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  • 601.
    Stigell, Erik
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, FoU-gruppen för rörelse, hälsa och miljö.
    Schantz, Peter
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, FoU-gruppen för rörelse, hälsa och miljö. Unit for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University.
    Active Commuting Behaviours in a Nordic Metropolitan Setting in Relation to Modality, Gender, and Health Recommendations2015Ingår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 12, nr 15008, s. 15626-15648Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Active commuting between home and place of work or study is often cited as an interesting source of physical activity in a public health perspective. However, knowledge about these behaviors is meager. This was therefore studied in adult active commuters (n = 1872) in Greater Stockholm, Sweden, a Nordic metropolitan setting. They received questionnaires and individually adjusted maps to draw their normal commuting route. Three different modality groups were identified in men and women: single-mode cyclists and pedestrians (those who only cycle or walk, respectively) and dual-mode commuters (those who alternately walk or cycle). Some gender differences were observed in trip distances, frequencies, and velocities. A large majority of the commuting trip durations met the minimum health recommendation of at least 10-minute-long activity bouts. The median single-mode pedestrians and dual-mode commuters met or were close to the recommended weekly physical activity levels of at least 150 minutes most of the year,whereas the single-mode cyclists did so only during spring–mid-fall. A high total number of trips per year (range of medians: 231–389) adds to the value in a health perspective. To fully grasp active commuting behaviors in future studies, both walking and cycling should be assessed over different seasons and ideally over the whole year.

  • 602.
    Stigell, Erik
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, FoU-gruppen för rörelse, hälsa och miljö.
    Schantz, Peter
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, FoU-gruppen för rörelse, hälsa och miljö.
    Active Commuting Distances: Validity and Reproducibility of Methods for Measuring Them2010Ingår i: Proceedings from The 3rd International Congress on Physical Activity and Public Health, Toronto, May, 5-8, 2010, 2010, s. 37-Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 603.
    Stigell, Erik
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, FoU-gruppen för rörelse, hälsa och miljö.
    Schantz, Peter
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, FoU-gruppen för rörelse, hälsa och miljö.
    Methods for Determining Route Distances in Active Commuting: Their Validity and Reproducibility2011Ingår i: Journal of Transport Geography, ISSN 0966-6923, E-ISSN 1873-1236, Vol. 19, nr 4, s. 563-574Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Distance is a variable of pivotal importance in transport studies. Therefore, after checking the validity of a potential criterion method for measuring active commuting route distances, this method was used to assess the validity and reproducibility of four methods of approximating the commuting route distances covered by pedestrians and bicyclists. The methods assessed were: self-estimated distance, straight-line distance, GIS shortest-route distance, and GPS-measured distance. For this purpose, participants were recruited when walking or bicycling in Stockholm, Sweden. Questionnaires and individually-adjusted maps were sent twice to 133 participants. The distances of map-drawn commuting routes functioned as criterion distances. The participants were also asked to estimate their distances. The straight-line distance between origin and destination was measured using map-drawn routes. The shortest route between home addresses and workplace addresses was calculated with three GIS algorithms. Eighty-six trips were measured with GPS. The main results were that test–retest intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) exceeded 0.99 for all methods, except for self-estimated distance (ICC = 0.76). No ordereffects existed between test and retest. Significant differences were, however, noted between criterion distance and self-estimated distance (114 ± 63%), straight-line distance (79.1 ± 10.5%), GIS shortest route (112 ± 18 to 121 ± 22%) and GPS distance (105 ± 4%). We conclude that commonly-used distance estimation methods produce systematic errors of differing magnitudes when used in a context of active commuting in suburban and urban environments. These errors can at average level be corrected for, whereas individual relative errors will remain.

  • 604. Strömgren, Magnus
    et al.
    Schantz, Peter
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, FoU-gruppen för rörelse, hälsa och miljö.
    Sommar, Johan N
    Raza, Wasif
    Markstedt, Anders
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Modeling commuter modal shifts from car trips to cycling: Scenario construction and outcomes for Stockholm, Sweden2019Ingår i: Journal of Transport Geography, ISSN 0966-6923, E-ISSN 1873-1236Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 605.
    Stålman, Cecilia
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Nilsson, Johnny
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap. Karolinska institutet.
    Ryhed, Anna
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Godhe, Manne
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Andersson, Eva
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC). Karolinska institutet.
    A novel aerobic test, 5-minute-pyramid-test, useful in school to monitor VO2max2019Ingår i: AISEP International Conference 2019 Book of abstracts, 2019, s. 402-Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 606. Svedenhag, Jan
    et al.
    Seger, Jan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Running on land and in water: comparative exercise physiology1992Ingår i: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 24, nr 10, s. 1155-1160Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of water immersion on cardiorespiratory and blood lactate responses during running was investigated. Wearing a buoyant vest, 10 trained runners (mean age 26 yr) ran in water at four different and specified submaximal loads (target heart rates 115, 130, 145, and 155-160 beats.min-1) and at maximal exercise intensity. Oxygen uptakes (VO2), heart rates, perceived exertion, and blood lactate concentrations were measured. Values were compared with levels obtained during treadmill running. For a given VO2, heart rate was 8-11 beats.min-1 lower during water running than during treadmill running, irrespective of exercise intensity. Both the maximal oxygen uptake (4.03 vs 4.60 1 x min-1) and heart rate (172 vs 188 beats.min-1) were lower during water running. Perceived exertion (legs and breathing) and the respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were higher during submaximal water running than during treadmill running, while ventilation (1 x min-1) was similar. The blood lactate concentrations were consistently higher in water than on the treadmill, both when related to VO2 and to %VO2max. Partly in conformity with earlier cycle ergometer studies, these data suggest that immersion induces acute cardiac adjustments that extend up to the maximal exercise level. Furthermore, both the external hydrostatic load and an altered running technique may add to an increased anaerobic metabolism during supported water running.

  • 607.
    Svedenkrans, J.
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Sci Intervent & Technol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Norman, M.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Sci Intervent & Technol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Bohlin, K.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Sci Intervent & Technol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    THE EXPRESS/CHARM STUDY: 6.5 YEAR OLD CHILDREN BORN EXTREMELY PRETERM ARE LESS PHYSICALLY ACTIVE THAN TERM PEERS2016Ingår i: European Journal of Pediatrics, ISSN 0340-6199, E-ISSN 1432-1076, Vol. 175, nr 11, s. 1821-1821Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 608. Svensson, M
    et al.
    Malm, C
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Sjödin, B
    Sahlin, Kent
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Effect of Q10 supplementation on tissue Q10 levels and adenine nucleotide catabolism during high-intensity exercise.1999Ingår i: International Journal of Sport Nutrition, ISSN 1050-1606, Vol. 9, nr 2, s. 166-80Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the concentration of ubiquinone-10 (Q10), at rest, in human skeletal muscle and blood plasma before and after a period of high-intensity training with or without Q10 supplementation. Another aim was to explore whether adenine nucleotide catabolism, lipid peroxidation, and mitochondrial function were affected by Q10 treatment. Seventeen young healthy men were assigned to either a control (placebo) or Q10-supplementation (120 mg/day) group. Q10 supplementation resulted in a significantly higher plasma Q10/total cholesterol level on Days 11 and 20 compared with Day 1. There was no significant change in the concentration of Q10 in skeletal muscle or in isolated skeletal muscle mitochondria in either group. Plasma hypoxanthine and uric acid concentrations increased markedly after each exercise test session in both groups. After the training period, the postexercise increase in plasma hypoxanthine was markedly reduced in both groups, but the response was partially reversed after the recovery period. It was concluded that Q10 supplementation increases the concentration of Q10 in plasma but not in skeletal muscle.

  • 609. Svensson, Michael B
    et al.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Cotgreave, Ian A
    Norman, Barbara
    Sjöberg, Berit
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Sjödin, Bertil
    Sjödin, Anders
    Adaptive stress response of glutathione and uric acid metabolism in man following controlled exercise and diet.2002Ingår i: Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6772, E-ISSN 1365-201X, Vol. 176, nr 1, s. 43-56Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ergometer cycling performance as well as acute exercise-induced changes in the metabolism of energy-intermediates and glutathione (GSH) were investigated in skeletal muscle (SM) of 15 healthy young male subjects (VO(2max) approximately 54.7 mL kg(-1) min(-1), age approximately 25 years), before and after 3 days of controlled 'ìoverload-training' in combination with either high (62% of energy intake) or low (26% of energy intake) dietary intake of carbohydrates. The intake of a carbohydrate-rich diet clearly reduced the depletion of SM glycogen following the short-term training period, paralleled with a positive effect on the endurance performance, but not on high-intensity work-performance. An 'delayed over-reaching effect', defined as impaired work-performance, was observed after 2.5 days of recovery from the short-term training period, irrespective of the carbohydrate content of the diet and basal glycogen level in SM. Taken together, the main and novel findings of present investigation are: (1) an acute decrease of reduced GSH content and altered thiol-redox homeostasis in SM induced by strenuous high-intensity exercise; (2) an adaptive elevation of basal GSH level following the short-term training period; (3) an adaptive decrease of basal GSH level following 2.5 days recovery from training; (4) evidence of a relationship between the SM fibre type, physical performance capacity and GSH turnover during acute bouts of exercise; and (5) no evident effect of the level of carbohydrate intake on metabolism of GSH or energy intermediates. Furthermore, the induction of acute oxidative stress in exercising human SM and the adaptive responses to training are suggested to provide a protective antioxidant phenotype to the exercising SM during periods with repeated intense intermittent training.

  • 610. Svensson Smith, Karin
    et al.
    Schantz, Peter
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, FoU-gruppen för rörelse, hälsa och miljö.
    Bilfria zoner kring skolor bör vara mer regel än undantag: debattinlägg2017Ingår i: Helsingborgs dagblad, ISSN 1103-9388, , s. 1artikel-id 2 aprilArtikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    "Bilfria zoner kring skolor bör vara mer regel än undantag."

    Den fysiska aktiviteten inom skolans verksamhet behöver ses över, men också skolans möjlighet att stötta barns fysiska aktivitet utanför skoltid. Det skriver Karin Svensson Smith (MP), ordförande i riksdagens trafikutskott, och Peter Schantz, professor vid Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH.

    Helsingborgs kommun har sedan länge höga ambitioner för att minska den klimatpåverkan som invånarnas resor ger upphov till. Att allt fler barn skjutsas till skolan istället för att cykla dit gör kommunens mål svårare att nå.

    En treårig cykelsatsning i Odense gav en ansenlig samhällsvinst tack vare att människor inte var borta från jobbet på grund av sjukdom lika ofta som tidigare, samt lägre kostnader för hälso- och sjukvårdsbehandling. Bilfria zoner runt skolor, kraftfulla satsningar på cykling för barn och föräldrar samt en stadsplanering med fokus på möjlighet att cykla förklarar framgången. Kanske kan det inspirera Helsingborg.Barns skolresor är en strategisk fråga för att minska trafikens påverkan på klimat, luftföroreningar och buller liksom för att förbättra folkhälsan genom att främja vardaglig motion.Att föräldrar väljer att skjutsa sina barn till skolor spär på en stillasittande livsstil. Att istället ge barnen en vana att cykla till skolan bidrar till motsatsen. Det skapar en grund för framtida vardaglig fysisk aktivitet.

    En rapport från Trafikanalys visar att skolresor med cykel har blivit 48 procent färre sedan 1994. Samtidigt är det vanligare än någonsin att föräldrar skjutsar sina barn till skolan. Studier vid GIH, Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, ger samma bild.Med tanke på att en cykelresa om 15 minuter enkel väg, två gånger per dag, ger tillräcklig fysisk aktivitet för att hålla hälsan på en acceptabel nivå, bör hälsofrämjande insatser mot barn fokusera på att vända utvecklingen.

    Bilskjutsning till skolor bidrar också till osäkra miljöer kring skolor. ”På morgonen lyder djungelns lag utanför många skolor” – så inleds SKL:s skrift om varför föräldrar skjutsar sina barn till skolan. Sorgligt nog är det en korrekt beskrivning av verkligheten. Dessutom leder den rådande situationen till att allt fler föräldrar väljer att skjutsa sina barn, eftersom de tycker att det är farligt för barnen att gå till skolan när det är så mycket trafik kring skolan.Bilfria zoner kring skolor bör vara mer regel än undantag. Den förälder som trots en bilfri zon kring skolan väljer att skjutsa sitt barn får då helt enkelt parkera ett hundratal meter därifrån och promenera sista biten. På så vis kan miljön kring skolorna bli trygga och vardaglig fysisk aktivitet främjas.Att människor väljer att ta bil framför cykel är en bidragande orsak till att flera folksjukdomar drabbar allt längre ner i åldrarna.

    Bland forskare finns en stor enighet om att det behövs minst 30 minuter av pulshöjande fysisk aktivitet om dagen för att främja god hälsa, minska risken för kroniska sjukdomar och förebygga för tidig död. Mer fysisk aktivitet ökar de positiva effekterna. Mellan 60 och 90 minuters daglig fysisk aktivitet är optimalt.Den fysiska aktiviteten inom skolans verksamhet behöver ses över, men också skolans möjlighet att stötta barns fysiska aktivitet utanför skoltid. Förutom bättre hälsa kan det bidra till att eleverna får ett livslångt intresse för att röra sig och en fördjupad förståelse av sambanden mellan fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.

    För mer än tjugo år sedan, 1994, beslutade riksdagen att skolans rörelseämne skulle ha ”hälsa” som ett tillägg i dess namn. Men beslutet har aldrig följts upp av åtgärder som inneburit en förändring i namnbytets riktning.Skolinspektionen har i två rapporter visat att hälsodelen inom rörelseämnet har varit styvmoderligt behandlad. Det finns alltså goda skäl att på olika sätta stötta rörelseämnets utveckling, se över ämnets läroplaner, och genom lärandemål och bedömningskriterier sätta tydliga mål för vad eleverna ska lära sig när det gäller vardagsmotion och hälsa.

    Sedan 2010 har sjukskrivningarna i Sverige ökat med 80 procent och de verkar dessvärre fortsätta att öka. Sjukfrånvaron minskar riksdagens möjligheter att avsätta pengar till angelägna reformer och hämmar tillväxten inom sektorer där det är brist på arbetskraft. En rimlig slutsats är att varje sten måste vändas och vridas på för att vända utvecklingen.Skolan har en viktig roll att bidra till goda levnadsvanor. Därför måste skolan också få ett breddat och fördjupat utbildningsuppdrag kring vardagsmotion inom ämnet idrott och hälsa.

    I princip alla skulle må bra av att cykla till jobb, studier och andra aktiviteter. En ny studie genomförd vid bland annat GIH visar att svenska sjukkostnader kan minska kraftigt genom att fler cyklar mellan bostad och arbete eller skola. Enbart i Stockholms län kan, enligt studien, hälsoekonomiska vinster på flera miljarder kronor göras årligen. Det mesta talar för att det även i Helsingborg finns många korta bilresor som med fördel skulle kunna ersättas med cykelturer.

    Karin Svensson Smith

    Peter Schantz

    Karin Svensson Smith (MP) är ordförande i riksdagens trafikutskott.

    Peter Schantz är professor i humanbiologi vid Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH.

  • 611. Taaffe, Dennis R
    et al.
    Newton, Robert U
    Spry, Nigel
    Joseph, David
    Chambers, Suzanne K
    Gardiner, Robert A
    Wall, Brad A
    Cormie, Prue
    Bolam, Kate A
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Galvão, Daniel A
    Effects of Different Exercise Modalities on Fatigue in Prostate Cancer Patients Undergoing Androgen Deprivation Therapy: A Year-long Randomised Controlled Trial.2017Ingår i: European Urology, ISSN 0302-2838, E-ISSN 1873-7560, Vol. 72, nr 2, s. 293-299, artikel-id S0302-2838(17)30108-2Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Physical exercise mitigates fatigue during androgen deprivation therapy (ADT); however, the effects of different exercise prescriptions are unknown.

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the long-term effects of different exercise modes on fatigue in prostate cancer patients undergoing ADT.

    DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Between 2009 and 2012, 163 prostate cancer patients aged 43-90 y on ADT were randomised to exercise targeting the musculoskeletal system (impact loading+resistance training; ILRT; n=58), the cardiovascular and muscular systems (aerobic+resistance training; ART; n=54), or to usual care/delayed exercise (DEL; n=51) for 12 mo across university-affiliated exercise clinics in Australia.

    INTERVENTION: Supervised ILRT for 12 mo, supervised ART for 6 mo followed by a 6-mo home program, and DEL received a printed booklet on exercise information for 6 mo followed by 6-mo stationary cycling exercise.

    OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Fatigue was assessed using the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 36 and vitality using the Short Form-36. Analysis of variance was used to compare outcomes for groups at 6 mo and 12 mo.

    RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Fatigue was reduced (p=0.005) in ILRT at 6 mo and 12 mo (∼5 points), and in ART (p=0.005) and DEL (p=0.022) at 12 mo. Similarly, vitality increased for all groups (p≤0.001) at 12 mo (∼4 points). Those with the highest levels of fatigue and lowest vitality improved the most with exercise (ptrend<0.001). A limitation was inclusion of mostly well-functioning individuals.

    CONCLUSIONS: Different exercise modes have comparable effects on reducing fatigue and enhancing vitality during ADT. Patients with the highest levels of fatigue and lowest vitality had the greatest benefits.

    PATIENT SUMMARY: We compared the effects of different exercise modes on fatigue in men on androgen deprivation therapy. All exercise programs reduced fatigue and enhanced vitality. We conclude that undertaking some form of exercise will help reduce fatigue, especially in those who are the most fatigued.

  • 612.
    Tannerstedt, Jörgen
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Eva Blomstrands forskningsgrupp.
    Apró, William
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Eva Blomstrands forskningsgrupp.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Eva Blomstrands forskningsgrupp.
    Maximal lengthening contractions induce different signaling responses in the type I and type II fibers of human skeletal muscle.2009Ingår i: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 106, nr 4, s. 1412-8Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The molecular mechanisms by which resistance exercise enlarges muscle mass, particularly the mass of fast-twitch type II fibers, are likely to involve enhanced phosphorylation/activation of key enzymes regulating protein synthesis. The hypothesis is that resistance exercise influences the phosphorylation of such key signaling proteins to a greater extent in type II than in type I fibers. Six recreationally active male subjects performed four sets of six maximal lengthening contractions with one leg. Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis before and immediately after exercise and following 1 and 2 h of recovery. Samples were freeze-dried, and individual muscle fibers were dissected out and identified as type I or type II after staining for myosin ATPase. Phosphorylation of p70(S6k) on Thr(389) and S6 in type II fibers was increased three-to fourfold and six- to ninefold (P < 0.05), respectively, 1 and 2 h after exercise, whereas phosphorylation in type I fibers remained unchanged. Phosphorylation of Akt, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) was unaltered in both fiber types, whereas that of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) was attenuated 20-45% (P < 0.05) in type II fibers during recovery. Phosphorylation of ERK1/2 was elevated six- to sevenfold (P < 0.05) immediately after exercise, and p38 MAPK phosphorylation was increased three- to fourfold (P < 0.05) for as long as 1 h after exercise in both types of fibers, although the level was markedly higher in type II fibers (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the elevation of p70(S6k) and the reduction of eEF2 phosphorylation in the type II fibers following resistance exercise suggest stimulation of protein synthesis, which may contribute to a more pronounced enlargement of these fibers. Our findings also suggest that p70(S6k) is activated, at least in part, via pathways not involving Akt-mTOR and MAPK.

  • 613. Taube, Jill
    et al.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Hellénius, Mai-Lis
    Karolinska institutet.
    Stillasittande och psykisk ohälsa2013Ingår i: Långvarigt stillasittande: en hälsofara i tiden / [ed] Elin Ekblom Bak, Studentlitteratur, 2013, s. 47-55Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 614. Taube, Jill
    et al.
    Kjellman, Bengt
    Jonsson, Bo
    Wahlgren, Lina
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, FoU-gruppen för rörelse, hälsa och miljö.
    Oddsson, Kristjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för tillämpad idrottsvetenskap (LTIV).
    Hultgren, Staffan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH.
    Andersson, Eva
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för tillämpad idrottsvetenskap (LTIV).
    Improved perceived health and scored depression with a physical activity project.2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Physical activity programs have shown a positive effect on health but also on depression that increases worldwide.

    Purpose: The purpose was to study perceived health and rated depression score with a physical activity project for persons with diagnosed depression or anxiety.

    Methods: Eighty-four persons (56 women, 28 men) with depression or anxiety disorders, recruited from psychiatric out-patient clinic participated. Mean age and BMI were 46 (21-80) yrs and 26 (17-41) kg/m2, respectively. Guided physical activity was given, in groups of 10-15, 1 hour twice a week for 8-12 weeks.

    Results: A significant improvement (p<0.05*) was seen regarding perceived physical health, several aspects of mental health and waking up thoroughly rested. Depression score significantly improved, both self-rated (PHQ-9, n=55) and by experts (MADRS, n=13), expect PHQ-9 for those with overweight.

    Conclusions: The project showed that patients with depression and anxiety can improve, in addition to increased physical activity level, both their perceived physical and several aspects of mental health and also depression score by joining a physical activity program.

     

     

  • 615. Terzis, Gerasimos
    et al.
    Georgiadis, Giorgos
    Stratakos, Grigoris
    Vogiatzis, Ioannis
    Kavouras, Stavros
    Manta, Panagiota
    Mascher, Henrik
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Eva Blomstrands forskningsgrupp.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Eva Blomstrands forskningsgrupp.
    Resistance exercise-induced increase in muscle mass correlates with p70S6 kinase phosphorylation in human subjects.2008Ingår i: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 102, nr 2, s. 145-52Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the possible relationship between a change in Thr(389) phosphorylation of p70S6 kinase (p70(S6k)) after a single resistance training session and an increase in skeletal muscle mass following short-term resistance training. Eight male subjects performed an initial resistance training session in leg press, six sets of 6RM with 2 min between sets. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis before (T1) and 30 min after the initial training session (T2). Six of these subjects completed a 14-week resistance-training programme, three times per week (nine exercises, six sets, 6RM). A third muscle biopsy was obtained at the end of the 14-week training period (T3). One repetition maximum (1RM) squat, bench press and leg press strength as well as fat-free mass (FFM, with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry) were determined at T1 and T3. The results show that the increase in Thr(389) phosphorylation of p70(S6k) after the initial training session was closely correlated with the percentage increase in whole body FFM (r = 0.89, P < 0.01), FFM(leg) (r = 0.81, P < 0.05), 1RM squat (r = 0.84, P < 0.05), and type IIA muscle fibre cross sectional area (r = 0.82, P < 0.05) after 14 weeks of resistance training. These results may suggest that p70(S6k) phosphorylation is involved in the signalling events leading to an increase in protein accretion in human skeletal muscle following resistance training, at least during the initial training period.

  • 616. Terzis, Gerasimos
    et al.
    Spengos, Konstantinos
    Mascher, Henrik
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Eva Blomstrands forskningsgrupp.
    Georgiadis, Giorgos
    Manta, Panagiota
    Blomstrand, Eva
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Eva Blomstrands forskningsgrupp.
    The degree of p70(S6k) and S6 phosphorylation in human skeletal muscle in response to resistance exercise depends on the training volume.2010Ingår i: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 110, nr 4, s. 835-43Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Regular performance of resistance exercise induces an increase in skeletal muscle mass, however, the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect are not yet fully understood. The purpose of the present investigation was to examine acute changes in molecular signalling in response to resistance exercise involving different training volumes. Eight untrained male subjects carried out one, three and five sets of 6 repetition maximum (RM) in leg press exercise in a random order. Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis both prior to and 30 min after each training session and the effect on protein signalling was studied. Phosphorylation of Akt was not altered significantly after any of the training protocols, whereas that of the mammalian target of rapamycin was enhanced to a similar extent by training at all three volumes. The phosphorylation of p70S6 kinase (p70(S6k)) was elevated threefold after 3 × 6 RM and sixfold after 5 × 6 RM, while the phosphorylation of S6 was increased 30- and 55-fold following the 3 × 6 RM and 5 × 6 RM exercises, respectively. Moreover, the level of the phosphorylated form of the gamma isoform of p38 MAPK was enhanced three to fourfold following each of the three protocols, whereas phosphorylation of ERK1/2 was unchanged 30 min following exercise. These findings indicate that when exercise is performed in a fasted state, the increase in phosphorylation of signalling molecules such as p70(S6k) and the S6 ribosomal protein in human muscle depends on the exercise volume.

  • 617. Thulin, Petra
    et al.
    Nordahl, Gunnar
    Gry, Marcus
    Yimer, Getner
    Aklillu, Eleni
    Makonnen, Eyasu
    Aderaye, Getachew
    Lindquist, Lars
    Mattsson, C. Mikael
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Björn Ekbloms och Mats Börjessons forskningsgrupp.
    Antoine, Daniel J.
    Park, B Kevin
    Linder, Stig
    Harrill, Alison H
    Watkins, Paul B.
    Glinghammar, Björn
    Schuppe-Koistinen, Ina
    Keratin-18 and microRNA-122 complement alanine aminotransferase as novel safety biomarkers for drug-induced liver injury in two human cohorts2014Ingår i: Liver international (Print), ISSN 1478-3223, E-ISSN 1478-3231, Vol. 34, nr 3, s. 367-378Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND & AIMS:

    There is a demand for more sensitive, specific and predictive biomarkers for drug-induced liver injury (DILI) than the gold standard used today, alanine aminotransferase (ALT). The aim of this study was to qualify novel DILI biomarkers (keratin-18 markers M65/M30, microRNA-122, glutamate dehydrogenase and alpha-foetoprotein) in human DILI.

    METHODS:

    Levels of the novel biomarkers were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) in two human DILI cohorts: a human volunteer study with acetaminophen and a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/tuberculosis (TB) study.

    RESULTS:

    In the acetaminophen study, serum M65 and microRNA-122 levels were significantly increased at an earlier time point than ALT. Furthermore, the maximal elevation of M65 and microRNA-122 exceeded the increase in ALT. In the HIV/TB study, all the analysed novel biomarkers increased after 1 week of treatment. In contrast to ALT, the novel biomarkers remained stable in a human cohort with exercise-induced muscular injury.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    M65 and microRNA-122 are potential biomarkers of DILI superior to ALT with respect to sensitivity and specificity.

  • 618.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Fernström, Maria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Walsh, Brandon
    Ji, Li Li
    Rooyackers, Olav
    Hammarqvist, Folke
    Wernerman, Jan
    Sahlin, Kent
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Forskningsgruppen Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Reduced oxidative power but unchanged antioxidative capacity in skeletal muscle from aged humans.2003Ingår i: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology, ISSN 0031-6768, E-ISSN 1432-2013, Vol. 446, nr 2, s. 261-9Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The hypothesis that the aging process is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress has been investigated in human skeletal muscle. Muscle biopsy samples were taken from seven old male subjects [OS; 75 (range 61-86) years] and eight young male subjects [YS; 25 (22-31) years]. Oxidative function was measured both in permeabilised muscle fibres and isolated mitochondria. Despite matching the degree of physical activity, OS had a lower training status than YS as judged from pulmonary maximal O(2) consumption ( Vdot;O(2)max, -36%) and handgrip strength (-20%). Both maximal respiration and creatine-stimulated respiration were reduced in muscle fibres from OS (-32 and -34%, respectively). In contrast, respiration in isolated mitochondria was similar in OS and YS. The discrepancy might be explained by a biased harvest of "healthy" mitochondria and/or disruption of structural components during the process of isolation. Cytochrome C oxidase was reduced (-40%, P<0.01), whereas UCP3 protein tended to be elevated in OS ( P=0.09). Generation of reactive oxygen species by isolated mitochondria and measures of antioxidative defence (muscle content of glutathione, glutathione redox status, antioxidative enzymes activity) were not significantly different between OS and YS. It is concluded that aging is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, which appears to be unrelated to reduced physical activity. The hypothesis of increased oxidative stress in aged muscle could not be confirmed in this study.

  • 619.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Harris, B
    Sahlin, Kent
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Mitochondrial oxidative function in human saponin-skinned muscle fibres: effects of prolonged exercise.1998Ingår i: Journal of Physiology, ISSN 0022-3751, E-ISSN 1469-7793, Vol. 510 ( Pt 1), s. 279-86Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    1. The influence of prolonged exhaustive exercise on mitochondrial oxidative function was investigated in ten men. 2. Muscle biopsies were taken before and after exercise and mitochondrial respiration investigated in fibre bundles made permeable by pretreatment with saponin. 3. After exercise, respiration in the absence of ADP increased by 18 % (P < 0.01), but respiration at suboptimal ADP concentration (0.1 mM) and maximal ADP-stimulated respiration (1 mM ADP) remained unchanged. 4. In the presence of creatine (20 mM), mitochondrial affinity for ADP increased markedly and respiration at suboptimal ADP concentration (0.1 mM) was similar (pre-exercise) or higher (post-exercise; P < 0.05) than with 1 mM ADP alone. The increase in respiratory rate with creatine was correlated to the relative type I fibre area (r = 0.84). Creatine-stimulated respiration increased after prolonged exercise (P < 0.01). 5. The respiratory control index (6.8 +/- 0.4, mean +/- s.e.m.) and the ratio between respiration at 0.1 and 1 mM ADP (ADP sensitivity index, 0.63 +/- 0.03) were not changed after exercise. The sensitivity index was negatively correlated to the relative type I fibre area (r = -0.86). 6. The influence of exercise on muscle oxidative function has for the first time been investigated with the skinned-fibre technique. It is concluded that maximal mitochondrial oxidative power is intact or improved after prolonged exercise, while uncoupled respiration is increased. The latter finding may contribute to the elevated post-exercise oxygen consumption. The finding that the sensitivity of mitochondrial respiration for ADP and creatine are related to fibre-type composition indicates intrinsic differences in the control of mitochondrial respiration between fibres.

  • 620.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Sahlin, Kent
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Physical exercise and mitochondrial function in human skeletal muscle.2002Ingår i: Exercise and sport sciences reviews, ISSN 0091-6331, E-ISSN 1538-3008, Vol. 30, nr 3, s. 129-37Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Muscle adaptation to endurance training involves qualitative changes in intrinsic properties of mitochondria. After training, the ADP sensitivity of miitochondrion is decreased whereas the effect of creatine on respiration is increased. This results in an improved control of aerobic energy production. Acute exercise does not adversely affect mitochondrial function.

  • 621.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Walsh, Brandon
    Tiivel, T
    Saks, V
    Sahlin, Kent
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Mitochondrial function in human skeletal muscle is not impaired by high intensity exercise.1999Ingår i: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology, ISSN 0031-6768, E-ISSN 1432-2013, Vol. 437, nr 4, s. 562-8Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The hypothesis that high-intensity (HI) intermittent exercise impairs mitochondrial function was investigated with different microtechniques in human muscle samples. Ten male students performed three bouts of cycling at 130% of peak O2 consumption (V.O2,peak). Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis muscle at rest, at fatigue and after 110 min recovery. Mitochondrial function was measured both in isolated mitochondria and in muscle fibre bundles made permeable with saponin (skinned fibres). In isolated mitochondria there was no change in maximal respiration, rate of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) production (measured with bioluminescence) and respiratory control index after exercise or after recovery. The ATP production per consumed oxygen (P/O ratio) also remained unchanged at fatigue but decreased by 4% (P<0.05) after recovery. In skinned fibres, maximal adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP)-stimulated respiration increased by 23% from rest to exhaustion (P<0.05) and remained elevated after recovery, whereas the respiratory rates in the absence of ADP and at 0.1 mM ADP (submaximal respiration) were unchanged. The ratio between respiration at 0.1 and 1 mM ADP (ADP sensitivity index) decreased at fatigue (P<0.05) but after the recovery period was not significantly different from that at rest. It is concluded that mitochondrial oxidative potential is maintained or improved during exhaustive HI exercise. The finding that the sensitivity of mitochondrial respiration to ADP is reversibly decreased after strenuous exercise may indicate that the control of mitochondrial respiration is altered.

  • 622.
    Unogård, Olof
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Mattsson, C. Mikael
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Idrottare spolar inte kröken2013Ingår i: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 22, nr 3, s. 17-21Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Alkohol och idrott hör inte ihop sägs det. Men en genomgång av forskningen visar att det är ytterst tveksamt om idrotten hjälper till att hålla idrottaren borta från flaskan alla gånger.  Studierna visar även att motiven till varför man dricker är många och olika.

  • 623.
    Väisänen, Daniel
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Andersson, Eva
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Validity in Ekblom-Bak Test and its Ability to Track Changes in an Elderly Population2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) has a high prognostic value for CVD and all cause mortality, however the test is hard to administer and requires a maximal effort, which can be arduous for an elderly population. The submaximal Ekblom-Bak cycle ergometer test (EB test) has shown to be valid in adults, but its applicability in an elderly population is unknown. Aim: The purpose of this study was to validate the submaximal EB test and to examine its ability to detect changes in VO2max in an elderly population. Methods: The sample consisted of 108 elderly participants; aged 65-75 years (54 women, 54 men) with a measured VO2max of 1.42-3.69 L/min. 34 women and 40 men performed a retest (VO2max 1.45-3.59 L/min) after an intervention period. During the intervention, participants performed 30 training sessions over 12 weeks where they cycled for 30 min at 65-75 % of maximal heart rate. On pre- and retests participants completed a submaximal Ekblom-Bak test. Directly after participants completed an individually adjusted VO2max test on a treadmill where VO2 max was measured using indirect calorimetry. Results: For the validation of the EB-test on an elderly population there was a correlation (R) between measured and estimated VO2max of 0.64 for women and 0.47 for men, mean (95% CI) difference was 0.01 (-0.45 - 0.07) for women and -0.05 (-0.11 - 0.07) for men. Standard error of the estimate was 0.17 for women and 0.31 for men. Coefficient of variation was 10 % for women and 11 % for men. When analyzing the ability of the EB test to track change in VO2max after a 12 week training intervention there was a significant (P<0.001) average increase in estimated VO2max of 0.11 L/min for both genders (CI for women 0.06 - 0.16 and for men 0.08 - 0.15), with no change in the measured values. Changes in the estimated values were linked to a decrease of the submaximal HR on both work rates (3.0 bpm and 3.2 bpm on the standard work rate and 5.4 bpm and 6.4 bpm on the higher work rate, for women and men, respectively) Conclusion: Validity of the EB-test in a population between 65-75 years was fairly good but we found larger standard error of the estimate for the men. The higher error for men in contrast to women could be derived from a difference in change of physiological variables that affect VO2max with increasing age. Since there was no change in measured VO2max while there was an improvement in estimated VO2max after the intervention, the EB-test appears to respond to changes in fitness that are not reflected in a VO2max. Grant funding: European Research Council.

  • 624.
    Väisänen, Daniel
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Andersson, Eva
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC). Karolinska institutet.
    Nilsson, Jonna
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Criterion validity of the Ekblom-Bak and the Åstrand submaximal test in an elderly population.2019Ingår i: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to validate the submaximal Ekblom-Bak test (EB-test) and the Åstrand test (Å-test) for an elderly population.

    METHODS: Participants (n = 104), aged 65-75 years, completed a submaximal aerobic test on a cycle ergometer followed by an individually adjusted indirect calorimetry VO2max test on a treadmill. The HR from the submaximal test was used to estimate VO2max using both the EB-test and Å-test equations.

    RESULTS: The correlation between measured and estimated VO2max using the EB method and Å method in women was r = 0.64 and r = 0.58, respectively and in men r = 0.44 and r = 0.44, respectively. In women, the mean difference between estimated and measured VO2max was - 0.02 L min-1 (95% CI - 0.08 to 0.04) for the EB method and - 0.12 L min-1 (95% CI - 0.22 to - 0.02) for the Å method. Corresponding values for men were 0.05 L min-1 (95% CI - 0.04 to 0.14) and - 0.28 L min-1 (95% CI - 0.42 to - 0.14), respectively. However, the EB method was found to overestimate VO2max in men with low fitness and the Å method was found to underestimate VO2max in both women and men. For women, the coefficient of variance was 11.1%, when using the EB method and 19.8% when using the Å method. Corresponding values for men were 11.6% and 18.9%, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: The submaximal EB-test is valid for estimating VO2max in elderly women, but not in all elderly men. The Å-test is not valid for estimating VO2max in the elderly.

  • 625.
    Wahlgren, Lina
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, FoU-gruppen för rörelse, hälsa och miljö.
    Från träning för kondition till fysisk aktivitet för hälsa: Om synen på rekommendationer för allmänheten över tid2009Ingår i: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 18, nr 1, s. 45-49Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 626.
    Wahlgren, Lina
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, FoU-gruppen för rörelse, hälsa och miljö.
    Färdvägsmiljöer vid cykling till och från arbetet2012Ingår i: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 21, nr 4, s. 38-39Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 627.
    Wahlgren, Lina
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, FoU-gruppen för rörelse, hälsa och miljö.
    Studies on bikeability in a metropolitan area using the active commuting route environment scale (ACRES)2011Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    BAKGRUND: Färdvägsmiljöer kan tänkas påverka människors fysiskt aktiva arbetspendling och därmed bidra till bättre folkhälsa. Studier av färdvägsmiljöer är därför önskvärda för att öka förståelsen kring möjliga samband mellan fysiskt aktiv arbetspendling och färdvägsmiljöer. En enkät, ”The Active Commuting Route Environment Scale” (ACRES), har därför skapats i syfte att studera fysiskt aktiva arbetspendlares upplevelser av sina färdvägsmiljöer. Huvudsyftet med denna avhandling var dels att studera enkätens psykometriska egenskaper i form av validitet och reliabilitet, dels att studera arbetspendlande cyklisters upplevelser av sina färdvägsmiljöer.

    METODER: Arbetspendlande cyklister från Stor-Stockholm rekryterades via tidningsannonsering och via direkt kontakt i anslutning till färdvägen. Deltagarna besvarade enkäten ACRES. Tillsammans med skattningar från en grupp av experter och redan existerande objektiva mått användes förväntade skillnader mellan färdvägsmiljöer i inner- och ytterstaden för att studera kriterierelaterad validitet. Reliabiliteten studerades som reproducerbarhet via upprepade mätningar (test-retest). Jämförelser mellan skattningar av deltagare rekryterade via annonsering och via direkt kontakt i färdvägsmiljöer användes för att studera representativitet. Skattningar av färdvägsmiljöer i inner- och ytterstaden användes vidare för att studera färdvägsmiljöprofiler. Multipel linjär regressionsanalys användes även för att studera sambandet mellan utfallsvariabeln huruvida färdvägsmiljön motverkar eller stimulerar arbetspendling med cykel och miljöprediktorer, såsom avgasnivåer, trafikens hastighet och grönska, i innerstadsmiljöer.

    RESULTAT: Enkäten ACRES visade god kriterierelaterad validitet och rimlig reproducerbarhet. Det var en god överrensstämmelse mellan skattningar av deltagare rekryterade via annonsering och via direkt kontakt. Färdvägsmiljöprofilerna visade tydliga skillnader mellan inner- och ytterstadsmiljöer. Ytterstadens färdvägsmiljöer skattades som tryggare och mer stimulerande för arbetspendling med cykel än innerstadens färdvägsmiljöer. Vidare verkar vackra, gröna och trygga färdvägsmiljöer, oberoende av varandra, vara stimulerade faktorer för arbetspendling med cykel i innerstadsmiljöer. Däremot verkar höga avgasnivåer, höga trängselnivåer och färdvägar som kräver många riktningsändringar vara motverkande faktorer.

    SLUTSATSER: Enkäten ACRES är ett användbart instrument vid mätningar av cyklisters upplevelser av sina färdvägsmiljöer. Ett antal faktorer relaterade till färdvägsmiljön verkar vara stimulerande respektive motverkande för arbetspendling med cykel. Generellt sett på visar resultaten ett relativt outforskat och komplext forskningsområde.

  • 628.
    Wahlgren, Lina
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, FoU-gruppen för rörelse, hälsa och miljö.
    Upplevelser av färdvägsmiljöer vid arbetspendling med cykel2013Ingår i: Idrottsforum.org, ISSN 1652–7224, Vol. 11 decArtikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hösten 2011 disputerade jag i ämnet idrott vid Örebro universitet. Den största delen av arbetet med avhandlingen ägde dock rum vid Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan (GIH) i Stockholm. Min avhandling heter Studies on Bikeability in a Metropolitan Area Using the Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES). Syftet med denna text är att på svenska ge en sammanfattning av de tre arbeten som avhandlingen innehåller.

  • 629.
    Wahlgren, Lina
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, FoU-gruppen för rörelse, hälsa och miljö.
    Schantz, Peter
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, FoU-gruppen för rörelse, hälsa och miljö.
    Bikeability and methodological issues using the active commuting route environment scale (ACRES) in a metropolitan setting2011Ingår i: BMC Medical Research Methodology, ISSN 1471-2288, E-ISSN 1471-2288, Vol. 11, nr 6Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Route environments can positively influence people’s active commuting and thereby contribute to public health. The Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES) was developed to study active commuters’ perceptions of their route environments. However, bicycle commuters represent a small portion of the population in many cities and thus are difficult to study using population-based material. Therefore, the aim of this study is to expand the state of knowledge concerning the criterion-related validity of the ACRES and the representativity using an advertisement-recruited sample. Furthermore, by comparing commuting route environment profiles of inner urban and suburban areas, we provide a novel basis for understanding the relationship between environment and bikeability.

    Methods Bicycle commuters from Greater Stockholm, Sweden, advertisement- (n = 1379) and street-recruited (n = 93), responded to the ACRES. Traffic planning and environmental experts from the Municipality of Stockholm (n = 24) responded to a modified version of the ACRES. The criterion-related validity assessments were based on whether or not differences between the inner urban and the suburban route environments, as indicated by the experts and by four existing objective measurements were reflected by differences in perceptions of these environments. Comparisons of ratings between advertisement- and street-recruited participants were used for the assessments of representativity. Finally, ratings of inner urban and suburban route environments were used to evaluate commuting route environment profiles.

    Results Differences in ratings of the inner urban and suburban route environments by the advertisement-recruited participants were in accord with the existing objective measurements and corresponded reasonably well with those of the experts. Overall, there was a reasonably good correspondence between the advertisement- and street-recruited participants’ ratings. Distinct differences in commuting route environment profiles were noted between the inner urban and suburban areas. Suburban route environments were rated as safer and more stimulating for bicycle-commuting than the inner urban ones. In general, the findings applied to both men and women.

    Conclusions The overall results show: considerable criterion-related validity of the ACRES; ratings of advertisement-recruited participants mirroring those of street-recruited participants; and a higher degree of bikeability in the suburban commuting route environments than in the inner urban ones.

  • 630.
    Wahlgren, Lina
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, FoU-gruppen för rörelse, hälsa och miljö.
    Schantz, Peter
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, FoU-gruppen för rörelse, hälsa och miljö.
    Exploring bikeability in a metropolitan setting: stimulating and hindering factors in commuting route environments2012Ingår i: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 12, nr 168Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Route environments may influence people’s active commuting positively and thereby contribute to public health. Assessments of route environments are, however, needed in order to better understand the possible relationship between active commuting and the route environment. The aim of this study was, therefore, to assess the potential associations between perceptions of whether the route environment on the whole hinders or stimulates bicycle commuting and perceptions of environmental factors.

    Methods

    The Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES) was used for the assessment of bicycle commuters’ perceptions of their route environments in the inner urban parts of Greater Stockholm, Sweden. Bicycle commuters (n = 827) were recruited by advertisements in newspapers. Simultaneous multiple regression analyses were used to assess the relation between predictor variables (such as levels of exhaust fumes, noise, traffic speed, traffic congestion and greenery) and the outcome variable (hindering – stimulating route environments). Two models were run, (Model 1) without and (Model 2) with the item traffic: unsafe or safe included as a predictor.

    Results

    Overall, about 40% of the variance of hindering – stimulating route environments was explained by the environmental predictors in our models (Model 1, = 0.415, and Model 2, = 0.435). The regression equation for Model 1 was: y = 8.53 + 0.33 ugly or beautiful + 0.14 greenery + (−0.14) course of the route + (−0.13) exhaust fumes + (−0.09) congestion: all types of vehicles (p ≤ 0.019). The regression equation for Model 2 was y = 6.55 + 0.31 ugly or beautiful + 0.16 traffic: unsafe or safe + (−0.13) exhaust fumes + 0.12 greenery + (−0.12) course of the route (p ≤ 0.001).

    Conclusions

    The main results indicate that beautiful, green and safe route environments seem to be, independently of each other, stimulating factors for bicycle commuting in inner urban areas. On the other hand, exhaust fumes, traffic congestion and low ‘directness’ of the route seem to be hindering factors. Furthermore, the overall results illustrate the complexity of a research area at the beginning of exploration.

  • 631.
    Wahlgren, Lina
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, FoU-gruppen för rörelse, hälsa och miljö.
    Schantz, Peter
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, FoU-gruppen för rörelse, hälsa och miljö.
    Exploring Bikeability in a Suburban Metropolitan Area Using the Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES)2014Ingår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 11, nr 8, s. 8276-8300Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Aim: Commuting by bicycle could contribute to public health, and route environments may influence this behaviour. Therefore, the aim of this study is to assess the potential associations between appraisals of the overall route environment as hindering or stimulating for bicycle commuting, with both perceptions of commuting route environmental factors in a suburban area and background factors. Methods: The Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES) was used for the assessment of bicycle commuters’ perceptions and appraisals of their route environments in the suburban parts of Greater Stockholm, Sweden. A simultaneous multiple regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between the outcome variable whether the overall route environment hinders or stimulates bicycle commuting and environmental factors (e.g., exhaust fumes, speeds of motor vehicles, greenery), as well as background factors (sex, age, education, income) as predictor variables. Results and Conclusions: The results indicate that in suburban areas, the factors aesthetics, greenery and bicycle paths seem to be, independently of each other, stimulating factors for bicycle commuting. On the other hand, flows of motor vehicles, noise, and low “directness” of the route seem to be hindering factors. A comparison of these results with those obtained from an inner urban area points to the importance of studying different types of built-up areas separately.

  • 632.
    Wahlgren, Lina
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, FoU-gruppen för rörelse, hälsa och miljö.
    Schantz, Peter
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, FoU-gruppen för rörelse, hälsa och miljö.
    Grönska och skönhet ökar cyklisters upplevelse av trygghet i trafikmiljön2019Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund

    Regelbunden fysisk aktivitet har positiva hälsoeffekter, och många vill vara fysiskt aktiva, men uppfattar olika hinder för det. Aktiv arbetspendling är en intressant möjlighet i detta sammanhang, då den är tidseffektiv, och avstånden mellan bostad och arbete ofta är lämpliga. Därför är det mycket angeläget att färdvägsmiljöer underlättar cykling, och studier av dem är viktiga för att förstå hur olika miljöfaktorer verkar. Upplevelser av otrygghet i trafikmiljön hindrar cykling. Syftet med denna studie var därför att mäta sambandet mellan upplevelser av trafikmiljön som otrygg eller trygg för cykelpendling, och upplevelser av olika miljöfaktorer i samma färdvägsmiljöer.

    Metod

    797 arbetspendlande cyklister (47 ± 11 år, 40 % män) rekryterades via annonser, och data från deras upplevelser av sina självvalda färdvägsmiljöer i Stor-Stockholms innerstad har nyttjats. För att mäta det användes The Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES), som har utvecklats vid GIH. ACRES innehåller utfallsvariabeln ”otrygga eller trygga trafikmiljöer” och ett antal miljöprediktorer, såsom avgaser, hastigheter hos motorfordon, trängsel bland cyklister, grönska och antal rödljus. ACRES har visat god kriterierelaterad validitet och rimlig reproducerbarhet. För att analysera sambanden mellan utfallsvariabeln otrygg eller trygg trafikmiljö och olika miljöprediktorer samt bakgrundsfaktorerna kön, ålder, utbildnings- och inkomstnivå, användes regressionsanalyser. I utfallsvariabeln otrygg eller trygg trafikmiljö (y) står skattningen 1 för mycket otrygg och 15 för mycket trygg. Miljövariablerna (x) skattades på motsvarande sätt med 15-gradiga skalor, utom variabeln ”andel cykelbana/cykelfält/cykelväg”, som har en 11-gradig skala.

    Resultat

    Resultaten visar att cirka 40 procent av skillnaden hos utfallsvariabeln otrygg eller trygg trafikmiljö (y) förklaras av de olika prediktorerna (x). Regressionsekvationen var: y = 12,05 - (0,25 x trängsel i blandtrafik) - (0,18 x färdvägens dragning) + (0,14 x grönska) - (0,14 x hastigheter hos motorfordon) - (0,13 x konflikter) + (0,11 x andel cykelbana/cykelfält/cykelväg) + (0,10 x fulhet eller skönhet) + (0,07 x backighet)(alla p-värden ≤ 0,017).

    Slutsatser

    Oberoende av varandra verkar således gröna och vackra färdvägsmiljöer med en hög andel cykelbanor/cykelfält/cykelvägar vara faktorer som påverkar tryggheten i trafiken positivt för cykelpendlare i innerstadsmiljöer. Även backighet verkar ha en positiv verkan på trygghetsupplevelsen, vilket är något förvånande och behöver studeras vidare. Å andra sidan verkar trängsel i blandtrafik, högre hastigheter hos motorfordon, konflikter mellan trafikanter och färdvägar som kräver många riktningsändringar vara faktorer som ökar känslan av otrygghet. Studier som denna utgör ett underlag för arbetet med att skapa goda färdvägsmiljöer för cyklister.

  • 633.
    Wahlgren, Lina
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, FoU-gruppen för rörelse, hälsa och miljö.
    Stigell, Erik
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, FoU-gruppen för rörelse, hälsa och miljö.
    Schantz, Peter
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, FoU-gruppen för rörelse, hälsa och miljö.
    Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES) : Validity and Reliability2010Ingår i: Proceedings from The 3rd International Congress on Physical Activity and Public Health, Toronto, May, 5-8, 2010, 2010, s. 38-Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 634.
    Wahlgren, Lina
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, FoU-gruppen för rörelse, hälsa och miljö.
    Stigell, Erik
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, FoU-gruppen för rörelse, hälsa och miljö.
    Schantz, Peter
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, FoU-gruppen för rörelse, hälsa och miljö.
    The Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES): Development and Evaluation2010Ingår i: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, Vol. 7, nr 58Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Route environments can be a potentially important factor in influencing people’s behaviours in relation to active commuting. To better understand these possiblerelationships, assessments of route environments are needed. We therefore developed a scale; the Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES), for the assessment of bicyclists’ and pedestrians’ perceptions of their commuting route environments. Here we will report on the development and the results of validity and reliability assessments thereof.

    Methods

    Active commuters (n = 54) were recruited when they bicycled in Stockholm, Sweden. Traffic planning and environmental experts from the Municipality of Stockholm were assembled to form an expert panel (n = 24). The active commuters responded to the scale on two occasions, and the expert panel responded to it once. To test criterion-related validity, differences in ratings of the inner urban and suburban environments of Greater Stockholm were compared between the experts and the commuters. Furthermore, four items were compared with existing objective measures. Test-retest reproducibility was assessed with three types of analysis: order effect, typical error and intraclass correlation.

    Results

    There was a concordance in sizes and directions of differences in ratings of inner urban and suburban environments between the experts and the commuters. Furthermore, both groups’ ratings were in line with existing objectively measured differences between the two environmental settings. Order effects between test and retest were observed in 6 of 36 items. The typical errors ranged from 0.93 to 2.54, and the intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from ‘moderate’ (0.42) to ‘almost perfect’ (0.87).

    Conclusions

    The ACRES was characterized by considerable criterion-related validity and reasonable test-retest reproducibility.

  • 635.
    Wallberg, Linnea
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Mattsson, C. Mikael
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Enqvist, Jonas K.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Plasma IL-6 concentration during ultra-endurance exercise2011Ingår i: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 111, nr 6, s. 1081-1088Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Interleukin 6 (IL-6) response was studied during two ultra endurance events – one laboratory 24 h protocol (9 men) with exercise intensity set to 60 % of VO2max and one Adventure Race over 6 days (12 men/6 women) with a self-selected race pace, including rests, of about 38 % of VO2max. In the 24 h protocol IL-6 level was elevated from 0.76 ± 0.48 pg mL-1 at rest to 7.16 ± 2.70 pg mL-1 at 6 h, and increased further to 10.58 ± 1.04 pg mL-1 at 12 h, but remained thereafter unchanged at 24 h, (10.89±0.36 pg mL-1). All participants had nearly identical values at 12 and 24 h, supporting intensity as main determinant in the IL-6 response since exercise duration did not increase IL-6 level after 12 h. Possible confounding factors do not seem to influence the IL-6 concentration during the longer races (>12h), but might very well do so during shorter exercise bouts. In the 6-day race IL-6 increased from rest to 24 h, but thereafter there was no change in plasma IL-6 value until the end of the race (140 h). There was no elevation of TNF-α in any of the protocols, suggesting that the competitors were free from systemic inflammation. During endurance exercise lasting >12 h intensity and not duration is the main determinant of the IL-6 response, while during shorter exercise bouts both intensity and duration contribute to the accumulation of IL-6 in plasma.

  • 636.
    Wallmann-Sperlich, Birgit
    et al.
    Institute of Sport Science, Julius-Maximilians University Würzburg, D-97082 Würzburg, Germany.
    Froboese, Ingo
    Institute of Health Promotion and Clinical Movement Science, German Sport University, D-50933 Cologne, Germany.
    Schantz, Peter
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, FoU-gruppen för rörelse, hälsa och miljö.
    Physical Activity and the Perceived Neighbourhood Environment: Looking at the Association the Other Way Around2014Ingår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 11, nr 8, s. 8093-8111Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

     The associationbetween physical activity (PA) and variables of the perceived environmentmainly originate from cross-sectional studies that introduced the idea that theenvironment influences the PA level of residents. However, the direction ofcause and effect has not been solved with finality. The aim of this study wasto investigate whether residents’ perception of their proximate environmentdiffers depending on their level of PA in transport and recreation. Weconducted a cross-sectional survey with residents of six different parts of thecity of Cologne, Germany. The sample of 470 adults (52.8% females; mean age =35.5 ± 13.8 years) filled in the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ),as well as the European Environmental Questionnaire ALPHA. To distinguishbetween residents with ‘low’ and ‘high’ PA, we split the samples into two on the basisof the specific median in transport- and recreation-related PA. In the ‘high’ vs. ‘low’ PA group of the overall sample,we noted 4–16% more ‘PA favourable’ environmental perceptions in seven of the15 environmental variables. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to investigateassociations of socio-demographic correlates and transport- andrecreation-related PA on the dependent variables of the environmentalperception. In this case,levels of PA were significant predictors for eight of the 15 items concerningenvironmental perceptions. Thus, the present study introduces the idea that residents withhigher levels of transport and recreational PA may perceive their environmentin a more ‘PA-favourable’ way than residents with lower levels.

  • 637.
    Wallman-Sperlich, Birgit
    et al.
    Institute of Health Promotion and Clinical Movement Science, German Sports University Cologne, Germany.
    Buksch, Jens
    WHO Collaborating Centre for Child and Adolescent Health Promotion, School of Public Health, Bielefeld University, Germany.
    Hansen, Sylvia
    Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, Maastricht University, The Netherlands.
    Schantz, Peter
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, FoU-gruppen för rörelse, hälsa och miljö.
    Froboese, Ingo
    Institute of Health Promotion and Clinical Movement Science, German Sports University Cologne, Germany.
    Sitting Time in Germany: An Analysis of Socio-demographic and Environmental Correlates2013Ingår i: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 196, nr 13Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Sedentary behaviour in general and sitting time in particular is an emerging global health concern. The aim of this study was to provide data on the prevalence of sitting time in German adults and to examine socio-demographic and environmental correlates of sitting time.

    Methods: A representative sample of German adjults (n = 2000; 967 men, 1033 women; 49.3 ±17.6 years of age) filled in the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire, including one question on overall sitting time and answered questions about the neighbourhood environment, as well as concerning demographics. Daily sitting time was stratified by gender, age group, BMI, educational and income level, as well as physical activity (PA). To identify socio-demographic and environmental correlates of sitting time, we used a series of linear regressions.

    Results: The overall median was 5 hours (299 minutes) of sitting time/day and men sat longer than women (5 vs. 4 hours/day; p < 0.05). In both genders age and PA were negatively and the educational level positively associated with sitting time. The level of income was not a correlate of sitting time in multivariate analyses. Sitting time was significantly positively associated with higher neighbourhood safety for women. The variance ranged from 16.5% for men to 8.9% for women.

    Conclusions: The overall sitting time was unequally distributed in the German adult population. Our findings suggest implementing specific interventions to reduce sitting time for subgroups such as men, younger aged adults and adults with a higher education and lower PA. Future studies should enhance our understanding of the specific correlates of different types and domains of sitting in order to guide the development of effective public health strategies.

     

     

  • 638. Walsh, B
    et al.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Söderlund, Karin
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Hultman, E
    Saks, V
    Sahlin, Kent
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    The role of phosphorylcreatine and creatine in the regulation of mitochondrial respiration in human skeletal muscle.2001Ingår i: Journal of Physiology, ISSN 0022-3751, E-ISSN 1469-7793, Vol. 537, nr Pt 3, s. 971-8Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    1. The role of phosphorylcreatine (PCr) and creatine (Cr) in the regulation of mitochondrial respiration was investigated in permeabilised fibre bundles prepared from human vastus lateralis muscle. 2. Fibre respiration was measured in the absence of ADP (V(0)) and after sequential additions of submaximal ADP (0.1 mM ADP, V(submax)), PCr (or Cr) and saturating [ADP] (V(max)). 3. V(submax) increased by 55 % after addition of saturating creatine (P < 0.01; n = 8) and half the maximal effect was obtained at 5 mM [Cr]. In contrast, V(submax) decreased by 54 % after addition of saturating phosphorylcreatine (P < 0.01; n = 8) and half the maximal effect was obtained at 1 mM [PCr]. V(max) was not affected by Cr or PCr. 4. V(submax) was similar when PCr and Cr were added simultaneously at concentrations similar to those in muscle at rest (PCr/Cr = 2) and at low-intensity exercise (PCr/Cr = 0.5). At conditions mimicking high-intensity exercise (PCr/Cr = 0.1), V(submax) increased to 60 % of V(max) (P < 0.01 vs. rest and low-intensity exercise). 5. Eight of the subjects participated in a 16 day Cr supplementation programme. Following Cr supplementation, V(0) decreased by 17 % (P < 0.01 vs. prior to Cr supplementation), whereas ADP-stimulated respiration (with and without Cr or PCr) was unchanged. 6. For the first time evidence is given that PCr is an important regulator of mitochondrial ADP-stimulated respiration. Phosphorylcreatine decreases the sensitivity of mitochondrial respiration to ADP whereas Cr has the opposite effect. During transition from rest to high-intensity exercise, decreases in the PCr/Cr ratio will effectively increase the sensitivity of mitochondrial respiration to ADP. The decrease in V(0) after Cr supplementation indicates that intrinsic changes in membrane proton conductance occur.

  • 639. Wang, Li
    et al.
    Mascher, Henrik
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Psilander, Niklas
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Eva Blomstrands forskningsgrupp.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Eva Blomstrands forskningsgrupp.
    Sahlin, Kent
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Resistance exercise enhances the effect of endurance training on molecular signaling in human skeletal muscleManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 640. Wang, Li
    et al.
    Psilander, Niklas
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Eva Blomstrands forskningsgrupp.
    Mascher, Henrik
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Sahlin, Kent
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Resistance exercise enhances the molecular signaling of mitochondrial biogenesis induced by endurance exercise in human skeletal muscle.2011Ingår i: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 111, nr 5, s. 1335-1344Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Combining endurance and strength training (concurrent training) may change the adaptation compared with single mode training. However, the site of interaction and the mechanisms are unclear. We have investigated the hypothesis that molecular signaling of mitochondrial biogenesis after endurance exercise is impaired by resistance exercise. Ten healthy subjects performed either only endurance exercise (E: 1h cycling at ~65% of VO(2max)) or endurance exercise followed by resistance exercise (ER: 1h cycling + 6 sets of leg press at 70-80% of 1 repetition maximum) in a randomized cross-over design. Muscle biopsies were obtained before and after exercise (1 and 3h Post cycling). The mRNA of genes related to mitochondrial biogenesis (PGC-1α, PRC) and substrate regulation (PDK4) increased after both E and ER, but the mRNA levels were about 2-fold higher after ER (P<0.01). Phosphorylation of proteins involved in the signaling cascade of protein synthesis (mTOR, S6K1 and eEF2) was altered after ER but not after E. Moreover, ER induced a larger increase in mRNA of genes associated with positive mTOR signaling (cMyc and Rheb). Phosphorylation of AMPK, ACC and Akt increased similarly at 1h Post (P<0.01) after both types of exercise. Contrary to our hypothesis, the results demonstrate that resistance exercise, performed after endurance exercise, amplifies the adaptive signaling response of mitochondrial biogenesis compared with single-mode endurance exercise. The mechanism may relate to a crosstalk between signaling pathways mediated by mTOR. The results suggest that concurrent training may be beneficial for the adaptation of muscle oxidative capacity.

  • 641.
    Wang, Li
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Psilander, Niklas
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Ding, Shuzhe
    Sahlin, Kent
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Similar expression of oxidative genes after interval and continuous exercise.2009Ingår i: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 41, nr 12, s. 2136-44Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: There is a debate whether interval or traditional endurance training is the most effective stimulus of mitochondrial biogenesis. Here, we compared the effects of acute interval exercise (IE) or continuous exercise (CE) on the muscle messenger RNA (mRNA) content for several genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and lipid metabolism. METHODS: Nine sedentary subjects cycled for 90 min with two protocols: CE (at 67% VO2max) and IE (12 s at 120% and 18 s at 20% of VO2max). The duration of exercise and work performed with CE and IE was identical. Muscle biopsies were taken before and 3 h after exercise. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the two exercise protocols in the increases in VO2 and HR, the reduction in muscle glycogen (35%-40% with both protocols) or the changes in blood metabolites (lactate, glucose, and fatty acids). The mRNA content for major regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis [peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma coactivator 1alpha (PGC-1alpha), PGC-1-related coactivator, PPARbeta/delta] and of lipid metabolism [pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isozyme 4 (PDK4)] increased after exercise, but there was no significant difference between IE and CE. However, the mRNA content for several downstream targets of PGC-1alpha increased significantly only after CE, and mRNA content for nuclear respiratory factor 2 was significantly higher after CE (P < 0.025 vs IE). CONCLUSIONS: The present findings demonstrate that, when the duration of exercise and work performed is the same, IE and CE influence the transcription of genes involved in oxidative metabolism in a similar manner.

  • 642.
    Wang, Li
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Sahlin, Kent
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    The effect of continuous and interval exercise on PGC-1α and PDK4 mRNA in type I and type II fibres of human skeletal muscle.2012Ingår i: Acta Physiologica, ISSN 1748-1708, E-ISSN 1748-1716, Vol. 204, nr 4, s. 525-32Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: Differences in fibre-type recruitment during exercise may induce a heterogenic response in fibre-type gene expression. We have investigated the effect of two different exercise protocols on the fibre-type-specific expression of master genes involved in oxidative metabolism [proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) and Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4)].

    METHODS: Untrained subjects (n = 7) completed 90-min cycling either at a constant intensity [continuous exercise (CE): approximately 60% of VO(2max) ] or as interval exercise (IE: approximately 120/20% VO(2max) , duty cycle 12/18s). Muscle samples were taken before (pre) and 3 h after (post) exercise. Single fibres were isolated from freeze-dried muscle and characterized as type I or type II. The cDNA from two fibres of the same type was pooled and mRNA analysed with reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR.

    RESULTS: Continuous exercise and IE elicited a small increase in blood lactate (<2.5 mM) and moderate glycogen depletion (<40%) without difference between exercise modes. The mRNA of PGC-1α and PDK4 increased 5- to 8-fold in both fibre types after exercise, and the relative increase was negatively correlated with the basal level. However, the mRNA of PGC-1α and PDK4 was not different between type I and II fibres neither pre nor post, and there was no difference in the exercise-induced response between fibre types or exercise modes.

    CONCLUSION: We conclude that the mRNA of PGC-1α and PDK4 increases markedly in both fibre types after prolonged exercise without difference between CE and IE. The similar response between fibre types may relate to that subjects were sedentary and that the metabolic stress was low.

  • 643. Wengström, Y
    et al.
    Bolam, Kate A.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Mijwel, S
    Sundberg, C J
    Backman, M
    Browall, M
    Norrbom, J
    Rundqvist, H
    Optitrain: a randomised controlled exercise trial for women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy.2017Ingår i: BMC Cancer, ISSN 1471-2407, E-ISSN 1471-2407, Vol. 17, artikel-id 100Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy suffer from a range of detrimental disease and treatment related side-effects. Exercise has shown to be able to counter some of these side-effects and improve physical function as well as quality of life. The primary aim of the study is to investigate and compare the effects of two different exercise regimens on the primary outcome cancer-related fatigue and the secondary outcomes muscle strength, function and structure, cardiovascular fitness, systemic inflammation, skeletal muscle gene activity, health related quality of life, pain, disease and treatment-related symptoms in women with breast cancer receiving chemotherapy. The second aim is to examine if any effects are sustained 1, 2, and 5 years following the completion of the intervention and to monitor return to work, recurrence and survival. The third aim of the study is to examine the effect of attendance and adherence rates on the effects of the exercise programme.

    METHODS: This study is a randomised controlled trial including 240 women with breast cancer receiving chemotherapy in Stockholm, Sweden. The participants are randomly allocated to either: group 1: Aerobic training, group 2: Combined resistance and aerobic training, or group 3: usual care (control group). During the 5-year follow-up period, participants in the exercise groups will receive a physical activity prescription. Measurements for endpoints will take place at baseline, after 16 weeks (end of intervention) as well as after 1, 2 and 5 years.

    DISCUSSION: This randomised controlled trial will generate substantial information regarding the effects of different types of exercise on the health of patients with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy. We expect that dissemination of the knowledge gained from this study will contribute to developing effective long term strategies to improve the physical and psychosocial health of breast cancer survivors.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: OptiTrain - Optimal Training Women with Breast Cancer (OptiTrain), NCT02522260 ; Registration: June 9, 2015, Last updated version Feb 29, 2016. Retrospectively registered.

  • 644.
    Wengström, Yvonne
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Mijwel, Sara
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Cardinale, Daniele A.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Högintensiv träning hjälper patienter med bröstcancer2018Ingår i: Idrottsforskning.se, ISSN 2002-3944, artikel-id 12 novemberArtikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 645. Wernbom, Mathias
    et al.
    Apro, William
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Eva Blomstrands forskningsgrupp.
    Paulsen, Gøran
    Nilsen, Tormod S
    Blomstrand, Eva
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Eva Blomstrands forskningsgrupp.
    Raastad, Truls
    Acute low-load resistance exercise with and without blood flow restriction increased protein signalling and number of satellite cells in human skeletal muscle.2013Ingår i: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 113, nr 12, s. 2953-2965Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To investigate hypertrophic signalling after a single bout of low-load resistance exercise with and without blood flow restriction (BFR).

    METHODS: Seven subjects performed unilateral knee extensions at 30 % of their one repetition maximum. The subjects performed five sets to failure with BFR on one leg, and then repeated the same amount of work with the other leg without BFR. Biopsies were obtained from m. vastus lateralis before and 1, 24 and 48 h after exercise.

    RESULTS: At 1-h post-exercise, phosphorylation of p70S6K(Thr389) and p38MAPK(Thr180/Tyr182) was elevated in the BFR leg, but not in the free-flow leg. Phospho-p70S6K(Thr389) was elevated three- to fourfold in both legs at 24-h post-exercise, but back to baseline at 48 h. The number of visible satellite cells (SCs) per muscle fibre was increased for all post-exercise time points and in both legs (33-53 %). The proportion of SCs with cytoplasmic extensions was elevated at 1-h post in the BFR leg and the number of SCs positive for myogenin and/or MyoD was increased at 1- and 24-h post-exercise for both legs combined.

    CONCLUSION: Acute low-load resistance exercise with BFR resulted in early (1 h) and late (24 h) enhancement of phospho-p70S6K(Thr389), an early response of p38MAPK, and an increased number of SCs per muscle fibre. Enhanced phospho-p70S6K(Thr389) at 24-h post-exercise and increases in SC numbers were seen also in the free-flow leg. Implications of these findings for the hypertrophic effects of fatiguing low-load resistance exercise with and without BFR are discussed.

  • 646. Westing, Stephen
    et al.
    Seger, Jan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Eccentric and Concentric Torque-Velocity Characteristics, Torque Output Comparisons, and Gravity Effect Torque Corrections for the Quadriceps and Hamstring Muscles in Females1989Ingår i: International Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0172-4622, E-ISSN 1439-3964, Vol. 10, nr 3, s. 175-180Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to assess and compare eccentric (ECC) and concentric (CONC) torque output of the quadriceps and hamstring muscles and to analyze the effect of gravity effect torque (GET) correction on the calculation of the hamstring/quadriceps peak torque quotient (H/Q quotient). Twenty female subjects performed maximal voluntary CONC and ECC contractions of the quadriceps and hamstring muscles at five isokinetic lever arm velocities from 60 degrees/s to 360 degrees/s. Peak torque was measured and corrected for GET. Mean ECC torque did not significantly change with increasing ECC velocity for either the quadriceps or hamstring muscles (P greater than 0.05). Mean CONC torques were significantly lower than the corresponding ECC torques (P less than 0.05) and decreased with increasing CONC velocity. At each test velocity, the CONC H/Q quotient was significantly lower than the corresponding ECC H/Q quotient (P less than 0.05). Mean H/Q quotients did not significantly change with increasing velocity for either the CONC or ECC tests (means: 0.46 and 0.57; P greater than 0.05). Mean H/Q quotients not corrected for GET significantly increased with increasing velocity for the CONC (0.61 to 0.78; P less than 0.05), but not ECC tests (0.66 to 0.71; P greater than 0.05). The results indicate that the ECC torque-velocity curve is essentially level for both quadriceps and hamstring muscles. The present findings point strongly toward the necessity of correcting for GET when calculating both CONC and ECC H/Q quotients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  • 647. Westing, Stephen
    et al.
    Seger, Jan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Karlson, Eddy
    Ekblom, Björn
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Eccentric and concentric torque-velocity characteristics of the quadriceps femoris in man1988Ingår i: European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, ISSN 0301-5548, E-ISSN 1432-1025, Vol. 58, s. 100-104Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary purpose of this investigation was to study the eccentric and concentric torque-velocity characteristics of the quadriceps femoris in man using a recently developed combined isometric, concentric and eccentric controlled velocity dynamometer (the SPARK System). A secondary purpose was to compare the method error associated with maximal voluntary concentric and eccentric torque output over a range of testing velocities. 21 males (21-32 years) performed on two separate days maximal voluntary isometric, concentric and eccentric contractions of the quadriceps femoris at 4 isokinetic lever arm velocities of 0 degree.s-1 (isometric), 30 degrees.s-1, 120 degrees.s-1 and 270 degrees.s-1. Eccentric peak torque and angle-specific torques (measured every 10 degrees from 30 degrees to 70 degrees) did not significantly change from 0 degrees.s-1 to 270 degrees.s-1 (p greater than 0.005) with the exception of angle-specific 40 degrees torque, which significantly increased; p less than 0.05). The mean method error was significantly higher for the eccentric tests (10.6% +/- 1.6%) than for the concentric tests (8.1% +/- 1.7%) (p less than 0.05). The mean method error decreased slightly with increasing concentric velocity (p greater than 0.05), and increased slightly with increasing eccentric velocity (p greater than 0.05). A tension restricting neural mechanism, if active during maximal eccentric contractions, could possibly account for the large difference seen between the present eccentric torque-velocity results and the classic results obtained from isolated animal muscle.

  • 648.
    Wichardt, Emma
    et al.
    Idrottsmedicin, Umeå universitet.
    Mattsson, C. Mikael
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Henriksson-Larsén, Karin
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH.
    Rhabdomyolysis/myoglobinemia and NSAID during 48-hours ultra-endurance exercise (adventure racing)2011Ingår i: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 111, nr 7, s. 1541-1544Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To determine if rhabdomyolysis with myoglobinemia exists during a 48+ hour adventure race and if there is a correlation with NSAID use, race time and perceived pain or exertion. Method: Blood samples for analyses of myoglobin (Mb) were collected, and perception of exertion and pain registered on the Borg-RPE and CR scales, from 20 subjects (3 female, 17 male) Pre, Mid and Post race. Subjects were asked about NSAID use at each sampling and within 12 hours pre race. Result: A significant rise in Mb was observed throughout the race, with the NSAID group (n=6) having significantly lower Mb-Post than the no-NSAID group (n=14). High Mb-Pre and Post correlated to shorter race time and high Mb-Pre to lower Pain-Post. Race time also correlated to NSAID use, with the NSAID group having significantly longer race time than the no-NSAID group. Conclusion: Rhabdomyolysis with myoglobinemia, which might be reduced with NSAID use, exists during a 48+ hour adventure race. Indications that high Mb-levels correlate with shorter race time and less pain, and the reasons for the NSAID groups longer race time, need further investigation.

  • 649.
    Yang, Liyun
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Lu, Ke
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Forsman, Mikael
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Lindecrantz, Kaj
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Seoane, Fernando
    University of Borås.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Evaluation of physiological workload assessment methods using heart rate and accelerometry for a smart wearable system.2019Ingår i: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 62, nr 5, s. 694-705Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Work metabolism (WM) can be accurately estimated by oxygen consumption (VO2), which is commonly assessed by heart rate (HR) in field studies. However, the VO2-HR relationship is influenced by individual capacity and activity characteristics. The purpose of this study was to evaluate three models for estimating WM compared with indirect calorimetry, during simulated work activities. The techniques were: the HR-Flex model; HR branched model, combining HR with hip-worn accelerometers (ACC); and HR + arm-leg ACC model, combining HR with wrist- and thigh-worn ACC. Twelve participants performed five simulated work activities and three submaximal tests. The HR + arm-leg ACC model had the overall best performance with limits of agreement (LoA) of -3.94 and 2.00 mL/min/kg, while the HR-Flex model had -5.01 and 5.36 mL/min/kg and the branched model, -6.71 and 1.52 mL/min/kg. In conclusion, the HR + arm-leg ACC model should, when feasible, be preferred in wearable systems for WM estimation. Practitioner Summary: Work with high energy demand can impair employees' health and life quality. Three models were evaluated for estimating work metabolism during simulated tasks. The model combining heart rate, wrist- and thigh-worn accelerometers showed the best accuracy. This is, when feasible, suggested for wearable systems to assess work metabolism.

  • 650. Ydfors, Mia
    et al.
    Fischer, Helene
    Mascher, Henrik
    Blomstrand, Eva
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Eva Blomstrands forskningsgrupp.
    Norrbom, Jessica
    Gustafsson, Thomas
    The truncated splice variants, NT-PGC-1alpha and PGC-1alpha4, increase with both endurance and resistance exercise in human skeletal muscle2013Ingår i: Physiological Reports, ISSN 2051-817X, Vol. 1, nr 6, s. e00140 Page 1-e00140 Page 9Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, a truncated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α) splice variant, PGC-1α4, that originates from the alternative promoter was shown to be induced by resistance exercise and to elicit muscle hypertrophy without coactivation of “classical” PGC-1α targets involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and angiogenesis. In order to test if distinct physiological adaptations are characterized by divergent induction of PGC-1α splice variants, we investigated the expression of truncated and nontruncated PGC-1α splice variants and PGC-1α transcripts originating from the alternative and the proximal promoter, in human skeletal muscle in response to endurance and resistance exercise. Both total PGC-1α and truncated PGC-1α mRNA expression were increased 2 h after endurance (P < 0.01) and resistance exercise (P < 0.01), with greater increases after endurance exercise (P < 0.05). Expression of nontruncated PGC-1α increased significantly in both exercise groups (P < 0.01 for both groups) without any significant differences between the groups. Both endurance and resistance exercise induced truncated as well as nontruncated PGC-1α transcripts from both the alternative and the proximal promoter. Further challenging the hypothesis that induction of distinct PGC-1α splice variants controls exercise adaptation, both nontruncated and truncated PGC-1α transcripts were induced in AICAR-treated human myotubes (P < 0.05). Thus, contrary to our hypothesis, resistance exercise did not specifically induce the truncated forms of PGC-1α. Induction of truncated PGC-1α splice variants does not appear to underlie distinct adaptations to resistance versus endurance exercise. Further studies on the existence of numerous splice variants originating from different promoters are needed.

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