Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH

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  • 1.
    Andersson, David
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Effektutveckling i den koncentriska fasen i bänkpress och knäböj2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate 1RM and what power could be generated in bench-press and half squat concentric at certain percentages of 1RM. Special interest was put to evaluate men (M) and women (K), strength trained (ST) verses non strength trained (EST) in generating absolute power as well as power relative to 1RM.

    Method: In total 59 subjects mean (± SD) age 24.9 ± 4.1 years divided into four test groups: 20 male non strength trained GIH-students (EST M), 20 female non strength trained GIH-students (EST K), 10 male strength trained - sprinters on national/regional level (ST M), 10 female strength trained - sprinters (ST K) on national/regional level. They did two tests on 1RM and power in events of concentric bench-press and half squat in a Smith machine. In the first test session 3 – 5 lifts were made to measure 1RM in each event. In the second session 7 – 12 lifts were made to measure peak power on different weights in percent of 1RM in each event. The orders of events and weights were randomised. Recordings were made with the Muscle-lab system and related software.

    Results: There were significant differences between gender and test groups in 1RM and peak power in half squat. 1RM in half squat for each group were: ST M 246.5 kg, ST K187.8 kg, EST M 229.2 kg and EST K 150.8 kg. Strength trained generated their peak power in half squat on heavier weights relative to their 1RM compared to the non strength trained: ST M 40 %, ST K 30 %, EST M 25 % and EST K 20 %. 1RM in bench-press fore each group were: ST M 87.5 kg, ST K 46.9 kg, EST M 84.5 kg and EST K 40.2 kg. There were significant differences in gender between the EST - groups in bench-press peak power relative to 1RM but not between ST and EST: ST M 50 %, ST K 55 %, EST M 50 % and EST K 60 % of 1RM. Average peak power generated in bench-press was 54 % and in half squat 29 % of 1RM calculated on all participants.

    Conclusions: The strength trained (ST) sprinters might have gained something from their specific training in relative to EST participants as they in this study showed significant differences in half squat. The mean relative load at peak power for all test groups in squat (29% of 1RM) is lower compared to previous studies. Peak power relative to 1RM in bench-press showed significant difference only between men and women in the EST-group. The participants showed a relatively higher load (54% of 1RM) in benchpress than in squat. Comparing strengths between genders mainly showed that males are proportionally stronger in the upper body musculature than legs muscles comparing to women.

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  • 2.
    Collander, Sten
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Hälsa som social konstruktion: beslutsfattares föreställningar om hälsa2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of the paper is to, in an exploratory way, investigate, analyze and with a social constructivist approach describe the health concepts of managers.

    Method

    The method used in the study consists of qualitative, semi-structured interviews; seven persons in managerial positions in different organizations have been interviewed. The interviews lasted 30 to 90 minutes. A hermeneutic method - thematic analysis - has been used to analyze the transcribed interviews. Discourse analysis has also been used to analyze and describe discursive aspects of the material.

    Results

    The main results of the study are on multiple levels: the interviewees seemed to be very interested in health - even though they all said that these were complex issues. It was mostly physical aspects of health in the workplace that seemed to exist in the minds of the managers; other aspects were also important but were harder to discuss and to "find words for". The managers claimed that health was important for work-efficiency and in their respective workplaces but that they, themselves, didn't manage their own health the way that they would have liked to - due, among other things, to lack of time.

    Conclusions

    Some conclusions that can be made in the study is that the current health discourse in the Swedish society employs a positive evaluation of health in general, but that it mainly is physical health that is implied, discussed and prioritized since more advanced concepts and models for health work are not used by the managers. Consequences of these conclusions may be that changes in the health concepts of the managers may lead to other ways to work with, prioritize and discoursely construct health and health conceptions in both organizations and society in general.

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  • 3.
    Danska, Pia
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    På djupt vatten!: En studie om simlärares uppfattningar om ansvar och säkerhet i strandsimskolor2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Aim and questions

    The aim of this study was to illustrate how Swedish speaking swimming teachers in Finland feel about responsibility and safety in swimming schools and how they relate these concepts to the swimming teacher education.

    Four questions helped to answer the aim of this study:

    1. How do the swimming teachers describe their behaviour in connection to responsibility in outdoor swimming schools?

    2. How do the swimming teachers describe their behaviour in connection to safety in outdoor swimming schools?

    3. How do the swimming teachers reflect over their behaviour?

    4. What do the swimming teachers think about the new swimming teacher education and what opinions do they have about the education with regards to the responsibility and safety.

    Method

    The study consisted of a qualitative method and the data were gathered through interviews which provided the possibility for a deeper analysis. Semi-structured interviews kept the study within specific themes but also allowed room for interpretation. The target group consisted of eight Swedish speaking swimming teachers from Finland. They were all women who had worked with outdoor swimming schools.

    Results

    The results showed that the swimming teachers described their behaviour regarding responsibility and safety with specific routines and rules. Their behaviour was also described in their planning and organizing of the lessons. The swimming teachers reflected over different fears in the profession and risks in the work. They also reflected over accidents and showed more or less awareness of the aspects of responsibility and safety in the profession. The swimming teachers considered the new education not to have enough classes in lifesaving and resuscitation. Considering the responsibility and safety required in the profession the swimming teachers would have preferred tougher requirements.

    Conclusions

    The swimming teachers experienced responsibility and safety as important aspects of outdoor swimming schools and therefore desired improvement in the education.

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  • 4.
    Edin, Fredrik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Snusets påverkan på balans: skillnad i posturalt svaj hos dagligsnusare före och efter uppehåll från snusbruk2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte

    Snusandet har ökat de senaste åren, särskilt bland kvinnor och yngre personer och till flera samhällsgrupper. Rökning har under många år genomgått rigorös forskning och därigenom bevisats vara förenat med ohälsa. Däremot är forskning på snusanvändandets hälsoeffekter eftersatt. En fysiologisk effekt som föreslagits av långvarigt snusande är påverkan på balans (posturalt svaj). Uppsatsens huvudsyfte är att undersöka effekten på balans av ett långvarigt (sex veckor) uppehåll från snus i en grupp av dagligsnusare.

     

    Metod

    I studien genomförde dagligbrukare av snus (n=13) tester av posturalt svaj före och efter sex veckors uppehåll från snus. Undersökningen bestod av sex olika balanspositioner stående på en kraftplatta där amplituden och standardavvikelsen av svajet (tryckcentrumsförflyttning) i sidled (mediolateralt) och framåt-bakåt (anterio-posteriort). En referensgrupp av icke tobaksbrukare (n=15) genomförde samma tester, med minst en dags mellanrum, för att mäta den normala dag-till-dag-variationen i posturalt svaj. Dessutom mättes blodtryck, hjärtfrekvens och kroppsvikt.

     

    Resultat

    Det posturala svajet påverkades i stort inte av att långtidssnusare gjorde ett snusuppehåll på sex veckor. Det fanns inga signifikanta förändringar i amplitud vid någon av de sex positionerna i någon riktning (p-värde mellan 0,09 till 0,92). Standardavvikelsen på rörelsen var signifikant förändrad vid två av tolv mätningar. Dock var de absoluta skillnaderna av samma storleksordning som dagsvariationen vid mätningarna på referensgruppen, och anses därför fysiologiskt obetydliga. Övriga fysiologiska förändringar var att hjärtfrekvensen i vila sänktes med 6±10 slag/minut (p=0,002) och att försökspersonerna gick upp i vikt med 1,7±1,7 kg (p=0,003).

     

    Slutsats

    Ett uppehåll i snusandet på sex veckor hade försumbar effekt på balansen i stillastående, mätt som posturalt svaj, hos personer som snusat dagligen under lång tid. Däremot innebar snusuppehållet en sänkning av hjärtfrekvensen i vila och en ökning av kroppsvikten.

    Abstract Aim The use of Swedish moist snuff has increased in recent years, especially among women and younger people and to several community groups. Smoking has, based on numerous research studies, since long been associated with illness and death. However, research on moist snuff use is neglected. A physiological effect that has been proposed by long-term use of moist snuff is affected balance (postural sway). The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the affect of long-term (six weeks) withdrawal from use of Swedish moist snuff on balance.

     

    Method In the study daily users of snuff (n=13) conducted tests of postural swaying before and after the six week withdrawal from moist snuff. The investigation consisted of six different equilibrium positions standing on a force plate in which the amplitude and standard deviation of sway (center of pressure movement) in the sideways (mediolateral) and forward-backward (anteriorposterior). A reference group of non-tobacco users (n=15) performed the same tests, with at least one day apart, in order to measure the normal day-to-day variation in postural sway. In addition, blood pressure, heart rate and body weight were measured.

     

    Results The postural sway in long-term snuff users was principally not affected by six weeks of withdrawal from snuff. There were no significant changes in amplitude for any of the six positions in any direction (p-values between 0.09-0.92). The standard deviation of movement altered in two out of twelve measurements. However, the absolute difference was of the same magnitude as the day-to-day variance in the measurements of the reference group, and is therefore considered physiologically negligible. Other physiological changes were that the heart rate at rest was decreased by 6±10 bpm (p=0.002) and that the subjects gained weight by 1.7±1.7 kg (p=0.003).

    Conclusion

    A withdrawal from the use of Swedish moist snuff for six weeks had negligible effect on the balance of the stagnation, as measured by the postural swaying, of persons who used Swedish moist snuff daily for a long time. However, a pause from using moist snuff resulted in a reduction in heart rate at rest and an increase in body weight.

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  • 5.
    Efverström, Anna
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Lärarstudenters syn på kunskap inom ämnet idrott och hälsa: en utbildningssociologisk studie av ett skolämne2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The purpose of this study is to contribute to the understanding of the view of knowledge in Physical Education (PE) by exploring teacher students’ conceptions of key areas of knowledge and values of the subject. The epistemological beliefs in PE have been analyzed from an educational sociology perspective and discussed in relation to different concepts of knowledge.

    Method

    With a phenomenographic research method the conceptions of student teachers in Physical Education were examined regarding key areas of knowledge and values of the subject. Data were collected through interviews with five students in the beginning of the teacher training, who were selected from a survey. The interviews have been analyzed to find the variation of conceptions of both the key areas of knowledge and the values of the subject. The identified conceptions were the basis for an educational sociological analysis of the epistemology that emerges.

    Results

    The identified conceptions of the key areas of knowledge were health, movement skills, sports skills, outdoor life and personal and social skills. Regarding the values of the subject the conceptions found were health, happiness, perception of the body, cooperation/fellowship, equality and supportive function.

     

    Conclusions

    In the educational sociological analysis the view of knowledge that emerges from the identified conceptions were mostly of essential and progressive nature. Knowledge of theoretical-scientific form and understanding were to be found only in the field of health, while practical and productive knowledge and skill of knowledge seems to dominate the subject. To view Physical Education in an educational sociological perspective in which the shaping of the subject is not considered predetermined but dependent on contextual and social factors and at the same time use a broader concept of knowledge can make important contributions to the discussion of knowledge in PE.

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  • 6.
    Gajic, Jelena
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Tillämpad idrottspsykologisk verksamhet med inriktning mot tävlingsidrott och prestation: en komparativ studie mellan Sverige och Serbien2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The main aim with this study is to research weather there are differences in applied sportpsychology activities between Sweden and Serbia, with a focus on competitive sports andperformance. What are the differences and similarities, and in which way is the sportpsychology helping the sportsmen and sportswomen? The main goal with this study is tocome to conclusions that can be of importance to both countries development in applied sportpsychology activities.

    Method

    For this study the qualitative method was used and the design is descriptive and comparative.A practical comparison in the form of interviews has been done. Eight persons wereinterviewed at different times, four in Sweden and four in Serbia, one researcher in sportpsychology, one practitioner in sports psychology (a common term for a sport psychologist,mental trainer, performance coach etc.), one sports coach and one sportswoman in eachcountry. For the interviews an adequate interview guide was designed and used.

    Results

    Practical application in the form of various training opportunities within the sport psychologyfield, sports psychology advisory services and research in sports psychology are applied to agreater extent in Sweden then in Serbia. Generally, the Swedish sport psychology activitiesare governed of the National Sports Association and in Serbia of the National Sport Institute.

    Conclusions

    Sweden is one step ahead Serbia when it comes to applied sport psychology activities withinthe competitive sport, but at the same time both countries can learn from each others sportpsychology practice in different fields. Improvement that can be done both in Sweden andSerbia, when it comes to applied sport psychology activities with focus on sportsperformance, are identified mainly in the form of planning and systematizing the work ofsportsmen/women in their sport psychology preparation and to increase the quality of theservices offered by the sport psychological activities.

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    Mester degree project by Jelena Gajic
  • 7.
    Giotis, Anna-Maria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Hindrad av en tanke: En studie av mentala blockeringar inom kvinnlig truppgymnastik2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim and Questions

    The aim of this study is to examine the incidence, handling and experienced causes of mental blockings in female teamgym at national youth and junior level.

    • Which type of exercise is the most common mental blocking in female teamgym?

    • How does the blockings show according to the gymnasts and coaches?

    • Which possible causes to origin of mental blockings can be understood on the basis of the stories of the gymnasts and coaches?

    • In which ways have gymnasts and coaches tried to handle mental blockings?

    Method

    The study started out with a literature search for previous research. Thereafter a questionnaire was formed in two versions (for gymnasts and coaches) and these were sent to gymnasts and coaches at national youth and junior level in six different clubs. The gymnasts were chosen by their level of training and competition.

    Results

    The study showed that mental blockings is a very common phenomenon in teamgym and is something that the majority of the gymnasts at some point have been affected by. The blockings are often revealed by the gymnasts refusing or totally excluding the exercise from training and the blockings are most frequently occurring in the apparatus called tumbling. Yet, the study shows that most gymnasts experience mental blockings in more then one apparatus. Vaults that rotate backwards tend to bee the type of exercise that most gymnasts have blockings for. This was believed to mainly depend on the gymnasts thinking they will fail to succeed with the exercise followed by causes like previous injuries and mental immatureness. Most gymnasts and coaches have in some way tried to solve the problem, mainly by physical measures and have in situations of mental blockings felt afraid, frustrated and like failure.

    Conclusions

    Mental blockings is a big problem and few gymnasts and coaches know how to handle them. The need of more research in the area and focus on mental training in the gymnastics association is big.

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  • 8.
    Graffman-Sahlberg, Marie
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Fysisk aktivitetsgrad och nedstämdhet: En studie av elever i årskurs 3 på gymnasiet2009Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim

    The main aim of this study was to investigate if there is a correlation between the extent of physical activity and low-spiritedness/depression among students in the third year of upper secondary school. Further aims were to investigate if low-spirited or depressed students experienced the feelings of sense of meaning, joy and happiness, calm and harmony, and control of the weekday to the same extent as non low-spirited/depressed students. Moreover to investigate if the experienced level of stress relates to the amount of physical activity. Finally all these aspects where investigated with a gender perspective.

    Method

    In this study a quantitative questionnaire method was used. The participants were 252 students in the third year of upper secondary school from different study programmes. The questionnaire answers were statistically analyzed with SPSS, and the level of significance was set at p<0, 05.

    Results

    The results showed that more than a third of the students at the current schools where low-spirited or depressed, the girls to a higher degree than boys. The extent of physical activity was low, 37 % of the girls and 28 % of the boys where physically inactive.  The students who were very physically active had lower CES-D value i.e. they where less low-spirited and depressed. The results also showed that the students who had a higher extent of physical activity experienced a lower level of stress then students with lower extent or non physical activity. Seventy to ninety percent of those in this study who were low-spirited or depressed exhibited, girls as well as boys, that they seldom or never experienced the following feelings: sense of meaning, joy and happiness, calm and harmony, and control of the weekday.

    Conclusion

    The results from this study indicate that the extent of physical activity has a covariance with low-spiritedness and depression. To investigate what the cause and effect is intervention studies and longitudinal studies of this effect must be done. However, it appears that physical activity covariates with the extent of low spiritedness and depression.

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  • 9.
    Holmkvist, Markus
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Idrottsaktiva och alkohol: En studie om alkoholkonsumtion bland unga idrottare2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet var att ta reda på om det finns ett mönster i hur Uppsalas idrottande ungdomar konsumerar alkohol.

    Frågeställningar:

    • Följer alkoholkonsumtionen inom idrotten ett könsmönster?

    • Spelar den sociala tillhörigheten roll för alkoholkonsumtionen för idrottare?

    • Skiljer sig alkoholkonsumtionen mellan individuella idrottare och idrottare i lag?

    • Finns det ett samband mellan olika typer av idrotter och idrottarnas alkoholkonsumtion?

    Metod

    I arbetet användes både en kvantitativ metod via enkätsvar och en kvalitativ metod via intervjuer. Målgruppen avgränsades till aktivt idrottande ungdomar som läser idrott på gymnasiet. I de allra flesta fall gick ungdomarna i årskurs två på gymnasiet. Undersökningarna gjordes på fyra gymnasieskolor i Uppsala under lektionstid inom idrottsämnet.

    Resultat

    Idrottarna drack alkohol oftare än genomsnittet för samma åldersgrupp (17-18 års ålder). Den sociala bakgrunden hos idrottare spelade en liten roll för individens dryckesvanor. Däremot spelade könstillhörigheten en stor roll. Lagidrottarna drack alkohol i större utsträckning än individuellt aktiva och idrotter med påtagliga kampmoment var överrepresenterade då det gällde hög alkoholkonsumtion. Idrottsrörelsen var inte en vanlig inkörsport för alkoholdebutanter och få av idrottarna hade konsumerat alkohol i nära anknytning till sitt idrottande.

    Slutsats

    Det fanns tydliga mönster för idrottarnas konsumtion av alkohol. För att motarbeta alkoholkonsumtion inom idrotten är det viktigt med vuxennärvaro samt information om alkoholens idrottsligt negativa verkningar.

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  • 10.
    Josefsson, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Effekter av instruktion på transversus abdominis vid stabiliseringövningar2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity recorded with electromyography (EMG) fine-wire electrodes, in transversus abdominis (TrA) and rectus abdominis (RA) while performing various stabilization exercises, and to investigate how the level of activation was affected by specific instructions

    Method

    Ten physically active women (27.1 ± 5.5year, 1.74 ± 0.05 m, 67.1 ± 8.6 kg) performed six different stabilization exercises (four lying supine with bent knees and hips and two in four point kneeling). They performed two sets of exercises, the first without and the second with specific instructions. The specific instruction was “abdominal hollowing to activate” TrA. The fine-wire electrodes were inserted bilateral into TrA and RA with an injection needle with guidance from an ultrasound. EMG was recorded during the middle second (while the subjects were asked to withhold the final position) and data was normalized to maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and value at rest.

    Results

    The effects from instructions were significant while looking upon muscle and exercise (p<0,05). All exercises but exercise number 4 (unilateral bridgening) were significant effected by instructions in TrA, but none of the exercises were effected in RA (p>0,05). The mean of the activity in TrA varied without instructions between 2,9% (± 4,4) to 39,5 % (± 20,0) and with instructions 15,2 % (± 14,7) to 45,6 % (± 23,5). In RA the mean of the activity varied without instructions between 0,3% (± 0,8) to 9,8 % (± 27,4) and with instructions between 2.4 % (± 2,9) to 11,3% (± 28,5).

    Conclusion

    It is possible to selectively increase the activity in TrA in the majority of selected stabilization exercises with supine position with bent knees and hips, and in four point kneeling.

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  • 11.
    Keskikangas, Agnes
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Kulturmötet i capoeiran i Sverige  : en kulturantropologisk undersökning2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    Capoeira is a sport and art form strongly associated with the Brazilian culture. The main aim of the study was to examine how the capoeira is introduced into the Swedish society. Also to study the practitioners and trainers experience around the culture meeting. The questions were the following: What differences and similarities exist within capoeira in Sweden and Brazil? How are Swedish practitioners and trainers from a Western culture affected by the culture meeting? How are the Brazilian coaches in Sweden affected by the culture meeting? Is there a Culture crash between the Brazilian and Western cultures in capoeira?

     

    Method

    Qualitative interviews were chosen as an approach because it was considered appropriate in terms of the purpose and questions of the study. To strengthen the validity of the study was a targeted sample of Swedish practitioners, Swedish and Brazilian trainers to get different perspectives. All were residents in Sweden and active in capoeira. Six persons were interviewed about their experiences of the cultural meeting. The empirical material was analyzed on the basis of previous research and the theoretical framework of the study.

     

    Results

    Previous research and the current study show that the prevailing norms and traditions within the capoeira are not based on the Swedish society. They are based on the Brazilian culture and are found to have a major impact on the Swedish practitioners. The results and also show clear cultural differences based on the two opposing ideologies: individual-centred and group-centred ideology. This creates, in some cases, both opposition and incomprehension.

    Conclusions

    Both Swedish and Brazilian performers are interested in preserving capoeiran culture and traditions, but at the same time capoeira needs some adaptation to the Swedish culture and society. The Brazilian and Swedish practitioners and trainers emphasize the need for a degree of tolerance and understanding of the cultural meeting to avoid conflicts and to be able to interact. 

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  • 12.
    Klockare, Ellinor
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Track and Field Athletes’ Experiences and Perceived Effects of Flotation-REST: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Aim: The aim of this study was to examine junior and first year senior athletes’ experiences and perceived effects of flotation-REST, including both the immediate response and experiences over time.

    Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six elite track and field athletes (five female and one male), aged 17-23 years, who were purposefully sampled and had used flotation-REST two to six times. They were each interviewed on two occasions; once directly following a floating session and later a second interview concerning the overall experience. The interview transcripts were analyzed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (Smith, 1996).

    Results: From the analysis four themes emerged: Meaning of Flotation-REST, Experiences during Flotation-REST, Perceived Effects of Flotation-REST, and Views on Flotation-REST. Flotation-REST became a learning opportunity concerning relaxation for all athletes and three of them reported that it raised their awareness of the importance of relaxation and psychological skills training. For five athletes the floating sessions also became a breather in the daily life. The floating sessions were perceived as pleasant and relaxing. Three athletes experienced a lot of thoughts in the tank and five of them fell asleep at least twice. After flotation-REST five athletes reported experiencing less stress and an overall increase in well-being as well as feeling calmer and more energized for one or two days, although they were physically tired at practice immediately following a floating session. Being in a better mood and placing fewer demands on themselves as well as feeling more optimistic and present were also mentioned as perceived effects. The results showed more and longer-lasting psychological effects than physiological. The sixth athlete did not experience any special effects, nor did he experience stress in his daily life and sport performance, as opposed to the others.

    Conclusions: The study shows the potential of flotation-REST as a technique for health promotion and also as a method for stress management. Further, as the results revealed raised awareness, flotation-REST could be valuable together with other psychological skills training techniques, mindfulness and the physical training. However, considering the differences in the athletes’ perceived effects of flotation-REST, it indicates the importance of further research on the topic.

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  • 13.
    Larsson, Lena
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Idrott och hälsa är ingenting för mig: en studie av elever som ej deltar i Idrott och hälsa A i två gymnasieskolor2003Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studies syfte var att öka kunskapen om de elever som ej deltar i gymasieskolans idrottsundervisning. Perspektivet var kultursociologiskt och syftade till att försöka urskilja om den sociala positionen, som i denna undersökning främst utgått från elevernas val av gymnasieprogram, har någon betydelse för elevernas inställning till idrottsämnet. Som idrottslärare är det viktigt att ha kunskap om dessa elever för att kunna medverka till att få dem aktiva i undervisningen.

    (Hela sammanfattningen finns i uppsatsen.)

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  • 14.
    Lennartsson, Tore
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Kännetecken för en framgångsrik coach: en jämförande studie av tre manliga elittränare i bandy, fotboll och ishockey.2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this essay is to compare three male elite coaches’ way of working, analyze their views on coaching, as well as describing the road to success.

    Questions

    How can the background of the coaches´ be described?

    What are the three coaches’ views on coaching, and how do they coach in real life?

    What do team colleagues and team players think of their trainer, as a coach?

    If there are any common factors for the coaches, could they be identified?

    What are the factors for success?

    Method

    This study focuses on bandy, soccer and ice hockey and is carried out in three steps:

    1) Through observations of the trainers in their roles as coaches during a

    competition match.

    2) Through semi structured interviews with one team colleague and one

    team player from each sport.

    3) Through semi structured interviews with the three coaches themselves.

    Result

    The coaches have a clear self-image, which was confirmed through observation and supplementary interviews. All the interviewees like the coaches’ calm coaching style. The coaches are formed by their athletic upbringing, from which many of their values have derived. They are knowledgeable and precise in their work, and strive to create a positive and stimulating environment. Communication is a basic work tool. The three coaches have many things in common, for example upbringing, long careers, commitment, a humble attitude and well-adjusted leadership.

    Conclusion

    The coaches’ way of working is, in many respects, carried out in the same way. They put the team and the individual player in focus, both during practice and matches. They work hard in order for the team to reach success. The road to success can depend on chance, but hard work and a humble attitude toward the task will most likely yield better results in the long run.

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  • 15.
    Lindberg, Kristian
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Bedømning i emnet idrett og helse på gymnasialnivå: (Bedömning i Idrott och Hälsa i gymnasieskolan): en jämförelse av norsk og svensk styrdokument2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether there are some differences in the Norwegian and Swedish curriculum when it comes to the evaluation for this subject sport and health. Here will I find out whether there are some similarities/differences in practical procedure and how they are working with their curriculum when they are to be put characters to their pupils. This issue for the study is as follows: The goal is to investigate and compare assessment and grading in Norwegian and Swedish upper secondary school.

    The survey was carried out on two upper secondary schools, thru a purposeful sampling, one in Sweden in the outskirts of Stockholm and the other in Norway, in Hamar. In Sweden have I been carried out two interviews, a man and a woman, in Norway I have carried out three interviews, two men and a woman. All PE teachers received the same issues and most of the interviews were captured on tape-recorded. My theoretical framework is inspired by the French sociologist Pierre Bourdiue and the relationship between individuals and social systems.

    The result in this study shows that there are diversities of what PE teachers makes in their assessment, not just between the two countries but also between teachers individually. Bourdiues concept of habitus and taste are involved in shaping the individual teacher`s teaching so their teaching is different. Between the two countries, we can see a clear difference in track of the document, in Sweden they have a more goal driven curriculum to make it easier for PE teacher to grade the students. The Norwegian curriculum puts greater demands on every single teacher. When it comes to how PE teachers in Sweden work with their assessment we can see that they have a greater focus on health aspect and on the understanding of what they do. With the Norwegian teachers focus is on the performance and knowledge in the form of theoretical samples.

    The biggest difference between Norway and Sweden are that Sweden has syllabus to work from. This tool gives teachers a clearer overview of what the pupils will be evaluated after. When a teacher in Norway is obliged to create these goals himself would  this create major differences in what they do as teachers. With basis in syllabus teachers in Sweden were able to assess the pupils more alike than what they could in Norway.

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  • 16.
    Nilsson, Kerstin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    En träningsstudie om barn och balans: effekter av Tai Chi liknande rörelser på flickors och pojkars balans2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim.

    Previous studies have shown that Tai Chi exercises improve postural control in elderly people. The primary aim of this study was to investigate if similar Thai Chi like training affects postural control in children. Secondary aims of the study was 1) to investigate if any such effects from training differs between boys and girls and 2) to investigate whether performing a cognitive task during balance testing had any effect on postural control in these children.

    Method.

    In the balance tests, different tasks were performed on a force plate and on a metal profile. From the tasks performed on the force plate, the standard deviations and amplitudes of the mediolateral and anterioposterior displacements of center of pressure were measured. From the tasks performed on the metal profile, the number of clampdowns were counted.

    The study was conducted over an eight week period with 41 children in the ages 9-10 years old. The children were divided into two groups; children in the training group (n=19) who participated in Tai Chi like training every day, and children in the control group (n=22) who did not participate in this training.

    Results.

    The study also showed some differences in postural control between boys and girls.

    When comparing the displacement in center of pressure between different two-legged tasks performed on the force plate, significantly less displacement was found in the task involving standing with open eyes compared to all tasks involving standing with closed eyes (with or without a concurrent cognitive task).

    The number of clampdowns from the metal profile were reduced after the training period, to a similar extent in the control and the training groups.

    Several different aspects of the postural control were measured in the study. Only one of these improved significantly with training. Boys in the intervention group showed a decrease in the standard deviation of the mediolateral displacement of the center of pressure when standing with open eyes.

    Conclusion.

    These results are also consistent with similar studies on postural control among children.

    This study indicates that slow motion training, similar to Tai Chi, has a small but positive effect on postural control, for boys 9-10 year old, when conducted every day over an eight week period, as one of the tested parameters shows an improvement.

     

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  • 17.
    Norman, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Björk Andersson, Patric
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Att uppleva burnout: Tränare som drabbats av burnout och deras arbetsmiljö. Upplevelser, känslor och tips från burned out och arbetande tränare.2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine two cases of stated burnout among Swedish elite coaches. The research area was chosen, with the intention to increase the knowledge and understanding about what makes a coach burn out. In the study, there has also been examined, what existing amount of burnout and burnout symptoms there are among Swedish elite ice hockey coaches, and what their reflections are on their workplace and how it can be improved. The base definition of burnout in this study is Maslach and Jacksons from 1996. It describes burnout as “a syndrome of Emotional exhaustion, Cynism and less personal engagement, which can be the case among individuals working with other humans”. The definition also comprises a person’s relation to his or her work, from some years back 

    Two burned out coaches were interviewed, with a compounded template of questions. The template was constructed from the survey, which was part of the study of the elite ice hockey coaches. The questions were of demographic, “open answered”, and scientific measurement character. The way the template was established, made it possible to examine and compare the results. The template survey was done during the time of the Olympic break in 2006 and 25 ice hockey coaches in the Swedish Elite League and Second Division participated. Most of the coaches work as full time coaches. All participants in the study were men

    The Interviewed coaches revealed having trouble defining their engagement and their area of responsibility. They often felt lonely in their coach occupation, and that it was difficult to say no to things in time, because of feelings of shame and failure. The MBI results showed that coaches experienced November and December as heavier months than January and February. Compared to the MBI’s standard results for the parameter Emotional Exhaustion, the coaches scored about the same results for the November-December period, but lower for the January-February period. For the parameter Cynism, the results were about the same as the standard results, but for the parameter Personal Engagement, the coaches scored much higher than standard. That counted for both the period November-December, as for the period January-February.

    To be in a position where you feel you have support and people to talk to when you need it, were things pointed out by the coaches, which they thought could help them work and feel better, and to avoid to be burned out. The contact with a person, like a mentor, is suggested to be a good helping tool for coaches, as it should be compared to the way you support athletes with mental training. Things which could be better in the coaches work situation, concerns the coaches behavior, the work environment, and how people who interact with the coaches act. For future research we suggest focusing on athletes’ reflections and reactions as result of burned out coaches’ behavior, to be able to spot burned out coaches in time.

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  • 18.
    Nyberg, Marie
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Tidén, Anna
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Allsidig rörelsekompetens hos barn och ungdomar: En kartläggning av skolelevers funktionella motorik2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Gross motor skills among Swedish pupils. An overview of functional motor abilities among Swedish children and adolescents.

    Introduction

    Physical Education (PE) teachers in Sweden have noticed that pupils are getting worse in their ability to manage gross motor skills and in their aerobic practice. The gross motor skills and coordinative skills are the solid ground for sports and other health activities. If not developing their gross motor skill children tends to avoid taking part in games and sports. The benefits of sports and outdoor activities such as social and health benefits can therefore be missed. In the spring 2001, a multidisciplinary study started: School, Sports & Health. The aim of the study was to investigate 2000 pupils in school year 3, 6 and 9 concerning their: physical and health status, the level of physical activity and conception of the subject “PE and health”. The selection of pupils was based on randomly chosen schools and classes from Sweden. The aim of this part of the study, the motor skills test, was to make a survey of what Swedish pupils can manage in gross motor skills today. Based upon these results we can in the future tell whether the pupils are maintaining today’s level of gross motor skills or not. The Swedish curriculum for “sports and health” states that pupils should manage gross motor skills in the 5th year of school. Can they manage to do that?

    Method

    The study started with the construction of the gross motor and coordinative skill tests. The movements selected for the test were based on gross motor skills, coordinative skills and combinations of these skills. The test included 16 movements measured on a scale from 1 to 4. The levels of the scale have a written description to support the ocular observations. The highest score to achieve was 64 and the lowest was 16. Examples of skills tested were; skipping, jumping, crawling, rolling, being upside down, bouncing and throwing balls. The pupils were not able to practice on the test before the test situation. The results have been analyzed using SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences).

    Results

    The results are analyzed both on an aggregated level here referred to as gross motor skills profile, as well as on a single movement level. The results indicate that 29% of the pupils in the 6th school year are not able to manage the gross motor skill tests without remarks. The pupils with the lowest scores can be found among young female children with low strength and overweight. The test also shows that in the 9th school year boys are stronger than girls. Boys and girls in the lower ages (school year 3 and 6) are more similar in the gross motor skills profile but not on the single movement level. It can also be noted that girls are better in skipping and some of the movements of more gymnastic character whereas boys are better in throwing balls and beanbags. Boys and girls have nearly identical results in the test of balance, walking on a balance beam where gender or age does not seem to have any affect.

    Discussion/Conclusion

    From the main findings of the tests we can observe that the younger pupils have not yet developed the gross motor skills. It is also noticeable that many of the pupils in the 6th school year are achieving poor results in the tests even though the Swedish curriculum for “sports and health” states that the pupils should have achieved these skills already in the 5th school year. Many of the girls in the 9th school year are very poor in the movements that included some strength ability. This weakness is important for PE teachers to pay attention to, at an early stage of the girl’s physical development when girls do not develop the same strength as boys during their puberty.

    If children do not have the gross motor skill and some strength it is more likely that they will choose other activities or have other interest then physical activities and sports on their leisure time. This may in the future give them health problems because we know from fact that physical inactivity is one of the main causes to bad health.

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  • 19.
    Oddsson, Kristjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Vad är balans?: Balansförmåga hos barn i skolåldern2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The specific questions in the theoretic part were:

    • What is contained in the terms "balance and balance skill" and how can this skill be measured?

    The specific questions in the empirical part were:

    • How does balance skill in different age categories of children correlate with biological and physiological parameters such as age, gender, body height, weight and level of physical activity?

    Methods

    Literature search based on books and scientific papers related to the questions posed above. Selection was made at libraries and on–line through "Pubmed". Specific search words were used. Data collected during the SIH-project, including balance tests of approximately 1700 children 10-, 13- and 16 years old, were used for the empirical part of the project.

    Results

    The literature search concluded that there is little consensus about terms such as "balance" and "balance skill". Several scientific disciplines have "their own" definition of these terms depending on whether the interpretation is purely mechanical/biomechanical, neurophysiological or from a more behaviouristic point of view. There are a number of clinical/functional as well as more "lab based" test procedures of balance function that are considered to be reliable. The empirical study showed that balance skill varies in school children 10-, 13- and 16 years of age such that the older children display better balance skills that the younger ones. There was no effect of gender on balance skill. Overweight and obese children display lower balance skill than those of normal body weight. Body height appears to have little influence on balance skill. Children with high level of physical activity seem to display better balance skills than more inactive ones.

    Conclusion

    Definitions of terms used in balance related research have not been standardized and are therefore both difficult to interpret and to implement. Balance skill in children correlates with age, body weight and level of physical activity.

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  • 20.
    Oud, Stefan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Spelrörelsekrav och temporalt mönster i amerikansk fotboll: en deskriptiv studie av försvarsspelare2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of the study was to develop a method for the survey of play movement demands and temporal patterns in order to enable a descriptive study of the defensive players in American Football. The overall aim was to  improve the understanding of how American Football is played to create opportunities for enhancement of current or developing new training methods to better suit football.

    Method

    Fifty plays from a Division 3 college football game on video from 2005 was divided into sequences of action for one player each from the defensive line, linebackers and defensive backs and analyzed with the video analyzing software cSwing. Every players sequence of action was recorded in a spreadsheet and noted on a scaled football field where distances were measured and together with time stamps from cSwing velocity was calculated.

    Results

    Using this method it was possible to describe the play movement demands and temporal patterns which was the main task of the study. The defensive end worked on an average 4.61 seconds per play, the distance was 12.4 meters and average speed 2.5 m×s-1. The linebacker worked on an average 4.35 s per play, 13.7 m and at a mean speed of 3.0 m×s-1. The free safety worked on an average 4.38 s per play, 14.7 m and at a mean speed of 3.3 m×s-1. The Linebacker had a more varied movement pattern than the other two positions.

    Discussion

    With the developed method both quantitative variables and qualitative assessments of play movement demands and temporal patterns could be done. With the aid of this information the coach can develop or enhance training methods that better emulates the demands games puts on the players. Using a GPS to enhance the quantitative analysis can lead to more extensive measurements of temporal patterns. Zoomed in video uptakes could lead to a better analysis of movement patterns

    Conclusion

    The developed method gives the American Football coach a tool to analyse the demands put on certain categories of players based on different types of and frequencies of play sequences and their temporal patterns. This enhanced knowledge the coach can use to improve practices

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  • 21.
    Ovendal, Alexander
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Akuta effekter av myofeedback vid en maximal isokinetisk knäextension  :  - Hur påverkas knämuskulaturens aktiveringsgrad och styrkeutveckling av EMG-feedback?2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Aim

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether or not EMG-feedback from quadriceps and hamstrings has any acute effects on muscle activation and strength during a voluntary maximal isokinetic knee extensor action (eccentric and concentric) (20o.s-1).

     

    Method

    Nineteen healthy subjects, 9 female and 10 male, participated in the study. They reported no previous knee injuries and were not involved in strength training for the leg muscles. Subjects performed two sets of maximal voluntary unilateral knee extensor actions at a velocity of 20o.s-1 through a 60o range of motion of the knee joint 120o to 180o, with 180o representing a fully extended knee. EMG-feedback from the knee muscles was only given for the right leg during the second set. Knee extensor strength, level of activation and electromyographic activity of quadriceps and hamstrings were recorded during the whole range of motion (60o).

     

    Results

    The results of this study showed that the knee extensor strength increased significantly (by 10 %) from 144 ± 48 with no feedback to 158 ± 53 Nm with feedback. With regard to the level of activation of the knee extensors it increased significantly (by 9%) from 75 ±15 % with no feedback to 81 ± 15 % with feedback. However, biofeedback did not contribute to decreased levels of hamstrings activity.

     

    Conclusions

    The main findings of the study were that the EMG-rms feedback acutely increased the strength and voluntary activation of quadriceps during a maximal voluntary isokinetic knee extensor action. However, the study showed no reduction in hamstring activation when feedback was given during the knee extensor actions. Therefore, the increased strength output was likely related to the enhanced activation of quadriceps and not a result of decreased hamstrings activation.

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  • 22.
    Sulaiman, Rami
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Movement, Culture and Society.
    Soni, Ramandip
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Movement, Culture and Society.
    Ökar låsbara duschbås tryggheten för elever?: En kvantitativ enkätstudie om skolans omklädningsrum för elever i åk 92023Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim and hypothesis

    This study aimed to investigate possible differences in students' perceived safety in schools with lockable shower stalls in comparison to schools without lockable shower stalls in the changing room. The study also aimed to investigate whether lockable shower stalls lead to students showering to a greater extent compared to students without lockable shower stalls. The study contained three hypotheses which are:

    - Pupils who attend schools with lockable shower stalls reports to a greater extent than pupils who attend schools without shower stalls that they shower after PE

    - Students who attend schools with lockable shower stalls a higher perceived safety in the changing room than students in schools without lockable shower stalls

    - There is no difference between girls and boys regarding perceived security depending on lockable shower stalls

    Method

    This quantitative questionnaire survey study was conducted through 158 students in year 9 in four different primary schools. Two of these schools had lockable shower stalls in the chang-ing room and two schools did not have lockable shower stalls. The data was analyzed with descriptive and analytical statistics in the statistics program Jamovi.

    Results

    Hypothesis 1: The results shows that students with lockable shower stalls shower to a greater extent after physical education lessons in comparison to students without lockable shower stalls.

    Hypothesis 2: The results show that students report higher perceived safety in four safety variables in schools with lockable shower stalls compared to schools without lockable shower stalls.

    Hypothesis 3: The results show that girls and boys increase security to the same extent with lockable shower stalls.

    Conclusions

    Students in ninth grade shower to a greater extent in changing rooms with lockable shower stalls and experience greater security in the changing room compared to students in schools without lockable shower stalls. Security increases for both girls and boys.

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  • 23.
    Svanström, Fredrik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Påverkar GIH:s utbildning i friluftsliv studenterna?: En studie av naturupplevelser hos studenter vid GIH:s lärarprogram  2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of this study is to examine students' previous experiences of stay in the nature and their experiences of nature in the context of teaching situations in friluftsliv at GIH. It also aims to elucidate how the teaching of friluftsliv at GIH affects their former interpretation about nature. The questions of the study are: What past experiences of stay in the nature elucidate GIH-students? Have the students approach to nature changed according to the education? If yes – how? What affects students' perception of nature?

     

    Method

    To answer the questions, a quantitative approach (questionnaire survey) and qualitative methods (interview study) was used. The qualitative method is based on phenomenology and hermeneutics. The analysis of the interviews has the EPP-method and hermeneutic meaning interpretation is used.

     

    Results

    The results show that there are differences in past experiences, experiences of and interest in nature. In the interview, it is mainly to find the romantic - and the functionalist nature of perception. Three of the students indicated that they have become more positive with nature during their studies at GIH. The other two has consolidated its approach. What have significant impact on nature experiences are: natural environment, psychological - and sensory -, social - and motor experiences. These factors can both enhance and limit the experiences.

     

    Conclusions

    The study shows the difficulty of teaching in friluftsliv with the aim of reaching nature experiences. Since the nature experience is individual must it also be individualized teaching. The study shows also that there are great opportunities for teachers to influence the experience of nature.  

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  • 24.
    Svennberg, Lena
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Vad styr idrottslärares betygsättning?: en analys av bakomliggande mekanismer och följsamhet till styrdokument.2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    In order to investigate and describe what basic data teachers in PE use when marking pupils in year 9 and how this documentation relates to the syllabus and criteria for certificates in Lpo 94 the following questions are made: What kind of mental documentation do the teachers have when marking, as it appears whit the method Repertory Grid? How does this mental documentation match the pupil's marks? What kind of written documentation do the teachers have when grading? How do this mental and written documentation relate to each other and to the syllabus and criteria for certificates in Lpo 94?

    Method

    Repertory Grid-interviews were conducted with four teachers in PE to find out their mental documentation and their written documentation were collected. The interviews were analyzed with WebGrid5, a program for RG-interviews. Six months later there was a follow-up where the teachers could comment the analyses.

    Results

    The constructs generated in the RG-interviews are found in the categories motivation, skills, self-confidence and social capability including leadership. To get a MVG the teacher had to give the pupil a high ranking in all the constructs, to get a VG in at least half of them and to get a G they didn´t need any high rankings. The written documentation was about skills and leadership. Motivation, self confidence and social capability do not exist in any extension in the written documentation and Lpo 94 but match the grades. The skills swimming, orienteering, outdoor life and health-consciousness exists sparsely in the mental documentation but exists in all written documentation and in Lpo 94.

    Conclusions

    The documentation declared above indicates that the mental documentation is a important basic data for grading. Constructs that only exist there, concerning motivation, self-confidence and social capability, are important for grading and constructs that are missing, for example swimming, do not have a big impact on the grade according to a national evaluation, NU03. If the construct exists with one teacher, like orienteering, it is a bad match with the other constructs. The constructs that only exist in the mental documentation matches them that are supported in the steering documents and experience-based inner templates helps the teachers to cope with the massive information they observe during the lessons. Goals to strive for, in Lpo 94 seem to be important for the mental documentation. When the teacher can´t measure goals, like a life-long interest, they transform them into interest in the lessons in PE. All documentation was focusing on "doing" and it was hard to find the reflection that is spoken of in Lpo 94. 

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  • 25.
    Svensson, Dennis
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Movement, Culture and Society.
    Shamsolketabi, Samman
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Movement, Culture and Society.
    Yoga inom ämnet Idrott och hälsa: En kvalitativ studie om lärares syn på yoga iundervisningen inom idrott och hälsa2023Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose & question

    The purpose of the study is to investigate how the teachers in the subject of sports and healthlook at yoga, as well as whether yoga can be implemented in teaching within the subject ofsports and health in relation to students stress management/reduction.

    • What is the view of teachers in sports and health on yoga as content in the teaching?

    • How is yoga used in practice?

    • Teachers in the subject of sports and health see yoga as an effective method to reducethe student's stress level?

    Method

    The study has a qualitative approach and data was collected using five semi-structuredinterviews with physical education teachers at three different high schools in northern Stockholm. The study used a thematic analysis to identify different themes and important aspects from the interviews and the compilation of the results. The analysis was based on fourdifferent aspects such as salutogenic and pathogenic perspectives, Bourdieus concept of habitus and Engströms logics of practice.

    Results

    Three out of five participants had a positive attitude towards yoga as lesson content, the othertwo participants were neutral towards it. They saw no purpose in integrating something new into the teaching and making it rigid. Yoga today is used in different ways, ranging from thepurpose of experiencing mindfulness and relaxation to focusing solely on mobility. Three out of five participants were aware of the connection that yoga can work as a method for stressreduction.

    Conclusion

    The study shows that yoga is a method that can be used for stress reduction among highschool students, and that the use of yoga in teaching creates a good variety of content andgoes against the normative view of sports. The implementation of yoga in teaching alsoincreases the content of inclusive teaching and reduces the performance requirement withinthe subject and reduces the stress created by performance. 

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  • 26.
    Tais, Senna
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Transfer Mechanisms of Eccentric Training: The effects of EMG-biofeedback in training2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate how neural mechanisms operate during maximum strength training in the Quadriceps Femoris muscle group. One of the main objectives is to investigate the effects of five weeks unilateral maximum eccentric strength training on contralateral neural adaptations. The second is to investigate the effects of adding electromyographic (EMG) biofeedback into the training intervention. 

    Method: 20 healthy, recreationally active men and women had to undergo five weeks (three training sessions per week, resulting in 15 sessions in total) of maximum isokinetic unilateral eccentric strength training of the Quadriceps femoris muscle, with EMG biofeedback; FBG, n=10 five women and five men, or without EMG biofeedback; RTG n=10 five women and five men. The study was performed at the Laboratory of Biomechanics and Motor control, BMC Laboratory, Stockholm Sweden.

    Results: The results demonstrated an increase in concentric strength development in the trained leg; before 130 ± 43 Nm and after training 148 ± 46 Nm, (p=0.006). No significant increase in strength was detected for the untrained leg. Further, post hoc tests showed a tendency towards an increase in level of activation (LOA) of the trained leg in the FBG; from 69 ± 15 % before to 81 ± 13 % after training (p=0.097). No significant differences in the ecc:con EMG-ratio or in antagonist co-activation after the training intervention were shown.

    Conclusion: No significant difference in strength development was shown, whether training occurred with or without EMG biofeedback. However, eccentric training tended to induce transfer of neural activation to a maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) in the trained leg only in the group training with EMG biofeedback. In addition, the results revealed that eccentric strength training improved concentric strength in the trained leg but induced no transfer to the contralateral untrained leg. The benefits and prospects with incorporating feedback into training remains somewhat unknown and requires further research to obtain deeper understanding of the neural mechanisms affected by biofeedback.

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  • 27.
    Tinmark, Fredrik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Analysis of elite golfers' kinematic sequence in full and partial shots2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim
    The purposes of the present study were, to determine if partial and full-swing shots performed by skilled golfers were organized in a proximal-to-distal sequencing (PDS) pattern and to examine the speed-summation effect at pelvis, upper torso and hand segments.

    Method
    Three-dimensional kinematic recordings of pelvis, upper torso, and hand were made while forty-seven skilled golfers stroke three different clubs a range of submaximal and maximal shot distances.

    Results
    This study showed a clear proximal-to-distal temporal relationship of movement onset and peak angular speed at the pelvis, upper torso and hand segments in the golf swing. The same temporal structure was evident at all test conditions, among different gender and level of expertise. Further, results revealed a summation effect of angular velocity from proximal-to-distal, with each succeeding segment generating a larger rotational speed than the proximal segment. However, the increment in speed from proximal-to-distal was different among gender and level of expertise. Conclusions The temporal relation of segment kinematics suggests a common PDS organization in partial and full-swing shots for skilled golfers. A speed-summation effect of segmental angular speed indicates that participants did utilize interaction torques in a proximal-to-distal manner. The role of the observed PDS organization and speed-summation effect in partial shots might be to improve accuracy and, potentially, golfers should concentrate on speed initially in learning the golf swing.

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  • 28.
    Vestly, Alette
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    How to spin to win: A study about the biomechanical and physiological determinants in a snowboard jump2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim and objectives

    The aim of this study was to examine how different biomechanical, physiological and anthropometry variables relate to snowboard jump performance. The first objective was to investigate the differences in velocity at take-off, jumping height, jumping length and air-time (AT) in straight jumps and tricks with different degrees of rotations in a jump. The second objective was to identify which biomechanical and physiological parameters correlate with snowboard jump performance, which was defined as the ranking of the athletes’ best 720° jump subjectively determined by an experienced snowboard judge.

    Method

    Eleven students at Malung-Sälens Snowboard High-school performed straight jumps and backside rotations on a snowboard jump, while data on snow variables such as velocity at take-off, jumping height, jumping length and AT were collected. An experienced judge evaluated all 720° jumps. Participants also performed strength and flexibility tests to assess their physiological performance. The physiological tests included: 1RM squat, squat jump with weight equal to 40% of their 1RM squat weight, unweighted squat jump, countermovement jumps, countermovement jumps with arm swing, chin-ups, brutal bench and a modified sit and reach test.

    Results

    While performing the 720° rotations the riders had significantly higher jumping height and AT than during the 360° jumps. No significant correlations were found between the best subjectively judged 720° and jumping height, jumping length or AT. None of the physiological tests results produced significant correlations with subjectively judged snowboard performance.

    Conclusions

    When the participants performed a higher degree of rotation, jumping height and AT increased significantly. No relationships were observed between jumping height, jumping length, or AT with subjectively judged snowboard jump performance. It is believed that the rank of the best 720° was primarily based on the athletes’ personal riding style. The physiological tests showed no relationship to the subjectively judged snowboard jump performance. Other factors such as psychology, technique and coordination might be more important for performance.

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  • 29.
    Wahlgren, Lina
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Ett hälsosamt bortfall?: En studie av bortfallsgruppens skäl till att avstå från hälsotest2003Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte

    Studiens övergripande syfte var att undersöka vilka skäl som finns till att avstå från hälsotester genomförda inom företagshälsovård. För att synliggöra och öka förståelsen för dessa skäl, var studiens delsyften att undersöka bortfallsgruppens inställning till hälsotesteroch hälsosatsningar, där hälsotester ingår som en del.

    Metod

    Genom kontakt med Liv&Lust AB och Preem Petroleum AB gavs möjlighet attgenomföra en studie av bortfallsgruppen, dvs. de individer som arbetar på Preem, Huvudkontoret på Gärdet i Stockholm, och som avstått från att, på frivillig basis, deltaga i Liv&Lust Första Hälsoplantest under 2002-2003. En kvalitativ intervju genomfördes med nio personer ur bortfallsgruppen under våren 2003 på Preem:s huvudkontor. Intervjuerna var halvstrukturerade och deras längd varierade mellan cirka 35 till cirka 60 minuter.  Resultaten kategoriserades först efter meningsbärande utsagor och analyserades därefter utifrån Antonovskys KASAM-modell innehållande de tre komponenterna: meningsfullhet, begriplighet och hanterbarhet.

    Resultat

    En vanlig orsak som uppgavs som skäl till att avstå från Hälsoplantest var tidsbristpga. arbetsbelastning. Diffusa negativa känslor uttalades i samband med skälen och ibland även en osäkerhetskänsla inför företagets roll i sammanhanget. Uttryck gavs för en medvetenhet kring den egna kroppsstatusen, både positiv och negativ. Ett Hälsoplantest ansågs därmed innebära en onödig bekräftelse. Då den egna kroppsstatusen beskrevs som mindre positiv sammankopplades testet med ett negativt tillrättavisade budskap. Åsikten att man klarade sig själv, utan hälsotester, framfördes och kunde även den kopplas till medvetenheten kring den egna kroppsstatusen. Inställningen till Hälsoplantest och Preem:s beslut att genomföra dessa var positiv trots att man själv avstått från att deltaga. Inom samtliga kategorier saknades den motivationsskapande KASAM-komponenten meningsfullhet.

    Slutsats

    När bortfallsgruppen beskrev den egna kroppsstatusen i mindre positiva termerförknippades  hälsoplantestet med en negativ bekräftelse och ett negativt tillrättavisande budskap, vilka tolkades som styrande faktorer bakom skälet till att avstå. 

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  • 30.
    Welin, Louise
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Påverkas Transversus Abdominis anticipatoriska aktivering av långvarig ihållande aktivering?2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether prolonged sustained sub maximal activation of Transversu Abdominis (TrA) influences its anticipitatory activation associated with fast voluntary shoulder flexion.

    Method

    In a standing position nine physically active female subjects (mean age of 26 ± 3 y) performed five rapid bilateral shoulder flexion from 0° to 90° shoulder flexion, before and after approximately 10 minutes of sustained submaximal activity in TrA as well as after 5 minutes rest. Electromyographic activity (EMG) was recorded using two intramuscular fine-wire electrodes placed in the right TrA and two surface electrodes placed over the Deltoideus anterior. Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) was recorded intra-gastrically.

    Results

    TrA was activated prior to Deltoideus, before as well as after the sustained activation. The onset of TrA muscle activation relative to the onset of Deltoideus activation was not significantly different between before, directly after, or 5 minutes after the end of the sustained activity. The root mean square of the TrA EMG was unchanged both before arm lifts (baseline) and within the anticipatory window (100 ms before until 50 ms after Deltoideus onset). The IAP-value was unaffected in the baseline as well as in the anticipatory phase.

    Conclusion

    This study shows that the central nervous system begins activating the TrA slightly before initiating arm movements and that this behaviour is unaffected by a 10 min. sustained submaximal activation of TrA. There are no methods available for direct measurement of the mechanical output from TrA activation, but since IAP was unaffected it appears reasonable to conclude that the contractility of TrA is not deteriorated by the submaximal activation of TrA.

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