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  • 1. Andersson, Ulrika
    et al.
    Leighton, Brendan
    Young, Martin E
    Blomstrand, Eva
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Eva Blomstrands forskningsgrupp.
    Newsholme, Eric A
    Inactivation of aconitase and oxoglutarate dehydrogenase in skeletal muscle in vitro by superoxide anions and/or nitric oxide.1998Inngår i: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 249, nr 2, s. 512-6Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Strips of rat soleus muscle were incubated in media containing a superoxide generating system and/or the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) before the maximal catalytic activities of aconitase, citrate synthase, and oxoglutarate dehydrogenase were measured. The maximal activities of aconitase and oxoglutarate dehydrogenase were both decreased by 25-30% by superoxide anions; however, only the maximal activity of aconitase was decreased, by approximately 50%, by incubation of muscles with SNP. Furthermore, when both superoxide and NO were present in the medium, aconitase activity was decreased by 70%. The maximal activity of citrate synthase was not affected by any of the treatments. This is the first time that superoxide anions or NO has been shown to inactivate aconitase and oxoglutarate dehydrogenase in skeletal muscle. It is suggested that these effects may be responsible for some alterations in skeletal muscle metabolism, and these possibilities are discussed.

  • 2.
    Arndt, Anton
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Achilles tendon biomechanics and functional anatomy2012Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 3.
    Arndt, Anton
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    In vivo, intrinsic kinematics of the foot and ankle2012Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 4.
    Arndt, Anton
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    The effects of running in minimalistic shoes on non-uniform displacement in the Achilles tendon2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 5.
    Arndt, Anton
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Bengtsson, Ann-Sophie
    Peolsson, Michael
    Thorstensson, Alf
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Movin, Tomas
    Non-uniform displacement within the Achilles tendon durig passive ankle joint motion.2012Inngår i: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy, ISSN 0942-2056, E-ISSN 1433-7347, Vol. 20, nr 9, s. 1868-74Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE:

    An initial step in the understanding of Achilles tendon dynamics is to investigate the effects of passive motion, thereby minimising muscle activation and reducing internal joint forces. Internal tendon dynamics during passive ankle joint motion have direct implications for clinical rehabilitation protocols after Achilles tendon surgery. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that tendon tissue displacement is different in different layers of the Achilles tendon during controlled passive ankle joint movements.

    METHODS:

    Ultrasound imaging was conducted on the right Achilles tendon of nine healthy recreationally active males. Standardised isokinetic passive dorsi-plantar-flexion movements were performed with a total range of motion of 35°. The tendon was divided into superficial, central and deep layers in the resulting B-mode ultrasound images viewed in the sagittal plane. A block-matching speckle tracking algorithm was applied post-process, with kernels for the measurement of displacement placed in each of the layers.

    RESULTS:

    The mean (SD) displacement of the Achilles tendon during passive dorsiflexion was 8.4 (1.9) mm in the superficial layer, 9.4 (1.9) mm in the central portion and 10.4 (2.1) mm in the deep layer, respectively. In all cases, the movement of the deep layer of the tendon was greater than that of the superficial one (P < 0.01).

    CONCLUSIONS:

    These results, achieved in vivo with ultrasonographic speckle tracking, indicated complex dynamic differences in different layers of the Achilles tendon, which could have implications for the understanding of healing processes of tendon pathologies and also of normal tendon function.

  • 6.
    Azcarate, Laura
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sandamas, Paul
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Arndt, Anton
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Gutierrez-Farewik, Elena M.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wang, Ruoli
    KTH, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Muscle contributions to body mass centre acceleration during the first stance of sprint running2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 7.
    Flockhart, Mikael
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Nilsson, Lina
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Forskningsgruppen Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Apro, William
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Larsen, Filip J
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Forskningsgruppen Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Dose-response relationship between exercise load and mitochondrial function2019Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Dose-response relationship between exercise load and mitochondrial function

    Flockhart M, Nilsson L, Bergman K, Apro W, Ekblom B, Larsen FJ

    A dose-dependent relationship exists between exercise load and muscular adaptation. Mitochondria adapt to the increased ATP-demand by alterations in mass and/or quality. How mitochondrial mass and quality changes as a function of exercise load is not well investigated and we have previously found mitochondrial dysfunction after short-term intensive exercise. We therefore aimed to study mitochondrial function by altering exercise load during a three week interval training regimen to understand the dose-response relationship between exercise load and mitochondrial function. We took four muscle biopsies throughout the study, and as expected, mitochondrial function was positively affected during the first two weeks. After the third week, a dramatic mitochondrial dysfunction was evident as mitochondrial intrinsic respiration was reduced by 26% despite a 32% increase in mitochondrial yield. We hereby present evidence of a striking exercise-induced reduction in mitochondrial function after a period of very intense interval training.

  • 8. Gullstrand, Lennart
    et al.
    Nilsson, Johnny
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    A new method for recording the temporal pattern of stride during treadmill running2009Inngår i: Sports Engineering, ISSN 1369-7072, E-ISSN 1460-2687, nr 11, s. 195-200Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability of a new infrared light based method (IR40) for recording temporal stride patterns during treadmill running. The IR40 device, emitting a tight web of 40 infrared light beams 10 mm above the treadmill running surface, was compared to a previously validated electro-pneumatic contact shoe (CS) method while nine well-trained athletes ran at 2.8, 3.3, 3.9, 4.4, 5.0, and 5.6 m s−1. Disconnection and reconnection of the IR beams marked the stance phase. The sampling rate was 500 Hz for both methods. The stance phase duration was on average 11.5 (±8.4) ms longer with the IR40 than with the CS depending on earlier touch down (8.3 ± 6.2 ms) and delayed toe off (3.2 ± 5.3 ms) registrations. Significantly different stance phases were recorded between all velocities and for both methods. Thus, despite the fact that the IR40 systematically measured a somewhat longer stance phase duration than CS, the IR40 is nonetheless useful for temporal stride analysis during treadmill running.      

  • 9.
    Hegyi, Andras
    et al.
    University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Peter, Annamaria
    University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Andersson, Eva
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Arndt, Anton
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Finni, Taija
    University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Tarassova, Olga
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Cronin, Neil J.
    University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Ankle joint angle influences hamstring fine-wire and high-density electromyography activity in ramp isometric knee flexions2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 10. Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    et al.
    Nilsson, Johnny
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Reliabilty and validity of new double poling ergometer for cross-country skiers2008Inngår i: Journal of Sports Sciences, ISSN 0264-0414, E-ISSN 1466-447X, Vol. 26, nr 2, s. 171-179Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Thirty-eight competitive cross-country skiers were divided into three groups to assess the reliability and validity of a new double poling ergometer. Group A (n = 22) performed two maximal 60-s tests, Group B (n = 8) repeated peak oxygen uptake tests on the double poling ergometer, and Group C (n = 8) performed a maximal 6-min test on the double poling ergometer and a double poling time-trial on snow. The correlation between the power calculated at the flywheel and the power applied at the base of the poles was r = 0.99 (P < 0.05). The power at the poles was 50 – 70% higher than that at the flywheel. There was a high test – retest reliability in the two 60-s power output tests (coefficient of variation = 3.0%) and no significant difference in peak oxygen uptake in the two 6-min all-out tests (coefficient of variation = 2.4%). There was a strong correlation between the absolute (W) and relative power (W · kg−1) output in the 6-min double poling ergometer test and the double poling performance on snow (r = 0.86 and 0.89 respectively; both P < 0.05). In conclusion, our results show that the double poling ergometer has both high reliability and validity. However, the power calculated at the flywheel underestimated the total power produced and needs to be corrected for in ergonomic estimations.

  • 11. Karlsen, Jon
    et al.
    Nilsson, Johnny
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    A new method to record aiming in golf putting  -  applied to elite players2008Inngår i: Science and Golf V: proceedings of the World Scientific Congress of Golf / [ed] D. Crews and R. Lutz, Energy in Motion , 2008, s. 395-401Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 12. Karlsen, Jon
    et al.
    Nilsson, Johnny
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Club shaft weight in putting accuracy and perception of swingparameters in golf putting2007Inngår i: Perceptual and Motor Skills, ISSN 0031-5125, E-ISSN 1558-688X, Vol. 105, nr 1, s. 29-38Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study assessed how shaft weight influenced golf putting accuracy and subjective perception of swing parameters. Three putters of different shaft weight (100, 420, and 610 gm) were tested by 24 club players. Distance and deviation in direction were measured, and subjective ratings of the putters recorded. Subjects hit the ball further with lighter shafts. The mean distance hit was 100.2, 99.3, and 98.1% of the target distance for the normal, medium, and heavy putter shafts, respectively. Subjectively, the medium heavy putter was rated best on "overall feeling" and it was also rated better than the normal on"feeling of stability in the downswing." The heaviest putter was rated as too heavy by 23 of 24 subjects. There were no significant differences between the putter clubs in distance and directional putting accuracy. The major findings are that the golfers putted 2.1% longer with the 100 gm shaft than with the 610 gm shaft and that the perception of overall feeling of the putter club was not related to performance.

  • 13. Karlsen, Jon
    et al.
    Nilsson, Johnny
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Distance variability in golf putting among highly skilled players: the role of green reading2008Inngår i: Annual Review of Golf Coaching, Multi-Science Publishing, 2008Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 14. Karlsen, Jon
    et al.
    Nilsson, Johnny
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Golf players prefer mallet putters for aiming, but aim more consistent with blade putters2008Inngår i: Science and Golf V: proceedings of the World Scientific Congress of Golf Science and Golf V / [ed] D. Crews and R. Lutz, Energy in Motion , 2008, s. 402-407Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 15. Karlsen, Jon
    et al.
    Smith, Gerald
    Nilsson, Johnny
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    The stroke has a minor influence on direction consistencyin golf putting among elite players2008Inngår i: Journal of Sports Sciences, ISSN 0264-0414, E-ISSN 1466-447X, Vol. 3, s. 243-250Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the golf instructional literature, the putting stroke is typically given higher priority than green reading and aiming. The main purpose of this study was to assess the importance of the putting stroke for direction consistency in golf putting. Kinematic stroke parameters were recorded from 71 elite golf players (mean handicap = 1.8, s = 4.2) on 1301 putts from about 4 m. Of the different factors deciding stroke direction consistency, face angle was found to be the most important (80%), followed by putter path (17%) and impact point (3%). This suggests that improvements in consistency of putter path and impact point will have very little effect on overall putting direction consistency and should not be prioritized in the training of elite players. In addition, mean stroke direction variability for an elite player (European Tour) was found to be 0.39°, which is good enough to hole about 95% of all 4-m putts. In practice, however, top professionals in tournaments only hole about 17% of 4-m putts. We conclude that the putting stroke of elite golfers has a relatively minor influence on direction consistency.

  • 16.
    Nilsson, Johnny
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Tinmark, Fredrik
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Halvorsen, Kjartan
    Arndt, Anton
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Kinematic, kinetic and electromyographic adaptation to speed and resistance in double poling cross country skiing2013Inngår i: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 113, nr 6, s. 1385-1394Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study incorporated variations in speed and the horizontal resistance acting upon elite female skiers during double poling (DP) on a treadmill and specifically analyzed biomechanical adaptations to these variations. Whole body kinematics and pole force data were recorded and used to calculate the moment of force acting on the shoulder and elbow joints. Data were obtained with a 3D optoelectronic system using reflective markers at given anatomical landmarks. Forces along the long axis of the right pole were measured with a piezoelectric force transducer. Surface electrodes were used to record EMG activity in the rectus femoris, rectus abdominis, latissimus dorsi and triceps brachii muscles. In a first set of recordings, the participants double poled with zero elevation at five different speeds from 8 to 17 km h−1. In a second set of recordings, horizontal resistance was added by weights (0.4–1.9 kg) attached to a pulley system pulling the skier posteriorly during DP at 14 km h−1. Results showed increasing relative duration of the thrust phase with increasing resistance, but not with speed. Significant kinematic differences occurred with increase in both speed and resistance. The mean (±SD) horizontal force components ranged between 1.7 (±1.3) and 2.8 (±1.1) percent (%) bodyweight (BW) in the speed adaptation and 3.1 (±0.6) and 4.0 (±1.3) % BW in the adaptation to horizontal resistance. Peak muscle activity showed a central to peripheral (proximo-distal) activation sequence. The temporal cycle phase pattern in the adaptation to speed and horizontal resistance differed.

  • 17.
    Nilsson, Lina
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Flockhart, Mikael
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Apro, William
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Eva Blomstrands forskningsgrupp.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Larsen, Filip J
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Forskningsgruppen Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Biphasic relationship between training load and glucose tolerance2019Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Biphasic relationship between training load and glucose tolerance

    Nilsson, L, Flockhart M, Bergman K, Apro W, Ekblom B, Larsen FJ

     

    There is a well-established construct regarding the positive effects of exercise on glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, as well as muscle glycogen storage. In insulin resistance, physical activity is an essential part of the treatment. However, the optimal dose is unknown. Reduced muscular glycogen stores, resulting from exercise, should stimulate an increased uptake of blood glucose. In this study we investigated the relation between training load, glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity during three weeks of increasing interval training. Three times during the intervention, oral glucose tests were conducted to investigate the rate of glucose uptake. We found a biphasic dose-response relationship between training load and glucose tolerance, where an excessive training load led to a paradoxical reduction in glucose tolerance and impaired insulin release despite an unchanged amount of muscle glycogen. In light of these results, an upper limit of physical exercise exist where the negative effects overpowers the positive.

  • 18.
    Rosdahl, Hans
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Lindberg, Thomas
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för tillämpad idrottsvetenskap (LTIV).
    Edin, Fredrik
    Nilsson, Johnny
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    The Moxus Modular metabolic sustem evaluated with two sensors for ventilation against the Douglas bag method2013Inngår i: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 113, nr 5, s. 1353-1367Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study evaluated the Moxus metabolic system with the Douglas bag method (DBM) as criterion. Reliability and validity were investigated in a wide range of ventilation and oxygen uptake and two sensors for determining ventilation were included. Thirteen well-trained athletes participated in one pre-test and four tests for data collection, exercising on a cycle ergometer at five submaximal powers (50-263 W) and at [Formula: see text]. Gas exchange variables were measured simultaneously using a serial setup with data collected on different days in an order randomized between Moxus with pneumotachometer (MP) and turbine flowmeter (MT) sensors for ventilation. Reliability with both sensors was comparable to the DBM. Average CV (%) of all exercise intensities were with MP: 3.0 ± 1.3 for VO(2), 3.8 ± 1.5 for VCO(2), 3.1 ± 1.2 for the respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and 4.2 ± 0.8 for V (E). The corresponding values with MT were: 2.7 ± 0.3 for VO(2), 4.7 ± 0.4 for VCO(2), 3.3 ± 0.9 for RER and 4.8 ± 1.4 for V (E). Validity was acceptable except for small differences related to the determination of ventilation. The relative differences in relation to DBM at the powers including [Formula: see text] were similar for both sensors with the ranges being: +4 to -2 % for V (E), +5 to -3 % for VO(2) and +5 to -4 % for VCO(2) while RER did not differ at any power. The Moxus metabolic system shows high and adequate reliability and reasonable validity over a wide measurement range. At a few exercise levels, V (E) differed slightly from DBM, resulting in concomitant changes in VO(2) and VCO(2).

  • 19.
    Welin, Louise
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Påverkas Transversus Abdominis anticipatoriska aktivering av långvarig ihållande aktivering?2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte

    Studien syftade till att undersöka om långvarig ihållande submaximal aktivering av Transversus Abdominis (TrA) påverkar dess anticipatoriska aktivering vid snabba viljemässigt utförda armrörelser.

    Metod

    I stående position utförde nio fysiskt aktiva kvinnor fem st snabba bilaterala armlyft från 0º till 90º axelflexion före och efter cirka 10 minuters ihållande submaximal aktivet i TrA samt efter 5 minuters vila. Elektromyografisk aktivitet (EMG) registrerades via två intramuskulära trådelektroder, placerade i höger TrA och två ytelektroder placerade på höger Deltoideus anterior. Buktrycket tros tillsammans med TrA stabilisera ryggraden vilket registrerades genom att en tryckgivare placerades i magsäcken.

    Resultat

    TrA aktiverades före Deltoideus både före och efter den långvariga aktiveringen. Initieringen av EMG-signalen i höger TrA hade oförändrat förhållande till initieringen av EMG-signalen i Deltoideus före och efter ihållande aktivitet samt efter 5 minuters vila. EMG amplituden i TrA var oförändrad både i baslinjefasen (600 ms före till 250 ms före deltoideus aktivering) och i den anticipatoriska fasen (100 ms före till 50 ms efter Deltoideus aktivering). Även buktrycksvärdet förblev oförändrat såväl vid baslinjen som i den anticipatoriska fasen.

    Slutsats

    Denna studie visade att centrala nervsystemet påbörjar aktiveringen av de innersta bukmusklerna före initieringen av armrörelserna och att detta förhållande ej påverkas av 10 minuters ihållande submaximal aktivering av TrA. Det finns inga tillgängliga metoder för direkt mätning av TrA:s mekaniska effekt, men eftersom buktrycket förblev oförändrad är det rimligt att tro att TrA:s kontraktilitet inte försämrats av den submaximala aktiveringen.

  • 20.
    Wolf, Peter
    et al.
    ETH Zürich, Switzerland.
    Arndt, Anton
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Nester, Christopher
    Liu, Anmin
    Jones, Richard
    Lundgren, Paul
    Lundberg, Arne
    In vivo Bewegungen der Fussknochen im Gehen und langsamen Joggen2012Inngår i: Orthopädieschuhtechnik, ISSN 0344-6026, nr 2, s. 24-27Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
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