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  • 1.
    Andersson, Eva
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Laboratory of Applied Sports Science (LTIV).
    Oddsson, Kristjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Laboratory of Applied Sports Science (LTIV).
    Nilsson, Johnny
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Laboratory of Applied Sports Science (LTIV).
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Wahlgren, Lina
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Kjellman, Bengt
    Jonsson, Bo
    Taube, Jill
    Improved Physical Capacity in a Project with Guided Physical Activity for Persons with Depression or Anxiety.2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Higher physical capacity is correlated with increased health. Knowledge in this area regarding psychiatric diseases is sparse. 

    Purpose: The aim was to study aerobic and several strength capacities in a physical activity project for persons with depression or anxiety.

    Methods: Eighty-four persons (56 women and 28 men) with depression or anxiety were recruited from psychiatric out-patient clinics in Stockholm. Their mean age and BMI was 46 (21-80) years and 26 (17-41) kg/m2, respectively. 50% were sick-listed. 50% had BMI>25. Aerobic and strength tests were chosen by each subgroup´s project leaders. Directed physical activity was given, in groups 10-15, 1 hour twice/week during 8-12 weeks.

    Results: Significant changes (p<0.05, of all n=84) between pre- and post tests were seen in submaximal cycle test (11% enhanced values, n=56) and distance of 6 minutes walk test (16%, n=15) as well as in strength tests for the back for the back (i.e. time in static horizontal belly-back, 40%, n=44), abdominal and hip flexors (i.e. number of hip flexion sit-ups, 45%, n=38), leg (i.e. standing with 90O in hips and knees, 48%, n=56) and arm with shoulder muscles (i.e. number of raising weights alternately with the arms, 46%, n=32). Hand grip tests, BMI or blood pressure values did not change significantly.

    Conclusions: Directed 8-12 weeks physical activity programs can improve physical fitness in individuals with depression or anxiety.

  • 2.
    Badland, Hannah
    et al.
    Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand.
    Oliver, Melody
    Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand.
    Duncan, Mitch
    Central Queensland University, Australia.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Measuring children´s independent mobility: Comparing objective and self-report approaches2011In: Children's Geographies, ISSN 1473-3285, E-ISSN 1473-3277, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 263-271Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3. Bergström, Ylva
    et al.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Brunnsvikenguiden1992In: Hagabladet - en tidning för natur och kultur vid Haga-Brunnsviken, no 4-5, p. 3-8Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 4.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Hedman, Rune
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Irma Åstrand: Nekrolog2016Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 5. Blücher, Gösta
    et al.
    Edmar, Désirée
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Eva Nordenson: nekrolog2014Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 6.
    Boushel, Robert
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Bengt Saltin: Nekrolog2014Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Bengt Saltin

    Professor Bengt Saltin, Stockholm, har avlidit i en ålder av 79 år. Hans närmast sörjande är Ann-Sofi Colling-Saltin med barnen Ola, Åsa, och Anna med familjer.  

    Bengt Saltin föddes i Ålsten den 3 juni 1935. Han växte upp med modern Margareta och sin sociale far, Sven Saltin, som båda var folkskolelärare. Under läroverkstiden i Södertälje fångade stadens apotekare upp vinnaren vid en terränglöpning och bjöd in honom till en orienteringskurs. Ett livslångt intresse skapades. De bästa ämnena i skolan, svenska språket och svensk litteratur, representerade ett annan viktig ådra. Men det skogliga lockade mest; han ville bli jägmästare. Modern sa dock nej; ”Du ska bli läkare!” Så blev det. Under studier vid Karolinska Institutet rekryterade fysiologen Ulf von Euler honom som amanuens. Bengt nämnde sitt intresse för idrott, varvid han introducerades för professor Erik Hohwü Christensen vid Kungl. Gymnastiska Centralinstitutet.

    Sommaren 1959 inleddes skolningen till arbetsfysiolog. Det första arbetet handlade om det intermittenta arbetets fysiologi, publicerades 1960, och bidrog till intervallträningens utveckling. Det blev tidigt uppenbart att Bengt hade en ovanlig talang för forskning. Efter en centralcirkulatorisk avhandling 1964, med Hohwü Christensen och Per-Olof Åstrand som handledare, visade han även prov på stor självständighet genom att utveckla en ny forskningslinje om skelettmuskulaturen. Den blev snart världsledande. Från 1973 fortsatte Bengt sin bana som professor vid Köpenhamns universitet. Med ett kort undantag vid Karolinska Institutet, förblev Köpenhamn basen för hans gärning. De sista knappa 20 åren ledde han Copenhagen Muscle Research Centre, vars forskning redan är inskriven i vetenskapshistoriska läroböcker.

    Bengt hade en enorm arbetskapacitet, publicerade mer än 440 arbeten, och handledde drygt 40-50 doktorander. Han blev ledamot av Danmarks Kungliga Vetenskapsakademi, hedersdoktor vid tolv universitet, och fick Internationella Olympiska Kommitténs vetenskapliga pris, det finaste man kan få inom det rörelsevetenskapliga fältet. Men för att rätt förstå hans storhet bör man även ha mött honom som den oerhört stimulerande, generösa och stöttande människa han var, och fått ta del av de skarpa samhällsanalyserna samt utblickarna inom litteraturens, teaterns, operans och dansens världar. Han var beundrad av studenter över hela världen för den människa han var, för det arbete han utförde och för det han inspirerade till. Vi sörjer förlusten av en av de riktigt stora inom det arbetsfysiologiska fältet, och en ovanligt klok och vidsynt människa. 

     

    För vänner och kolleger

    Robert Boushel, professor

    Peter Schantz, professor

  • 7.
    Cardinale, Daniele
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Research group for Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Boushel, Robert
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Research group for Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Ekblom-Bak, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Is the Ekblom-Bak Test a valid screening tool for Vo2peak in highly active individuals?2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Maximal oxygen consumption testing is suggested to be regularly included between training blocks of athletes in order to monitor changes in fitness throughout the season. However, despite the good reliability and validity of this physiological test, an expensive metabolic chart, and expert personnel are needed. Further, the maximal effort needed by the athlete makes this test difficult to be performed routinely. Therefore, it is important to develop valid tools that are also feasible for the estimation of the maximal oxygen consumption. The aim of this study was to validate the Ekblom-Bak test (EBT) (Ekblom-Bak et al., 2014) against an incremental test measuring peak VO2 by gas exchange on a cycle ergometer in well-trained individuals.

    Methods

    33 highly active individuals aged 34.5±6.6yrs (mean ± standard deviation (SD)) body mass 74.5±12kg, and height; 178± 9.3m) participated in the study. The EBT test was performed prior to the incremental exercise test to peak effort on a cycle ergometer for VO2peak assessment. Oxygen uptake was determined by an automated measuring system for oxygen uptake with a mixing chamber (OxygenPro, Jaeger GmbH, Germany) validated against the Douglas bag method resulting in a typical error of 2%. The mean difference and standard deviation of the differences between the EBT and measured VO2peak was calculated with Bland-Altman analysis.

    Results

    The measured mean and SD VO2peak was 4.1±0.8 L•min-1 for the whole group (male 4.4±0.6 L•min-1 and female 2.9±0.5 L•min-1). The mean differences between measured and estimated (EBT) VO2peak was 0.05 L•min-1 (95% CI; -0.15 to 0.25). CV was 13.2% in the whole group with no significant differences between sexes. For individuals with a VO2peak within the valid range of the EBT (VO2max 1.56 to 4.49 L•min-1, n=23), the mean differences between measured and estimate VO2peak was -0.22 L•min-1 (95% CI; -0.36 to -0.08), resulting in a CV of 8.2%. For individuals above the valid limit (n=10), the mean difference was 0.68L•min-1(95% CI; 0.47 to 0.98) with a CV of 6.9%. Discussion The Ekblom-Bak test is an easily applied and inexpensive screening tool for a population of highly active individuals within the current validity range, and may be used routinely in monitoring fitness.

    References

    Ekblom-Bak E, Björkman F, Hellenius ML, Ekblom B (2014). Scand J Med Sci Sports, 24(2), 319-326

  • 8.
    Dang, Phung
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Engström, Lars-Magnus
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Tiden talar för fysiskt aktiv skolpendling2006In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, no 3, p. 14-15Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 9. De Vries, Sjerp
    et al.
    Claßen, Thomas
    Eigenheer-Hug, Stella-Maria
    Korpela, Kalevi
    Maas, Jolanda
    Mitchell, Richard
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Contributions of Natural Environments to Physical Activity: Theory and Evidence Base2011In: Forests, Trees and Human Health / [ed] Nilsson, K., Sangster, M., Gallis, C., Hartig, T., de Vries, S., Seeland, K.. & Schipperijn, J., Heidelberg: Springer Verlag , 2011, 1, p. 205-243Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The link between modern lifestyles and increasing levels of chronic heart disease, obesity, stress and poor mental health is a concern across the world. The cost of dealing with these conditions places a large burden on national public health budgets so that policymakers are increasingly looking at prevention as a cost-effective alternative to medical treatment. Attention is turning towards interactions between the environment and lifestyles. Exploring the relationships between health, natural environments in general, and forests in particular, this groundbreaking book is the outcome of the European Union’s COST Action E39 ‘Forests, Trees and Human Health and Wellbeing’, and draws together work carried out over four years by scientists from 25 countries working in the fields of forestry, health, environment and social sciences. While the focus is primarily on health priorities defined within Europe, this volume explicitly draws also on research from North America and elsewhere and will have relevance worldwide. A state-of-the-art analysis of the global research on the topic of forests and human health, a key contribution of the book is its synthesis of material across both disciplines and nations, providing a vital reference for researchers in forestry, health, natural resource management and environmental policy. Currently the only unified body of work on this topic, the book will also be an important tool for those working in both health and environment policy and practice.

  • 10. Elm, Klas
    et al.
    Brynell Johansson, Gunilla
    Strömgren, Lars
    Larsson, Lovisa
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Marjanovic, Arijana
    Oretorp, Henrik
    Forsberg, Bertil
    En ny nollvision som både räddar och förlänger liv2017In: Dagens Samhälle, ISSN 2002-5548, no 24 novemberArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Nollvisionen för trafiksäkerheten är cynisk. Infrastrukturminister Tomas Eneroth måste ta fram ett nytt mål bortom nollvisionen som inte bara förhindrar dödsolyckor i trafiken, utan som också räddar, förbättrar och förlänger liv i hela samhället. Ett transportsystem där folkhälsan går plus är möjligt nu när elcykelförsäljningen ökar dramatiskt, skriver forskare och initiativtagare till Moving Beyond Zero.

     

    Varje person som väljer att cykla istället för att ta bilen räddar liv. Minskad biltrafik leder till mindre avgasutsläpp och vägslitage. Det förbättrar livskvaliteten hos personer med andningsbesvär och gör att de globala klimatförändringarna som påverkar allas hälsa negativt minskar. Dessutom vet vi sedan länge att motion förbättrar hälsan.

    Sedan 20 år tillbaka styrs det svenska trafiksäkerhetsarbetet av målet att ingen ska dödas eller skadas allvarligt i trafiken. Inledningsvis var arbetet framgångsrikt och antalet omkomna i trafikolyckor minskade från omkring 540 per år till fjolårets 270. Varje dödsfall är ett för mycket, men i dag framstår nollvisionen som cynisk.

    Bilarnas trafiksäkerhet har under dessa år ökat på cyklisternas bekostnad. Nya vajerräcken är den vägåtgärd som i störst utsträckning bidragit till att minska olyckorna för bilister. Men det har gjort det omöjligt att cykla på vägen. Det är en förklaring till att cyklandet har minskat på landsbygden. Trafikverket slår sig för bröstet för att antalet dödade och skadade har minskat i en del av samhället när det samtidigt har inneburit att personer dör i en annan del.

    Trafikverkets översyn av Nollvisionen från 2016 beskriver hur olyckor för bilister ska förhindras. För cyklisterna ses olyckorna som “oundvikliga” och att skadorna ska lindras genom att cyklisterna ska sänka hastigheten samt bära fluorescerande kläder och skyddsutrustning. Krav på att cyklister ska skydda sig själva från farliga vägar och bilar riskerar att minska cyklandet.

    Detta är cyniskt, då det finns flera åtgärder som Trafikverket kan göra för att också förhindra cykelolyckor. Trafikverkets egna beräkningar visar att säkrare cykelinfrastruktur skulle leda till 78 färre allvarligt skadade cyklister per år.  Sänkt hastighet i tätbebyggt område och bättre vinterväghållning för cyklister skulle leda till 48 respektive 38 färre allvarligt skadade per år.

    Men istället för att satsa på det som skulle öka cyklingen och göra den säkrare har de senaste tjugo åren inneburit motsatsen. Nu gör elcykelpremien att försäljningen av elcyklar ökar dramatiskt och nyligen utsågs elcykeln till årets julklapp. Nu finns det möjligheter att tänka nytt i trafikpolitiken.

    Nyttorna med ökad aktiv mobilitet, såsom gång och cykling, är så mycket större än trafiksäkerhet. I jämförelse med olycksriskerna är hälsoeffekterna 20 gånger större. I Sverige dör varje år 1 500 personer på grund av luftföroreningar och vägdamm från trafiken, och flera 1000-tals personer dör varje år i förtid på grund av fysiskt inaktiv livsstil.

    Därför behöver Sverige en ny nollvision som räddar, förbättrar och förlänger liv istället för att så få som möjligt ska dödas eller skadas. Ett sådant mål kan bara nås genom att främja aktiv mobilitet. 

    Klas Elm

    Svensk Cykling

     

    Gunilla Brynell Johansson

    VD, Vätternrundan

     

    Lars Strömgren

    European Cyclists’ Federation

     

    Lovisa Larsson

    Trafiksäkerhetsrådet

     

    Peter Schantz

    Professor, Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan (GIH)

     

    Arijana Marjanovic

    Cykelfrämjandet

     

    Henrik Oretorp

    Svenska Cykelstäder

     

    Bertil Forsberg

    Professor, Umeå Universitet

  • 11. Henriksson, Jan
    et al.
    Rosdahl, Hans
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Wallberg, Harriet
    Per-Olof Åstrand: Nekrolog2015Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Nekrolog över Per-Olof Åstrand

    Professor emeritus Per-Olof Åstrand har avlidit i en ålder av 92 år. Hans närmaste anhöriga är makan Irma och barnen Elin och Per med familjer.

    Per-Olof Åstrand föddes i Bredaryd i Småland den 21 oktober 1922, och avled den 2 januari 2015 i Näsby Park norr om Stockholm. Efter värnplikt och beredskapstjänstgöring i pansartrupperna under andra världskriget kom han 1944 till Kungl. Gymnastiska Centralinstitutet (GCI/GIH) för studier till gymnastiklärare. Vid sluttentamen i fysiologi var hans svar så avancerade att den ansvarige läraren bad professorn, Erik Hohwü Christensen, att rätta dem. Kort därefter fick GCI:s fysiologiska institution en ny amanuens.

    Efter gymnastikdirektörsexamen 1946 följde läkarstudier, och parallellt med dessa inleddes avhandlingsarbetet  ”Experimental studies of physical working capacity in relation to sex and age”, som försvarades 1952. Genom detta utvecklades en metodik för att mäta maximal syreupptagning. Det blev en avgörande variabel att relatera till i hans senare forskning om den cirkulatoriska och respiratoriska anpassningen till fysiskt arbete och träning. Det submaximala konditionstest som P.-O., och hans blivande hustru Irma Ryhming, publicerade år 1954 bidrog till att göra GCI känt över världen. Det finns fog att benämna honom som ”den vetenskapligt baserade konditionsträningens fader”. 1970 blev han professor i kroppsövningarnas fysiologi vid GIH.

    P.-O. visade tidigt ett stort intresse för undervisning, och många mötte honom i populärvetenskapliga skrifter såsom ”Kondition och hälsa” och ”Bättre kondition”, men det var genom den omfattande läroboken ”Textbook of Work Physiology: Physiological Bases for Exercise”, skriven tillsammans med Kaare Rodahl, som han blev det riktigt stora namnet inom internationell arbetsfysiologi. Där framträdde holisten Åstrand med en bredd och ett djup som ingen förr hade fångat och skrivit fram. Denna bok, P.-O:s pedagogiska förmåga och engagemang har haft avgörande betydelse för många studenter och kolleger.

    Hans gärningar gjorde honom till ledamot i många lärda sällskap och hedersdoktor vid ett antal universitet ute i världen. Därtill var han en hedersman, med en personlighet präglad av en stor omtanke, slagkraftig humor och generös spiritualitet, ofta med inslag av en särpräglad musikalisk förmåga. För oss som studenter och lärare vid GIH kom samvaron med P.-O. ofta att formas till högtidsstunder. En legendar har nu lämnat oss i djupaste sorg, men också i tacksamhet över allt han bidrog med i våra liv.

    Jan Henriksson

    Hans Rosdahl

    Peter Schantz

    Harriet Wallberg

  • 12. Holm, Lennart
    et al.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Inledning2002In: Nationalstadsparken – ett experiment i hållbar utveckling: Studier av värdefrågor, lagtillämpning och utvecklingslinjer. / [ed] Holm, Lennart & Schantz, Peter, Stockholm: Forskningsrådet Formas, 2002, p. 9-20Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 13. Holm, Lennart
    et al.
    Schantz, PeterSwedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Nationalstadsparken: ett experiment i hållbar utveckling: studier av värdefrågor, lagtillämpning och utvecklingslinjer2002Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det historiska landskapet Ulriksdal-Haga-Brunnsviken-Djurgården är Sveriges äldsta och mest besökta tätortsnära frilufts- och rekreationsområde. Det ligger mitt i Stor-Stockholm vid gränsen mellan skärgården och Mälardalen, är rikt på kulturella minnen och har en intressant biologisk mångfald.

    Närheten till storstaden gör detta landskap lätt tillgängligt för allmänheten. Men närheten gör det också attraktivt för olika slag av exploateringar. 1995 fick området därför skydd som Sveriges första nationalstadspark genom ett enhälligt beslut i riksdagen.

    Syftet med lagstiftningen är att förstärka områdets natur-, kultur- och rekreationsvärden samt att värna den biologiska mångfalden. Och regeringen menade att dess förslag kunde förväntas "medföra en stor samhällsekonomisk vinst för Stockholmsregionen genom att främja en uthållig samhällsutveckling och en god livsmiljö för boende och företag i regionen".

    I denna bok belyses hur lagstiftningen har tillämpats och vilka lärdomar som kan dras efter nationalstadsparkens första sju år. Här diskuteras också frågor kring natur- och kulturvärden och behov av utvecklingslinjer vad gäller såväl förvaltning, rättstillämpning som lagstiftning.

    Nationalstadsparken har liknats vid ett experiment i hållbar utveckling och är på så sätt av intresse för alla dem som intresserar sig för och brottas med frågor om hur en hållbar samhällsutveckling ska kunna uppnås. Boken vänder sig därför till såväl allmänheten, tjänstemän och politiker som till studerande och forskare i alla ämnen.

    (Baksidestext)

  • 14.
    Johansson, Christer
    et al.
    Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lövenheim, Boel
    Environment and Health Administration, SLB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Wahlgren, Lina
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Almström, Peter
    WSP Civils, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Markstedt, Anders
    WSP Civils, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Strömgren, Magnus
    Department of Geography and Economic History, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden .
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Nilsson Sommar, Johan
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Impacts of air pollution and health by changing commuting from car to bicycle2017In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 584-585, p. 55-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our study is based on individual data on people’s home and work addresses, as well as their age, sex and physical capacity, in order to establish realistic bicycle-travel distances. A transport model is used to single out data on commuting preferences in the County Stockholm. Our analysis shows there is a very large potential for reducing emissions and exposure if all car drivers living within a distance corresponding to a maximum of a 30 minute bicycle ride to work would change to commuting by bicycle. It would result in more than 111 000 new cyclists, corresponding to an increase of 209% compared to the current situation.

    Mean population exposure would be reduced by about 7% for both NOx and black carbon (BC) in the most densely populated area of the inner city of Stockholm. Applying a relative risk for NOx of 8% decrease in all-cause mortality associated with a 10 µg m-3 decrease in NOx, this corresponds to more than 449 (95% CI: 340 - 558) years of life saved annually for the Stockholm county area with 2.1 million inhabitants. This is more than double the effect of the reduced mortality estimated for the introduction of congestion charge in Stockholm in 2006. Using NO2 or BC as indicator of health impacts, we obtain 395 (95% CI: 172 - 617) and 185 (95% CI: 158 - 209) years of life saved for the population, respectively. The calculated exposure of BC and its corresponding impacts on mortality are likely underestimated. With this in mind the estimates using NOx, NO2 and BC show quite similar health impacts considering the 95% confidence intervals.

  • 15.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    200 years of physical education teacher education: An overview of movement practices2016In: Researching Embodied Sport: Exploring Movement Cultures / [ed] Ian Wellard, Oxon, England: Routledge, 2016, p. 30-46Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    A 200-year perspective and future challenges: Physical activities and their relation to physical education2013In: Gender In Physical Culture The 2013 Meeting: Transnational working group for the study of gender and sport, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Over time the chosen bodily movement practices within Physical education and health (PEH) have created tensions in terms of power and control over what has been seen as legitimate in the educational sector of physical culture. The aim of the study has been to, through a macro level overview and by using a model, illuminate how different bodily movement practices in the world’s oldest physical education teacher education (PETE) have emerged over time, become embedded, remain, fade or disappear. By following this continuity and discontinuity of practices, four distinct phases have been identified and their contextual background is described.

    The theoretical departure point is inspired by the work of Bourdieu. The analytical focus have been placed on how deliberate forms of bodily movement practices within the studied PETE program came to be defined and regulated through meaning making principles, or in other words: logic of practices (Bourdieu 1984, 1990). This departure point makes it possible to analyze how aspects of investment and intrinsic values have been put forward and related to views on body, gender and health.

    Findings: The first phase is characterized by the establishment of Ling gymnastics from early 1800s, and its gradual fall in the 1900s. Next phase started in the late 1800s and dealt with the introduction of sport and outdoor life. The third relates to the rise and fall of a separate female gymnastics practice during the 1900s. The fourth phase is characterized by the introduction of everyday life physical activities in the beginning of the new millennium. The overview is followed by reflections on the future content of bodily movement practices and sought for values in PETE and physical education in the school system, seen from a gender perspective.

  • 17.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Physical Activities and Their Relation to Physical Education: A 200-Year Perspective and Future Challenges2013In: The Global Journal of Health and Physical Education Pedagogy, ISSN 2160-2570, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this macrolevel overview, a model of the multiplicity of the field of bodily movement cultures is initially presented. The model is then used to illuminate how different bodily movement practices emerged over time, became embedded, remained, faded, or disappeared in the world’s oldest physical education teacher education (PETE) program. Through thiscontinuity and discontinuity of practices, five distinct phases are identified, although sometimes intertwined, and their contextual background is described. The first phase is characterized by the establishment of Ling gymnastics from the early 19thcentury and by its fall in the 20thcentury. The next phase started in the late 19thcentury and dealt with the introduction of sportsand outdoor life. During a third phase, sports became the dominating movement practice. The fourth phase is related to the rise and fall of a separate female gymnastics culture during the 20thcentury. The fifth phase is characterized by the introduction of everyday life physical activities at the beginning of the new millennium. The overview is followed by reflections on the future content of bodily movement practices and sought-after values in PETE and physical education in the school system.

  • 18. Lövenheim, Boel
    et al.
    Johansson, Christer
    Wahlgren, Lina
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment. Riksidrottsförbundet.
    Rosdahl, Hans
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Salier Eriksson, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Almström, Peter
    Berglund, Svante
    Markstedt, Anders
    Nilsson Sommar, Johan
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Health risk assessment of reduced air pollution exposure when changing commuting by car to bike2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we have assessed the reduction in traffic emissions and population exposure assuming all potential car commuters would switch to biking if they live within 30 minute travel by bike. The scenario would result in more than 100 000 new bikers and due to the reduced traffic emissions 42 premature deaths would be avoided per year. This is almost twice as large effect as the congestion tax in Stockholm.

     

     

    Introduction

    Regular physical activity has important and wide-ranging health benefits including reduced risk of chronic disease, and physical inactivity is mentioned as perhaps the most important public health problem of the 21st century. At the same time, the direct effects of traffic emissions is a major health problem. Transferring commuting by car to bike will increase physical activity and reduce emissions and reduce population exposure to traffic pollution. The exposure of commuters will also change; new bikers may get higher exposure whilst old bikers and car drivers may get lower exposures, depending on commuting route and distance.

     

    Methodology

    In this study we have calculated the potential number of car-to-bike switching commuters depending on distance, travel time, age of commuters, etc. We have made calculations for a 30-minute biking scenario, i.e. transferring all car commuters to bike if their travel time by bike is less than or equal to 30 minutes. The commuting distance depends on age and sex. For the travel and traffic modelling the LuTrans model was used. It includes all different modes of travel; walking, bicycling, public transport systems and car traffic. The model was developed based on travel survey data and is regularly calibrated using traffic counts. Emissions from road traffic were calculated based on HBEFA 3.2. A Gaussian dispersion model was used estimate exposures over the county of Stockholm.

     

    Results

    The 30 min scenario resulted in 106 881 more bikers, an increase of 2.6 times compared to base scenario. Of all bikers 50% were men and the mean age of all bikers was 42. The traffic emissions of NOx was reduced by up to 7%. Up to 20% reduction in traffic contribution to NOx concentrations was calculated as shown in Figure 1. The mean reduction in concentration for the whole area is 6% and the largest occur were most people live.

    The population weighted mean NOx concentration for 1.6 million people in Greater Stockholm is estimated to be reduced by 0.41 μg m-3. Assuming that the premature mortality is reduced by 8% per 10 μg m-3 (Nafstad et al., 2004), this corresponds to 42 avoided premature deaths every year or 514 gained life years gained. This is even somewhat more beneficial than the effects of the congestion charge in Stockholm (Johansson et al., 2009), which was estimated to save 27 premature deaths per year. The gain in reduced mortality is almost as large as the gain in health of the increased physical activity.

     

    Conclusions

    Transferring car commuters to bike is not only beneficial for the physical activity, but will also lead to reduced traffic emissions and reduced population exposure. Our estimates show that it may be even more beneficial for mortality due to air pollution exposure than the congestion charge in Stockholm.

     

    Acknowledgement

    This project was funded by the Swedish Research Council for Health, Working life and Welfare.

     

    References

    Johansson, C., Burman, L., Forsberg, B. 2009. The effects of congestions tax on air quality and health. Atmos. Environ. 43, 4843-4854.

    Nafstad, P., Lund Håheim, L., Wisloeff, T., Gram, G., Oftedal, B., Holme, I., Hjermann, I. and Leren, P. 2004. Urban Air Pollution and Mortality in a Cohort of Norwegian Men. Environ. Health Perspect. 112, 610-615.

  • 19.
    Rosdahl, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Laboratory of Applied Sports Science (LTIV). Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment. Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Gullstrand, Lennart
    Salier Eriksson, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Johansson, Patrik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Evaluation of the Oxycon Mobile metabolic system against the Douglas bag method.2010In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 109, no 2, p. 159-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to evaluate two versions of the Oxycon Mobile portable metabolic system (OMPS1 and OMPS2) in a wide range of oxygen uptake, using the Douglas bag method (DBM) as criterion method. The metabolic variables VO2, VCO2, respiratory exchange ratio and VE were measured during submaximal and maximal cycle ergometer exercise with sedentary, moderately trained individuals and athletes as participants. Test-retest reliability was investigated using the OMPS1. The coefficients of variation varied between 2 and 7% for the metabolic parameters measured at different work rates and resembled those obtained with the DBM. With the OMPS1, systematic errors were found in the determination of VO2 and VCO2. At submaximal work rates VO2 was 6-14% and VCO2 5-9% higher than with the DBM. At VO2max both VO2 and VCO2 were slightly lower as compared to DBM (-4.1 and -2.8% respectively). With OMPS2, VO2 was determined accurately within a wide measurement range (about 1-5.5 L min(-1)), while VCO2 was overestimated (3-7%). VE was accurate at submaximal work rates with both OMPS1 and OMPS2, whereas underestimations (4-8%) were noted at VO2max. The present study is the first to demonstrate that a wide range of VO2 can be measured accurately with the Oxycon Mobile portable metabolic system (second generation). Future investigations are suggested to clarify reasons for the small errors noted for VE and VCO2 versus the Douglas bag measurements, and also to gain knowledge of the performance of the device under applied and non-laboratory conditions.

  • 20.
    Rosdahl, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Salier Eriksson, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Validation of data collected with mobile metabolic measurement systems over time during active commuting2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    With the aim of attaining valid descriptions of metabolic demands during active commuting in greater Stockholm new approaches have been used. We have previously reported evaluations of a mobile metabolic measurement system both in the laboratory (Rosdahl et al. 2010) and during simulated field conditions, including check of stability over time (Salier-Eriksson et al. 2012). However, to be confident with the validity of the metabolic data collected over time during mobile field conditions we have used new approaches. 

    Methods

    During the period of data collection in the field with the mobile metabolic system (Oxycon Mobile, JLAB 5.21, CareFusion, Germany) this was controlled once by the manufacturer and 11 times in our own laboratory using a commercially available metabolic calibrator (Vacumed, syringe No.1750 and mass flow controller No. 17052, Ventura, CA, USA).  On each occasion VO2 and VCO2 were checked between 1 - 4 L/min with the corresponding VE at 40-160 L/minute and tidal volume at 2 L. The calibration information (offset, gain and delay time) from the O2 and CO2 analyzers and volume sensor, being collected pre and post the field commuting tests, was analyzed. Additionally, the results of each experiment was critically examined in several means including an inspection of parallelism in heart rate and VO2. 

    Results and Discussion

    As examined with the metabolic calibrator, all parameters (VO2, VCO2, RER and VE) measured by the mobile metabolic system were in general well within the boundaries of acceptance. Adequate stability of the O2 and CO2 analyzers and volume sensors for the time duration of each experiment was confirmed by small differences in the pre- and post-calibration factors. Based on two researchers´ ocular inspections of heart rate and oxygen uptake recordings during active commuting, all but one were rated as generally parallel, and thus passed this type of check of the field measurements. Overall, the present investigation favors that data collected over time with a mobile metabolic system can be validated by a combination of metabolic calibrator measurements, analyses of calibration information and a critical examination of the variables from each single measurement.

    References

    Rosdahl, H., Gullstrand, L., Salier Eriksson, J., Johansson, P. & Schantz, P. 2010. Evaluation of the Oxycon Mobile metabolic system against the Douglas bag method. Eur J Appl Physiol 109 (2):159-71.

    Salier Eriksson, J., Rosdahl, H. & Schantz, P. 2012. Validity of the Oxycon Mobile metabolic system under field measuring conditions. Eur J Appl Physiol, 112 (1): 345-355.

    Huszczuk, A., Whipp, B.J and Wasserman, K. 1990. A respiratory gas exchange simulator for routine calibration in metabolic studies. Eur. Respir. J. 3:465-468.

  • 21.
    Rosdahl, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Salier-Eriksson, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Measurements of Metabolic Profiles of Commuting Pedestrians and Cyclists using Validated Indirect Calorimetry2010In: Proceedings from The 3rd International Congress on Physical Activity and Public Health, Toronto, May, 5-8, 2010, 2010, p. 36-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Salier Eriksson, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Hjärtfrekvensmetod för beräkning av syreupptagning under gång- och cykelpendling: ny avhandling2018In: Idrottsmedicin, ISSN 1103-7652, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 29-31Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 23.
    Salier Eriksson, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Kan val av transportsätt bidra till bättre folkhälsa och miljö?2013In: Svensk Idrottsmedicin, ISSN 1103-7652, no 2, p. 20-22Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 24.
    Salier Eriksson, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    The heart rate method for estimating oxygen uptake in walking and cycle commuting: Evaluations based on reproducibility and validity studies of the heart rate method and a portable metabolic system2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Walking and cycling to work can contribute to population health, but more objective knowledge concerning exercise intensities, oxygen uptake and the metabolic demands of this physical activity is needed for this and other evaluations. To attain this, valid and reliable instruments are a requirement. The focus of this thesis was to evaluate whether the heart rate method can be used for this purpose. It involves establishing the relation between heart rate and oxygen uptake during ergometer cycling in laboratory conditions, and thereafter checking if the same relation exists during cycle or walking commuting in a metropolitan area.

    To accomplish this, a portable metabolic system was tested for validity and reliability in laboratory and field conditions and the reproducibility of the heart rate and oxygen uptake relation in the laboratory was evaluated. Furthermore, the heart rate and oxygen uptake relations during cycle and walking commuting was compared with those attained in the laboratory.

    The first two studies showed that a portable metabolic system is valid during laboratory and sustained field conditions. Studies 3 and 4 showed that the heart rate method with respect to the heart rate-oxygen uptake relationship is reliable on the group level for both walking and cycling commuters during repeated measures in the laboratory. The last two studies showed that applying the heart rate method during cycle commuting leads to valid levels of oxygen uptake on the group level for both males and females. Contrary to that, the measured levels of oxygen uptake in the field during walking commuting were on average 17% higher for males, and 13% higher for females than the values obtained with the heart rate method. For both walking and cycling commuters, the individual spread around the mean values was rather high, creating somewhat wide confidence intervals for the mean values.

    In summary, the heart rate method can be used for cycle commuters during their normal commuting conditions, while for pedestrians it is necessary to take into account that oxygen uptake per heart rate is higher while walking than that estimated from ergometer cycling in the laboratory.

  • 25.
    Salier Eriksson, Jane
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Rosdahl, Hans
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Is the heart rate method for estimating oxygen consumption valid in cycle commuting?Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Salier Eriksson, Jane
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Rosdahl, Hans
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Is the heart rate method for estimating oxygen consumption valid in walking commuting?Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Salier Eriksson, Jane
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Rosdahl, Hans
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Relationships between heart rate and oxygen uptake in laboratory conditions and in bicycling commuting2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction. Measuring the energetic demands of habitual commuter cyclists is essential to create more accurate methods for measuring active commuting so as to be able to objectively determine the impact that cycle commuting can have on population health.

    Heart rate (HR) can be used as an indicator of aerobic processes while commuter cycling as long as the relationship between oxygen uptake (VO2) and HR is established in laboratory conditions. However in the field, environmental aspects might introduce effects of stress that change the relationship. Thus measurements need also to be performed in the field in order to explore the HR-VO2 relationship between the two conditions.

    Methods. Metabolic measurements were performed in the laboratory as well as in the field using 20 habitual commuter cyclists (10 males and 10 females) aged 44 ± 3 yrs. A validated stationary as well as a portable metabolic system was used (Rosdahl et al. 2010; 2016; Salier-Eriksson et al. 2012). A comparison was made between the laboratory and field conditions of the HR-VO2 relationship.

    Results and Discussion. Based on the average heart rate, the measured oxygen uptake was about 2.5 % lower (n.s.) than the expected levels based on the steady state HR-VO2 relationships in the laboratory. Thus, the results indicate that the HR-VO2 relationships in the field were comparable to those measured in the laboratory on a group level. However, relatively large individual differences were found.

    References

    Rosdahl, H., Gullstrand, L., Salier Eriksson, J., Johansson, P. & Schantz, P. 2010. Evaluation of the Oxycon Mobile metabolic system against the Douglas bag method. Eur J Appl Physiol 109 (2):159-71.

    Rosdahl, H., Salier Eriksson, J. & Schantz, P. 2016. Validation of data collected with mobile metabolic measurement systems over time during active commuting. Proceedings of the 21st Annual Congress of The European College of Sport Sciences, Vienna, Austria, 6-8 July (Abstract).  

    Salier Eriksson, J., Rosdahl, H. & Schantz, P. 2012. Validity of the Oxycon Mobile metabolic system under field measuring conditions. Eur J Appl Physiol, 112 (1): 345-355.

     

     

     

  • 28.
    Salier Eriksson, Jane
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Rosdahl, Hans
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Validity of the Oxycon Mobile metabolic system under field measuring conditions2012In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 112, no 1, p. 345-355Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Purpose: It is essential to validate portable metabolic systems, not only in laboratory settings, but also in field measuring conditions, such as prolonged moderate exercise at low temperatures, high humidity and with external wind.

     

    Methods: VO2, VCO2, RER and VE were measured using the Oxycon Mobile (OM), with a windshield, during cycle ergometer exercise: (I) indoors at three submaximal workloads with no wind or with external wind (13–20 m·s-1) from front, side and back; (II) at two submaximal workloads outdoors (12 ± 2oC; 86 ± 7% RH), with and without a system for drying the ambient air around the air sampling tube; and (III) at one workload outdoors for 45 min (5 ± 4oC; 69 ± 16.5% RH). Any physiological drift was checked for with pre- and postmeasurements by the Douglas bag method (DBM).

     

    Results: A minor effect of external wind from behind was noted in RER and VE (-2 and -3%).. The system for drying the ambient air around the gas sampling tube had no effect on the measured levels. A small difference in VCO2 drift between the OM and DBM (1.5 mL·min-2) was noted in the stability test.

     

    Conclusion: Heavy external wind applied from different directions generally does not affect the measurements of the OM. Furthermore, when using a unit for drying the ambient air around the gas sampling tube, the OM can accurately measure VO2, RER and VE   at submaximal workloads for at least45 min under challenging conditions with regard to humidity and temperature.

     

  • 29.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Along paths converging to Bengt Saltin´s early contributions in exercise physiology2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 25, no Suppl. 4, p. 7-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A fascinating chain of events led in 1941 to the formation of the Department of Physiology at the Royal Gymnastic Central Institute (GCI) in Stockholm, Sweden. Erik Hohwü Christensen, from the scientifically advanced Lindhard School in Copenhagen, became its first professor. A central research question for him concerned determining the limiting factors for maximal physical performance in man. This was the academic setting where the sports interested medical student Bengt Saltin was introduced to exercise physiology. In the summer of 1959 he became involved in a study on intermittent versus continuous running. A doctoral project, with Per-Olof Åstrand as his tutor, resulted in 1964 as the thesis ‘Aerobic work capacity and circulation at exercise in man. With special reference to the effect of prolonged exercise and/or heat exposure’. In the decade that followed, Saltin continued along that path. However, he also added a vital research line involving pioneering studies on skeletal muscles in the exercising man, a series of novel studies on the physiological demands in various sports, and studies of the effects of physical training within the general population.

  • 30.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    City Planning, Physical Activity and Public Health Perspectives in Europe2011In: Proceedings from The 5th Asia-Pacific Conference on Exercise and Sports Science, November 1-4, 2011: Better City Better Life : Through Active Healthy Lifestyles and Sports Science, Shanghai: Shanghai University of Sports, Shanghai, China , 2011, p. 6-7Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Cyklistens landskap2013In: Program Transportforum 2013. Linköping 9-10 januari 2013.: Session 30: Planera för aktiv transport – vinn tid, hälsa och miljö, Linköping: Väg- och transportforskningsinstitutet (VTI) , 2013, p. 20-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sedan slutet av 1800-talet har cykeln varit så tekniskt utvecklad att den fått roller inom såväl aktiva transporter som rekreation, friluftsliv, motion, träning och tävling. Kraven på cyklistens landskap i dessa olika sammanhang är förvånansvärt lite studerade. Men vi kan utgå från att de skiljer sig åt.  Det finns också ett planeringsbehov för alla dessa syften med cykling. Det är därför viktigt att söka nå kunskap om vilka miljöfaktorer det är som gör att vi upplever färdvägsmiljöer som såväl säkra och trygga samt stimulerande.   

    Färdvägsmiljöer är ofta mycket komplexa. De innehåller många orörliga och rörliga element, samt interaktion mellan dessa. Hur ska man då kunna förstå dessa miljöer, och erhålla säker kunskap om dem och vilka miljövariabler som är kritiska?

    För att nå dithän behöver olika strategier användas. Om man vill erhålla bättre kunskap om vilka miljöfaktorer det är som är kritiska för ovan typer av övergripande bedömningar behöver man kunna renodla betydelsen av enskilda miljövariabler. För detta ändamål har färdvägsmiljöskalan ”The Active Commuting Route Environment Scale” (ACRES) skapats av FoU-gruppen för rörelse, hälsa och miljö vid GIH i Stockholm (www.gih.se/rhm). 

    ACRES är ett instrument som trafikplanerare kan använda för olika former av utvärderingar av färdvägsmiljöer, till exempel för att förstå hur olika segment av färdvägen uppfattas av fotgängare och cyklister, eller för att utvärdera effekten av miljöförbättrande åtgärder.

    Vid föreläsningen beskrivs uppbyggnaden av ACRES samt resultat av studier som bland annat visar att grönska och skönhet i färdvägsmiljön, oberoende av varandra, bidrar till att stimulera cykling vid arbetspendling. Avgaser och trängsel i blandtrafik har motsatt verkan.

     Därutöver beskrivs andra angreppssätt för att nå mer kunskap om hur vi kan skapa färdvägsmiljöer som bidrar till en lust att cykla genom landskapet.

  • 32.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Cyklisterna får hjulen att snurra2007In: Svenska Dagbladet, Vol. 28 novemberArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 33.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Dansen i landskapet2013In: Hagabladet, no 3-4, p. 2-3Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 34.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    De saknade kulturvärdena: en fallstudie av kulturmiljöbeskrivningar för fysisk planering2002In: Nationalstadsparken - ett experiment i hållbar utveckling: Studier av värdefrågor, lagtillämpning och utvecklingslinjer / [ed] Lennart Holm & Peter Schantz, Stockholm: Forskningsrådet Formas, 2002, Vol. S. [145]-167 : ill., p. 145-167Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    De upplevda landskapen för cykling: Påverkan på hälsan2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Förord:

    I Trafikverkets uppgifter ingår att tänka på hälsoaspekter som en del av effekterna av trafiksystemet. Då handlar det inte bara om negativa effekter på miljön i form av avgaser, buller och vibrationer utan också om ohälsa som följd av för lite rörelse. Kan Trafikverket på olika sätt bidra till att cykling kan öka är det av stort värde.

    Denna rapport är den andra från Trafikverket i ämnet om färdvägsmiljöer och deras betydelse för cykling. Den bygger vidare på TrV-rapport 2012:157, och är skriven av samme författare, Peter Schantz, som är professor vid Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan (GIH) i Stockholm, och verksam inom temaområdet rörelse, hälsa och miljö.

    Här ger han sin syn på hur trafiksystemet kan utvärderas och anpassas för att öka attraktiviteten för cykling.

    Trafikverket har inte tagit ställning, utan rapporten utgör ett underlag för fortsatt utveckling av ämnet. För den som vill få fördjupade inblickar i värdet av cykling för hälsa och välbefinnande skall även nämnas Trafikverksrapporten "Om gång och cykling, hälsa och hållbar utveckling" (TrV rapport 2015:153), som är skriven av samme författare.

  • 36.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Den vidare nationalstadsparken: Ett friluftslandskap för framtiden2017In: Parkstaden: Stockholms landskap och stadens rum / [ed] Ann Pålsson, Stockholm: Historiska media , 2017, 1, p. 56-67Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Kapitlet beskriver hur Sveriges mest nyttjade grönområde, nationalstadsparken i Stockholm och Solna (Ulriksdal, Haga-Brunnsviken och Norra samt Södra Djurgården), växte fram dels genom ett förändrat markutnyttjande mellan 1500- och 1700-talen i form av en barockträdgård, jaktparker och engelska parker, dels genom en politisk process som ledde fram till en ny lagstiftning och därmed nationalstadsparkens bildande 1995. Natur- och kulturvärden knutna till detta landskap beskrivs. De kompletteras med beskrivningar av det inre skärgårdslandskapet från Norra Djurgården via Lilla och Stora Värtan och dess angränsade områden till och med Bogesundslandet. Det senare områdets historia, värden och friluftskvaliteer kompletterar nationalstadsparkens, och bidrar till ett sammantaget tätortsnära friluftslandskap med osedvanliga kvalitéer.    

  • 37.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Det historiska landskapets kulturvärden: hur kan beskrivningarna utvecklas?2002In: Nationalstadsparken – ett experiment i hållbar utveckling: Studier av värdefrågor, lagtillämpning och utvecklingslinjer / [ed] Holm, Lennart & Schantz, Peter, Stockholm: Forskningsrådet för miljö, areella näringar och samhällsbyggande , 2002, Vol. S. [99]-112 : ill., p. 99-112Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Det tätortsnära naturmötet2008In: Friluftshistoria - från `härdande friluftslif´ till ekoturism och miljöpedagogik: : Teman i det svenska friluftslivets historia / [ed] Klas Sandell & Sverker Sörlin, Stockholm: Carlssons Bokförlag , 2008, 2, p. 238-257Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 39.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Distance, duration and velocity in cycle commuting: Analyses of relations and determinants of velocity2017In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 14, no 10, p. 1-14, article id 1166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The distance, duration, and velocity of cycling for transport purposes are used in health economic assessments, epidemiological studies, traffic modelling, and planning. It is therefore of value to determine relevant levels for them, and analyze how they relate, as well as to what extent other relevant variables may affect cycling velocities. 1661 cycle commuters (34% males) in Greater Stockholm, Sweden have been studied for that purpose.

    Methods: The participants were recruited with advertisements. They received questionnaires and individually adjusted maps to draw their normal cycling route. Route distances were measured by a criterion method. Age, sex, weight, height, and cycling durations to work were self-reported. The commuting routes were positioned in relation to inner urban and/or suburban–rural areas. Linear multiple regression analyses were used.

    Results: Cycling speeds were positively related to commuting distances or durations, being male, of younger age, having higher body weight but lower body mass index (BMI), and using the last digits 1–4 or 6–9 in duration reports (as compared to 0 and 5), as well as cycling in suburban (versus inner urban) areas.

    Conclusions: The study provides new knowledge about how distance and duration, as well as other factors, relate to the velocity of commuter cycling. It thereby enables the use of more appropriate input values in, for instance, health economic assessments and epidemiological health studies.

  • 40.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Environment, Sustainability and the Agenda for Physical Education2002In: International Council of Sport Science and Physical Education (ICSSPE) Bulletin, no 36, p. 8-9Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Ett mångfasetterat experiment: en introduktion till sju texter2002In: Nationalstadsparken – ett experiment i hållbar utveckling.: Studier av värdefrågor, lagtillämpning och utvecklingslinjer. / [ed] Holm, Lennart & Schantz, Peter, Stockholm: Forskningsrådet för miljö, areella näringar och samhällsbyggande , 2002, Vol. S. [77]-83 : ill., p. 77-83Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Formative years in Stockholm2015In: The Saltin Symposium: Exercise and Integrative Physiology / [ed] Henriette Pilegaard, Henrik Klitgaard and Robert Boushel, 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Forskning inom temaområdet rörelse, hälsa och miljö samt humanbiologi2014In: Från Kungl. Gymnastiska Centralinstitutet till Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan: En betraktelse av de senaste 25 åren som del av en 200-årig historia / [ed] Suzanne Lundvall, Stockholm: Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH , 2014, p. 253-262Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 44.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Forskningen vid GIH åren 1988-2013: Ett breddningens kvartssekel2014In: Från Kungl. Gymnastiska Centralinstitutet till Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan: En betraktelse av de senaste 25 åren som del av en 200-årig historia / [ed] Suzanne Lundvall, Stockholm: Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH , 2014, p. 176-180Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 45.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Från stumma till pedagogiska rum: Om när stenar börjar tala2011In: Lärande i friluftsliv: Perspektiv och ämnesdidaktiska exempel / [ed] Suzanne Lundvall, Stockholm: Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan , 2011, p. 109-117Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Fysisk aktivitet, hälsa och hållbar utveckling2012In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 32-33Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kan fysisk aktivitet bidra till både folkhälsa och en hållbar utveckling? Det är en övergripande frågeställning för FoU-gruppen för rörelse, hälsa och miljö vid GIH. Här ges en beskrivning av hur hållbar utveckling ställer krav och kan samverka med området fysisk aktivitet och folkhälsa.

  • 47.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Fysisk aktivitet och folkhälsa i ett perspektiv av hållbar utveckling2012In: Abstract Folkhälsostämman 2012: Folkhälsa för en hållbar framtid, Östersund: Statens folkhälsoinstitut , 2012, p. 9-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Fysisk aktivitet och hälsa kräver goda miljöer.: Vilka är de och hur skapas de?2003In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, no 1, p. 6-11Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Förmåga tåla smärta del av undret2007In: Svenska Dagbladet, Vol. 29 augustiArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 50.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Förord.: Till boken "Hitta läkningen i skogen. En hjälp ut ur utmattningssyndrom" av Elisabeth Magnusson Rune2016Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
123 1 - 50 of 133
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