Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH

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Concurrent training for elite team sport athletes
Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysiologi, nutrition och biomekanik.ORCID-id: 0000-0001-8767-5235
2024 (engelsk)Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

Most team sports consist of elements that require both a high level of strength and aerobic endurance. Because of these demands a combination of resistance and endurance training (concurrent training) is an integrated part of their weekly training program. Concurrent training can be defined as the implementation of resistance and endurance training in parallel within the same training program to develop both capacities simultaneously. Despite the wide range of benefits of concurrent training, there is evidence that adding endurance training to a resistance training protocol can compromise strength development. The underlying cause has recently started to be clarified, with substantial evidence suggesting that the design of the training program and inter-individual differences play a crucial role in determining the effect of concurrent training on strength performance. It has been suggested that the training status may have an independent influence on the results during concurrent training. Thus, it is important to acknowledge that the scientific literature on concurrent training for elite team sport athletes is very scarce, especially in females. The primary aim of this thesis was therefore to investigate the effect of concurrent training on elite team sport athletes with both sexes represented. This was done by performing one systematic review with meta-analysis and three experimental studies.

Study I is a review study addressing the effect of training status on strength development during concurrent training and the effect of same-session and different sessions of concurrent training. The result from this study suggests that adding endurance training to a resistance training protocol impairs lower-body maximal dynamic strength development in trained individuals but not in moderately trained or untrained. The data also show that the impairment appears to increase if concurrent training is performed within the same session. Given these findings, the focus of study II was to investigate the impact of intrasession exercise order during same-session concurrent training in elite team sport athletes. In this study, we show that high-intensity interval training before resistance training reduces power output during resistance training but does not impair maximal strength or power development during a 7-week training intervention. The focus of study III was to examine the reliability of isometric leg press and countermovement jump, two commonly used measurements when assessing strength- and power-related variables in elite team sport athletes. In this study, we demonstrate that isometric leg press and countermovement jump are highly reliable measurements when examining strength- and power-related variables.

The findings from study II showed that a reduction in resistance training performance (power output) during same-session concurrent training was visible only when high-intensity interval training was performed before resistance training (study II). The focus of study IV was therefore to investigate the effect of different recovery periods following high-intensity interval training on strength and explosive performance during a power training session in elite team sport athletes. Since isometric leg press and countermovement jump were shown in study III to be highly reliable measurements when assessing strength- and power-related variables in elite team sport athletes, these measurements were used in study IV. In study IV, we demonstrated that high-intensity interval training 10 min prior to power training impairs strength and explosive performance. However, the impairment was no longer present 6 and 24 hours after high-intensity interval training.

In conclusion, the present thesis shows that trained individuals are sensitive to concurrent training, and that adding high-intensity interval training prior to resistance training compromises strength and explosive performance during the resistance training session in elite team sport athletes. However, the reduction in training performance does not seem to translate to reduced strength or power development during shorter training periods (<7-weeks). The findings from the present thesis also show that the reduction in training performance can be reduced by performing the resistance training session first or by allowing at least a 6-hour recovery period between sessions. The findings from this thesis provide a foundation for an evidence-based approach when organizing training to enhance performance in elite team sport athletes, and for future work to further examine the effect of concurrent training on this population.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Stockholm: Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH , 2024. , s. 84 s.
Serie
Avhandlingsserie för Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan ; 34
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Medicin/Teknik
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-8151ISBN: 978-91-988127-5-6 (tryckt)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:gih-8151DiVA, id: diva2:1844865
Disputas
2024-04-12, Aulan, Stockholm, 09:00 (engelsk)
Opponent
Veileder
Tilgjengelig fra: 2024-03-15 Laget: 2024-03-15 Sist oppdatert: 2024-04-19bibliografisk kontrollert
Delarbeid
1. Development of Maximal Dynamic Strength During Concurrent Resistance and Endurance Training in Untrained, Moderately Trained, and Trained Individuals: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Development of Maximal Dynamic Strength During Concurrent Resistance and Endurance Training in Untrained, Moderately Trained, and Trained Individuals: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.
2021 (engelsk)Inngår i: Sports Medicine, ISSN 0112-1642, E-ISSN 1179-2035, Vol. 51, nr 5, s. 991-1010Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: The effect of concurrent training on the development of maximal strength is unclear, especially in individuals with different training statuses.

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis study was to compare the effect of concurrent resistance and endurance training with that of resistance training only on the development of maximal dynamic strength in untrained, moderately trained, and trained individuals.

METHODS: On the basis of the predetermined criteria, 27 studies that compared effects between concurrent and resistance training only on lower-body 1-repetition maximum (1RM) strength were included. The effect size (ES), calculated as the standardised difference in mean, was extracted from each study, pooled, and analysed with a random-effects model.

RESULTS: The 1RM for leg press and squat exercises was negatively affected by concurrent training in trained individuals (ES =  - 0.35, p < 0.01), but not in moderately trained ( - 0.20, p = 0.08) or untrained individuals (ES = 0.03, p = 0.87) as compared to resistance training only. A subgroup analysis revealed that the negative effect observed in trained individuals occurred only when resistance and endurance training were conducted within the same training session (ES same session =  - 0.66, p < 0.01 vs. ES different sessions =  - 0.10, p = 0.55).

CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated the novel and quantifiable effects of training status on lower-body strength development and shows that the addition of endurance training to a resistance training programme may have a negative impact on lower-body strength development in trained, but not in moderately trained or untrained individuals. This impairment seems to be more pronounced when training is performed within the same session than in different sessions. Trained individuals should therefore consider separating endurance from resistance training during periods where the development of dynamic maximal strength is prioritised.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Springer, 2021
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Medicin/Teknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-6626 (URN)10.1007/s40279-021-01426-9 (DOI)000631473500001 ()33751469 (PubMedID)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2021-04-01 Laget: 2021-04-01 Sist oppdatert: 2024-03-15
2. Effect of the Intrasession Exercise Order of Flywheel Resistance and High-Intensity Interval Training on Maximal Strength and Power Performance in Elite Team-Sport Athletes.
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Effect of the Intrasession Exercise Order of Flywheel Resistance and High-Intensity Interval Training on Maximal Strength and Power Performance in Elite Team-Sport Athletes.
Vise andre…
2023 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287, Vol. 37, nr 12, s. 2389-2396Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

This study aimed to investigate the effect of intrasession exercise order of maximal effort flywheel resistance training (RT; 436 repetitions [rep]) and high-intensity interval training (HIIT, 2–438 rep of 20 second at 130% of Watt atV̇O2max [wV̇O2max]), on the development of maximal strength and power in elite team-sport athletes. A 7-week training intervention involving 2 training sessions per week of either HIIT followed by RT (HIIT + RT, n 5 8), RT followed by HIIT (RT + HIIT, n 5 8), or RTalone (RT, n 5 7) was conducted in 23 elite male bandy players (24.7 6 4.3 years). Power and work were continuously measured during the flywheel RT. Isometric squat strength (ISq), countermovement jump, squat jump, and V̇O2max were measured before and after the training period. Power output during training differed between the groups (p 5 0.013, h2p5 0.365) with RT producing more power than HIIT + RT (p 5 0.005). ISq improved following RT + HIIT (;80%, d 5 2.10, p 5 0.001) and following HIIT + RT(;40%, d 5 1.64, p 5 0.005), and RT alone (;70%, d 5 1.67, p 5 0.004). V̇O2max increased following RT + HIIT and HIIT + RT(;10%, d51.98, p50.001 resp. d52.08, p50.001). HIIT before RT reduced power output during RT in elite team-sport athletes but did not lead to blunted development of maximal strength or power after a 7-week training period. During longer training periods(.7-weeks), it may be advantageous to schedule RT before HIIT because the negative effect of HIIT + RT on training quality increased during the final weeks of training. In addition, the largest training effect on maximal strength was observed following RT +HIIT.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Wolters Kluwer, 2023
Emneord
divergent training, interference effect, flywheel training, concurrent training sequence, concurrent training order
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Medicin/Teknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-7723 (URN)10.1519/JSC.0000000000004556 (DOI)001110248000003 ()37389921 (PubMedID)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2023-08-21 Laget: 2023-08-21 Sist oppdatert: 2024-03-15
3. Between-Session Reliability of Strength- and Power-Related Variables Obtained during Isometric Leg Press and Countermovement Jump in Elite Female Ice Hockey Players.
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Between-Session Reliability of Strength- and Power-Related Variables Obtained during Isometric Leg Press and Countermovement Jump in Elite Female Ice Hockey Players.
2023 (engelsk)Inngår i: Sports, E-ISSN 2075-4663, Vol. 11, nr 5, artikkel-id 96Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Isometric leg press (ILP) and countermovement jump (CMJ) are commonly used to obtain strength- and power-related variables with important implications for health maintenance and sports performance. To enable the identification of true changes in performance with these measurements, the reliability must be known. This study evaluates the between-session reliability of strength- and power-related measures obtained from ILP and CMJ. Thirteen female elite ice hockey players (21.5 ± 5.1 years; 66.3 ± 8.0 kg) performed three maximal ILPs and CMJs on two different occasions. Variables from the ILP (peak force and peak rate of force development) and CMJ (peak power, peak force, peak velocity, and peak jump height) were obtained. The results were reported using the best trial, an average of the two best trials, or an average of three trials. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and coefficient of variation (CV) were high (ICC > 0.97; CV < 5.2%) for all outcomes. The CV for the CMJ (1.5-3.2%) was lower than that for the ILP (3.4-5.2%). There were no differences between reporting the best trial, an average of the two best trials, or an average of the three trials for the outcomes. ILP and CMJ are highly reliable when examining strength- and power-related variables in elite female ice hockey players.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
MDPI, 2023
Emneord
fatigue, injury prevention, isometric peak force, performance, reproducibility
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Medicin/Teknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-7663 (URN)10.3390/sports11050096 (DOI)000997052400001 ()37234052 (PubMedID)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2023-06-26 Laget: 2023-06-26 Sist oppdatert: 2024-03-15
4. Effects of different recovery periods following a very intense interval training session on strength and explosive performance during a power training session in elite female ice hockey players
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Effects of different recovery periods following a very intense interval training session on strength and explosive performance during a power training session in elite female ice hockey players
2024 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

This study investigates how different recovery periods after high-intensity interval training (HIIT) affects strength and explosive performance during a power training (PT) session. Fifteen female elite ice hockey players (22.5 ± 5.2 years) performed PT, including 6 sets of 2 repetitions (reps) of isometric leg press (ILP) and 6 sets of 3 reps of countermovement jump (CMJ), following a rested state and 10 minutes, 6 hours, or 24 hours after HIIT (3 sets of 8 × 20 seconds at 115% of power output at maximal oxygen consumption on a cycle ergometer). Peak force (PF) and peak rate of force development (pRFD) were measured during the ILP. Peak jump height (PJH), concentric phase duration (ConDur), eccentric phase duration, total duration, peak power (PP), velocity at peak power (V@PP), and force at peak power were measured during CMJ. The following variables were significantly reduced when only a 10-minute recovery period was allowed between HIIT and PT: PF was reduced by 7% (p < 0.001), pRFD by 17% (p < 0.001), PJH by 4% (p < 0.001), ConDur by 4% (p = 0.018), PP by 2% (p = 0.016), and V@PP by 2% (p = 0.007). None of the measured variables were reduced when PT was performed 6 and 24 hours after HIIT. We conclude that strength and explosive performance of elite female ice hockey players is reduced 10 minutes after HIIT but not negatively affected if a rest period of at least 6 hours is provided between HIIT and PT.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Wolters Kluwer, 2024
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Medicin/Teknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-8150 (URN)10.1519/JSC.0000000000004782 (DOI)38608001 (PubMedID)
Merknad

At the time of Henrik Petré's dissertation this was an accepted manuscript, awaiting publication in the Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research.

Tilgjengelig fra: 2024-03-15 Laget: 2024-03-15 Sist oppdatert: 2024-04-29

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