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  • 1.
    Hassmén, Peter
    et al.
    School of Health and Human Sciences, Southern Cross University, Australia.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group. School of Human Kinetics, University of Ottawa, Canada.
    Hjälm, Sören
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Lundkvist, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Sweden; Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Burnout symptoms and recovery processes in eight elite soccer coaches over 10 years2019In: International journal of sports science & coaching, ISSN 1747-9541, E-ISSN 2048-397X, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 431-443Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Elite sport can be stressful, which increases the risk for burnout symptoms to develop. Especially when not balanced with sufficient recovery. To study the burnout–recovery process, eight elite soccer coaches were followed for 10 years. All eight were active elite coaches at the inception of this study and reported elevated emotional exhaustion scores on Maslach’s Burnout Inventory Educators Survey (MBI-ES). The coaches completed MBI-ES three additional times (year 3, 7, and 10), and they were also interviewed on the same occasions. At the 3-year follow-up, seven of the eight coaches reduced their exhaustion scores. The coach presenting with unchanged scores both at the 3 - and 7-year follow-up was the only one still coaching at the elite level. All coaches revealed during the interviews that they struggled to manage their work–life balance well; some worked too many hours, some experienced difficulty in managing conflicting role-demands, and some wrestled with external pressures. Their approach to recovery was, however, similar. Apart from moving away from coaching at the elite level, they unanimously mentioned that they changed their approach to coaching to make recovery possible. They achieved the latter by, for example, increasing control and delegating responsibility. According to our longitudinal results, burnout frequently regarded as an end-state can decrease over time. Provided that decisive action is taken to change situational factors and personal demands. This frequently meant withdrawing from coaching, which in turn explains why coach retention remains a serious challenge for most organizations with teams/athletes competing at the elite level.

  • 2.
    Lundkvist, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group. Stockholm University.
    Idrott och integration: lättare sagt än gjort?2019In: Barn, migration och integration i en utmanande tid / [ed] Karin Helander och Pernilla Leviner, Stockholm: Ragulka press , 2019, p. 87-106Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det här kapitlet syftar till att beskriva och diskutera vad vi vet om idrott och integration utifrån två aspekter. Den första aspekten är att undersöka hur idrotten som integrationsarena fungerar rent praktiskt genom att presentera statistik på hur det ser ut i Sverige och världen vad det gäller idrottsutövande bland invandrarungdomar. Den andra aspekten är att diskutera vilka effekter idrottande egentligen har för främjandet av olika integrationsfrämjande delar som till exempel minskande problembeteenden, mer jämn fördelning av vänner med olika kulturell bakgrund och ökad förståelse för den kultur man flyttat till. Gällande andelen idrottande ungdomar finns det en relativt tydlig skillnad mellan ungdomar med invandrarbakgrund och de med starkare anknytning till landet de bor i. Både i Sverige och internationellt är färre invandrarungdomar idrottsaktiva. Skillnaderna minskar dock ju längre man varit i landet både för första generationens invandrarungdomar och andra/tredjegenerationens ungdomar. Skillnaderna är större och utjämningen är mindre och tar längre tid för invandrarflickor än för invandrarpojkar. Positivt är att idrott verkar ha effekter på integrationsrelaterade delar som avvikande beteenden, mental hälsa och vän-nätverk även om de statistiska effekterna ofta är små. Dessutom visar statistiken att idrottsrörelsen både i Sverige och internationellt inte lyckas inkludera ungdomar med invandrarbakgrund i sin verksamhet i samma utsträckning som de lyckas bjuda in de med starkare bakgrund i landet. Slutligen diskuteras kunskaperna om idrott och integration utifrån hur idrottsrörelsen skulle kunna utveckla sin verksamhet i dessa frågor och exempel på bra integrationsprogram i Sverige tas upp.

  • 3.
    Lundkvist, Erik
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences. Stockholm University; University of St Andrews, UK.
    Gustafsson, H
    Karlstad university.
    Davis, P A
    Umeå university.
    Holmström, S
    Umeå university.
    Lemyre, N
    Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Ivarsson, A
    Halmstad university.
    The temporal relations across burnout dimensions in athletes.2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 1215-1226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Burnout is a construct that has garnered considerable attention in sport psychology within recent years. Several hypothesized models regarding how the three dimensions (exhaustion, devaluation, and reduced sense of accomplishment) temporally relate to each other have been advanced. One proposal outlined by Maslach and Leiter suggests that exhaustion predicts devaluation which predicts reduced sense of accomplishment. However, there is no consensus among researchers as it has been argued that exhaustion predicts devaluation and reduced accomplishment separately. The aim of this study was to test multiple alternative hypotheses regarding the relationships of the burnout dimensions in athletes. Two samples of Swedish youth elite athletes with differing time spans between measurements were used. Specifically, one sample involved time-intensive measures collected every week over an eight-week period, and the other sample included four measurement points across an 18-month period. Results showed that none of the previously proposed models outlining the temporal relations of burnout dimensions were supported. Statistical analysis of the models including the cross-lagged predictions of dimensions did not have any statistically significant impact except when exhaustion negatively predicted devaluation between time 1 (month 0) and time 2 (month 6) in the 18-month sample; this relation faded in the following time points. Further, issues regarding the stability of devaluation and reduced sense of accomplishment emerged as their autocorrelation were very weak in the time-intensive sample. These findings raise a number of points for further theoretical and practical discussions about the athlete burnout construct.

  • 4.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå Universitet.
    Lundkvist, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    "Mirror, mirror, on the wall is there any evidence at all?”: Critical reflections on evidence in sport psychology research2017In: Idrottsforskaren, no 2, p. 35-40Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Two common objectives in sport and exercise psychology research are to determinate if there is a relationship between two or more variables or if an intervention is effective or not (i.e., casual effects). Based on results obtained from a research study we are often eager to conclude that there are strong (or weak) evidence for the proposed relationship or intervention. This procedure might seem straightforward but there are several problems and critical issues that influence researcher’s assessments of the level of evidence. Unfortunately many researchers in the sport and exercise psychology field does not acknowledge these problems and critical issues when interpreting study results, which leads to flawed conclusions about the level of evidence (Ivarsson & Andersen, 2016). In this article we will: (a) highlight what we believe are some of the most critical issues in the sport and exercise psychology field for assessing the level of evidence, and (b) provide suggestions for how to deal with these issues.

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