoing team sport matches are investigated. Furthermore, touch, compared to gesture, seems to be of more importance for subsequent team performance. As expected when investigating complex phenomena in ongoing matches, the findings resulted in small effect sizes.

  • 15.
    Håkansson, Anders C
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group. University of Ottawa, Canada, Swedish Sport Federation.
    Åkesdotter, Cecilia
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Problem gambling and gaming in elite athletes.2018In: Addictive Behaviors Reports, ISSN 2352-8532, E-ISSN 2076-3387, Vol. 8, p. 79-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: High-level sports have been described as a risk situation for mental health problems and substance misuse. This, however, has been sparsely studied for problem gambling, and it is unknown whether problem gaming, corresponding to the tentative diagnosis of internet gaming disorder, may be overrepresented in athletes. This study aimed to study the prevalence and correlates of problem gambling and problem gaming in national team-level athletes.

    Methods: A web-survey addressing national team-level athletes in university studies (survey participation 60%) was answered by 352 individuals (60% women, mean age 23.7), assessing mental health problems, including lifetime history of problem gambling (NODS-CLiP) and problem gaming (GASA).

    Results: Lifetime prevalence of problem gambling was 7% (14% in males, 1% in females, p < 0.001), with no difference between team sports and other sports. Lifetime prevalence of problem gaming was 2% (4% in males and 1% in females, p = 0.06). Problem gambling and problem gaming were significantly associated (p = 0.01).

    Conclusions: Moderately elevated rates of problem gambling were demonstrated, however with large gender differences, and interestingly, with comparable prevalence in team sports and in other sports. Problem gaming did not seem more common than in the general population, but an association between problem gambling and problem gaming was demonstrated.

  • 16.
    Johnson, Urban
    et al.
    Högskolan Halmstad.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Psykologiska faktorer och idrottsskada2018In: Idrottsskada: från prevention till säker återgång till idrott / [ed] Eva Rasmusen Barr & Annette Heijne, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2018, 1, p. 123-134Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Fokus i detta kapitel ligger på psykologiska faktorer och dess samband med skador inom idrotten, närmare bestämt med uppkomst av skada, med rehabiliteringsfasen samt den slutliga återgången till tävlingsidrotten efter skada.

  • 17.
    Forsén Mantilla, Emma
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet.
    Birgegård, Andreas
    Karolinska institutet.
    Clinton, David
    Karolinska institutet.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Palmberg, Karolina
    Föreningen Tjejzonen.
    Selenius, Sofia
    I Care, Riksföreningen mot ätstörningar, Frisk & Fri.
    Tvångsmässig träning måste tas på allvar2018In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 115, article id E7T1Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 18.
    Bentzen, Marte
    et al.
    Norwegian School of Sport Sciences.
    Lemyre, Nicolas
    Norwegian School of Sport Sciences.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    A Comparison of High-Performance Football Coaches Experiencing High- Versus Low-Burnout Symptoms Across a Season of Play: Quality of Motivation and Recovery Matters2017In: International Sport Coaching Journal, ISSN 2328-918X, E-ISSN 2328-9198, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 133-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the current study was to provide insights in how and why four head coaches in elite football experienced being either high or low in burnout symptoms (BS) during a competitive season. A longitudinal sequential quantitative-qualitative mixed method approach was used to enhance the understanding of coaches' experiences. First, data were collected using online questionnaires at the start and at the end of the competitive season with all coaches working at the Norwegian Elite Football League level. Second, in-depth interviews were conducted with four head coaches who were purposefully selected based on having the two highest and the two lowest burnout scores across the season compared with the overall sample. A quantitative approach was used to explore whether these four coaches differed when compared with the overall population on the associated variables: performance, budget, quality of motivation, perceived workload, work-home-interference (WHI), and recovery. A qualitative approach helped gain more insight in the experiences these four coaches had with possible onset variables. Analyses comparing the two sets of coaches, indicated no difference related to performance, budget and workload. However, the motivational profile, WHI, and ability to meet recovery demands were variables that contributed to explain differences in coaches' BS.

  • 19.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    A Mental Health Clinic to support elite sports: A multidisciplinary approach integrating performance psychology, clinical psychology and psychiatry.2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Kenttä, Göran
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Moesch, Karin
    Halmstad Universitet.
    Claeson, Andreas
    Riksidrottsförbundet.
    Applying ACT in the context of elite sports: a reflection on blurred lines between clinical issues and performance enhancement2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Olusoga, Peter
    et al.
    Sheffield Hallam University.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Desperate to Quit: A Narrative Analysis of Burnout and Recovery in High-Performance Sports Coaching.2017In: The Sport psychologist, ISSN 0888-4781, E-ISSN 1543-2793, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 237-248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated how the experiences of two elite coaches contributed to and shaped their stories of burnout and withdrawal from high performance coaching. The coaches whose narratives we explore were both middle-aged head coaches, one in a major team sport at the highest club level, and one in an individual Olympic sport at international level. Through a thematic narrative analysis, based on in-depth interviews, the stories of the two coaches are presented in four distinct sections: antecedents, experiences of coaching with burnout symptoms, withdrawal from sport, and the process of recovery and personal growth. These narratives have implications for high performance coaching, such as the importance of role clarity, work-home interference, counseling, mentoring, and social support as means to facilitate recovery, and the need for additional research with coaches who have left sport, to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the complete burnout-recovery process.

  • 22.
    Bentzen, Marte
    et al.
    Norges Idrottshögskola.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Lemyre, Pierre Nicolas
    Norges idrottshögskola.
    Elite football coaches experiences and sense making of being fired: an interpretative phenomenological analysis2017In: Proceedings of the 11th ICCE Global Coach Conference – Challenging sport coaching frontiers: the role of sports science and technology. Liverpool, England., 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23. Thelwell, Richard C
    et al.
    Wagstaff, Christopher R D
    Chapman, Michael T
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Examining coaches' perceptions of how their stress influences the coach-athlete relationship.2017In: Journal of Sports Sciences, ISSN 0264-0414, E-ISSN 1466-447X, Vol. 35, no 19, p. 1928-1939Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study extends recent coach stress research by evaluating how coaches perceive their stress experiences to affect athletes, and the broader coach-athlete relationship. A total of 12 coaches working across a range of team sports at the elite level took part in semi-structured interviews to investigate the 3 study aims: how they perceive athletes to detect signals of coach stress; how they perceive their stress experiences to affect athletes; and, how effective they perceive themselves to be when experiencing stress. Following content analysis, data suggested that coaches perceived athletes able to detect when they were experiencing stress typically via communication, behavioural, and stylistic cues. Although coaches perceived their stress to have some positive effects on athletes, the overwhelming effects were negative and affected "performance and development", "psychological and emotional", and "behavioural and interaction" factors. Coaches also perceived themselves to be less effective when stressed, and this was reflected in their perceptions of competence, self-awareness, and coaching quality. An impactful finding is that coaches are aware of how a range of stress responses are expressed by themselves, and to how they affect athletes, and their coaching quality. Altogether, findings support the emerging view that coach stress affects their own, and athlete performance.

  • 24.
    Kenttä, Göran
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Werthner, Penny
    Calgary University.
    How can coaches best use sport psychology to meet the needs and demands in a high performance context?2017In: Proceedings of the 11th ICCE Global Coach Conference – Challenging sport coaching frontiers: the role of sports science and technology., 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Baltzell, Amy
    et al.
    Boston University.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Mindfulness Meditation Training for Sport (MMTS): Upgrade from version 1.0 to 2.0, and key 2.0 Self-Compassion Exercises.2017In: Proceedings from the 32th Annual Conference of the Association for the Applied Sport Psychology. Orlando, Florida, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Revisiting the Jigsaw-Puzzle Solution from London 2012 Olympics through the Lens of Acceptance Commitment Therapy.2017In: Proceedings from the 32th Annual Conference of the Association for the Applied Sport Psychology. Orlando, Florida, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Benzten, Marte
    et al.
    Norges Idrottshögskola.
    Richter, Anne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Lemyre, Nicolas
    Norges Idrottshögskola.
    The impact of job insecurity and value on psychological well- and ill-being among high performance coaches.2017In: Proceedings of the 11th ICCE Global Coach Conference – Challenging sport coaching frontiers: the role of sports science and technology. Liverpool, England., 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    The role of sport psychology support with attention to professional longevity in high performance coaching.2017In: Proceedings from the 32th Annual Conference of the Association for the Applied Sport Psychology. Orlando, Florida, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Well-being and Ill-being in the context of elite sports: A reflection on the complex interdependency between performance and clinical issue.2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Bentzen, Marte
    et al.
    Norges Idrottshögskola.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Lemyre, Pierre Nicolas
    Norges Idrottshögskola.
    Well-being for sports coaches:: equality between coaches in abledbodied elite sport and paralympic sport?2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Kenttä, Göran
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Bentzen, Marte
    Norges Idrottshögskola.
    Dieffenbach, Kristen
    West Virgina University.
    Where are the female high performance coaches?: going from a gender perspective to a sustainable work-life perspective.2017In: Proceedings of the 11th ICCE Global Coach Conference – Challenging sport coaching frontiers: the role of sports science and technology., 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32. Johnson, Urban
    et al.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Alvmyren, Ingela
    Karlsson, Marcus
    An ultra-runners’ experience of physical and emotional challenges during a 10-week continental run.2016In: International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, ISSN 1612-197X, E-ISSN 1557-251X, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 72-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between self-report measures such as mood state, emotional recovery, and perceived exertion for a runner during a continental run. Second, the purpose was to examine psychological factors that enable an ultra-distance runner during an event. A case study report from a 49-year-old female ultra-distance runner, running a 3641 kilometre adventure event during a 10-week period was made. Data were collected during 15 weeks with three self-report questionnaires – more specifically, an initial report 3 weeks prior to the run, a weekly report during the 10 weeks of running, and, finally, a report 2 weeks after the run. In addition, a follow-up narrative interview was performed nine months after the run was completed. The main result showed that perceived exertion level had a statistically significant negative relationship with negative mood and a positive statistically significant relationship with positive mood. Results also showed a statistically significant difference between the three measurement points based on the variable perceived exertion level. In addition, the runner's narration suggested four main categories of psychologically assisting attributes: motivation, group cohesiveness, self-awareness, and mental stamina. The findings highlight the complex balance between extreme physical load and feelings of comfort and elevated mood. Another finding is that the joint effect of different psychological factors – especially the runner's high self-awareness, strong-minded attitude, and ability to use humour in problematic situations – was helpful during the run. Practical and methodological implications, as well strategies for further research, are provided.

  • 33.
    Kenttä, Göran
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Mellalieu, Stephen
    Roberts, Claire-Marie
    Are Career Termination Concerns Only for Athletes?: A Case Study of the Career Termination of an Elite Female Coach.2016In: The Sport psychologist, ISSN 0888-4781, E-ISSN 1543-2793, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 314-326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a case study of an elite female coach and her career termination from a 20+ year career following a critical life incident. A novel autobiographical approach was adopted whereby the participant undertook expressive writing to describe her experiences before, during, and following coaching an athlete at the 2012 Summer Olympic Games. Thematic analysis indicated seven phases related to the participant's experiences of the critical incident: Build up to the event, the event, the aftermath, recovery and reflection on the event, sampling of new avenues, enlightenment, and career rebirth. The findings reinforce the high demands placed upon elite coaches, the subsequent threats to physical and mental well-being, and the importance of having robust psychological skills and suitable social support to cope with these demands. Implications for preparing and supporting coaches for successful career transition are discussed.

  • 34. Hodge, Ken
    et al.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Athlete burnout2016In: Routledge International Handbook of Sport Psychology. / [ed] R.J. Schinke, K.R., McGannon. & B. Smith, London: Routledge, 2016, p. 157-166Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 35. Bentzen, Marte
    et al.
    Lemyre, Pierre
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Changes in Motivation and Burnout Indices in High-Performance Coaches Over The Course of a Competitive Season2016In: Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, ISSN 1041-3200, E-ISSN 1533-1571, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 28-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Being subject to a great range of demands is believed to increase burnout propensity in high-performance coaches. This study is the first to explore whether the 4-step self-determination theory process model is a valuable framework to better understand the process influencing burnout and well-being in high-performance coaches (N = 343, M = 40.33 years) throughout a competitive season. Findings indicated that coaches on average increased in burnout and decreased in well-being. Hypotheses were to a large extent supported: change in perceived environment → change in psychological need satisfaction → change in autonomous motivation → change in burnout and well-being.

  • 36.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Coach Well-Being Can Be Enhanced By Coach Education2016In: Proceedings from the 31th Annual Conference of the Association for the Applied Sport Psychology, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Johansson, Susanne
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Andersen, Mark
    Halmstad universitet.
    Desires and taboos: Sexual relationships between coaches and athletes2016In: International journal of sports science & coaching, ISSN 1747-9541, E-ISSN 2048-397X, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 589-598Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coach–athlete sexual relationships constitute ethical, behavioral, social, and emotional quandaries that are rarely addressed openly. Most of the current body of research in this area focuses on coaches’ sexual harassment and abuse of children and female athletes. In the present article, we discuss legal coach–athlete sexual relationships and adopt a coach perspective. As dual relationships, coach–athlete sexual relationships blur the boundaries between professional roles circumscribed (usually) by ethical codes of conduct and private spheres of love and desire. We explore the problems associated with the limitations of dichotomous right/wrong ethical decision making and discuss additional ways to understand these relationships, accounting for coaches’ and athletes’ well-being, performance, gendered sexual agency, power, ethical dilemmas, sport policy, and legal implications. Our discussion raises questions about how to open up dialogue and transparency regarding coach–athlete sexual relationships and how to facilitate functional, healthy coach–athlete relationships. Finally, we provide implications for future research that include legal and consensual coach–athlete sexual relationships and advocate transparency, open discussion, and coach education about coach–athlete sexual relationship dilemmas.

  • 38. Bentzen, Marte
    et al.
    Lemyre, Pierre
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Development of Exhaustion for High-level Coaches in Association with Workload and Motivation – a Personal Centered Approach2016In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 22, p. 10-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives

    The aim of the current study was twofold. First, to explore whether there were different trajectories of exhaustion among high-performance coaches over the course of a competitive season. Then, to investigate whether workload-related variables and motivational regulations were associated with exhaustion class membership.

    Methods and design

    299 high-performance coaches responded to an online survey at the start, middle, and end of a competitive season, assessing exhaustion, workload, work home interference (WHI), recovery, and motivational regulations. Latent class growth analyses were used to identify different trajectories of perceived exhaustion. Further, multinomial logistic regression examined class associations for workload-related variables and motivational regulations at the start and at the end of competitive season.

    Results

    Four different trajectories of perceived exhaustion among coaches were identified, termed respectively “High” (10%), “Increase” (15%), “Decrease” (4%) and “Low” (71%). Higher levels of workload and WHI were associated to classes with higher levels of exhaustion. Higher levels of recovery, and intrinsic and identified regulations were associated to classes with lower levels of exhaustion. Adaptive and maladaptive profiles were identified.

    Conclusions

    Different trajectories of exhaustion among high-performance coaches over the course of a competitive season were found. A maladaptive profile was associated with higher perceived workload and WHI, as well as lower levels of recovery, intrinsic and identified regulations, when compared to the adaptive profile.

  • 39.
    Bentzen, Marte
    et al.
    Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Norway .
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Exhaustion and cynicism needs to be targeted differently: a study among Paralympic coaches2016In: Proceedings from the 31th Annual Conference of the Association for the Applied Sport Psychology, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 40. Bentzen, Marte
    et al.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Hållbart ledarskap ur ett tränar- och coachperspektiv2016In: Utveckla ledarskapet: fakta, inspiration och reflektioner, Stockholm: SISU Idrottsböcker , 2016, p. 196-263Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med kapitlet är att presentera och diskutera teoretiska och praktiska frågor på ett sätt som främjar ett långlivat och hälsosamt ledarskap med fokus på tävlingsidrotten. Författarna utgår från det förenklade antagandet att «en coach som mår bra» sannolikt är mer framgångsrik och långlivad i jämförelse med en coach som mår dåligt. 

  • 41. Haase, Louise
    et al.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Hickman, Steve
    Betzell, Amy L.
    Paulus, Martin
    Mindfulness training in elite athletes: mPEAK with BMX cyclists2016In: Mindfulness and Performance / [ed] Amy L. Baltzell, Boston: Cambridge University Press, 2016, p. 186-207Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Recovery Excellence Leading to Rio and Beyond2016In: Proceedings from the 31th Annual Conference of the Association for the Applied Sport Psychology, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Kenttä, Göran
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Mellalieu, Stephen
    A carrier transition concern only for athletes? An autobiographical study of the career transition of an elite coach.2015In: Proceedings from the 30th Annual Conference of the Association for the Applied Sport Psychology. Indianapolis, Indiana, USA: Association for the Applied Sport Psychology., 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    ACT – a way to enhance engagement in recovery2015In: Proceedings of The 14th European Congress of Sport Psychology (FEPSAC)., 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    ACT and self-compassion in coaching – enhanced awareness about mental health2015In: Proceedings from the 30th Annual Conference of the Association for the Applied Sport Psychology, 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Kenttä, Göran
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Podlog, Lesley
    Johnson, Urban
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Athletic identity as a predictor of overtraining and injury among elite Swedish athletes2015In: Proceedings of The 14th European Congress of Sport Psychology (FEPSAC). Bern, Switzerland: FEPSAC., 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 47. Bentzen, Marte
    et al.
    Lemyre, Pierre
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Basic Psychological Needs Thwarting and Shift in Quality of Motivation: Markers of Exhaustion in Professional Sport Coaches.2015In: Proceedings of the 10th ICCE Global Coach Conference – Coach and Athlete Empowerment: A Winning Combination, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Kenttä, Göran
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Lundqvist, Carolina
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Bjurner, Pontus
    Bättre prestation & hälsa med KBT: fakta, inspiration, fallbeskrivningar2015Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 49. Bentzen, Marte
    et al.
    Lemyre, Pierre
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Change in Exhaustion in High-Performance Coaches in Association with Workload and Motivation: A Person-Centered Approach.2015In: Proceedings from the 30th Annual Conference of the Association for the Applied Sport Psychology, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Johansson, Susanne
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Coach-Athlete Sexual Relationships: Passionate about athletes and coaching is great, but love should be forbidden? 2015In: Proceedings of the 10th ICCE Global Coach Conference – Coach and Athlete Empowerment: A Winning Combination, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Coach-athlete sexual relationships (CASR) tend to be sensitive, complex and problematic as they intersect professional and private spheres. Moreover, they are surrounded by ambiguous boundaries and taboos, and profoundly relates to the welfare, safety, sport performance, power, ethics, trust, sexual desire and love of coaches and athletes (Bringer et al., 2002; Johansson, 2013). In this paper we aim to highlight and critically discuss legal CASR by adopting a coach perspective.

    Argumentation

    Overall, CASR is a neglected issue, constituting an ethical and emotional minefield that is rarely addressed openly (Johansson, 2013). In contrast, athlete and child protection have intensified as a response to resent high-profile cases of sexual abuse in sport (Brackenridge & Rhind, 2014; DSJ, 2012, IOC, 2007). In some sport organisations this implies prohibiting CASR for athlete protection purposes (cf. Brake & Burton Nelson, 2012; Safe4athletes, 2013). The current body of research focuses on the sexual abuse of athletes (e.g., DSJ, 2012; Toftegaard-Nielsen, 2001; Toftegaard-Støckel, 2010) and is often driven by theories of structural power and gender order (e.g., Brake, 2012; Kirby et al., 2000; Tomlinson & Yorganci, 1997). As a consequence, male coaches tends to be cast as potential perpetrators of SA in relation to subordinate female (or child) athlete victims (cf. Hartill, 2009; Johansson, 2013). Recent literature gives examples on how moral panic and fear of sexual abuse resulting in suspicion towards coaches can hamper coach motivation and coach-athlete interaction (e.g., Piper et al., 2012; Taylor et al., 2014). Drawing on literature into teacher-student and superior-employee sexual relationships (e.g., Sikes, 2006; Williams, 1999), we problematise dichotomous right/wrong edicts and discuss additional ways to understand CASR, gendered sexual agency, sexual consent, and coaches' power.

    Implications

    Our discussion raises implications for further research and questions on how to prevent harmful, abusive and dysfunctional CASR without casting (male) coaches as perpetrators of sexual abuse. Our suggestions are: 1) Initiate comprehensive research exploring positive and negative characteristics and effects of legal CASR to expand the knowledge of CASR beyond the sexual abuse context. 2) Facilitate transparency, a climate of open discussion and coach education about CASR and related ethical dilemmas. 3) Develop, examine and carefully implement scientifically and ethically sound policy and codes of practice to prevent and manage harmful CASR and sexual abuse.

    References

    Brackenridge, C.H. & Rhind, D. (2014). Child Protection in Sport: Reflections on Thirty Years of Science and Activism. Social Sciences, 3, 326-340.

    Brake, D. (2012). Going outside title IX to keep coach-athlete relationships in bounds. Marquette Sports Law Review, 22, 394-425.

    Brake, D.L. & Burton-Nelson, M. (2012). Staying in bounds––An NCAA model policy to prevent inappropriate relationships between student-athletes and athletics department personnel. Kansas City: National Association of Collegiate Women Athletic Administrators.

    Bringer, J.D. Brackenridge, C.H. & Johnston, L.H. (2002). Defining appropriateness in coach-athlete sexual relationships: The voice of coaches. Journal of Sexual Aggression, 8(2), 83-98.

    Deutsche Sport Jugend, DSJ. (2012). Prevention of sexual and gender harassment and abuse in sports: Initiatives in Europe and beyond. Available at: http://www.dsj.de/fileadmin/user_upload/Bilder/Handlungsfelder/Europa/europ_PSG_Projekt_2012/Catalogue_Initiatives_in_Europe_and_beyond__2012_2.pdf

    Hartill, M. (2009). The Sexual abuse of Boys in Organized Male Sports. Men and Masculinities, 2, 225-249.

    International Olympic Committee, IOC. (2007). Consensus statement on sexual harassment and abuse in sport. Available at: http://www.olympic.org/documents/reports/en/en_report_1125.pdf

    Johansson, S. (2013). Coach–athlete sexual relationships: if no means no does yes mean yes? Sport, Education and Society, 18, 678-693.

    Kirby, S., Greaves, L. & Hankivsky, O. (2000). The dome of silence. Sexual harassment and abuse in sport. Halifax: Fernwood Publishing.

    Piper, H. Taylor, B. & Garratt, D. (2012). Sports coaching in risk society: No touch! No trust! Sport, Education and Society, 17, 331-345.

    Safe4Athltetes. (2013). Handbook. Available at: http://safe4athletes.org/component/k2/item/31-safe4athletes-handbook

    Sikes, P. (2006). Scandalous stories and dangerous liaisons: when female pupils and male teachers fall in love. Sex Education: Sexuality, Society and Learning, 6, 265-280.

    Taylor, W.G. Piper, H. & Garratt, D. (2014). Sports coaches as 'dangerous individuals'—practice as governmentality. Sport, Education and Society, Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13573322.2014.899492.

    Toftegaard Nielsen, J. (2001). The Forbidden Zone. Intimacy, Sexual Relations and Misconduct in the Relationship between Coaches and Athletes. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 36, 165-182.

    Toftegaard Støckel, J. (2010). Athlete perceptions and experiences of sexual abuse in intimate coach-athlete relationships. In Brackenridge, C.H. & Rhind, D. (eds.). Elite Child Athlete Welfare: International perspectives. London: Brunel University Press.

    Tomlinson, A. & Yorganci, I. (1997). Male coach/female athlete relations: Gender and power relations in competitive sport. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 21, 134-155.

    Williams, C.L. Giuffre, P.A. & Dellinger, K. (1999). Sexuality in the workplace: Organizational control, sexual harassment, and the pursuit of pleasure. Annual Review of Sociology, 25(1), 73-93.

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