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Sundqvist, M. L., Larsen, F. J., Carlström, M., Bottai, M., Pernow, J., Hellénius, M.-L., . . . Lundberg, J. O. (2020). A randomized clinical trial of the effects of leafy green vegetables and inorganic nitrate on blood pressure.. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Article ID nqaa024.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A randomized clinical trial of the effects of leafy green vegetables and inorganic nitrate on blood pressure.
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2020 (English)In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, article id nqaa024Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: A diet rich in fruits and vegetables is associated with lowering of blood pressure (BP), but the nutrient(s) responsible for these effects remain unclear. Research suggests that inorganic nitrate present in leafy green vegetables is converted into NO in vivo to improve cardiovascular function.

OBJECTIVE: In this study, we evaluated the effect of leafy green vegetables on BP in subjects with elevated BP, with the aim of elucidating if any such effect is related to their high nitrate content.

DESIGN: We enrolled 243 subjects, 50-70 y old, with a clinic systolic BP (SBP) of 130-159 mm Hg. After a 2-wk run-in period on a nitrate-restricted diet the subjects were randomly assigned to receive 1 of the following 3 interventions daily for 5 wk: low-nitrate vegetables + placebo pills, low-nitrate vegetables + nitrate pills (300 mg nitrate), or leafy green vegetables containing 300 mg nitrate + placebo pills. The primary end point measure was the difference in change in 24 h ambulatory SBP between the groups.

RESULTS: A total of 231 subjects (95%) completed the study. The insignificant change in ambulatory SBP (mean ± standard deviation) was -0.6 ± 6.2 mm Hg in the placebo group, -1.2 ± 6.8 mm Hg in the potassium nitrate group, and -0.5 ± 6.6 mm Hg in the leafy green vegetable group. There was no significant difference in change between the 3 groups.

CONCLUSIONS: A 5-wk dietary supplementation with leafy green vegetables or pills containing the same amount of inorganic nitrate does not decrease ambulatory SBP in subjects with elevated BP. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02916615.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press, 2020
Keywords
blood pressure, dietary nitrate, hypertension, leafy green vegetables, nitric oxide
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-6080 (URN)10.1093/ajcn/nqaa024 (DOI)32091599 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2020-03-16 Created: 2020-03-16 Last updated: 2020-03-26Bibliographically approved
Schiffer, T. A., Larsen, F. J., Lundberg, J. O. & Weitzberg, E. (2020). Dietary nitrate and mitochondrial efficiency in humans. [Letter to the editor]. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 111(2), Article ID 486.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dietary nitrate and mitochondrial efficiency in humans.
2020 (English)In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 111, no 2, article id 486Article in journal, Letter (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press, 2020
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-6074 (URN)10.1093/ajcn/nqz316 (DOI)000518429700030 ()32016354 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2020-03-13 Created: 2020-03-13 Last updated: 2020-03-26Bibliographically approved
Larsen, F. J., Schiffer, T. A., Zinner, C., Willis, S. J., Morales-Alamo, D., Calbet, J., . . . Holmberg, H. C. (2020). Mitochondrial oxygen affinity increases after sprint interval training and is related to the improvement in peak oxygen uptake.. Acta Physiologica, Article ID e13463.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mitochondrial oxygen affinity increases after sprint interval training and is related to the improvement in peak oxygen uptake.
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2020 (English)In: Acta Physiologica, ISSN 1748-1708, E-ISSN 1748-1716, article id e13463Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

AIMS: The body responds to exercise training by profound adaptations throughout the cardiorespiratory and muscular systems, which may result in improvements in maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 peak) and mitochondrial capacity. By convenience, mitochondrial respiration is often measured at supra-physiological oxygen levels, an approach that ignores any potential regulatory role of mitochondrial affinity for oxygen (p50mito ) at physiological oxygen levels.

METHODS: In this study, we examined the p50mito of mitochondria isolated from the Vastus lateralis and Triceps brachii in 12 healthy volunteers before and after a training intervention with 7 sessions of sprint interval training using both leg cycling and arm cranking. The changes in p50mito were compared to changes in whole-body VO2 peak.

RESULTS: We here show that p50mito is similar in isolated mitochondria from the Vastus (40 ± 3.8 Pa) compared to Triceps (39 ± 3.3) but decreases (mitochondrial oxygen affinity increases) after 7 sessions of sprint interval training (to 26 ± 2.2 Pa in Vastus and 22 ± 2.7 Pa in Triceps, both p<0.01). The change in VO2 peak modeled from changes in p50mito was correlated to actual measured changes in VO2 peak (R2 =0.41, p=0.002).

CONCLUSION: Together with mitochondrial respiratory capacity, p50mito is a critical factor when measuring mitochondrial function, it can decrease with sprint interval training and should be considered in the integrative analysis of the oxygen cascade from lung to mitochondria.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2020
Keywords
Mitochondria, exercise, high intensity training, maximal oxygen consumption, oxygen affinity, sprint training, training
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-6073 (URN)10.1111/apha.13463 (DOI)32144872 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2020-03-13 Created: 2020-03-13 Last updated: 2020-03-13Bibliographically approved
Nilsson, L., Flockhart, M., Apro, W., Ekblom, B. & Larsen, F. J. (2019). Biphasic relationship between training load and glucose tolerance. In: : . Paper presented at Cell Symposia, Exercise Metabolism. May 5-7 2019, Sitges Spain.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biphasic relationship between training load and glucose tolerance
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2019 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Biphasic relationship between training load and glucose tolerance

Nilsson, L, Flockhart M, Bergman K, Apro W, Ekblom B, Larsen FJ

 

There is a well-established construct regarding the positive effects of exercise on glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, as well as muscle glycogen storage. In insulin resistance, physical activity is an essential part of the treatment. However, the optimal dose is unknown. Reduced muscular glycogen stores, resulting from exercise, should stimulate an increased uptake of blood glucose. In this study we investigated the relation between training load, glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity during three weeks of increasing interval training. Three times during the intervention, oral glucose tests were conducted to investigate the rate of glucose uptake. We found a biphasic dose-response relationship between training load and glucose tolerance, where an excessive training load led to a paradoxical reduction in glucose tolerance and impaired insulin release despite an unchanged amount of muscle glycogen. In light of these results, an upper limit of physical exercise exist where the negative effects overpowers the positive.

National Category
Cell Biology
Research subject
Medicine/Technology; Medicine/Technology; Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-5933 (URN)
Conference
Cell Symposia, Exercise Metabolism. May 5-7 2019, Sitges Spain
Funder
Swedish National Centre for Research in Sports
Available from: 2019-11-29 Created: 2019-11-29 Last updated: 2019-12-09Bibliographically approved
Nilsson, A., Björnson, E., Flockhart, M., Larsen, F. J. & Nielsen, J. (2019). Complex I is bypassed during high intensity exercise.. Nature Communications, 10(1), Article ID 5072.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Complex I is bypassed during high intensity exercise.
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2019 (English)In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 10, no 1, article id 5072Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Human muscles are tailored towards ATP synthesis. When exercising at high work rates muscles convert glucose to lactate, which is less nutrient efficient than respiration. There is hence a trade-off between endurance and power. Metabolic models have been developed to study how limited catalytic capacity of enzymes affects ATP synthesis. Here we integrate an enzyme-constrained metabolic model with proteomics data from muscle fibers. We find that ATP synthesis is constrained by several enzymes. A metabolic bypass of mitochondrial complex I is found to increase the ATP synthesis rate per gram of protein compared to full respiration. To test if this metabolic mode occurs in vivo, we conduct a high resolved incremental exercise tests for five subjects. Their gas exchange at different work rates is accurately reproduced by a whole-body metabolic model incorporating complex I bypass. The study therefore shows how proteome allocation influences metabolism during high intensity exercise.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Publishing Group, 2019
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-5909 (URN)10.1038/s41467-019-12934-8 (DOI)000494938600006 ()31699973 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-11-11 Created: 2019-11-11 Last updated: 2019-12-19
Moretti, C., Larsen, F. J. & Lundberg, J. (2019). Dietary nitrite extends lifespan in the fruit fly. In: European Journal of Clinical Investigation,  Vol 49, Suppl 1, p 102, Meeting Abstract: P004-T: . Paper presented at 53rd Annual Scientific Meeting of the European Society for Clinical Investigation “The Clocks of Metabolism and Disease”, Coimbra, Portugal, 22nd – 24th May 2019 (pp. 102-102). Wiley-Blackwell, 49
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dietary nitrite extends lifespan in the fruit fly
2019 (English)In: European Journal of Clinical Investigation,  Vol 49, Suppl 1, p 102, Meeting Abstract: P004-T, Wiley-Blackwell, 2019, Vol. 49, p. 102-102Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Blackwell, 2019
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-5778 (URN)000466956400195 ()
Conference
53rd Annual Scientific Meeting of the European Society for Clinical Investigation “The Clocks of Metabolism and Disease”, Coimbra, Portugal, 22nd – 24th May 2019
Available from: 2019-06-14 Created: 2019-06-14 Last updated: 2019-06-14Bibliographically approved
Flockhart, M., Nilsson, L., Apro, W., Ekblom, B. & Larsen, F. J. (2019). Dose-response relationship between exercise load and mitochondrial function. In: : . Paper presented at Cell Symposia: Exercise Metabolism, May 5-7 2019, Sitges Spain.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dose-response relationship between exercise load and mitochondrial function
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2019 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Dose-response relationship between exercise load and mitochondrial function

Flockhart M, Nilsson L, Bergman K, Apro W, Ekblom B, Larsen FJ

A dose-dependent relationship exists between exercise load and muscular adaptation. Mitochondria adapt to the increased ATP-demand by alterations in mass and/or quality. How mitochondrial mass and quality changes as a function of exercise load is not well investigated and we have previously found mitochondrial dysfunction after short-term intensive exercise. We therefore aimed to study mitochondrial function by altering exercise load during a three week interval training regimen to understand the dose-response relationship between exercise load and mitochondrial function. We took four muscle biopsies throughout the study, and as expected, mitochondrial function was positively affected during the first two weeks. After the third week, a dramatic mitochondrial dysfunction was evident as mitochondrial intrinsic respiration was reduced by 26% despite a 32% increase in mitochondrial yield. We hereby present evidence of a striking exercise-induced reduction in mitochondrial function after a period of very intense interval training.

National Category
Cell Biology
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-5932 (URN)
Conference
Cell Symposia: Exercise Metabolism, May 5-7 2019, Sitges Spain
Funder
Swedish National Centre for Research in Sports
Available from: 2019-11-29 Created: 2019-11-29 Last updated: 2019-12-09Bibliographically approved
Cardinale, D. A., Larsen, F. J., Lindholm, P., Ekblom, B. & Boushel, R. (2019). Effects Of Hyperoxic-Supplemented High Intensity Interval Training On Endurance Performance, Maximal Oxygen Consumption And Mitochondrial Function In Trained Cyclists. In: MEDICINE AND SCIENCE IN SPORTS AND EXERCISE Vol 51(2019):6. Supplement: S, Meeting Abstract: 1753: . Paper presented at Annual Meeting of the American-College-of-Sports-Medicine (ACSM), MAY 28-JUN 01, 2019, Orlando, FL (pp. 463-464). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 51(6)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects Of Hyperoxic-Supplemented High Intensity Interval Training On Endurance Performance, Maximal Oxygen Consumption And Mitochondrial Function In Trained Cyclists
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2019 (English)In: MEDICINE AND SCIENCE IN SPORTS AND EXERCISE Vol 51(2019):6. Supplement: S, Meeting Abstract: 1753, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2019, Vol. 51, no 6, p. 463-464Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2019
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-5836 (URN)10.1249/01.mss.0000561892.45529.46 (DOI)000481662801604 ()
Conference
Annual Meeting of the American-College-of-Sports-Medicine (ACSM), MAY 28-JUN 01, 2019, Orlando, FL
Available from: 2019-09-17 Created: 2019-09-17 Last updated: 2019-09-17Bibliographically approved
Mattsson, M., Larsen, F. J., Ashley, E., Montgomery, D. & Waggot, D. (2019). Individen i idrotten. Idrott och Kunskap, 5(5), 14-21
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Individen i idrotten
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2019 (Swedish)In: Idrott och Kunskap, ISSN 1652-6961, Vol. 5, no 5, p. 14-21Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
Abstract [sv]

Sedan urminnes tider har det varit känt att olika träningsupplägg fungerar bättre för vissa idrottare än för andra. Med modern datainsamling och analytiska tekniker kan vi integrera mätvärden från träning, prestation och resultat, samt subjektiva och biologiska markörer så att de från en sammantagen bild kan ge rekommendationer anpassade till den specifika individen. Detta gör att idrottarna inte bara kan träna, återhämta sig mer effektivt och prestera bättre, utan även undvika skador och sjukdomar.

Artikeln belyser att många professionella team samlar in så mycket mätvärden att de lider av en ”data-tsunami”, och hur den senaste vetenskapen och analytiska metoder, inklusive AI och djupinlärning, kan optimera datainsamling och analys för att minimera skador och förbättra prestationen.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: , 2019
Keywords
Artificiell intelligens, Big data, individanpassad träning
National Category
Medical Engineering
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-6052 (URN)
Available from: 2020-02-24 Created: 2020-02-24 Last updated: 2020-03-13Bibliographically approved
Cardinale, D. A., Larsen, F. J., Lännerström, J., Manselin, T., Södergård, O., Mijwel, S., . . . Boushel, R. (2019). Influence of Hyperoxic-Supplemented High-Intensity Interval Training on Hemotological and Muscle Mitochondrial Adaptations in Trained Cyclists.. Frontiers in Physiology, 10, Article ID 730.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of Hyperoxic-Supplemented High-Intensity Interval Training on Hemotological and Muscle Mitochondrial Adaptations in Trained Cyclists.
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2019 (English)In: Frontiers in Physiology, ISSN 1664-042X, E-ISSN 1664-042X, Vol. 10, article id 730Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Hyperoxia (HYPER) increases O2 carrying capacity resulting in a higher O2 delivery to the working muscles during exercise. Several lines of evidence indicate that lactate metabolism, power output, and endurance are improved by HYPER compared to normoxia (NORM). Since HYPER enables a higher exercise power output compared to NORM and considering the O2 delivery limitation at exercise intensities near to maximum, we hypothesized that hyperoxic-supplemented high-intensity interval training (HIIT) would upregulate muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacity and enhance endurance cycling performance compared to training in normoxia. Methods: 23 trained cyclists, age 35.3 ± 6.4 years, body mass 75.2 ± 9.6 kg, height 179.8 ± 7.9 m, and VO2max 4.5 ± 0.7 L min-1 performed 6 weeks polarized and periodized endurance training on a cycle ergometer consisting of supervised HIIT sessions 3 days/week and additional low-intensity training 2 days/week. Participants were randomly assigned to either HYPER (FIO2 0.30; n = 12) or NORM (FIO2 0.21; n = 11) breathing condition during HIIT. Mitochondrial respiration in permeabilized fibers and isolated mitochondria together with maximal and submaximal VO2, hematological parameters, and self-paced endurance cycling performance were tested pre- and posttraining intervention. Results: Hyperoxic training led to a small, non-significant change in performance compared to normoxic training (HYPER 6.0 ± 3.7%, NORM 2.4 ± 5.0%; p = 0.073, ES = 0.32). This small, beneficial effect on the self-paced endurance cycling performance was not explained by the change in VO2max (HYPER 1.1 ± 3.8%, NORM 0.0 ± 3.7%; p = 0.55, ES = 0.08), blood volume and hemoglobin mass, mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation capacity (permeabilized fibers: HYPER 27.3 ± 46.0%, NORM 16.5 ± 49.1%; p = 0.37, ES = 3.24 and in isolated mitochondria: HYPER 26.1 ± 80.1%, NORM 15.9 ± 73.3%; p = 0.66, ES = 0.51), or markers of mitochondrial content which were similar between groups post intervention. Conclusions: This study showed that 6 weeks hyperoxic-supplemented HIIT led to marginal gain in cycle performance in already trained cyclists without change in VO2max, blood volume, hemoglobin mass, mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation capacity, or exercise efficiency. The underlying mechanisms for the potentially meaningful performance effects of hyperoxia training remain unexplained and may raise ethical questions for elite sport.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2019
Keywords
OXPHOS, VO2max, cycling performance, high-intensity interval training, hyperoxia, mitochondria
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-5805 (URN)10.3389/fphys.2019.00730 (DOI)000472046700001 ()31258485 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-08-14 Created: 2019-08-14 Last updated: 2019-08-14Bibliographically approved
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Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-1343-8656

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