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  • Ingesson, Carolina
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Skattning av KASAM hos elitidrottare med respektive utan funktionsnedsättning: En kvantitativ studie2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med studien var att undersöka eventuella skillnader i skattning av Aaron Antonovskys KASAM - känsla av sammanhang, hos elitidrottare med funktionsnedsättning respektive utan funktionsnedsättning. Frågeställningarna var följande: ”Finns det en skillnad i skattning av KASAM hos elitidrottare med respektive utan funktionsnedsättning?”, ”Påverkas KASAM-skattningen av typen av funktionsnedsättning (synnedsättning eller rörelsehinder)?”, ”Kommer en skillnad i skattningen ses hos komponenterna meningsfullhet, hanterbarhet och begriplighet mellan elitidrottare med respektive utan funktionsnedsättning”?

    Metod: Denna studie är en kvantitativ studie som genomfördes i form av en enkätundersökning. En grupp med 18 elitidrottande ungdomar med funktionsnedsättning (grupp 1) och en grupp med 18 elitidrottande ungdomar utan funktionsnedsättning (grupp 2) svarade på en enkät. Enkäten bestod av två delar; en bakgrundsdel utformades specifikt för projektet och en del som bestod av KASAM-enkäten. KASAM-enkäten bestod av 29 frågor där varje fråga skattas från 1 till 7. Frågorna berör olika delar av livet och besvaras med den siffra som passar bäst in på personens situation och känsla. Resultatet från enkäterna sammanställdes och analyserades i SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences).

    Resultat: Resultaten visade ingen signifikant skillnad av det totala KASAM-värdet mellan grupperna personer med respektive utan funktionsnedsättning (p=0,826). Medianen av det totala KASAM-värdet var 150,5 poäng för gruppen med personer med funktionsnedsättning och 143,5 poäng för gruppen med personer utan en funktionsnedsättning. Det fanns heller ingen skillnad i skattning mellan personer med rörelsenedsättning och personer med synnedsättning (p=0,844). Medianen av det totala KASAM-värdet var 154 poäng för gruppen med synnedsättningar och 149 poäng för gruppen med rörelsenedsättningar. I det tre delkomponenterna meningsfullhet, hanterbarhet och begriplighet kunde en liten skillnad ses där gruppen med personer med funktionsnedsättning skattade högre jämfört med gruppen utan funktionsnedsättning, dock fanns inga signifikanta skillnader mellan skattning av meningsfullhet p=0,579, hanterbarhet p=0,912 och begriplighet p=0,692.

    Slutsats: Detta resultat kan anses positivt då hypotesen vara att skattningen skulle vara lägre i gruppen med funktionsnedsättning och speciellt inom delkomponenten hanterbarhet. Resultatet är inte statistiskt signifikant men kan ha en klinisk betydelse. Resultatsammanställningen identifierade personer i båda grupperna som hade låga KASAM poäng vilket gör att detta resultat bör belysas till båda gruppernas tränare och sportchefer så att dessa personer kan få det stöd de behöver.

    Eftersom urvalet i denna studie inte var så stort kan resultatet inte ses som allmängiltigt och bör därför tolkas med försiktighet. Studien berör ungdomar och unga vuxna elitidrottare och bör inte generaliserats till ungdomar och unga vuxna som inte bedriver någon typ av elitsatsning.

     

     

  • Bråkenhielm, Elin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Ingesson, Sabina
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Rörelse i grundskolan: En kvalitativ observationsstudie om två grundskolors hälsofrämjande arbete i Stockholms län2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Studiens syfte var att undersöka hur grundskolan inkluderar fysisk aktivitet under skoldagen samt jämföra hur det hälsofrämjande arbetet ser ut på en grundskola med anställd hälsopedagog jämfört med en grundskola utan anställd hälsopedagog. Tre frågeställningar formulerades; Hur inkluderas fysisk aktivitet under skoldagen för elever i årskurs 1 på de utvalda grundskolorna? Hur skiljer sig det hälsofrämjande arbetet på en skola med anställd hälsopedagog jämfört med en skola utan anställd hälsopedagog? Hur är hälsopedagogen inkopplad i det hälsofrämjande arbetet?

    Metod:

    Studiens material samlades in genom observationer, kvalitativa enkäter och semistrukturerade intervjuer. En klass i årskurs 1 observerades under två dagar för att undersöka hur den fysiska aktiviteten inkluderades under skoldagen. Utvald skolpersonal fick svara på en enkät angående skolans hälsoarbete för att undersöka hur skolornas arbeten skiljde sig åt. Två semistrukturerade intervjuer utfördes för att utforska hälsopedagogens roll i det hälsofrämjande arbetet.

    Resultat och diskussion:

    Båda grundskolorna hade rastaktiviteter och rörelsepauser inlagda under skoldagen. Skillnaden mellan skolorna var att det hälsofrämjande arbetet på skolan med hälsopedagog bedrevs av hälsopedagogen medan den på skolan utan hälsopedagog bedrevs av en engagerad lärare. Läraren fick inspiration och kunskap från ”spring i benen” projektet. Skolan utan hälsopedagog hade större ytor och fler förutsättningar till fysisk aktivitet på skolgården. Skolan med anställd hälsopedagog hade begränsade ytor till fysisk aktivitet på grund av ombyggnation. Utöver detta var rastaktiviteterna mer fysiskt utmanande på skolan utan hälsopedagog. Detta var troligen en konsekvens av den begränsade skolgårdsytan på skolan med hälsopedagog.

    Slutsats

    Slutsatsen som kan dras i denna studie var att det hälsofrämjande arbetet på skolorna var liknande på så sätt att båda skolorna inkludera praktiska moment i undervisningen, aktiva raster samt aktiva pauser under skoldagen. Dock låg ansvaret över den fysiska aktiviteten hos olika professioner på skolorna. Hälsopedagogen hade den kompetens som krävdes för att bedriva det hälsofrämjande arbetet på egen hand, medan klassläraren på skolan utan hälsopedagog fick inspiration och kunskap från “spring i benen” projektet för att bedriva det hälsofrämjande arbetet.

  • Iderstål, Erica
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Skretting, Alida
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Kunskapen om och användningen av Basketsmart på RIG och NIU: En enkätundersökning2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Studien syftar till att undersöka kunskapen och medvetenheten om användningen av preventionsprogrammet Basketsmart på elever som studerar på basketgymnasium samt studera om, och eventuellt hur, Riksidrottsgymnasier (RIG) och Nationellt Godkänd Idrottsutbildning (NIU) skiljer sig åt.  Hur är medvetenheten om Basketsmarts skadeprogram för elever på basketgymnasier?  Hur brukas Basketsmarts skadeprogram av elever på basketgymnasier?  Finns det några diskrepanser mellan RIG och NIU avseende kunskap och användande av Basketsmart?

    Metod

    För insamlandet av data användes en kvantitativ metod i form av en enkätundersökning. Medverkade i studien gjorde RIG:s elever samt NIU:s elever. Innan enkäterna delades ut till eleverna genomfördes en pilotstudie på tio personer.

    Resultat

    Studien genomfördes på 51 deltagare och data som samlades in i denna studie visade på att majoriteten av eleverna i RIG och NIU är medvetna om vad Basketsmart är. Det kan konstateras att medvetenheten om, och användandet av, Basketsmart var något högre på NIU än på RIG. Den statistiska analysen visade på att det inte var någon signifikant skillnad mellan RIG och NIU.

    Slutsats

    Slutsatsen resulterade i att det inte var någon signifikant skillnad mellan inriktningarna RIG och NIU. Majoriteten av eleverna i de olika inriktningarna använder inte Basketsmart i undervisningen men har en god medvetenhet om Basketsmart.

  • Parkheden, Jennifer
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Garcia Hagman, Amanda
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Risk att ha stressrelaterad ohälsa i olika fysiska aktivitetsgrupper: En tvärsnittsstudie om fysisk aktivitet och stress2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte 

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka om risken att uppleva stressrelaterad ohälsa i form av psykosomatiska besvär som sömnproblem, huvudvärk, trötthet/hängig, håglöshet och nedstämdhet kan minska ju mer fysiskt aktiv man uppger sig vara.

    Metod

    Studien är en tvärsnittssstudie baserad på data från LIV 90, LIV 2000 och Vasaloppsstudien. Totalt handlade det om 3688 personers svar från enkäterna i de olika studierna. Vi valde att titta på frågorna gällande fysisk aktivitet, kön, ålder, rökvanor samt utbildningsnivå. Då ingen fråga direkt ställdes gällande stress valdes fem stressindikatorer ut, dvs fem psykosomatiska besvär som ofta förekommer till följd av upplevd stress. Dessa var sömnproblem, huvudvärk, nedstämd, håglöshet samt om man kände sig trött och hängig. Genom logistisk regression fick vi fram oddskvoterna för att ha respektive besvär i de olika aktivitetsgrupperna och vi kontrollerade i modell för modell för olika variabler (ålder, kön, rökning och utbildningsnivå).

    Resultat

    I resultatet av studien kan man se att risken att ha eller uppleva något av de psykosomatiska besvären var lägre i den högaktiva aktivitetsgruppen i jämförelse med den lågaktiva gruppen, även efter att vi kontrollerat för kön, ålder, rökning och utbildningsnivå. För både trötthet/hängig samt håglöshet fanns en signifikant lägre risk även i den måttligt aktiva gruppen jämfört med den lågaktiva gruppen, när vi kontrollerat för de övriga variablerna. 

    Slutsats

    Deltagarna som kategoriserats in i den högaktiva aktivitetsgruppen hade, i jämförelse med den lågaktiva gruppen, en signifikant lägre risk att ha något av de stressrelaterade besvär som vi valt att titta på. För majoriteten av besvären verkar det dock krävas att man är högaktiv för att man ska ha en signifikant lägre risk.

  • Johansson, Elin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Hansson, Linnéa
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Smärtan som påverkar alla aspekter av fem unga kvinnors liv: en kvalitativ intervjustudie om hälsa och erfarenheter hos kvinnor med endometrios2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar. Syftet med studien var att undersöka hur kvinnor med endometrios hälsa och beteende påverkas av diagnosen samt vilka deras erfarenheter är från sjukvården. Två frågeställningar formulerades: Hur påverkas respondenternas hälsa och beteenden av sjukdomen? och Vilka upplevelser och erfarenheter har de från sjukvården?

    Metod. För att besvara frågeställningarna användes en kvalitativ intervjumetod i form av en semistrukturerad intervjuguide. Intervjuguiden bestod av öppna frågor för att författarna skulle få utförliga svar och djupare förståelse. Fem kvinnor med endometrios deltog som respondenter i enskilda intervjuer över telefon. Intervjuerna spelades in, transkriberades och analyserades.

    Resultat. Utvalda citat från intervjuerna användes som meningsbärande enheter för att sedan kondenseras, kodas och ge teman. Författarna delade upp teman i två kategorier som besvarar frågeställningarna. Frånvaro från arbete och skola, beteende, fysisk ohälsa, psykisk ohälsa var teman som valdes ut till frågeställning 1. Smärtan ansågs vara en central del till varför deras hälsa och beteenden påverkas. Sammanfattningsvis påverkas kvinnornas hälsa och beteende genom ökad frånvaro från arbete och skola, begränsad ansträngning och anpassning i vardagen, minskat socialt utbyte med vänner och psykisk ohälsa. Kunskap, normalisering av smärta, ej betrodd och tjat var teman som valdes ut för att besvara frågeställning 2. Det verkar som att vid mötet med en okunnig läkare normaliseras smärtan, hon blir inte betrodd för sina besvär och behöver tjata för att få behandling. Däremot vid mötet med en kunnig läkare blir hjälpen snabb och det uppskattas att bli bekräftad och betrodd.

    Slutsats. Slutsatsen är att endometrios verkar påverka kvinnan i alla aspekter av livet, i arbets-, vardags- och privatlivet. Detta är något som bör tas i åtanke inom sjukvården, bland arbetsgivare och i samhället generellt. Endometrios är en komplex sjukdom med många faktorer som påverkar kvinnors hälsa och beteende.

  • Ohm, Annie
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Myléus, Jonathan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Hur ser sambanden ut mellan VO₂max, stress och arbetsminne?: En kvantitativ tvärsnittsstudie på kontorsanställda.2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar: Den stressrelaterade ohälsan har ökat de senaste åren ochr esulterar ofta i försämrade kognitiva förmågor. Det finns ett stort behov av att hitta metoder både för att minska den upplevda stressen men också att bibehålla de kognitiva förmågorna. Vårt huvudsakliga syfte med denna studie är att titta på om en individs syreupptagnings-förmåga påverkar hur starkt sambandet mellan den Upplevda stressorn och den kognitiva förmågan är och om det finns genusskillnader. Vi tittar också på om det finns signifikanta skillnader och samband mellan syreupptagningsförmåga, kognitiv förmåga och Upplevd stressor.

    Metod: Data till den här kvantitativa tvärsnittsstudien har inhämtats från ett större projekt,”Fysiskt aktivitetsmönster och hälsosamma hjärnfunktioner bland kontorsanställda”, som ärutformat som en tvärsnittsstudie och genomfördes vid GIH under 2016–2017. Till vår studie därvi tittar på Upplevd stressor genom enkätfråga, syreupptagningsförmåga i form av relativ VO₂max beräknad utifrån Ekblom-Bak test och Arbetsminne mätt genom testerna STROOP och Digit Span Backwards, har vi 325st deltagare med komplett data för dessa variabler och som dåingår i vår population. Av dessa är 218st kvinnor (67,1%) och 107st män (32,9%).

    Resultat: Det finns ett svagt men signifikant samband mellan VO₂ max och Arbetsminne(r=0,13, p=˂0,05), där högre VO₂ max medför en bättre prestation för Arbetsminne. Vår datavisar däremot inget signifikant samband mellan VO₂ max och Upplevd Stressor (r=0,13,p=˃0,05). Populationen delades in i kvintiler och sambandet mellan Arbetsminne och Upplevd stressor analyserades för vardera kvintil samt uppdelat på kön. För männen visade ingen kvintilpå ett signifikant samband. Däremot för kvinnorna visade kvintilen med högst VO₂ max på ettsignifikant samband (r=0,50, p=˂0,05), där högre Upplevd Stressor medförde sämre prestationför Arbetsminne.

    Slutsats: Vi ser att det finns ett samband mellan VO₂ max och Arbetsminne, där högre VO₂max samtidigt innebär en något bättre prestation på test för Arbetsminne. Kvinnor med högVO₂ max visar ett relativt starkt samband mellan Upplevd stressor och Arbetsminne, där högre skattning för Upplevd stressor samtidigt innebär en något sämre prestation på test för Arbetsminne. Kvinnor skattar högre för Upplevd stressor än vad männen gör, och samtliga som skattat högsta möjliga är kvinnor. Kvinnor med lägst VO₂ max, har lägre utbildningsgradjämfört med övriga i populationen.

  • Vikman, Isac
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Törner, Filip
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Fysiskt aktiv genom rulltrappor: En kvantitativ interventionsstudie om beteendeförändring2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte

    Denna interventionsstudie syftade i huvudsak till att undersöka effekten på motivation till fysisk aktivitet samt psykiskt välbefinnande vid en beteendeförändring hos fysiskt inaktiva individer. Detta då fysisk inaktivitet är ett problem i dagens samhälle. Studiens andra syfte var att undersöka om beteendeförändringen kunde visa på ökad mängd fysisk aktivitet hos deltagarna i form av mängd steg per vecka.

    Metod

    Studiens intervention varade under två veckor där deltagarna (n = 34) utförde en beteendeförändring av sitt fysiska aktivitetsmönster dagligen i rulltrappor. Detta innebar att börja gå i samtliga rulltrappor från att tidigare ha varit inaktiva i dem. Interventionen i rulltrapporna var den enda förändringen deltagarna ombads göra. Mätinstrumenten var tre enkäter som besvarades innan interventionen och tre identiska enkäter besvarades efter interventionen. Objektiv data genom stegräknare användes också för att undersöka förändring av fysisk aktivitetsnivå hos deltagarna.

    Resultat

    Studiens resultat visade att deltagarna ökat sin benägenhet till att utföra en beteendeförändring (p = ,006). Ökad motivationsnivå till fysisk aktivitet genom ökad självbestämmande (p < ,001) visade också på signifikant förbättring. Vi kunde även avläsa en signifikant förbättring på deltagarnas skattade psykiska hälsa efter interventionen (p < ,001). Skillnad i snittsteg per vecka hos deltagarna (n = 34) mellan före intervention och interventionens andra vecka visade på en ökning av 1919 steg, detta motsvarade en procentuell ökning på 30,7%. Detta är en signifikant förbättring (p < ,001).

    Slutsats

    Sammanfattningsvis kunde vi konkludera att en beteendeförändring hos inaktiva individer att börja gå i rulltrappor påvisade en positiv effekt på motivationsnivå till fysisk aktivitet samt på psykiskt välbefinnande. Den totala aktivitetsnivån ökade också hos studiens deltagare, mätt i form av antal steg. Det går inte att säga huruvida andra faktorer kan ha påverkat deltagarnas ökade stegmängd. Således går det ej att säkert fastställa interventionen som enskild orsak, dock stärker deltagarnas gemensamma ökade mängd fysiska aktivitet detta. Ytterligare stärks det i samband med studiens positiva effekt på motivation och psykiska välbefinnande, att interventionen varit orsak till förbättringen. 3

  • Malm, Julia
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Ökar ditt välbefinnande av fysisk aktivitet?2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte & Frågeställning

    Syftet med denna studie är att ta reda på anledningen till varför personer tränar på gym kopplat till deras välbefinnande. - Finns det ett samband mellan välbefinnande och mängden fysisk aktivitet? - Skiljer sig välbefinnandet mellan män och kvinnor som är fysiskt aktiva? - Vad är anledning till att vara fysiskt aktiv kopplat till välbefinnande?

    Metod

    En kvantitativ tvärsnittsstudie har genomförts med inslag av kvalitativt utformade frågor. Enkäten som bestod av tretton frågor gällande fysisk aktivitet samt upplevt välbefinnande besvarades av individer aktiva på Friskis och Svettis Stockholm i åldrarna 18-72 år.

    Resultat

    57 individer deltog i studien och signifikanta samband kunde ses generellt för män och kvinnor för anledning till fysisk aktivitet kopplat till välbefinnande. Anledningen till varför individerna tränar, att det är roligt (p=0.003) och att det är socialt (p<0.001) visar positiva samband. Männen visade positiva signifikanta samband för anledning till fysisk aktivitet men negativa samband vid utebliven fysisk aktivitet. Kvinnorna visade enbart positiva signifikanta samband för att det är socialt (p=0.020). Det fanns ingen skillnad mellan män och kvinnor i det generella välbefinnandet kopplat till sinnesstämning, oroskänslor, sömn och koncentration bland de som deltog i studien. Typ av fysisk aktivitet, frekvens samt duration visade inga signifikanta samband.

    Slutsats

    Denna studie visade på positiva signifikanta samband mellan välbefinnande och anledning till varför man är fysiskt aktiv i alla ålderskategorier. Det fanns ingen skillnad i det generella välbefinnandet mellan män och kvinnor. Träningsfrekvens, träningsduration och träningsform visade inga signifikanta samband med välbefinnande.

  • Langels, Benjamin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Urgun, Shevin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Mirror Mirror On the Wall: Kroppsuppfattning och självkänsla hos vuxna med ett autismspektrumtillstånd: en tvärsnittsstudie2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study was to examine self-esteem and body image in adults with autism spectrum disorder. The primary objective of this study is to find out whether a connection exists between self-esteem and body image in our chosen population. In addition, we would like to investigate if physical activity, age and gender can work as moderators. Method: The study is a quantitative cross-sectional study directed at adults (18-50 y.o) with an autism spectrum disorder (autism or aspergers/ASD). Data is collected via an online survey applied at a single measuring point to collect answers regarding body image, self-esteem and physical activity level. To not limit the amount of observations we have created an original survey in English, and then translated it to Swedish with back-translation. A pilot-survey was tested on 3 people prior to official launch to ensure that our questions were properly interpreted, and that validity was sufficient. Along with the survey came a missive letter in either Swedish or English detailing the study being performed. The survey was posted in social media groups relevant to our sample population. Results: Out of 93 participants, 69 (74%) reported an under-par self-esteem according to the Rosenberg test. 24 people (26%) were reported having average, or above average self-esteem. Out of all the participants with low self-esteem, 64 of them (94%) wanted to change their appearance in some way, 45 (64%) believed that other people's opinions regarding their appearance were of importance, and 48 (70%) had felt badly treated as a consequence of their physical appearance, a higher proportion, compared to participants with a high or normal self-esteem (p=0,0036). The variables for body image were highly influenced by Rosenberg score. The probability of participants answering the questions in a negative fashion increased by 8,4 – 12,4 if the participant had a below average self-esteem score (<15) (p=0,000–0,003). For every day in a week the participants performed 30 minutes or more of heart rate increasing physical activity, the probability of wanting to alter their physical appearance lowered by 25% (p=0,05). Conclusion: The examined population have demonstrated a lower than average self-esteem, and also a heightened risk to display a negative body image. A strong connection has been established between Rosenbergs Self-Esteem Scale and questions regarding body image. We can with high probability express that improvement of one of these factors will influence the other one in a positive manor. Physical activity has a positive influence on body image, this also applies to people with autism or aspergers/ASD. Methods including physical activity which increase breathing rate is recommended as a preventative measure and general treatment to improve body image, self-esteem, and through those variables also general health.

  • Sabel, My
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Blomberg, My
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    När det gäller livsstil, vad passar mig?: Hur kvinnor uppfattar och förhåller sig till råd kring kost och fysisk aktivitet2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställning

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka vad kvinnor uppfattar vara råden för en god kosthållning och fysisk aktivitet för en hälsosam livsstil samt hur dessa råd upplevs och hur vi bemöter dem. Detta görs genom följande frågeställningar; Vad uppfattar kvinnor vara de gällande råden och rekommendationerna för god kosthållning och fysisk aktivitet för en hälsosam livsstil? Hur förhåller sig kvinnor till de uppfattade råden och rekommendationerna gällande kost och fysisk aktivitet för en hälsosam livsstil?

    Metod

    En kvalitativ studie valdes då studiens syfte var att söka förståelse och klargöra hur råd och rekommendationer upplevs samt hur man förhåller sig till dessa. Vidare valdes datainsamlingen att göras genom en semistrukturerad intervju. Sammantaget intervjuades åtta kvinnor i Stockholmsområdet i åldrarna 27-74. Intervjuerna transkriberades och analyserades sedan genom innehållsanalys där åtta teman identifierades. Dessa användes som grund för resultat.

    Resultat

    Resultatet visar att det finns en generell uppfattning av en hälsosam livsstil, dock med en begränsad kunskap inom ämnet. Det bör också poängteras att respondenterna upplever det svårt att navigera bland råd och rekommendationer kring kost och fysisk aktivitet, då det finns mycket och varierande information. Välbefinnande ses som en stor anledning till tillämpning av råd och rekommendationer, dock verkar det även finnas andra anledningar vilket gör förhållandet till kost och fysisk aktivitet mer komplext.

    Slutsats

    Ämnet behöver belysas ytterligare då det idag finns relativt lite forskning. Denna studie genererade dock en förståelse för hur begreppet hälsosam livsstil upplevs och gav upplysning om hur man förhåller sig till råd och rekommendationer. Vi anser att de vetenskapliga råden behöver lyftas i större utsträckning, samt att kunskapen bör fördjupas på samhällsnivå.

  • Bastrup Frank, Kristin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Heving, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Fysisk aktivitet och dess påverkan på stress: En tvärsnittsstudie på högstadieungdomar2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The purpose with the study is to investigate if higher physical activity levels can reduce the effect of stress related illness in adolescents in grade 8. The purpose was also to see if there were any differences between the sexes in perceived stress and how common it is with heart rate enhancing physical activity and everyday exercise amongst girls and boys in grade 8.

    Method: A cross-sectional study was performed on 72 students in grade 8. Paper questionnaires was handed out to two schools in Stockholm county, where the students were given 15-20 minutes to respond. The questionnaire included two questions about physical activity and ten questions about stress, for example; experienced nervousness and stress, the ability to handle personal problems and the inability to control important things in life. The questionnaires were collected and analysed in the SPSS data analysis program.

    Results: The mean stress in all participants together was 15,20, ± 6,91, mean stress for boys was 11,77 and girls 19,11, ± 4,88 for boys and ± 6,77 for girls. The difference in perceived stress between the sexes were significant (p <0,001). There were no significant differences in the amount of physical activity performed between the sexes, heart enhancing physical activity (p = 0,110), everyday activity (p = 0,855). There were no relationship between performed physical activity and perceived stress in secondary students (p = 0,162).

    Conclusions: Girls estimate higher stress than boys. Even if many students reached the recommendations for physical activity you couldn't see any correlations between less stress and physical activity.

  • Vestling, Fanny
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Eriksson, Emma
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Hur kan svaga länkar i cyklisters färdvägsmiljöer förbättras?: Studie för att bedöma och åtgärda platser som motverkar cykling2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte/ Frågeställningar:Syftet med studien är att undersöka cyklisters upplevelse av fem specifika färdvägsmiljöer längs sträckan Stocksund – Roslagsvägen – Lill-Jansskogen med utgångspunkt i miljömässigt välbefinnande/ovälbefinnande, och andra utfallsvariabler samt olika miljöfaktorer. Syftet är även att undersöka huruvida punktskattning är en effektiv och möjlig metod för att lokalisera svaga länkar i cyklisters färdvägsmiljö.

    Frågeställningarna är: (1) Hur relaterar miljömässigt välbefinnande/ovälbefinnande till utfallsvariablerna trygghet/otrygghet av trafikmässiga skäl samt stimulerar/motverkar till cykling? (2) Hur relaterar miljöfaktorer till utfallsvariablerna trygghet/otrygghet av trafikmässiga skäl och stimulerar/motverkar till cykling?

    Metod:En kvantitativ skattningsmetod, en modifiering av färdvägsmiljöskalan ACRES (The Active Commuting Route Environment Scale) nyttjades. Urvalet bestod av både män och kvinnor i åldrarna 20–35 år, n=27, 14 kvinnor och 13 män, medelålder 25,9 ± 3,3. Undersökningen skedde via cykling med fem stopp på olika platser längs med sträckan Stocksund - Roslagsvägen - Lill-Jansskogen. Arbetsbelastningen styrdes med hjälp av med BORG-RPE-skala®, och bedömdes i efterhand med hjälp av pulsmätning. Objektiv mätning av trafikflöde och bullernivå utfördes. Analysen gjordes genom spridningsdiagram, multipel regression samt Pearson´s correlation coefficient.

    Resultat:Resultatet visade på stora variationer i skattningen av miljömässigt välbefinnande/ovälbefinnande mellan de fem olika platserna. Starka samband erhölls mellan utfallsvariablerna miljömässigt välbefinnande/ovälbefinnande och stimulerande/motverkande (r=0,810) samt trygghet/otrygghet av trafikmässiga skäl (r=0,638). De två senare variablerna var även signifikant korrelerade till olika miljöfaktorer.

    Slutsats:Metoden med punktskattningar verkar vara effektiv för att särskilja olika platsers inverkan på cyklister. De samband som erhölls mellan stimulerar/motverkar till cykling och miljöfaktorerna är i linje med tidigare forskning baserad på medelvärden av hela färdvägsmiljöer, därmed kan punktskattningar vara en värdefull metod för att motivera förbättrande åtgärder från ansvariga väghållare.

  • Aitalaakso, Karoliina
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Pirttimäki, Meri-Tuuli
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Ämnet idrott och hälsa och fysisk aktivitets akuta effekt på gymnasieelevernas kognition2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of this study is to explore whether physical activity in the physical education has a direct positive effect on the high school students' short-term memory and working memory.

    Research questions are following:

    1. Does acute physical activity have a direct positive impact on short-term memory and working memory in high school students?
    2. Are there any differences between female and male participants on performance in the cognitive tests?

    Method

    The sample size was 84 participants (high school students) aged 15-20, of which 23 women and 61 men. Seven different high school classes were needed to reach this number of participants. The participants were divided into two different groups. Group 1 conducted cognitive tests (TMT-A, TMT-B and free recall) without physical activity first. One week after, group 1 performed cognitive tests after physical activity. Group 2 made the arrangement in reverse order. These groups were randomly determined.

    Results

    On the TMT-A and free recall, no significant results were obtained before or after physical activity. The group that conducted physical activity on the second test day performed better on TMT-B test after physical activity while group 2 performed better after rest. There was a significant difference between female and male participants in group 1. Female and male participants both performed better after physical activity compared to rest, but female participants improved more.

    Conclusions

    Physical activity did not have any significant effect on performance in the cognitive tests of working memory and short-term memory. Physical activity can though benefit high school students to cope with cognitively demanding tasks. However, this needs to be explored more in the school setting.

     

  • Abdulla, Pashang
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Rabun, Hedi
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    ”Jag kunde inte språket och jag hade inga kompisar”: en kvalitativ studie om elevers integrering genom ämnet idrott och hälsa2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how the integration of newly arrived students through teaching in the subject of Physical Education and health works. This is done by finding out what their experiences mean for integration and by examining their current experiences of Physical Education and health in Sweden.

    • How can newcomers' integration into Swedish of Physical Education and health be described based on their lifeworld?
    • What opportunities and limitations do newcomers experience to be able to participate in Physical Education and health?

    Method

    The study was conducted with the help of four newly arrived students, who were interviewed individually to study their lifeworld. Through these qualitative interviews, an analysis of how students perceive their participation in the subject Physical Education and health could be made. In our study we used the sociocultural perspective as a theoretical starting point. The interviews were conducted individually, as this should provide the widest possible understanding of the students' individual perceptions and thoughts. The interviews have been transcribed and used in the results section. An interview guide was used to facilitate the work process.

    Results

    The clearest results this study showed were (1) Respondents' different experiences from their home country and different experiences from school have affected how much interest they have in sports education. (2) Different educational keys and different learning methods are something that the students appreciate from the teacher who helps the to be a part of the class. (3) Teachers and classmates are of great importance for adapting to Physical Education and health. '

    Conclusion

    The study shows that both provenance and gender can have an impact on how well you adapt to Swedish sports education. Despite cultural and language differences physical Education and health could integrate people together

  • Bergqvist, Theodor
    Den svenska gymnastikens spridning 1813-19131913Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Skriften beskriver linggymnastikens spridning och organisation i olika länder år 1913.

    Innehåll:

    • lnledning
    • Afrika
    • Amerika (U. S. A.)
    • Belgien
    • Danmark
    • England
    • Finland
    • Frankrike
    • Grekland
    • Holland
    • Italien
    • Norge
    • Ryssland
    • Schweiz
    • Spanien och Portugal
    • Sydamerika ·(Chile)
    • Tyskland
    • Österrrike-Ungarn
  • Bergqvist, Theodor
    Strödda gymnastiska notiser 1813-1913: Kungl. Gymnastiska Centralinstitutet och därmed likaberättigade utbildningsanstalter. Gymnastiska sällskap i Sverige. Gymnastikdirektörer och läkare-sjukgymnaster i Sverige och Utlandet 1913. Gymnastiklärare- och lärarinnor i Sverige 19131913Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Björklund, Melissa
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Tirpan, Adem
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Förutsättningar för friluftsliv i grundskolan: En kvalitativ undersökning om hur idrottslärare hanterar läroplanens vision i undervisningen2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of the study is primarily to investigate how physical education and health (PEH) teachers conduct outdoor education in relation to the vision of the Swedish curriculum. The study also aims to investigate whether the PEH teachers have any suggestions regarding development in the work with outdoor education. The study seeks to answer the questions:

    • How do PEH teachers experience their prerequisites for outdoor education in elementary school? 
    • How do PEH teachers transform the vision of the curriculum into a concrete content in outdoor life?
    • What development opportunities do PEH teachers perceive to be in the work with outdoor education in relation to Lgr11?

    Method 

    The study is based on a qualitative approach where semi-structured interviews are used as a method for seeking answers to the study's questions. The selection procedure was in the form of a convenience selection. The qualitative interviews have been conducted with six PEH teachers from four primary schools, located in different municipalities in the Stockholm area. The study's theoretical framework is based on a curriculum theoretical perspective.

    Results

    The results show that the activity discourse still controls the outdoor education and that the main contributing factor for teaching is the economy. PEH teachers perceive the curriculum's guidelines as free of interpretation, which creates uneven conditions in the outdoor education. Concerning possibilities for development, conditions regarding finances and time are mainly emphasized without any other concrete suggestions for reforming. Furthermore, the results have also shown that there is a beginner culture amongst newly graduated PEH teachers, which prevents teaching development possibilities, as it can entail difficulties in breaking the workplace's existing traditions within the subject.

    Conclusions 

    The study's conclusions show that the open interpretation possibilities for the PEH teachers mean that activity- and sport-related discourses remain in the realization arena, despite the curriculum's vision with different perspectives. The PEH teachers work closely with the stated requirements in curriculum, which, however, leads to the overall perspectives end up in the cloud, thus creating an unequal teaching that not all students find.

    Based on the study's results, Mikael's (2018) proposal regarding a place-responsive pedagogy and a more school-based outdoor education is considered to be up-to-date and a nuanced method which promotes teacher’s prerequisites for outdoor education.

  • Liljedahl, Johanna B
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Bjerkefors, Anna
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Arndt, Anton
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control. Karolinska institutet.
    Nooijen, Carla F J
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences. Karolinska institutet.
    Para-cycling race performance in different sport classes.2020In: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165, p. 1-5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The para-cycling classification system, consisting of five classes (C1-C5) for bicycling (C5 athletes having least impairments), is mostly based on expert-opinion rather than scientific evidence. The aim of this study was to determine the differences in race performance between para-cycling classes. Methods: From official results of the men's 1 km time trials for classes C1-C5 of seven Union Cycliste Internationale World Championships and Paralympics, median race speed of the five fastest athletes in each class was calculated (n = 175). Para-cycling results were expressed as a percentage of able-bodied performance using race results from the same years (n = 35). To assess differences between consecutive classes, Kruskal-Wallis tests with Mann-Whitney U post hoc tests were performed, correcting for multiple testing (p < 0.013). Results: Para-cyclists in C1 reached 75% (median ± interquartile range = 44.8 ± 4.2 km/h) and in C5 90% (53.5 ± 2.9 km/h) of able-bodied race speed (59.4 ± 0.9 km/h). Median race speed between consecutive classes was significantly different (χ2 = 142.6, p < 0.01), except for C4 (52.1 ± 2.8 km/h) and C5 (U = 447.0, p = 0.05). Conclusion: Current para-cycling classification does not clearly differentiate between classes with least impairments.IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATIONThe current classification system is not evidence-based and does not clearly differentiate between relevant groups of para-cyclists.An evidence-based para-cycling classification system is essential for a fair and equitable competition.Fair competition will make it more interesting and increase participation.Para-cycling can inspire everyone with and even those without disabilities to be physically active.

  • Klebic, Ermin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Hellman, Mattias
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Idrotten i skolan, för vem och vilka?: En kvantitativ studie för att se vilka elever motiveras till fysisk aktivitet på idrottslektion2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: this study aims to find out what motivates students to be physically active during physical education lessons, and whether their motivation affect their activity level.

    Objectives:

    • What motivates the students to be physically active during the physical education lessons?
    • How many students are physically active during their spare time?
    • How many students are physically active in a sports club?
    • How high is the students’ physical activity level during the physical education lessons?
    • Is there any difference in the activity level between the physically active and physically inactive students?
    • Is there any difference between students that are active in a sports club and those who are not?
    • Is there any difference in the physical activity level when it comes to gender?
    • Is there a connection between the factors that motivates students and the activity level during the physical education lesson?

    Method: The selection consists of a distribution between girls (n=42) and boys (n=54) in high school. The total dropout rate for the study was of 14.4% (15 students). A survey and a direct observation using pedometers were conducted at four different classes: two of which were in grade one while the other two were in grade two. All the data was collected and analyzed in an Excel sheet.

    Results: The majority of students are motivated by competitions and achievement in order to be more physically active in physical education lessons. 67. 7% of the students who participated in the study are physically active in their spare time, and 58% are not members of a sports club. The students took 2906 steps per lesson. There is no difference between the number of steps of the students who are physically active and those who are not in their spare time. There is no difference between the students who are active in a sports club and those who are not, where the ones who are active took more steps. There is no significant difference in the number of steps when it comes to gender. As per the connection between what motivates the students and the physical activity level during physical education lessons, the study showed that lessons that focus on practicing dancing skills supported girls more than boys in the activity level.

    Conclusion: Based on the nine lessons of physical education that were investigated, we have come to the understanding that physical education lessons tend to have a one-sided practice orientation; since eight of nine lessons had training as practice. As a consequence, this excludes competition, achievement and physical education as an enjoyable experience. From this, we have concluded that the physical education in schools should have more diversity in practice orientation in order to include all students according to their different preferences. One way to do this is to give the students more choices during the lesson based on what they think is fun or what they are driven by.

  • Rohlin, Kevin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Dagnesjö, Karl
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH.
    ”Det får mig att tänka mycket. Det är samma sak som när jag är i duschen”: En studie om ungdomars upplevda motiv och hinder för utevistelse i naturen på fritiden och i skolan2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim with this study was to investigate a number of adolescents’ motives and barriers regarding the practice of friluftsliv and related outdoor activities in the nature during their leisure time and in school. To get a deeper understanding of the adolescents’ experiences their motives and barriers will be studied in relation to their experiences and requests of friluftsliv and outdoor activities. The research questions for the investigation are as follows.

    • What are the adolescents’ experiences and demands of friluftsliv and outdoor activities during their leisure time and during PE in school?  
    • What are the adolescents’ motives and barriers to pursue friluftsliv and outdoor activities in the nature during their leisure time?

    Method: The method which was used in this study had a qualitative character and was conducted with semi structured interviews. The selection consisting of six young people aged 15-16 were selected on basis of a convenience selection, with a following snowball selection. The interview participants came from two cities outside Stockholm where the interviews also were conducted. The study is based on a phenomenological perspective and was analyzed in different steps in order to highlight the adolescents’ individual and shared experiences and perceptions in relation to the aim of the study and the research questions. 

    Results: An important result from this study show that the majority of the interviewed adolescents´ want to spend more time in the nature and that they request more knowledge about the nature and more meaningful activities linked to their own leisure time.  They had different experiences from outdoor activities in the nature on their leisure time, but similar experiences from the school subject. What was interpreted in the interviews from the adolescents’ experiences was that the main motives for being in the nature during their leisure time were to experience solitude, relaxing and recovering. The main barriers for outdoor activities in nature on their leisure time were mainly lack of time, but even family and friends.

    Conclusion: This study has given an indication that the adolescents have an interest and a request to spend more time in the nature during their leisure time. Based on the results from the interviews schools could thus teach in relation to the adolescents’ interests by designing an education to give the adolescents different tools to stay in the surrounding nature. Such teaching could consist of activities and knowledge that are perceived as meaningful and manageable in relation to the reality in which the adolescents live and according to their perceived needs.

  • Pavasson Hatta, Sara
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Wärja, Petra
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Prestation, träning eller upplevelse?: Högstadieelevers uppfattningar om friluftsliv i skolan2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The purpose of this study is to investigate what a smaller sample of pupils in the later part of compulsory school, within the framework of the school’s PE, perceives what outdoor education involves linked to Engström’s practices and logics.

    • What do the pupils think they should learn during the lessons in outdoor education?
    • What purposes with outdoor education as a content in PE does the pupils raise?
    • Which logics and practices are characterized by the teaching of outdoor education according to the pupils?

    Method

    To get answers for the purpose and questions of the essay, the study is based on a qualitative approach with interviews with a high degree of standardization as a method. A total of six respondents, who are in the later part of compulsory school, were included in the study. These participants were selected through a convenience selection. Prior to the actual interviews, two pilot interviews were conducted. Engström’s practitioners and logics were used as a theoretical framework.

    Results

    The study shows that the practices and logics that mostly characterize the teaching of outdoor education, according to the pupils in the study, are the training and performance practice. However, the pupils mainly thought that the teaching was characterized by the training practice and that the logics of proficiency and physical training were most visible. The pupils believe that what they should learn during the lessons in outdoor education consists mainly of physical training and proficiency training. They also believe that outdoor education exists as a step for them to learn different skills associated with outdoor education.

    Conclusions

    The conclusion is that depending on which practice and logic the pupils are themselves driven by, they also look at outdoor education in different ways. For example, the pupils who were themselves driven by competition felt that there was a greater element of this in outdoor education and thus that the outdoor education in school was characterized by this.

  • Drake, Emma
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Kallings, Lena
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Blom, Victoria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Device-Measured Sedentary Behaviour are Associated with Sickness Absence in Office Workers.2020In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 17, no 2, article id E628Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Physical activity reduces the risk of several noncommunicable diseases, and a number of studies have found self-reported physical activity to be associated with sickness absence. The aim of this study was to examine if cardiorespiratory fitness, device-measured physical activity, and sedentary behaviour were associated with sickness absence among office workers. Participants were recruited from two Swedish companies. Data on sickness absence (frequency and duration) and covariates were collected via questionnaires. Physical activity pattern was assessed using ActiGraph and activPAL, and fitness was estimated from submaximal cycle ergometry. The sample consisted of 159 office workers (67% women, aged 43 ± 8 years). Higher cardiorespiratory fitness was significantly associated with a lower odds ratio (OR) for both sickness absence duration (OR = 0.92, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.87-0.96) and frequency (OR = 0.93, 95% CI 0.90-0.97). Sedentary time was positively associated with higher odds of sickness absence frequency (OR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.99-1.08). No associations were found for physical activity at any intensity level and sickness absence. Higher sickness absence was found among office workers with low cardiorespiratory fitness and more daily time spent sedentary. In contrast to reports using self-reported physical activity, device-measured physical activity was not associated with sickness absence.

  • Kilger, Magnus
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Blomberg, Helena
    Mälardalens högskola.
    The construction and legitimizing of a neuroscience concept (CEF) in talent identification2020In: The European Association for the Philosophy of Sport (EAPS) Conference 2020 / [ed] Bernard Andrieu, Paris: British Philosophy of Sport Association , 2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent scientific debate in sports has come to focus on how neuroscience can help in explaining sports performance and the development of expertise; and in the process of talent identification. It has been argued that instead of relying on coaches’ subjective assessments the process of selection should be based on general metrics of the brain through standardized testing.

     

    Cognitive executive functions (CEF) are highlighted as one of most important neurological function in the search for talents. Studies of brain activity have suggested that children should undergo neuroscientific testing to determine the appropriate cognitive executive functions (CEF) for elite sports. This presentation builds on previous work on the implications of a neuroscientific ontology in sports and Bruno Latour’s work on the construction of scientific facts.

     

    Using discourse analysis, the presentation discusses the production and popularization of CEF as scientific facts. In our findings we identify how representations of brain activity are visualized and legitimized and how the out-of-context tests are translated into facts about brain functions. The CEF test results are produced as inscriptions of undisputable facts, claiming that the results show prerequisites for sporting success. On the contrary, we argue that the mind-brain-behaviour relationship cannot be reduced to CEF tests. Instead, we urge other researchers to direct a critical gaze on neuroscientific truth-claims and taken-for-granted facts in the area of sport in general and in talent selection in particular.

  • Lönnberg, Lena
    et al.
    Center for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland, Uppsala University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Damberg, Mattias
    Center for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland, Uppsala University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Reduced 10-year risk of developing cardiovascular disease after participating in a lifestyle programme in primary care.2020In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Despite well-known preventive effects for future cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk through lifestyle changes, scientific evaluations of lifestyle programmes in primary care are scarce. Moreover, structured lifestyle counselling is still not integrated in everyday clinical practice. We aimed to evaluate change in cardiovascular risk factors and Framingham 10-year risk score of developing CVD in men and women at high cardiovascular risk after participation in a structured lifestyle programme over 1 year. A single-group study was carried out with a 1-year follow-up including before and after measurements.Methods: The lifestyle programme comprised five appointments to a district nurse over 1 year, focussing on lifestyle habits based on motivational interviewing. Fasting blood samples and anthropometric measurements were obtained at baseline and 1-year follow-up. The 10-year risk of CVD was calculated according to Framingham general CVD risk score.Results: A total of 404 patients were included in the study. There was a positive change over 1 year in the total study population for all risk factors evaluated. This included improvements in weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, blood lipids, and fasting glucose. The 10-year risk of developing CVD decreased for the total population from 24.8% to 21.4% at 1 year, equivalent to a 14% decrease.Conclusions: A structured lifestyle programme in primary care contributes to significant improvements of cardiovascular risk factors and the reduction of 10-year risk for CVD for both men and women at high cardiovascular risk.

  • Nilsson, Jonna
    et al.
    Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Lebedev, Alexander
    Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tarassova, Olga
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Moberg, Marcus
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Lövdén, Martin
    Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Acute increases in brain-derived neurotrophic factor in plasma following physical exercise relates to subsequent learning in older adults.2020In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 10, no 1, article id 4395Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multidomain lifestyle interventions represents a promising strategy to counteract cognitive decline in older age. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is essential for experience-dependent plasticity and increases following physical exercise, suggesting that physical exercise may facilitate subsequent learning. In a randomized-controlled trial, healthy older adults (65-75 years) completed a 12-week behavioral intervention that involved either physical exercise immediately before cognitive training (n = 25; 13 females), physical exercise immediately after cognitive training (n = 24; 11 females), physical exercise only (n = 27; 15 females), or cognitive training only (n = 21; 12 females). We hypothesized that cognition would benefit more from cognitive training when preceded as opposed to followed by physical exercise and that the relationship between exercise-induced increases in peripheral BDNF and cognitive training outcome would be greater when cognitive training is preceded by physical exercise. Greater increases of plasma BDNF were associated with greater cognitive training gains on trained task paradigms, but only when such increases preceded cognitive training (ß = 0.14, 95% CI [0.04, 0.25]). Average cognitive training outcome did not differ depending on intervention order (ß = 0.05, 95% CI [-0.10, 0.20]). The study provides the first empirical support for a time-critical but advantageous role for post-exercise increases in peripheral BDNF for learning at an interindividual level in older adults, with implications for future multidomain lifestyle interventions.

  • Bergström, Helena
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Sundblom, Elinor
    Region Stockholm.
    Elinder, Liselotte Schäfer
    Karolinska institutet.
    Norman, Åsa
    Karolinska institutet.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences. Karolinska institutet.
    Managing Implementation of a Parental Support Programme for Obesity Prevention in the School Context: The Importance of Creating Commitment in an Overburdened Work Situation, a Qualitative Study.2020In: Journal of Primary Prevention, ISSN 0278-095X, E-ISSN 1573-6547Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Health-related behaviours in children can be influenced by parental support programmes. The aim of this study was to explore barriers to and facilitators for the implementation of a parental support programme to promote physical activity and healthy dietary habits in a school context. We explored the views and experiences of 17 coordinating school nurses, non-coordinating school nurses, and school principals. We based the interview guide on the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research. We held four focus group discussions with coordinating and non-coordinating school nurses, and conducted three individual interviews with school principals. We analysed data inductively using qualitative content analysis. We identified "Creating commitment in an overburdened work situation" as an overarching theme, emphasising the high workload in schools and the importance of creating commitment, by giving support to and including staff in the implementation process. We also identified barriers to and facilitators of implementation within four categories: (1) community and organisational factors, (2) a matter of priority, (3) implementation support, and (4) implementation process. When implementing a parental support programme to promote physical activity and healthy dietary habits for 5- to 7-year-old children in the school context, it is important to create commitment among school staff and school nurses. The implementation can be facilitated by political support and additional funding, external guidance, use of pre-existing resources, integration of the programme into school routines, a clearly structured manual, and appointment of a multidisciplinary team. The results of this study should provide useful guidance for the implementation of similar health promotion interventions in the school context.

  • Rosén, Johanna S
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L
    Loughborough University, UK.
    Tolfrey, Keith
    Loughborough University, UK.
    Arndt, Anton
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Bjerkefors, Anna
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Interrater Reliability of the New Sport-Specific Evidence-Based Classification System for Para Va'a.2020In: Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, ISSN 0736-5829, E-ISSN 1543-2777, article id apaq.2019-0141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine the interrater reliability of a new evidence-based classification system for Para Va'a. Twelve Para Va'a athletes were classified by three classifier teams each consisting of a medical and a technical classifier. Interrater reliability was assessed by calculating intraclass correlation for the overall class allocation and total scores of trunk, leg, and on-water test batteries and by calculating Fleiss's kappa and percentage of total agreement in the individual tests of each test battery. All classifier teams agreed with the overall class allocation of all athletes, and all three test batteries exhibited excellent interrater reliability. At a test level, agreement between classifiers was almost perfect in 14 tests, substantial in four tests, moderate in four tests, and fair in one test. The results suggest that a Para Va'a athlete can expect to be allocated to the same class regardless of which classifier team conducts the classification.

  • Håkansson, Anders
    et al.
    Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Entezarjou, Artin
    Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group. University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada; Swedish Sport Federation, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fernández-Aranda, Fernando
    Bellvitge University Hospital-IDIBELL, Barcelona, Spain..
    Jiménez-Murcia, Susana
    Bellvitge University Hospital-IDIBELL, Barcelona, Spain..
    Gunnarsson, Björn
    Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Problem Gambling in the Fitness World-A General Population Web Survey.2020In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 17, no 4, article id E1342Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The world of sports has a complex association to problem gambling, and the sparse research examining problem gambling in athletes has suggested an increased prevalence and particularly high male predominance. The present study aimed to study frequency and correlates of problem gambling in populations with moderate to high involvement in fitness or physical exercise. This is a self-selective online survey focusing on addictive behaviors in physical exercise distributed by 'fitness influencers' on social media and other online fitness forums to their followers. Respondents were included if they reported exercise at least thrice weekly, were above 15 years of age, and provided informed consent (N = 3088). Problem gambling, measured with the Lie/Bet, was studied in association with demographic data, substance use, and mental health variables. The occurrence of lifetime problem gambling was 8 percent (12 percent in men, one percent in women). In logistic regression, problem gambling was associated with male gender, younger age, risky alcohol drinking, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and less frequent exercise habits. In conclusion, in this self-recruited population with moderate to high fitness involvement, problem gambling was moderately elevated. As shown previously in elite athletes, the male predominance was larger than in the general population. The findings strengthen the link between problem gambling and the world of sports.

  • Fridolfsson, Jonatan
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Börjesson, Mats
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Arvidsson, Daniel
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Stronger Association between High Intensity Physical Activity and Cardiometabolic Health with Improved Assessment of the Full Intensity Range Using Accelerometry.2020In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 20, no 4, article id E1118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An improved method of physical activity accelerometer data processing, involving a wider frequency filter than the most commonly used ActiGraph filter, has been shown to better capture variations in physical activity intensity in a lab setting. The aim of the study was to investigate how this improved measure of physical activity affected the relationship with markers of cardiometabolic health. Accelerometer data and markers of cardiometabolic health from 725 adults from two samples, LIV 2013 and SCAPIS pilot, were analyzed. The accelerometer data was processed using both the original ActiGraph method with a low-pass cut-off at 1.6 Hz and the improved method with a low-pass cut-off at 10 Hz. The relationship between the physical activity intensity spectrum and a cardiometabolic health composite score was investigated using partial least squares regression. The strongest association between physical activity and cardiometabolic health was shifted towards higher intensities with the 10 Hz output compared to the ActiGraph method. In addition, the total explained variance was higher with the improved method. The 10 Hz output enables correctly measuring and interpreting high intensity physical activity and shows that physical activity at this intensity is stronger related to cardiometabolic health compared to the most commonly used ActiGraph method.

  • Wåhlin, Anna
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Skillnader i självskattad kommunikation mellan dam- och herrhandbollsspelare samt dess korrelation till upplevd lagsammanhållning2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte & Frågeställning

    Denna studie undersöker huruvida kommunikationen skiljer sig mellan dam- och herrhandbollsspelare (N=140, NDam=69, NHerr=71) samt om det finns några

    korrelationer mellan kommunikation och den upplevda sammanhållningen mellan handbollsspelare. Frågeställningarna som prövas är :

    1) Finns det några skillnader mellan dam- och herrhandbollsspelare i hur deras interna kommunikation i laget upplevs?

    2a) Finns det någon korrelation mellan den interna kommunikationen och sammanhållningen hos handbollsspelare?

    2b) Om det finns en korrelation mellan kommunikationen och sammanhållningen, skiljer sig korrelationen mellan manliga och kvinnliga handbollsspelare?

    Metod

    Dataunderlaget i studien är framtaget genom en kvantitativ enkätstudie som är sammansatt av två validerade enkäter, Scale of Effective Communication in Team Sports – SECTS-2 och Group Environment Qusetionnaire – GEQ. SECTS-2 använder sig av fyra kommunikationsfaktorer (acceptans, distiktivitet, positiv konflikt och negativ konflikt) som kommer mätas mot GEQs fyra olika sammanhållningsfaktorer (individuell attraktion till det sociala i gruppen, individuella attraktionen till grupp-uppgiften, gruppens sociala integration och gruppens uppgifts integration).

    Resultat & Slutsats

    Det visar sig finnas en signifikant (p= 0.037) skillnad mellan hur dam- och herrhandbollsspelare kommunicerar samt en stark korrelation mellan flera aspekter av kommunikationen och den upplevda lagsammanhållningen. Resultatet tyder på att kommunikationen mellan handbollsspelare är viktig för en bra lagsammanhållning, vilket tidigare har visats viktigt för att prestera bra. Resultatet går i linje med tidigare studier som visat på ett tydligt samband mellan kommunikation och sammanhållning samt könsskillnader inom de olika kommunikationsfaktorerna. Denna studie är dock den första på handbollsspelare. Kommunikationspåverkan på lagsammanhållning är viktig att förstå både för spelare, tränare och ledare som jobbar med lagidrott.

  • Sjöholm, Camilla
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Faiqi, Aisha
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    En kvalitativ studie av kvinnliga elitfotboll- och ishockeyspelares påverkan av sociala medier2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med denna studie är att analysera hur idrottande kvinnor kan påverkas av socialamedier. För att uppfylla studiens syfte kommer följande frågor behandlas:

    1. Vad innebär sociala medier för kvinnliga ishockey- och fotbollsspelare?
    2. Vad innebär kroppsideal för kvinnor inom ishockey och fotboll?

    Metod

    Frågeställningarna har besvarats genom en kvalitativ ansats där intervjuer har genomförtsmed sex kvinnliga elitfotbolls- och ishockeyspelare. Intervjuerna har genomförtssemistrukturerat där skribenterna intervjuat varsin sport. De genomförda intervjuerna hartranskriberats ordagrant och innehåller därmed talspråk, vilket innebär att även citaten somanvänds i uppsatsen skrivits med talspråk. För att analysera intervjuerna har genusteorinanvänts.

    Resultat

    Resultatet som framkommer i studien är att många av de intervjuade upplever att socialamedier har ett stort inflytande på självbilden. När det kommer till kroppsideal är det tydligtbland de intervjuade att bilder som publiceras på sociala medier är starkt bidragande till hurde ser på sig själva då det sker en jämförelse med andra.

    Slutsats

    Sociala medier sätter sina spår bland elitidrottande kvinnor som i många fall har resulterat isjälvskadebeteenden. Detta då de jämfört sig själva med andra och på så sätt försökt påverkaden egna kroppen genom att träna mer och äta mindre. Fotbollsspelarna i vår studie var meraktiva med att publicera bilder medan ishockeyspelarna mest bläddrade i flödet. Denskillnaden är dock inte kopplad till sporten utan snarare till deras personligheter.

  • Anstrén, Ludwig
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Nauclér, Victor
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Den nya timplanen för Idrott och hälsa: En studie om idrottslärares undervisning och arbetsbelastning2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of this study is to examine how physical education teachers experience the effect and the upcoming effect of their teaching and workload due to the implementation of the new timetable from the autumn semester 2019.

    • How do the PE teachers in grade 7-9 experience the effect of the new timetable in relation to their teaching?
    • How do the PE teachers in grade 7-9 experience the effect of the new timetable on in relation to their workload?
    • How do the PE teachers in grade 7-9 believe their work situation will look like when the complete timetable has been implemented?

    Method

    A qualitative method was chosen for conducting the study. Semi-structured interviews were chosen as method. In total, seven physical education teachers from three different schools in Stockholm City were interviewed, all of whom worked with physical education in grades 7–9. The respondents were selected through a convenience selection. The theories used were curriculum and frame factor theory.

    Results

    The results showed that the respondents’ possibility to convey their education has improved due to the new timetable. The respondents experienced that the workload was unchanged by the new timetable. However, there was a concern expressed by the respondents in terms of their upcoming work situation concerning facilities, budget, the wear on equipment and whether recruitments must happen to handle the new timetable.

    Conclusions

    The respondents' overall picture of the new timetable is positive, and they indicate that the extended teaching hours help the respondents´ to more easily help the students to reach the knowledge requirements. The extended teaching time together with the unchanged curriculum seems to have contributed to increased flexibility regarding the use of time. Nevertheless, there is some concern for the future. The new schedule will probably mean more wear and tear on equipment and some congestion in the teaching rooms as well as the premises adjacent to them. Time, material costs and facilities have been presented as the most important framework factors in the study. It is still unclear how the schools will successfully handle the extended teaching hours based on the conditions of the individual school.

  • Käck, Anton
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Sidén, Kalle
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    “Det ligger på läraren, att berätta för mig vad jag ska kunna”: En kvalitativ studie om elever på gymnasiet och deras syn av kunskapskraven i ämnet Idrott och Hälsa2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim 

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how students viewed the knowledge requirements in Physical Education for upper secondary school and what content of the knowledge requirements that students perceived as difficult to understand. The purpose of this study was also to develop how students would like to change the knowledge requirements and the mediation of the knowledge requirements so that they became easier to understand.

    To this end, the following questions are asked:

    • How do students view the knowledge requirements in Physical Education?
    • Do students have suggestions on how to bring about knowledge requirements for the better?

    Method

    In this study, a qualitative approach has been used and the interview questions have been prepared based on a semi-structured structure.  The selection has been made with the basis that participants during the time of the interview read the subject Physical Education 1. In the study, both girls and boys (1 guy and 5 girls) have been interviewed at a secondary school in Stockholm. The participants correspond to the group targeted by the purpose and aim of this study. This paper will take the starting point in the casam theory.

    Results

    The clearest results shown by this study were (1) students are placing a great responsibility that the teacher can interpret the knowledge requirements in a good way and translate this into concrete lessons and (2) students state that they do not know what the knowledge requirements really Means. The students also argued that (3) their views on knowledge requirements could be clarified if these were repeated more often and preferably before start-ups.

    Conclusion

    Because these aforementioned findings have made, a change needs to be made in how knowledge of knowledge requirements is conveyed and that understanding of knowledge requirements must increase. The relationship is of great importance when it comes to what students have attitudes to the subject as they consider them to be the teacher's responsibility to communicate them successfully.

  • Pettersson, Nina
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Wärdig, Livia
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Samarbete mellan specialidrottslärare och tränare i ett skadeförebyggande syfte: En kvalitativ studie riktad mot idrottsgymnasier och truppgymnastik på elitnivå2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka om samarbete förekommer mellanspecialidrottslärare (RIG och NIU) och tränare i klubbar, samt undersöka hurspecialidrottslärare och tränare ser på förebyggande av idrottsskador hos elever påidrottsgymnasium med inriktning truppgymnastik. Frågeställningarna var: I vilken månförekommer samarbete mellan specialidrottslärare och klubbtränare? Hur arbetarspecialidrottslärare och klubbtränare med skadeprevention?

    Metod

    Studien har en kvalitativ ansats. Datainsamlingen gjordes genom en semistruktureradintervjuguide, vid behov tillämpades följdfrågor i intervjuerna. Analysen av den insamladedatan utfördes genom en tematisk innehållsanalys. Urvalet av intervjupersonerna bestod av trespecialidrottslärare och tre tränare som har lång erfarenhet av truppgymnastik på elitnivå.

    Resultat

    Resultatet visade att tidsbrist var en anledning till att samarbete förekommer i låg utsträckningmellan specialidrottslärare och tränare i truppgymnastik. Ur ett idealiskt perspektiv anserspecialidrottslärarna och tränarna att en kontinuerlig kommunikation skulle möjliggöra ettsamarbete kring träningsbelastning och skadeprevention. Samtliga deltagare arbetar medskadeprevention, en del av deltagarna menar att de försöker komplettera det som eleverna/gymnasterna går miste om på övriga träningar. Majoriteten av specialidrottslärarna ochtränarna arbetar aktivt med styrketräning som en form av skadeprevention vilket också utgören stor del av lektionerna/ träningarna.

    Slutsats

    Samarbete mellan specialidrottslärare och tränare med elever/ gymnaster som studerar på RIGeller NIU förekommer i låg utsträckning. Med ett tätare samarbete kan ett arbete kringskadeprevention tillämpas i syfte att minska frekvensen av idrottsskador.

  • Öhling, Elin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Reyes, Emelie
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Lever du som du lär ut?: En kvalitativ studie om lärares egna upplevelser gällande att vara fysiskt aktiva förebilder i ämnet idrott och hälsa2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The purpose of this study was to investigate in the Stockholm area, what contributes to the teachers in physical education current level of physical activity and whether the teachers perceived that they should be a role model for the students regarding physical activity at school and in their private life.

    1. What have contributed to the teachers in physical education current level of physical activity?
    2. What are the experiences of physical education teachers about being role models for the students regarding physical activity?
    3. What are the experiences of physical education teachers about being role models for the students at school and in their private life?

    Method

    The study used a qualitative approach and where based on six interviews that later were analyzed. The participants came from two different schools in the Stockholm area, five were interviewed face to face and one interview was conducted by telephone. The interviews were semi-structured and analyzed by theoretical thematic analysis with an inductive starting point. Notes was taken during the interviews meanwhile all was recorded to facilitate the later transcription. The study is based on the sociocultural learning theory.

    Results

    Five of six respondents were active and estimated that they reached FYSS recommendations about physical activity and daily exercise. The reason for their activity level came from both childhood experiences and socio-cultural factors and their own habitus. Teachers considered themselves to be an example to varying degrees and have a responsibility as a teacher to act and handle certain situations in a specific way. Many expressed that the teachers role and responsibility extended outside school hours and affected some choices even privately.

     Conclusions

    Being a teacher in physical education comes with a great responsibility and in our study it appears that the responsibility extends beyond working hours. Similarly in the study, from the teachers own experiences, it emerged how much importance teachers in physical education can have on students relationship to physical activity. Something you should consider and take advantage of when educating teachers in the future. If children actually do as adults do and not as they say, it may be a decisive factor for public health that teachers in physical education live as they teach.

  • Nilsson, Oskar
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Jonsson, Ida
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Lärares viljor, plikter, kunnande och möjligheter i relation till simning: En jämförande kvalitativ studie om idrottslärare i stad och landsbygds upplevelser kring simundervisning i årskurs 7-9.2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of the study is to examine and compare how teachers of physical education and health (PEH) in grades 7-9 in urban and rural areas interpret, realize and perceive their possibilities to teach the unit of swimming based on the curriculum, for both students able and unable to swim.

    Research questions: How do PEH-teachers interpret and realize the unit of swimming based on knowledge requirements and the core content? How do PEH-teachers perceive their possibilities to teach the unit of swimming to students that able and unable to swim? What factors influence PEH-teachers’ possibilities to teach the unit of swimming?

    Method

    The study is qualitative and the method used is semi-structured interview. A convenience sample of seven teachers of PEH in grades 7-9 was made, of which four came from urban municipalities and three from a rural municipality. Gathered data was analyzed through curriculum theory, von Wright’s action theory with the determinants “wants”, “duties”, “abilities” and “possibilities”, and the frame factor theory.

    Results

    The results of the study showed that the curriculum was interpreted and realized similarly, with focus to check the knowledge requirement “swim 200 metres, of which 50 metres are in the back position”). The respondents interpreted that the unit of swimming should have a more extensive content, but were limited due to external conditions. One respondent taught the unit of swimming more extensively and showed that the teacher as an actor also could be important in interpreting and realizing the curriculum. Two respondents utilized external instructors for students that were non-swimmers. The rest of the respondents taught nonswimming students themselves, but generally experienced constraints for these students to achieve the requirements, for example time, access to premises and economy. The respondent who felt satisfied with external conditions had access to a pool on the school area. Finally, the results showed that differences between urban and rural respondents were marginal.

    Conclusions

    Conclusively, interpretation and realization of the unit of swimming is largely affected by frame factors, but the teacher as an actor could also be an influencing factor, both for the regular teaching and for the teaching of non-swimmers. Furthermore, teaching the unit of swimming seems to be difficult regardless of working in an urban or rural municipality.

  • Essving, Linn
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Kjetselberg, Eveline
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Elevers deltagande på idrott- och hälsalektioner: En kvalitativ studie av lärare som undervisar på gymnasienivå2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim and research questions

    The aim of the study is to find out what physical education teachers in high school perceive about pupils’ absenteeism and non-participation in the subject of physical education. Also, what the teachers think the reasons might be for pupils not participating. Additionally, to search for what kind of strategies the teachers use to try to increase pupils’ participation and reduce absenteeism. The research questions of the study were created based on the aim.

    • What reasons do physical education teachers perceive there are for pupils not-participating in physical education lessons?
    • What reasons do physical education teachers perceive there are for pupils who are absent from physical education lessons?
    • What strategies do physical education teachers use in high school to prevent non-participation and absentees?

    Method

    A qualitative research method was used for the study and conducted with the help of six interviews, who was selected through convenience- and snowball sampling. The interview method was semi-structured. The participants were teachers who worked with physical education in high schools around Stockholm. In the study, Bourdieu’s theory was used to analyze what teachers perceive about pupils’ who were not-participating and were absent.

    Results

    Internal and external factors were the most common reasons for non-participation and absenteeism. The internal factors were lack of motivation, insecurity, and earlier experiences, and the external factors were the social environment and conditions. The teachers’ strategies to prevent these factors were to create social relations with the pupils, create better conditions and, to create practical solutions to the problem.

    Conclusion

    This study determined that teachers could have problems with non-participation and absenteeism and that the teachers worked with different strategies to prevent this. The findings could be understood through students’ experienced habitus, capital and what is valued in PE as a field. When acknowledging the problem and working to solve it, it can increase student participation, which means to give more pupils the chance to be physically active and to learn for life.

  • Mattsson, Mikael
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet.
    Larsen, Filip J
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Research group for Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Ashley, Euan
    Stanford University.
    Montgomery, Darren
    Waggot, Daryl
    Individen i idrotten2019In: Idrott och Kunskap, ISSN 1652-6961, Vol. 5, no 5, p. 14-21Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Sedan urminnes tider har det varit känt att olika träningsupplägg fungerar bättre för vissa idrottare än för andra. Med modern datainsamling och analytiska tekniker kan vi integrera mätvärden från träning, prestation och resultat, samt subjektiva och biologiska markörer så att de från en sammantagen bild kan ge rekommendationer anpassade till den specifika individen. Detta gör att idrottarna inte bara kan träna, återhämta sig mer effektivt och prestera bättre, utan även undvika skador och sjukdomar.

    Artikeln belyser att många professionella team samlar in så mycket mätvärden att de lider av en ”data-tsunami”, och hur den senaste vetenskapen och analytiska metoder, inklusive AI och djupinlärning, kan optimera datainsamling och analys för att minimera skador och förbättra prestationen.

  • Al Djezani, William
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Baydono, Gabriel
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Kan rörelse och dans utmana könsuppfattningar i idrott och hälsa-ämnet?: En kvalitativ undersökning om hur idrottslärare arbetar könsneutralt i momentet rörelse och dans2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The purpose of this study was to find out how physical education teachers work with gender neutralization within the subject movement and dance. The purpose is concretized in three issues:

    • How do physical education teachers break the gender norms in the moment movement and dance?
    • How do physical education teachers perceive students' views on gender norms in the momentum movement and dance?
    • How can the physical education teacher’s statements be understood from a feminist post-structuralist perspective?

    Method

    To achieve the purpose of the survey, a qualitative method was therefore selected in the form of semi-structured interviews. In this study we had choose to interview four high school teachers in physical education, in the Stockholm area. Based on the respondents' responses, the theme was formed. The theoretical starting point of this study was feminist post-structuralism.

    Results

    The results showed, according to PEH-teachers, that boys have a more negative attitude towards dancing compared to girls. The results also showed that some discourses on gender norms dominate the teachers' way of understanding gender and dance and their way of teaching dance in PE and health. The result also showed that as a teacher, the way of working needs to be formed based on that all students are individuals and to not focus on their gender and to have a gender-neutral way of working

    Conclusions

    The conclusion that can be drawn in this study is that interviewed PEH-teachers are working to strive for what they perceive to be a gender-neutral way of working in the movement and dance. The study shows that students are still shaped by society about what they think and think about dance. PEH-teachers believe that girls are more positively attuned to dance than boys. Discourses emerge that dance is still "girly" which leads to guys avoiding dance lessons.

  • Contreras, Aurora
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Brattström, Andreas
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Elever kontra lärare - Synen på formativ bedömning: En kvalitativ studie om hur elever uppfattar den formativa bedömning lärarna använder2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose and questions

    The purpose of this study was to find out if the students felt that formative assessment was done in their teaching in sports and health as well as how they felt it would benefit their learning. The study also sought to find similarities and differences in students' and teachers' thoughts about how formative assessment is used.

    • To what extent do teachers use formative assessment in their teaching?
    • How do students feel that formative assessment is done in the teaching?
    • How do students think that formative assessment benefits their learning?

    Method

    We have chosen to use a qualitative approach with semi-structured interviews as a collection method. With the help of a convenience selection, five students and two teachers were selected. Both teachers work in high school. All interviews were conducted and processed and interpreted. Wiliam's five strategies for formative assessment and KASAM's three concepts were used as theoretical starting points in the analysis of the transcribed material.

    Results

    Our main results are that our interviewed teachers find formative assessment as new and difficult to avoid. What teachers choose to use within Wiliam's five strategies looks a little different. Most of our interviewees all believe that all strategies in formative assessment benefit their learning. The experience of how the formative assessment is used differs somewhat from teacher to student. On the whole, it can be stated that the students consider that feedback is dominant in the strategies we asked for, while one of our teachers believes that peer assessment is the one they use most.

    Conclusion

    There are some similarities and differences between the teachers, and what the students experience is used in teaching. However, it also turned out that most of the students feel that the strategies are used in one way or another, and it can in some way have an impact on learning.

  • Degerlund, Jesper
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Kalliolevo, Arttu
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Idrottsledarnas betydelse i föreningsidrotten: En kvalitativ studie om hur idrottsledare arbetar för att skapa en positiv idrottsmiljö2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The overall aim of this study was to research how sports leaders organize their activities to get youngsters to stay in the club sports. To answer this, we have focused on examining how sports leaders create a positive sports environment. The specific purpose of the study was to examine the activities of football and wrestling leaders for children and young people in Stockholm. Our research questions are: - What are the similarities and differences between football and wrestling in how coaches organize a positive sporting activity? - What are the similarities and differences between the football coaches and the wrestling coaches in how they submit obstruction and opportunities in the creation of a positive sports environment? - What are the similarities and differences between the football coaches and the wrestling coaches in how they see the role and function of sport in society?

    Method

    The research methodology used in this study is the qualitative method of hermeneutics. The sample of respondents consisted of five coaches for children and youngsters, three of them were active in football and two in wrestling. The age range in the respondents' training groups were from seven to 18 years.

    Results

    The results show that, according to the sports leaders, the sport contributes to positive development both at the individual, group and community levels. According to the coaches, children learn skills that help them cope in social situations. The children learn to cooperate and work hard to achieve their goals. All the coaches agree that it is important to be responsive and to have constant communication with their adepts in creating a positive sports environment. In conclusion, a common belief among both wrestling and football coaches is that parents are an obstacle but that in some cases they can contribute to positive sports activities and that sports clubs need engaged parents.

    Conclusions

    The conclusion we can draw from this is that, as a coach, you must be responsive and genuinely interested in the sports of your adepts, both on the training ground and outside. It then leads to the creation of a positive sports environment that will have more people remaining in the club sport.

  • Jakobsen, Douglas
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Intelligence in Football: Conceptualizations, Developmental Methodologies and Behaviors2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: In elite football (also known as soccer), practitioners are in constant pursuit of understanding essential performance parameters and how they can be developed. As every executed football action is governed by a decision, a player’s ability to make intelligent decisions during play is vitally important for success. This concept of a player’s “football intelligence” is complex and at times ambiguous for practitioners both at the elite and sub-elite level. The present work aims to provide some clarity regarding the phenomena of intelligence in football.

     

    Methods: Semi-structured interviews with 8 well-merited professional coaches from multiple countries were conducted, asking them three main questions; how do they conceptualize football intelligence? What developmental methodologies do they implement to address football intelligence, and in what practical behaviors do players manifest football intelligence? Responses were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using qualitative research methods.

     

    Results: The results give insight into what can be summarized as components of football intelligence, such as concepts of anticipation and information processing. Additionally, a number of different methodologies including functional training and pedagogical approaches to develop football intelligence emerged. Furthermore, some specific behaviors performed by intelligent players, such as information-seeking actions, were exemplified.

     

    Conclusions: Based on the results, a conceptual framework for better understanding the phenomena and potentially improving practical interactions with football intelligence are presented and discussed. Finally, practical recommendations for coaches and players are suggested, along with suggestions for further academic research.

  • Frykling, Patrik
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Norstad Habeish, Sofiän
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Föräldrars förväntningar på idrott och hälsa: En tolkande fenomenologisk studie av föräldrars upplevelse och betydelse av dagens ämne idrott och hälsa2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The purpose of this study is to investigate parents’ experience of the meaning of physical education and health.

    Research questions:

    • How do parents of pupils in the Swedish elementary school experience the purpose of physical education and health?
    • What do parents of pupils in the Swedish elementary school describe that they should learn in physical education and health?

    Method

    The study has a qualitative approach where we interviewed six parents of children in elementary school. We searched for parents’ essence in the analyses with the help of interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). 

    Results

    The results of the study show that parents’ experience the purpose of physical education and health (PEH) as physical health promoting for pupils which derives from a concern of children’s leisure time today. Physical activities are seen as means to create healthy bodies that protect children against diseases. Moreover, it is emphasized that PEH also has social benefits. Therefore, pupils shall participate in a variety of activities but also learn about the importance of a healthy lifestyle and to be physically active. In addition, this can help to stimulate a lifelong interest for physical activity throughout the lifespan. The subject should also contribute to pupils becoming more independent through accountability and by having demands and working independently with problem-based learning.

    Conclusion

    The study shows that parents’ experience the purpose of PEH as physical health promoting for pupils because of the concern for children’s inactivity in their leisure time, where the subject also through health promoting contributes to social benefit. PEH also stimulates, according to the parents, learning in other subjects in elementary school. Finally, the parents highlight that the subject develops more independent children and also prepares them for an adult life.

  • Frödeberg, Gustav
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Tollefors, Jonas
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Skillnad i effektutveckling mellan sprintsimmare och sprintlöpare: Användandet av ett maximalt treminuterstest för att ta reda på maxeffekt, kritisk effekt och arbetskapacitet över den kritiska effekten2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställning

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka critical power (CP) och om andelen av det totala arbetet som utförs över CP () skiljer sig mellan sprintsimmare och sprintlöpare. Dvs förhållandet mellan den effekt som kan bibehållas under lång tid och den som maximalt kan produceras under de 150 första sekunderna vid ett tre minuters maxtest. Vidare syftar studien till att undersöka om CP, och maxeffekten (Pmax) kan förutsäga prestationen på 100 meter frisim och 400 meter löpning. Frågeställningarna som använts under studien är som följer: (i) Finns det en skillnad i andelen arbete som kan utföras ovanför CP () mellan sprintsimmare och sprintlöpare? och (ii) Går det att via CP, och Pmax förutsäga prestationer på 100 m frisim och 400 m löpning? Hypotesen som användes under denna studie var att sprintlöpare har en större W´/W-kvot än sprintsimmare. Hypotesen bygger på tidigare forskning angående den totala energikostnaden vid sprintlöpning och sprintsimning (Duffield, Dawson & Goodman, 2005; Figueiredo, Zamparo, Sousa, Vilas-Boas & Fernandes, 2011)

    Metod

    För att beräkna CP, Pmax och använde vi oss av ett test där deltagarna, åtta löpare och åtta simmare, under tre minuter höll maximal intensitet vid varje given tidpunkt. Vid löpningen användes direkt effektmätning medan simtestet använde sig av kraftmätning som sedan omvandlas till effekt.

    Resultat

    Resultaten visar att simmarna hade en signifikant (p= <0,001) högre förmåga att utföra arbete över CP (ES=2,7) än löparna. Vår regressionmodell kan förklara 85% av årsbästat hos simmarna och Pmax verkar vara en mycket bra prediktor för resultat hos både simmar och löpare. Modellen bör dock tolkas med försiktighet då studien hade mycket få deltagare (n=8). 

    Slutsats

    I och med att detta understryks det anaeroba energisystemets avgörande betydelse för prestation, inte bara för sprintlöpare, utan även sprintsimmare, vilket öppnar för nya diskussioner av och modifieringar av träningsupplägg för dessa. Vidare kan testet med fördel användas vid testning av simmare och löpare på sprintdistanser och troligen även på såväl längre distanser som inom andra lokomotiva, kontinuerliga idrotter.

  • Zanteré, Andreaz
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Fehrlund, Andreas
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Varför väljer elever NIU som gymnasial utbildning?: En intervjustudie kring faktorerna bakom valet till NIU med inriktning handboll.2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The purpose of the study was to investigate students' motives for choosing NIU education with a focus on handball. The questions the study answers are 1. How do the students describe what motivated them to choose NIU education? And 2. How can the students' choice of NIU with handball specialization be understood from a socio-cultural perspective?

    Method

    The study uses a qualitative interview method for first-year students who attend three different sports gymnasiums. The study took a phenomenological approach for understanding the students' experience of the choice of NIU. The study used focus groups with four students in each interview group. The first interview consisted of four guys, the second interview consisted of four girls and the third interview consisted of two guys and two girls. A hand-picked selection to represent the target group was made and the students who participated were randomly asked or selected by their teachers at the school. The interview style used was nondirective with semi-structured interviews to get different perceptions about students' choices for NIU. The study has a deductive approach and aims to get answers in depth.

    Results

    From a socio-cultural perspective, the study could present that the students who were considered most driven and took a longer step in elite practice in handball also have parents with a strong sports background. The parents were involved with all students throughout their upbringing in their practice and were supportive and motivating for the students. The parents provided the students with security and resources so that they could continue their sport. The results also show that the students had a strong internal motivation to practice handball at school to achieve the greatest success in the game. They saw NIU as an opportunity for elite investment and were even more motivated when they were in the school environment.

    Conclusions

    The conclusion is that the choice of NIU as a high school education is based on the students' socio-cultural background. All students have had a socio-economic situation that has given them the opportunity to practice what they find fun in their spare time. Their habitus has taken them into the sporting field and they have had great support from their parents in their choice of handball. As part of the parents' commitment to make the students feel good and to have the chance to invest in what they think is fun, has in itself given the students strong motivation to choose NIU with a focus on handball in high school.

  • Carlbom, William
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Malmstedt, Marcus
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Nytta eller nyttig?: Elev och kropp i särskolan åren 1946–20112020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of the study is to examine how the view of the pupil and the body is depicted in the curriculum for compulsory school for pupils with learning disabilities (“Särskolan”) in 1946–2011. Five research questions are used to fulfill the aim of the study:

    How is the pupil in “Särskolan” depicted in the different curriculums?

    How is the pupil viewed in the different curriculums for “Särskolan”?

    What is the view on the body in the different curriculums?

    How should the body be used and which qualities are supposed to be developed?

    If and how the view on the pupil and the body has changed over time? The last research question concern historical continuity and change for the study’s entire time frame (1946-2011).

    Method

    The method was a content analysis grounded in the hermeneutic field. To answer the research questions a coding scheme was utilized for analysis. The scheme connected the source material, theoretical framework and aim of the study. The theory applied was The Civilizing Process.

    Results

    The curriculum of 1946 and 1959 attempts to train the pupil to become normal. The pupil should be removed from the home and is not considered a citizen. Up until the curriculum of 1973 the view of the body was dualistic, with a split between body and soul. The curriculum of 1973 points toward a more humanistic view, where the pupil’s individual need is the basis for development. 1973 can also be seen as the turning point for the view of the pupil and the body in “Särskolan”. The curriculum depicts the body as a tool for achieving wellbeing. The curriculum for 1990 and 2011 shows that the home is given substantial responsibility for raising the pupil. Body and soul generate each other.

    Conclusions

    Both continuity and change is found in the curriculums for “Särskolan”. Society has been civilized and the view on normal and abnormal has changed alongside society. The pupil and the body has changed from 1946’s idea of normalizing the pupil through training to 2011’s idea of finding strength in differences. A continuity is found in the curriculums’ need to categorize people as “different”

  • Widerdal, Micael
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Lundin, Joel
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Kommer du på lektionen?: lärares syn på och hantering av elevers frånvaro i idrottsämnet2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The purpose of this study is to identify and analyze physical education (PE) teachers´ methods in handling, and attitudes towards, absent students. The study will answer the following questions:

    • How do PE teachers describe what is important and meaningful in teaching PE?
    • How do PE teachers explain the reasons behind students being absent and how can these reasons be understood?
    • What repertoire emerges when PE teachers talk about their coping strategies of absent students?

    Method

    A qualitative approach is used in order to elaborate and produce as profound insight as possible. By conducting eight semi-structured interviews data was collected and analyzed inductively. Convenient sampling was used to reach respondents whom all have experience of working with students in primary school geographically covering south-, mid-, and north of Sweden. The interviews were transcribed word-for-word prior to being analyzed. The theoretical framework used to interpret the result is based on Antonovsky´s Sense of Coherence and Bourdieu’s concepts of capital and habitus.

    Results

    All teachers emphasize the importance of a good teacher-student relationship and that a positive attitude towards PE is key in creating meaning. In addition, inclusion strategies are mentioned as important. Teachers with longer experience emphasize the importance of communicating with frequently absent students whereas teachers with shorter experience mention adjusting the level of difficulty according to students´ level of competence as a key factor in maintaining attendance.

    Conclusions

    The conclusion of this study is that the most common causes of student absenteeism are social relations, school setting, and mental ill-health among students. Another conclusion is that the length of the teachers´ work experience affects their view of absence. The present study also show that there are differences in how teachers handle student absenteeism. 

  • Johansson, Emilia
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Norén, Carl
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Träning genom appar: En diskursanalys av normkonstruktion i träningsappar2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how training apps produce training connected to a wider set of norms in society. The questions that the essay are seeking to answer are:

    • What representations of the gender are made visible in the material? 
    • What requirements for the subject's being are linked to these representations?
    • In what way are materials and environments produced? 
    • What representations about body and exercise are left unproblematic?

    Method

    Three training apps were analyzed based on the methodological approach of discourse analysis. The empirical material critically examined and identified four themes of representations: gender, exercise and body ideal, exercise exercises, and material. The representations were analyzed on the basis of Foucault's theory of power and the concept of governmentality, which was then used in the discussion of the study's results.

    Results

    The results of the study shows that gender representations are co-constructed interacts with a specific normative training culture that primarily focuses on aesthetic aspects based on a prevailing societal epistemology. In this normative framework men work-out mainly for muscle building while women should get balanced bodies. The apps emphasize well-trained instructors and focus on the pathogenic approach by projecting the calorie burn based on a given goal that the app has developed without adapting to the user's individual goals. The training apps contain exercises that assort to prevailing traditional gender norms of society. The exercises performed by men are often advanced with technical names based on biceps exercises, while the women's exercises mainly contain the seat and leg muscles. The apps are designed based on external attributes that interact with the prevailing training culture. The training is performed by well-trained people in developed training clothes based on society's fashion in different gym-like environments.

    Conclusions

    This study has shown how these apps reproducing traditional norms that exist in the training culture and produce stereotypical ideas about training and body ideal and gender. Accordingly, the training exercises, the materials and the environments are based on traditional gender norms of society. Therefore, it is important to understand the difference between digital teacher resources and commercial apps in order to secure the quality of the education and to avoid changing the students self -perception. 

  • Karapidakis, Alexander
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Lubner, Leo
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Hälsans betydelse i ämnet idrott och hälsa: En studie om hur lärare uppfattar hälsouppdraget i ämnet idrott och hälsa2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The purpose of this study is to understand how teachers in the subject physical and health education perceive and relate to the subject's health assignment. The following issues will be addressed:

    1. How do teachers define and interpret the concept of health?
    2. How do teachers interpret and work with the subject's health assignment?
    3. What do teachers think about the subject's health assignment?

    Method

    To answer the study's purpose and issues, interviews were conducted based on a qualitative approach. The study consists of semi-structured interviews that have been conducted on six legitimate and active teachers in the subject of physical and health education, who are active in primary school. The study's theory is based on Antonovsky's health theory. The analysis process is done through a thematic analysis, while the interpretation is based on a hermeneutic approach to the material.

    Results

    The study's results indicate that teachers see health with a holistic perspective. However, teachers do not follow their own views on health in their health education, but instead adopt the health perspective they feel the curriculum has. The teachers' interpretation is that the syllabus wants to convey a physical health view where the focus is on combating ill health through physical activities. Therefore, they relate to health education with this physical approach while a holistic view of health remains in the background. However, the teachers say that they wish that the syllabus had a holistic view that they could use in their teaching, since they did not perceive the health work based on the syllabus's health view as meaningful.

    Conclusions

    Overall, this study contributes to a better understanding of how teachers in physical and health education perceive and relate to the subject of health education. The teachers perceive that the subject's health work must be designed according to a pathogenic approach to health, which the teachers follow. In particular, it highlights that the teachers experience the syllabus as difficult to interpret if it is to convey a holistic view of health. These insights, to the extent that they are examined more closely, may benefit the design and teaching of the subject.

  • Fredholm, Tobias
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Engqvist, Christoffer
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Fysisk aktivitet i skolan: En studie om implementering av fysisk aktivitet i grundskolan utöver ämnet idrott och hälsa2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The purpose of the study was to investigate the implementation process of physical activity in addition to the topic of sport and health at four primary schools.

    The research issues were:

    • What is the school's incentive for increased physical activity?
    • What preparations were made by the school?
    • What type of activity is most prominent?
    • What role does evaluation play in the implementation process?
    • What are the decisive factors in an implementation process?

    Method: In the work, a qualitative approach was applied, and the empiricism has been gathered through interviews with four individuals who are in some way responsible for increasing physical activity at each school. The interviews have been of a semi-structured nature and analysed with the aid of Normalization Process Theory, which is a theory in implementation research.

    Results: The result shows that sedentary was the most common cause of the introduction of more physical activity and that in half the cases the directive came from the school management. The most common activity was linked to a classroom environment and was not scheduled. Everyone who participated in the study uses some form of evaluation and all state scheduling as a vital aspect of the implementation process.  

    Conclusion: The fact that school management was positive and supported the implementation was what distinguishes a successful implementation process against a less successful one, as they manage over scheduling and allocation of resources.