Change search
Refine search result
91011121314 551 - 600 of 668
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 551.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Om Palme och parken2012In: Hagabladet, no 3-4, p. 6-7Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 552.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    On the relation between green areas, health and physical activity2012In: Congress Proceedings from The 2012 International Sport Science Congress. Commemorating the 1988 Seoul Olympic Games: Community Sport Industry and Health City, Seoul, Korea: Korean Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance (KAHPERD) , 2012, p. 14-17Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 553.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Outdoor life landscapes as arenas for perception and learning: Theories, thoughts and examples in urban nature2013In: EOE Seminar 2013. Program and abstracts.: Urban Nature: inclusive learning through youth work and school work / [ed] Erik Backman, Marburg, Germany: The European Institute for Outdoor Adventure Education and Experiential Learning (EOE) , 2013, p. 11-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Outline: 1) Elaborate on content matters in outdoor life education, and consequences thereof; 2) Describe an attempt to, through PETE, develop didactic experience in co-curriculum teaching in green areas; 3) Illuminate pedagogic tools disclosing the potential in developing perceptive and learning experiences in landscapes 

  • 554.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Perspectives on Environment and Active Transport for Children and Youth: Is There a Role for Physical Education and Sport?2013In: Proceedings from The 6th Asia-Pacific Conference on Exercise and Sports Science, APCESS 2013., Taipei, Taiwan: Asian Council of Exercise and Sports Science (ACESS) , 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There was a time when active transport for different purposes contributed to a substantial part of the levels of physical activity within the population. With changing scales of urban settlements and more and more of car-dependent mobility, this has changed. At the same time levels of physical activity are very low, and very few meet the minimal physical activity recommendations. For children and youth, these levels are higher than for adults. This fact, in combination with that car-dependent mobility stands for a number of seriously adverse environmental effects, point to that a future role of promotion of active transport within physical education and sport deserve to be addressed in terms of how realistic it is, and what can be gained. In my lecture, I will elaborate on these issues based on literature and experiences from teaching physical education teachers active transport in Sweden.

  • 555.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Perspectives on Physical Activity, Public Health and Sustainable Development: A keynote lecture2012In: Proceedings of International Fourm of Physical Education and Sport Sciences (IFPESS 2012): Health, Physical Education, Sports and Wellness in Schools and Community: A Holistic and Innovative Approach / [ed] Gurmeet Singh, Dalwinder Singh, Raj Kumar, Nandalal Singh Thingnam, Chandigahr, Panjab, India: Department of Physical Education, Panjab University , 2012, p. VI-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This year 25 years have passed since the UN World Commission on Environment and Development launched its final report entitled “Our Common Future”. Fulfilling its aims is a major challenge for the society since then. In seeking solutions for the role of physical activity for public health, the aim of sustainable development adds specific challenges. In my lecture I will provide a basis for reflections on these issues, and elaborate on possible consequences for physical education, the sport movement and the public health sector. Finally I will provide examples of research on environmental changes in line with a sustainable development which also can stimulate physical activity and thereby public health.

  • 556.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Perspektiv på gående, cyklande och hälsa2011In: Program för Transportforum 2011, Linköping: Väg- och transportforskningsinstitutet , 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 557.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Physical activity behaviours and environmental well-being in a spatial context2014In: Geography and Health: A Nordic Outlook / [ed] Schærström, A., Jørgensen, S.H. & Sivertun, Swedish National Defence College: Stockholm; Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU): Trondheim; Universität Bonn, Institute for Hygiene and Public Health: Bonn , 2014, 1, p. 142-156Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Every form of physical activity takes place in a certain physical environment. These settings can either be a specific delimited place, a facility or building (e.g., a school yard, a soccer field or a gymnastic hall) or they can be traces of movement in landscapes (e.g., after a walk in a forest, a kayak trip or a bicycle trip to work), and they can also be combinations of these two categories.

     

    If they had been mapped, we would have been able to see a vibrant development of artefacts connected with physical activity in the landscapes during the 20th century in Sweden. Just think of all the sport facilities, playgrounds, parks, walking paths in the mountains and exercise trails in the neighbourhood forests that were created during that period. In line with this, there was also a state-driven planning for the protection of landscapes of national value for outdoor life and recreation (Civildepartementet 1971; Kungl. Maj:t 1972). The climax in this respect occurred during the last decades of the Swedish welfare state, sometime during the 1970-80s. However, when we look at this period more closely it also becomes apparent that all forms of physical activity were not facilitated. Support for active transport by means of an infrastructure for cycling was not part of the dominant planning and investment agenda (Emanuel 2012a,b). Beginning with the 1990s, a neoliberal era followed, and with it a waning of interest in this respect by both the state and the municipalities was noted. Physical activity then became an issue that was up to the individual to solve on his/her own. Interestingly, this change in perspectives was followed by the establishment of a large number of private gyms. Consequences of the changed societal climate with respect to facilities for sport organisations are presented in a recent report from the Swedish Sport Federation (Riksidrottsförbundet 2012). 

     

    Given the potentially important effect of physical activity on public health (cf. Pedersen & Saltin 2006), the health-geographical dimension of physical activity is of clear relevance in many fields of study. In our times this dimension is also of importance for understanding, e.g. the effects of urbanisation, as well as ethnic and social segregation in urban areas (cf. Svastisalee et al. 2012). Furthermore, there is a great need to know more about circumstances in which levels of health-enhancing physical activity (cf. Haskell et al., 2007) can be encompassed within the population and at the same time contribute to a sustainable development (Schantz 2002a,b; Schantz & Lundvall 2014). 

     

    Considering all the above, it can be seen as a curious truth that scientific descriptions and analyses of physical activity and conditions for it in a spatial context are a very recent phenomenon. This is reason enough to start this chapter by placing the current interest in the physical activity–environment relationship in a historical context. Afterwards, some principal aspects of the relationship between physical activity, the environment and health will be illuminated. This will be followed by a listing of examples of different paths taken so far, particularly in Sweden, to analyse these relationships.

  • 558.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Physical Activity, Health and Sustainable Development: Perspectives on the Role of Green Areas2005In: Forests, trees, and human health and well-being: proceedings / [ed] Dr. Christos Th. Gallis, Thessaloniki, Greece: SIOKIS Medical and Scientific Publishers , 2005, 1, p. 223-228Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 559.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Physical activity, public health and sustainable development.: A new role for physical education and sports.2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fields of physical education and sports as well as its teacher and trainer educations have a long tradition of an individually oriented focus. In our times it is important to broaden this to also include a perspective of physical activity (PA) in relation to public health.

    In taking such a step, different dimensions of factors external to the individual become relevant. For example, the fact that all physical activities require a physical space for their execution leads us to dimensions of physical planning for physical activity, which in turn leads us to the dimension of power and politics at local, regional, and national levels.

    Including a public health perspective also prompts a wider analysis of the consequences of behaviors in physical activity (PA). Is it, for example, possible that some aspects of such behavioral practices could be negative in relation to public health. For example, if there is an environmental burden connected to PA behaviors, there may be a negative effect on public health in a local, regional, national, and global perspective. 

    The presentation will frame issues of physical activity and public health with perspectives from the agenda of sustainable development as originally defined by the UN World Commission on Environment and Development in 1987. It will lead forward to illuminating a new role for physical education in our global society, strengthening the importance of physical education as a subject in the school system. The same perspectives will be applied on sport clubs and sport federations.

  • 560.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Pionjärverk om svenska friluftslivets historia2000In: Svenska Dagbladet, no 16 majArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 561.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Planering för rörelse, hälsa och miljö i en ny tid2011In: Centre for Management of the Built Environment Årsbok 2011 / [ed] Stefan Hollertz, David Hollertz, Björn Stenvall, Göteborg: Centre for Management of the Built Environment, CMB, Chalmers Tekniska Högskola , 2011, p. 36-37Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 562.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Romerska speglingar2000In: Hagabladet, Vol. 1, p. 1-3-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 563.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Romerska speglingar2014In: Om människan i rörelse och i vila: Essäer, Stockholm: Oak Meadow Hill Editions , 2014, 1, p. 11-19Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Kapitlet belyser kulturella förbindelser mellan Sverige och Italien under 1700-talets senare hälft, och hur dessa äger rum i en kontext av en förändrad natursyn. Allt detta får avtryck runt sjön Brunnsviken norr om Stockholms innerstad.

  • 564.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Rörelse, hälsa och miljö -- utmaningar i en ny tid.2006In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, no 3, p. 4-7Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 565.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Rörelserikedom, yttre miljöer och folkhälsa: Reflektioner och rekommendationer knutna till fysisk planering för Ön i Umeälven vid Umeå stad2019Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Regeringens utredning Samordning för bostadsbyggande (N2017:08) och Umeå kommun anordnade den 30-31 januari 2019 en "Idéverkstad - planering för rörelserikedom" i Umeå. Ett konkret ärende, bebyggelseplaner vid Ön i Ume älv vid Umeå, och samtidigt frågan om fysisk planering och samhällsplanering i relation till begreppet "physical literacy" kom att prägla två intensiva dagar av presentationer och idéverkstad.

    Professor Peter Schantz från GIH i Stockholm, med stor erfarenhet från temaområdet rörelse, hälsa och miljö, stod för den avslutande presentationen med reflektioner och rekommendationer till Umeå kommun.

  • 566.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Sista vilan vid Brunnsviken: En studie av immateriella dimensioner knutna till tre friluftsgravar i nationalstadsparken1995In: Kulturmiljövård, ISSN 1100-4800, no 4, p. 75-80Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 567.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    The moving and resting human being: A philosophical approach to exercise2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 568.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    The National Urban Park in Greater Stockholm: Background, legislation and implementation2004In: Garden History, ISSN 0307-1243, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 279-280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In December 1994, the Swedish Parliament unanimously decided to establish a large area covering 27 square kilometres between Ulriksdal, Haga-Brunnsviken and Djurgården, in Greater Stockholm, as a National Urban Park. The first National Urban Park in the world, it has been seen as an innovative way of protecting an important cultural landscape that also contains important ecological areas and is of significance as a recreation area. This note illuminates the decision, the legislation and its implementation.

  • 569.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    The Royal National Urban Park in Stockholm: Lessons from a perspective of sustainable development2013In: Hybrid Parks: "Economy 2". Finnish National Urban Parks - A Sustainable Approach to Urban Planning and Conservation., Turku, Finland: University of Turku, Finland , 2013, p. 2-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Royal National Urban Park in Stockholm, Sweden, is an interesting study object in terms of problems and possibilities in modern city planning, and legal pathways in steering these processes. I will present some principal issues in this respect and also research dealing with a specific aspect of sustainable development, namely public health and the role of green environment in supporting physical activity.

  • 570.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Undervisning inom rörelse, hälsa och miljö2014In: Från Kungl. Gymnastiska Centralinstitutet till Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan: En betraktelse av de senaste 25 åren som del av en 200-årig historia / [ed] Suzanne Lundvall, Stockholm: Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH , 2014, p. 161-173Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 571.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Urban Nature, Movement and Health2011In: Proceeding from the seminar "Urban Nature", Åbo, Finland: Åbo Sommaruniversitet, Åbo, Finland , 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 572.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Vilken betydelse kan gång och cykling vid arbetspendling i en storstadsmiljö ha för folkhälsan?2017In: Transportforum 2017, 2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 573.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Vägen till marken.: Om spelet kring Dennispaketets norra länk1995In: Arkitektur, ISSN 0004-2021, no 4, p. 24-27Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 574.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Värdering av färdvägsmiljöer vid gång och cykling2013Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 575.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Walking, Health and Environment: A Bottom Line in the Education of Teachers in Physical Education and Health2014In: Proceedings from Global Forum for Physical Education Pedagogy 2014: Physical Education and Health: Promoting Global Best Practice / [ed] Prof. Dr. Hanlie Moss, Potschefstroom, South Africa, 2014, p. 75-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Health was introduced as part of physical education (PE) in Sweden in 1994, but the transformational processes for integrating the health dimension has been very slow. At the same time, scientific development within the field of physical activity and health has been strong during the past two decades. This development opens up for a wide array of developmental pathways. At GIH in Stockholm, Sweden, we have chosen to develop a theme of walking, health and environment as a pedagogic bottom line in the Physical Education and Health Teachers Education (PETE). In concrete terms we develop the students´ understanding of: (I) walking and energy consumption, and how it relates to health, (II) their own walking behaviors over a full normal day, and how it can be modified to meet minimal and optimal PA levels, and (III) how their own neighborhood environment may support a walking behavior or not. At later stages of the PETE, we integrate these dimensions into a framework of PA, public health and sustainable development. The rationale for the latter perspective is that the contexts of bodily movement can affect the environment both positively and negatively, and are thereby closely linked to both individual and public health. The transformational process described is in a relatively early state, and clearly future developmental steps are needed. The evaluations of these parts of PETE points, however, to that the PE students view the described pedagogical ingredients as a comprehensible, manageable and meaningful component in their studies, and anticipate that it has the same potential in their future work in schools.

  • 576.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    WHO sätter ekonomiskt värde på cykling2008In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 3, p. 47-51Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    År 1996 kom US Surgeon General´s Report on Physical Activity and Health, och blev en viktig katalysator för den breddning i synen på fysisk aktivitet som sedan dess har präglat kroppsövningsfältet (jfr. 2). Inte minst gällde det betydelsen av vardagsnära motion såsom att gå och cykla till olika målpunkter. I kölvattnet av dessa förändrade synsätt har WHO nyligen utfört ett pionjärarbete: ett redskap för hälsoekonomisk bedömning av cykling har utvecklats. Det är fritt tillgängligt via Internet, och är användbart för såväl undervisning som utredningar och studier inom området fysisk aktivitet och hälsa samt inom transportsektorn. Docent Peter Schantz vid GIH i Stockholm var rådgivare åt WHO vid utvecklingen av redskapet. Han ger här en bakgrund till redskapets tillkomst och introducerar dess konstruktion och funktion.

  • 577.
    Schantz, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Ek, Stina
    Vandrande skolbuss är bättre än skjuts2012In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 40-44Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Allt färre barn går eller cyklar till skolan trots att de flesta borde röra på sig mer. Vi har skapat en modell över vad som påverkar valet av transportsätt. Vuxenvärldens inställning spelar stor roll. Och nya innovationer som vandrande skolbussar hjälper föräldrar och skola att tänka annorlunda.

  • 578.
    Schantz, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Changing Perspectives on Physical Education in Sweden: Implementing Dimensions of Public Health and Sustainable Development2014In: Physical Education and Health: Global Perspectives and Best Practice / [ed] Christopher Edginton, Ming-Kai Chin, Urbana, Illinois, USA: Sagamore Publishing, 2014, 1, p. 463-475Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Health was introduced as part of physical education (PE) in Sweden in 1994. This chapter focuses on both transformational processes and the lack thereof in PE and in physical education teacher education (PETE) in Sweden with the introduction of "health." Prior to that PE focused entirely on different bodily movements for about 170 years, and the demanded changeover has been markedly lagging. At the same time, scientific development within the field of physical activity and health has been strong during the past two decades. Presently, the PETE at The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH in Stockholm, Sweden, is undergoing changes with the aim of creating a merger of perspectives from old, mainly sports-oriented, traditions in PE with newer individual and population health-related perspectives to a wider perspective of physical activity. These new perspectives are framed within diverse dimensions of the environment: for example, how the physical environment affects levels of physical activity and well-being and the need for sustainable development. The rationale for the latter perspective is that the contexts of bodily movement can affect the environment both positively and negatively and are thereby closely linked to both individual and public health. The transformational process described is still in an early state, and clearly future developmental steps are needed, some of which are described in the final section.

  • 579.
    Schantz, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Nilsson, Johnny
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Exempel på integrering av idrott och biologi1986In: Tidskrift i gymnastik och idrott : officiellt organ för Svenska g, ISSN 0281-5338, no 4, p. 29-35Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 580.
    Schantz, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Salier Eriksson, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Rosdahl, Hans
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Laboratory of Applied Sports Science (LTIV).
    An Overview, Description and Synthesis of Methodological Issues in Studying Oxygen Consumption during Walking and Cycling Commuting using a Portable Metabolic System (Oxycon Mobile).2018Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    From the time of the independent discoveries of oxygen by Carl Wilhelm Scheele in Sweden and Joseph Priestly in England in the 1770s, there has been an ongoing chain of methodological developments, from the pioneering ones by Antoine Lavoisier until today, with the aim of measuring oxygen uptake and metabolic processes of man in motion (Mitchell and Saltin 2003). This historical development, has, not least during the last decades, also included both automated stationary and portable open-circuit metabolic measurement systems, which have been thoroughly reviewed recently (Macfarlane 2017; Ward 2018; Taylor et al. 2018).  

    When two of the present authors (PS and HR) were trained as exercise physiologists, the golden standard method in this respect, the Douglas bag method (DBM), was the only, or the predominantly used method at our laboratory. In the 1990s, automated stationary open-circuit metabolic measurement systems started to be used, and HR evaluated some of them using DBM. He noted that it was not apparent that one could rely on the data produced in these “black box” systems. Still they have been used in many laboratories, and possibly there are a number of scientific articles based on them which might hold invalid data. One comment along that line was sent in 2001 as an e-mail from our teacher, professor emeritus Per-Olof Åstrand to an American colleague (Appendix 1). It ended with: “I have observed many odd data in the literature which can be explained as a consequence of uncritical use of modern, fancy electronic equipments without serious and competent evaluation of their accuracy”.

    For HR, these kind of experiences during the 1990s became an important impetus to develop a refined system for the Douglas bag method at the Laboratory for Applied Sport Sciences at the Swedish School for Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, in Stockholm, Sweden. That process was undertaken in close collaboration with Lennart Gullstrand at the Elite Sports Centre, The Swedish Sports Confederation, Bosön, Lidingö, Sweden. This text builds on that system, and many other developmental steps that have been taken since then. They have been applied to study a number of issues related to walking and cycle commuting, as part of the multidisciplinary research project on Physically Active Commuting in Greater Stockholm (PACS) at GIH. For its overall aims, see: www.gih.se/pacs

    One of the aims is to characterize the physiological demands of walking and cycle commuting in relation to absolute and relative demands of oxygen uptake (VO2). This is of interest in itself for understanding the nature of the physical activity during active commuting. Combined with other kinds of data one aim was also to better understand the potential health effects of active commuting. An important issue in this respect was to scrutinize whether the heart rate method for estimating VO2 (Berggren & Hohwü Christensen 1950) would be a reliable and valid method during cycle or walking commuting.

    To reach these goals we needed to use an automated mobile metabolic system. However, we had to work for a much longer time than expected due to a surprising number of diverse methodological challenges in measurements of both VO2 and heart rate (HR). They had to be considered and evaluated through a series of validity studies and checks. Some of the issues could be foreseen and were rather straight forward to handle, whereas others were unexpected, and the strategies to handle them had to be developed step by step as they appeared during the research process. Here this process will be first introduced, then described in more or less detail, and in cases of less details, we instead refer to issues in more depth in original articles. Finally, a synthesis of all studies and their consequences is elaborated on at the end of this appendix.

  • 581.
    Schantz, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Salier Eriksson, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Rosdahl, Hans
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Can heart rate be used as an indicator of energy demands during commuter walking in a metropolitan area?2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Measuring the energetic demands of habitual commuter walking is essential to objectively relate to the impact that walking commuting can have on health. Hence, evaluating methods for such purpose is of great importance. Heart rate (HR) can possibly be used as long as the relationship between oxygen uptake (VO2) and HR is established in laboratory conditions and proven to be valid under field conditions. However, e.g. traffic, noise and exhaust fumes may introduce effects of e.g. stress that change the relationship in the field. Thus, the validity of the HR method needs to be scrutinized.

    Methods

    VO2 and HR measurements during three submaximal exercise intensities on cycle ergometer were performed in the laboratory, as well as during normal commuting walking in the individuals´ normal field setting in Greater Stockholm, Sweden. 20 habitual commuter pedestrians (10 males and 10 females) aged 45 ± 7 yrs (mean ± SD) participated and validated stationary and portable metabolic systems (Rosdahl et al. 2010; 2016; Salier-Eriksson et al. 2012), and HR monitors were used. A comparison of the VO2 – HR relationship was made between the laboratory and field conditions.

    Results and Discussion 

    Interpreting the heart rate levels during walking commuting from the VO2 – HR relationship in the laboratory resulted in oxygen uptakes that were 13.0 ± 10.6 % lower in males and 10.5 ± 11.5 % lower in females than the correct VO2 values. Thus, the study indicates that systematic differences between the laboratory and field conditions with respect to the VO2 – HR relationship are present in metropolitan conditions. The reason for these differences remains to be elucidated.

    References

    Rosdahl, H., Gullstrand, L., Salier Eriksson, J., Johansson, P. & Schantz, P. 2010. Evaluation of the Oxycon Mobile metabolic system against the Douglas bag method. Eur J Appl Physiol 109 (2):159-71.

    Rosdahl, H., Salier Eriksson, J. & Schantz, P. 2016. Validation of data collected with mobile metabolic measurement systems over time during active commuting. Proceedings of the 21st Annual Congress of The European College of Sport Sciences, Vienna, Austria, 6-8 July (Abstract).

    Salier Eriksson, J., Rosdahl, H. & Schantz, P. 2012. Validity of the Oxycon Mobile metabolic system under field measuring conditions. Eur J Appl Physiol, 112 (1): 345-355.

  • 582.
    Schantz, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Salier Eriksson, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Rosdahl, Hans
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Perspectives on exercise physiology and behaviours of commuter cycling in relation to health outcomes2020In: Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Knowledge about physiology of cycle commuting combined with trip frequency and durations is necessary for understanding its character and potential influencing capacity. It needs to be investigated with validated methods. This is the first purpose of the study. On basis of the outcomes, the second purpose is to illuminate conceivable effects on health related outcomes.

     

    Methods. Ten male and ten female habitual commuter cyclists in their middle ages were studied at rest and with maximal exercise tests on a cycle ergometer and a treadmill in the laboratory. During their normal commute in the Stockholm County, Sweden, their oxygen uptake, heart rate, energy expenditure, ventilation, blood lactate, rated perceived exertion, number of stops, durations, route distances and cycling velocities were monitored with validated methods. The frequency of trips was self-reported.

     

    Results. The relative exercise intensity was 65 % of maximal oxygen uptake, and the energy consumption was 0.46 kcal per km and kg body weight for both sexes. Sex differences in MET-values (males, 8.7; females 7.4) mirrored higher levels of cycling speed (20 %), body weight (29 %), oxygen uptake (54 %) and ventilation (51 %) in males compared to females. The number of METhours per week during peak cycling season averaged 40 for the males and 28 for the females. It corresponded to a total energy expenditure of about 3500 and 1880 kcal for males and females, respectively. The  number of trips per year was about 370, and the annual distance cycled was on the average 3500 km for males and 2300 for females.

     

    Conclusion. Cycle commuting is characterized by equal relative aerobic intensity levels and energy requirements for a given distance cycled for males and females. Based on an overall evaluation, it represents a lower range within the vigorous intensity category. The combined levels of oxygen uptake, durations and trip frequencies leads to high levels of METhours and energy expenditure in both males and females during both peak cycling season as well as over the year. Overall the study presents a novel basis for interpreting cycle commuting in relation to various health outcomes.

  • 583.
    Schantz, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Salier Eriksson, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Rosdahl, Hans
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    The heart rate method for estimating oxygen uptake: Analyses of reproducibility with heart rates from commuter walkingManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 584.
    Schantz, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Salier Eriksson, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Rosdahl, Hans
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    The Heart Rate Method for Estimating Oxygen Uptake: Analyses of Reproducibility Using a Range of Heart Rates from Cycle Commuting2019In: PLoS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 7, article id e0219741Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Monitoring aerobic exercise intensities of free-living physical activities is valuable for purposes such as education and research. The heart rate (HR) method, based on the linear relation between HR and oxygen uptake (VO2), is potentially valuable for this purpose. Three prerequisites are that the method is reproducible, and valid for the specific form of physical activity executed as well as under field conditions. The aim of this study is to evaluate reproducibility of the heart rate method in the laboratory.

     

    Methods. VO2 and HR measurements were made on two different occasions during three submaximal (model 1) plus a maximal exercise intensity (model 2) on a cycle ergometer in the laboratory. 19 habitual commuter cyclists (9 males and 10 females), aged 44 ± 3 years, were measured. The reproducibility of the estimated VO2, based on three levels of HR from commuting cycling and the regression equations from test and retest were analyzed. Differences between the two models were also studied. 

     

    Results. For both models, there were no significant differences between test and retest in the constituents of the regression equations (y-intercept, slope and r-value). Neither were there any systematic differences in estimated absolute levels of VO2 between test and retest. The relative differences between test and retest, based on estimations from three different levels of HR, were 0.99 ± 11.0 (n.s.), 2.67 ± 6.48 (n.s.) and 3.57 ± 6.24% (p<0.05) for model 1, and 1.09 ± 10.6, 1.75 ± 6.43 and 2.12 ± 5.92% (all n.s.) for model 2. However, some large individual differences were seen in both models. There were no significant differences between the two models in the slopes, intercepts or r-values of the regression equations or in the estimated levels of VO2.

     

    Conclusion. The heart rate method shows good reproducibility on the group level in estimating oxygen consumption from HR-VO2 relations in the laboratory, and based on three levels of HR which are representative for cycle commuting. However, on the individual level, some large variations were seen.

  • 585.
    Schantz, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Salier Eriksson, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Rosdahl, Hans
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    The physical work during cycling needs to be measured more accurately in studies of health effects: An explorative methodological study2020In: Konferensrapporten Transportforum 2020, 2020Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 586.
    Schantz, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Salier Eriksson, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Rosdahl, Hans
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    The heart rate method for estimating oxygen uptake: analyses of reproducibility using a range of heart rates from commuter walking2019In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 119, no 11-12, p. 2655-2671Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. The heart rate method, based on the linear relation between heart rate and oxygen uptake, is potentially valuable to monitor intensity levels of physical activities. However, this depends not least on its reproducibility under standard conditions. This study aims therefore to evaluate the reproducibility of the heart rate method in the laboratory using a range of heart rates associated with walking commuting.

     

    Methods. On two different days, heart rate and oxygen uptake measurements were made during three submaximal (model 1) and a maximal exercise intensity (model 2) on a cycle ergometer in the laboratory. 14 habitual walking commuters participated. The reproducibility, based on the regression equations from test and retest and using three levels of heart rate from the walking commuting was analyzed. Differences between the two models were also analyzed. 

     

    Results. For both models, there were no significant differences between test and retest in the constituents of the regression equations (y-intercept, slope and r-value). Neither were there any systematic differences in estimated absolute levels of VO2 between test and retest for either model. However, some rather large individual differences were seen in both models. Furthermore, no significant differences were seen between the two models in slopes, intercepts and r-values of the regression equations or in the estimated VO2.

     

    Conclusion. The heart rate method shows good reproducibility on the group level in estimating oxygen consumption from heart rate – oxygen uptake relations in the laboratory, and based on three levels of heart rate which are representative for walking commuting. However, on the individual level, some large variations were seen.

  • 587.
    Schantz, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Stigell, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    A criterion method for measuring route distance in physically active commuting.2009In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 472-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: There is a need for accurate, reliable, and feasible methods for determining route distances in physically active transportation. The aim of this study, therefore, was to scrutinize if distances of commuting routes drawn by physically active commuters and measured with a digital curvimetric distance measurement device could serve such a purpose. METHODS: Participants were recruited when walking or bicycling in the inner urban area of Stockholm, Sweden. Questionnaires and individually adjusted maps were sent twice to the participants (n = 133). Commuting routes from home to work were drawn on the maps. These were measured using a digital curvimetric distance measurer that was carefully controlled for validity and reproducibility. Marked points of origin and destination were checked for validity and reproducibility using stated addresses and address geocoding systems. Nineteen participants were followed with a global positioning system (GPS) to control for validity of drawn routes. An analysis of the effect on distance measurements of any deviations between GPS route tracings and drawn routes was undertaken. RESULTS: No order effects were noted on distance measurements, and the test-retest intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.999 (P

  • 588.
    Schantz, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Stigell, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Dang, Phung
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Salier-Eriksson, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Rosdahl, Hans
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Kan fysiskt aktiv arbetspendling bli en "folkrörelse"?2006In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, no 3, p. 8-13Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 589.
    Schantz, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Wahlgren, Lina
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Salier Eriksson, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Nilsson Sommar, Johan
    Umeå Universitet.
    Rosdahl, Hans
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Estimating duration-distance relations in cycle commuting in the general population2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 11, article id e0207573Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is important to estimate the duration-distance relation in cycle commuting in the general  population since this enables analyses of the potential for various public health outcomes. Therefore, the aim is to estimate this relation in the Swedish adult population of 2015. For that purpose, the first step was to establish it for adult male and female cycle commuters in Greater Stockholm, Sweden. Whether or not the slopes of these relations needed to be altered in order to make them representative of the general population was evaluated by comparing the levels of maximal oxygen uptake in samples of commuter cyclists and the population. The measure used was the maximal oxygen uptake divided by both the body weight and a cycle weight of 18.5 kg. The body weights in the population samples were adjusted to mirror relevant levels in 2015. Age adjustments for the duration–distance relations were calculated on the basis of the maximal oxygen uptake in the population samples aged 20–65 years. The duration-distance relations of the cycle commuters were downscaled by about 24–28% to mirror levels in the general population. The empirical formula for the distance (D, km) was based on duration (T, minutes)  x  speed (km/min)  x  a correction factor from cycle commuter to the general population  x  age adjustment (A, years). For the males in the general population the formula was: D = T  x  20.76 km/h  x  0.719  x  (1.676 – 0.0147  x  A). For females, the  formula was: D = T  x  16.14 km/h  x  0.763  x  (1.604 – 0.0129  x  A). These formulas, combined with distributions of route distances between home and work in the population, enable realistic evaluations of the potential for different public health outcomes through cycle commuting.

  • 590.
    Schantz, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Wahlgren, Lina
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Salier Eriksson, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Rosdahl, Hans
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Vilka folkhälsovinster kan erhållas vid olika scenarier av ökad cykling i en storstadsregion?: Empiri och fysisk arbetskapacitet som grund för beräkning av potentiell cykelpendling.2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vilka folkhälsovinster kan erhållas vid olika scenarier av ökad cykling i en storstadsregion?

    Syfte: Ur såväl transport- och miljö- som folkhälsoperspektiv är det värdefullt att utveckla kunskap om potentialen att överföra bilresor för arbetspendling till cykelresor. Det är också angeläget att belysa hur detta kan leda till ökade nivåer av fysisk aktivitet och förbättrad luftkvalité, samt att analysera vilka hälsokonsekvenser en förbättrad luftkvalité det kan medföra inom hela befolkningen inom en storstadsregion.  

    För detta krävs att vitt skilda kompetenser samverkar. Man behöver till exempel kombinera kunskap om resmönster och färdvägsavstånd för olika kön och ålder, med kunskap om arbetsfysiologisk kapacitet och cyklisters beteende samt hur luftkvaliteten ter sig, hur den kan ändras, och vilka konsekvenser det får.

    Genom ett unikt samarbete mellan Umeå Universitet, Stockholms Universitet, Stockholms miljöförvaltning, Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan samt konsultföretaget WSP har vitt skilda kompetenser sammanförts för att belysa dessa frågeställningar i ett integrativt forskningsprojekt med Stor-Stockholm som studieområde.  Projektet utvecklar dessutom även ny metodologisk kunskap som är av ett brett intresse för samhälls- och trafikplanering inom storstadsområden.

  • 591.
    Schantz, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Wahlgren, Lina
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Salier-Eriksson, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Stigell, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Rosdahl, Hans
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Is Active Commuting the answer to Population Health?:  Lessons from the Stockholm Studies (PACS) – A Prologue.2010In: Proceedings from The 3rd International Congress on Physical Activity and Public Health, Toronto, Canada, 2010,, 2010, p. 35-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 592.
    Schantz, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Åstrand, Per-Olof
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH.
    Gyllensten, Lars
    Unika parkområden hotade: Ge Brunnsvikenområdet skydd som nationell kulturpark manar debattörer1991Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 593. Schiffer, Tomas A
    et al.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Lundberg, Jon O
    Weitzberg, Eddie
    Larsen, Filip J
    Dynamic regulation of metabolic efficiency explains tolerance to acute hypoxia in humans.2014In: The FASEB Journal, ISSN 0892-6638, E-ISSN 1530-6860, Vol. 28, no 10, p. 4303-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The maximum power principle dictates that open biological systems tend to self-organize to a level of efficiency that allows maximal power production. Applying this principle to cellular energetics and whole-body physiology would suggest that for every metabolic challenge, an optimal efficiency exists that maximizes power production. On exposure to hypoxia, it would be favorable if metabolic efficiency would rapidly adjust so as to better preserve work performance. We tested this idea in humans by measuring metabolic efficiency and exercise tolerance under normoxic (Fio2=20.9%) and hypoxic (Fio2=16%) conditions, where Fio2 is fraction of inhaled oxygen. The results were compared with respirometric analyses of skeletal muscle mitochondria from the same individuals. We found that among healthy trained subjects (n=14) with a wide range of metabolic efficiency (ME), those with a high ME during normoxic exercise were able to better maintain exercise capacity (Wmax) in hypoxia. On hypoxic exposure, these subjects acutely decreased their efficiency from 19.2 to 17.4%, thereby likely shifting it closer to a degree of efficiency where maximal power production is achieved. In addition, mitochondria from these subjects had a lower intrinsic respiration compared to subjects that showed a large drop in Wmax in hypoxia An acute shift in efficiency was also demonstrated in isolated mitochondria exposed to physiological levels of hypoxia as P/O ratio increased from 0.9 to 1.3 with hypoxic exposure. These findings suggest the existence of a physiological adaptive response by which metabolic efficiency is dynamically optimized to maximize power production.-Schiffer, T. A., Ekblom, B., Lundberg, J. O., Weitzberg, E., Larsen, F. J. Dynamic regulation of metabolic efficiency explains tolerance to acute hypoxia in humans.

  • 594.
    Schiffer, Tomas A
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Solna, Sweden.
    Larsen, Filip J
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Research group for Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Lundberg, Jon O
    Karolinska Institute, Solna, Sweden.
    Weitzberg, Eddie
    Karolinska Institute, Solna, Sweden.
    Dietary nitrate and mitochondrial efficiency in humans.2020In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 111, no 2, p. 486-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 595. Schiffer, Tomas A
    et al.
    Peleli, Maria
    Sundqvist, Michaela L
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Lundberg, Jon O
    Weitzberg, Eddie
    Larsen, Filip J
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Research group for Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Control of Human Energy Expenditure by Cytochrome C Oxidase Subunit IV-2.2016In: American Journal of Physiology - Cell Physiology, ISSN 0363-6143, E-ISSN 1522-1563, Vol. 311, no 3, p. C452-C461Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Resting metabolic rate (RMR) in human shows pronounced individual variations, but the underlying molecular mechanism remains elusive. Cytochrome C oxidase (COX) plays a key role in control of metabolic rate and recent studies of the subunit 4 isoform 2 (COX IV-2) indicate involvement in the cellular response to hypoxia and oxidative stress. We evaluated whether the COX subunit IV isoform composition may explain the pronounced individual variations in resting metabolic rate (RMR). RMR was determined in healthy humans by indirect calorimetry and correlated to levels of COX IV-2 and COX IV-1 in Vastus Lateralis. Over expression and knock down of the COX IV isoforms were performed in primary myotubes followed by evaluation of the cell respiration and production of reactive oxygen species. Here we show that COX IV-2 protein is constitutively expressed in human skeletal muscle and strongly correlated to RMR. Primary human myotubes overexpressing COX IV-2 displayed markedly (>60%) lower respiration, reduced (>50%) cellular H2O2 production, higher resistance towards both oxidative stress and severe hypoxia compared to control cells. These results suggest an important role of isoform COX IV-2 in the control of energy expenditure, hypoxic tolerance and mitochondrial ROS homeostasis in humans.

  • 596. Schmied, C
    et al.
    Börjesson, Mats
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Sudden cardiac death in athletes.2014In: Journal of Internal Medicine, ISSN 0954-6820, E-ISSN 1365-2796, Vol. 275, no 2, p. 93-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A 'paradox of sport' is that in addition to the undisputed health benefits of physical activity, vigorous exertion may transiently increase the risk of acute cardiac events. In general, the risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) approximately doubles during physical activity and is 2- to 3-fold higher in athletes compared to nonathletes. The incidence of SCD in young athletes is in fact very low, at around 1-3 per 100 000, but attracts much public attention. Variations in incidence figures may be explained by the methodology used for data collection and more importantly by differences between subpopulations of athletes. The incidence of SCD in older (≥35 years) athletes is higher and may be expected to rise, as more and older individuals take part in organized sports. SCD is often the first clinical manifestation of a potentially fatal underlying cardiovascular disorder and usually occurs in previously asymptomatic athletes. In the young (<35 years), SCD is mainly due to congenital/inherited cardiac abnormalities, whilst coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common cause in older athletes. Cardiac screening including family/personal history, physical examination and resting electrocardiogram (ECG) may identify individuals at risk and has the potential to decrease the risk of SCD in young athletes. Screening including the ECG has a high sensitivity for underlying disease in young athletes, but the specificity needs to be improved, whereas the sensitivity of screening without the use of ECG is very low. The screening modality recommended for young athletes is of limited value in older athletes, who should receive individualized screening with cardiac stress testing for patients with high risk of underlying CAD. As cardiovascular screening will never be able to identify all athletes at risk, adequate preparedness is vital in case of a potentially fatal event at the sporting arena/facility. Firstly, we will review the magnitude of the problem of SCD in athletes of different ages, as well as the aetiology. Secondly, we will focus on how to prevent SCD in athletes of all ages, reviewing cardiovascular screening recommendations as well as emergency preparedness and arena safety.

  • 597.
    Sebastian, Edman
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Horwath, Oscar
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Intake of branched-chain amino acids in combination with endurance exercise – no effect on mRNA expression of proteins regulating mitochondrial biogenesis2019Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 598.
    Sebastian, Edman
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Söderlund, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Human type II muscle fiber exhibit higher expression of proteins in the mTOR pathway as compared to type I fibers2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 599.
    Seger, Jan
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Westing, Stephen
    Hanson, Mats
    Karlson, Eddy
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    A new dynamometer measuring concentric and eccentric muscle strength in accelerated, decelerated, or isokinetic movements1988In: European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, ISSN 0301-5548, E-ISSN 1432-1025, Vol. 57, p. 526-530Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new computerized dynamometer (the SPARK System) is described. The system can measure concentric and eccentric muscle strength (torque) during linear or nonlinear acceleration or deceleration, isokinetic movements up to 400 degrees.s-1, and isometric torque. Studies were performed to assess: I. validity and reproducibility of torque measurements; II. control of lever arm position; III. control of different velocity patterns; IV. control of velocity during subject testing; and, V. intra-individual reproducibility. No significant difference was found between torque values computed by the system and known torque values (p greater than 0.05). No difference was present between programmed and external measurement of the lever arm position. Accelerating, decelerating and isokinetic velocity patterns were highly reproducible, with differences in elapsed time among 10 trials being never greater than 0.001 s. Velocity during concentric and eccentric isokinetic quadriceps contractions at 30 degrees.s-1, 120 degrees.s-1 and 270 degrees.s-1 never varied by more than 3 degrees.s-1 among subjects (N = 21). Over three days of testing, the overall error for concentric and eccentric quadriceps contraction peak torque values for 5 angular velocities between 30 degrees.s-1 and 270 degrees.s-1 ranged from 5.8% to 9.0% and 5.8% to 9.6% respectively (N = 25). The results indicate that the SPARK System provides valid and reproducible torque measurements and strict control of velocity. In addition, the intra-individual error is in accordance with those reported for other similar devices.

  • 600.
    Shcherbina, Anna
    et al.
    Stanford University.
    Mattsson, C Mikael
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology. Stanford University.
    Waggott, Daryl
    Stanford University.
    Salisbury, Heidi
    Stanford University.
    Christle, Jeffrey W
    Stanford University.
    Hastie, Trevor
    Stanford University.
    Wheeler, Matthew T
    Stanford University.
    Ashley, Euan A
    Stanford University.
    Accuracy in Wrist-Worn, Sensor-Based Measurements of Heart Rate and Energy Expenditure in a Diverse Cohort.2017In: Journal of personalized medicine, ISSN 2075-4426, Vol. 7, no 2, article id E3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to measure physical activity through wrist-worn devices provides an opportunity for cardiovascular medicine. However, the accuracy of commercial devices is largely unknown. The aim of this work is to assess the accuracy of seven commercially available wrist-worn devices in estimating heart rate (HR) and energy expenditure (EE) and to propose a wearable sensor evaluation framework. We evaluated the Apple Watch, Basis Peak, Fitbit Surge, Microsoft Band, Mio Alpha 2, PulseOn, and Samsung Gear S2. Participants wore devices while being simultaneously assessed with continuous telemetry and indirect calorimetry while sitting, walking, running, and cycling. Sixty volunteers (29 male, 31 female, age 38 ± 11 years) of diverse age, height, weight, skin tone, and fitness level were selected. Error in HR and EE was computed for each subject/device/activity combination. Devices reported the lowest error for cycling and the highest for walking. Device error was higher for males, greater body mass index, darker skin tone, and walking. Six of the devices achieved a median error for HR below 5% during cycling. No device achieved an error in EE below 20 percent. The Apple Watch achieved the lowest overall error in both HR and EE, while the Samsung Gear S2 reported the highest. In conclusion, most wrist-worn devices adequately measure HR in laboratory-based activities, but poorly estimate EE, suggesting caution in the use of EE measurements as part of health improvement programs. We propose reference standards for the validation of consumer health devices (http://precision.stanford.edu/).

91011121314 551 - 600 of 668
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf