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  • 51.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Engström, Lars-MagnusSwedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.Hinic, HansiHögskolan i Halmstad.Johnson, UrbanHögskolan i Halmstad.Redelius, KarinSwedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.Ryberg, Lars
    Idrottsledare för barn och ungdom2007Collection (editor) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Idrottsledare för barn och ungdom är framtagen inom ramen för Plattformen. För dig som är tränare eller ledare för idrottande barn och ungdomar är boken oumbärlig oavsett om du tänker gå utbildningen Plattformen eller om du vill läsa den av eget intresse.Boken tar upp områden som barn och ungdomars utveckling, såväl fysisk, motorisk, psykisk och socialt samt ledarskapet och etikens betydelse. Det inledande kapitlet ”Barnet och ungdomen i centrum” tar upp viktiga frågor kring vad som påverkar utformningen av barn- och ungdomsidrott, varför barn och ungdomar egentligen idrottar och vad idrotten lär ut mer än att kasta en boll, slå ett slag eller springa snabbt. Ett särskilt kapitel har också ägnats åt att ge en mängd konkreta, pedagogiska tips till dig som ledare.Boken innehåller även fallbeskrivningar som frågeställningar där du som ledare och läsare får fundera till lite extra och som förhoppningsvis också hjälper dig att ta ställning i såväl enklare som svåra och komplicerade frågor.

    Ur innehållet:

    • Barnet och ungdomen i centrum
    • Ledarskap
    • Etik
    • Barn och ungdomars psykiska och sociala utveckling
    • Barn och ungdomars fysiska träning och utveckling
    • Pedagogiken i praktiken
    • Nyttovärde kontra investeringsvärde
  • 52.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Kraepelien Strid, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Tidén, Anna
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Nyberg, Marie
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Sundblad, Gunilla Brun
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Predictors of adolescent fitness levels among Swedish adolescents, a longitudinal study2012In: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 2012, Vol. 15, no Supplement 1, p. S185-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: It has been consistently demonstrated that low aerobic fitness is causally linked to increased cardio-metabolic risk. Aerobic fitness has also been causally related to cognitive function. From adolescence and onwards, the inter-individual stability ("tracking") in fitness is fairly high. An individual's fitness level in adolescence is therefore a central determinant for future health. However, childhood predictors of adolescent fitness levels are largely unknown. The present study aimed at identifying personal, school-specific and structural determinants in childhood (age 10 yrs) for adolescent aerobic fitness (at age 16 yrs).

    Methods: Body mass index-based overweight status (normal weight vs overweight/obese, according to Cole et al.) and gross motor skills (based on the Tidén-Nyberg test) were measured at baseline in 209 Swedish children (mean [SD] age 9.8 [0.60] yrs) from randomly selected schools on Sweden. Immigration status (self-report) and average household income in quartiles on community level (register obtained) were used as possible structural confounders. Data on educational status of the PE teacher and lesson structure (gender-separated vs mixed classes) was obtained from the PE teacher. At the reexamination (at age 15.8 [0.33] yrs), aerobic fitness was estimated using the Åstrand-Ryhming nomogram. Low aerobic fitness was defined as below the first quartile (29.7 mL x min-1 x kg-1). Risk for low aerobic fitness was assessed using logistic regression

    Results: Risk for low aerobic fitness at follow-up was lower in children who were normal weight (OR: 0.23.95% CI: 0.10 to 0.49) and in children with trained PE-teachers (OR: 0.40, 95% CI: 0.17 to 0.93), but higher among children with poor gross motor skills (OR:1.84, 95% CI 1.08 to 3.13) at baseline. Gender, immigration history, neighborhood economical status and lesson structure were all non-significant predictors of low adolescent fitness.

    Discussion: The results stress the importance for early overweight prevention and treatment and for professional identification and treatment of children with impaired gross motor skills at young ages. In Sweden, a lagre proportion of PE-teachers in lower grades lack formal PE-teacher education, which according to the present study poses a threat to children's future health. Early screening and treatment of children with limited motor proficiencies seems may help children adapting a physically active lifestyle and avoiding low fitness levels in adolescence and young adulthood.

  • 53.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Kraepelien Strid, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Tidén, Anna
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Nyberg, Marie
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Sundblad, Gunilla Brun
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Predictors of perceived competence in physical activities (PCPA) among Swedish adolescents, a longitudinal study2012In: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 2012, Vol. 15, no Supplement 1, p. S113-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: An individual's perceived competence in physical activities (PCPA) has been proven a powerful predictor for future physical activity. However, the perception of one¥s competence may differ over time, especially during childhood and adolescence but also between types of physical activities or tasks. Further, the predictors for PCPA are largely unknown, but overweight status and gross motor skills have been proposed as candidates. We sought to identify predictors for general PCPA in Swedish adolescents, and PCPA in three highly prevalent forms of physical activities in Swedish physical education (PE), namely swimming, aerobics and soccer.

    Methods: Body mass index-based overweight status (normal weight vs overweight/obese, according to Cole et al.) and gross motor skills (based on the TidÈn-Nyberg test) were measured in 352 Swedish children (160 girls and 192 boys) at baseline (age 10). Immigration status (self-report) and average community household income level (quartiles, register obtained) at 10 yrs were used as possible socio-cultural confounders. Data on educational status of the PE teacher responsible for education at age 10 yrs was obtained by self-report from the teachers. Self reported data on general PCPA and PCPA in soccer, swimming and aerobics at 16 yrs was obtained at follow-up and predictors for PCPA was identified using logistic regression.

    Results: Being overweight or obese (OR: 2.27, 95% CI: 1.18–4.38) and attending PE classes with unqualified teachers (OR: 2.41, 95% CI: 1.36–4.27) at age 10 yrs were both risk factors for low general PCPA a age 16 yrs. Concerning the selected activities, being overweight or obese at age 10 yrs predicted low PCPA in swimming (OR: 2.67, 95% CI:1.31–5.46) but not in the other activities at age 16 yrs. Poor gross motor skills at age 10 yrs predicted low PCPA at 16 yrs only in soccer (OR:1.48, 95% CI: 1.02–2.13). Female gender (OR: 0.21, 95% CI: 0.13–0.38), and higher socioeconomic status (OR: 0.71 per quartile, 95% CI: 0.55–0.92)at age 10 yrs were both found to be associated to lower risk for low PCPA in aerobics.

    Discussion: Overweight status and educational status of the PE teacher both affect the risk of having low general PCPA. The effect of gender, overweight status, gross motor skill and socio-economy seem to differ between specific activities, indicating that PCPA may be task specific in adolescents. These results may serve as background when planning physical activity interventions. Further, they stress the need for professional PE teachers to teach in younger classes.

  • 54.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekelund, Ulf
    Cambridge University.
    Marcus, Claude
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Validity and comparability of a wrist-worn accelerometer in children.2012In: Journal of Physical Activity and Health, ISSN 1543-3080, E-ISSN 1543-5474, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 389-393Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Wrist-worn accelerometers may provide an alternative to hip-worn monitors for assessing physical activity as they are easier to wear and may thus facilitate long-term recordings. The current study aimed at a) assessing the validity of the Actiwatch (wrist-worn) for estimating energy expenditure, b) determining cut-off values for light, moderate, and vigorous activities, c) studying the comparability between the Actiwatch and the Actigraph (hip-worn), and d) assessing reliability.

    METHODS:

    For validity, indirect calorimetry was used as criterion measure. ROC-analyses were applied to identify cut-off values. Comparability was tested by simultaneously wearing of the 2 accelerometers during free-living condition. Reliability was tested in a mechanical shaker.

    RESULTS:

    All-over correlation between accelerometer output and energy expenditure were found to be 0.80 (P < .001).Based on ROC-analysis, cut-off values for 1.5, 3, and 6 METs were found to be 80, 262, and 406 counts per 15 s, respectively. Energy expenditure estimates differed between the Actiwatch and the Actigraph (P < .05). The intra- and interinstrument coefficient of variation of the Actiwatch ranged between 0.72% and 8.4%.

    CONCLUSION:

    The wrist-worn Actiwatch appears to be valid and reliable for estimating energy expenditure and physical activity intensity in children aged 8 to 10 years.

  • 55.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Oddsson, Kristjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Health-related fitness in Swedish adolescents between 1987 and 2001.2004In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 93, no 5, p. 681-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: To assess trends in neuro-muscular and cardio-respiratory fitness and morphological fitness in Swedish adolescents between 1987 and 2001. METHODS: Comparison of data from two samples, one from 1987 (n = 479) and one from 2001 (n = 1470). Subjects underwent functional tests of muscular strength in the lower limbs, trunk and upper body, sub-maximal ergometrics, and measurement of body mass and height. RESULTS: Cardio-respiratory fitness showed only small changes between 1987 and 2001 among boys, with no changes in girls. Neuro-muscular fitness, as measured by three functional tests, was lower in 2001 compared to 1987. The most pronounced changes in these functional tests were found in the arm-hang test, while changes in lower body and trunk strength tests were less. Our results indicate that the difference in the prevalence of overweight in adolescents between 1987 and 2001 is mainly due to a large change in the most unfit group. The fittest group showed only marginal changes. CONCLUSION: We suggest that the differences in neuro-muscular fitness are at least partly due to differences in the amount and nature of physical activity, and that this might lead to consequences for health later in life.

  • 56.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Oddsson, Kristjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Physical performance and body mass index in Swedish children and adolescents2005In: Scandinavian Journal of Nutrition/Næringsforskning, ISSN 1102-6480, E-ISSN 1651-2359, Vol. 49, no 4, p. 172-179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Physical fitness and overweight are both important health-related parameters. Reference data from a population are important for comparisons with children with impairments, different diseases, in habilitation or rehabilitation after injuries. Objective: The aim of the survey was to obtain reference data on physical performance in Swedish children and adolescents aged 10, 13 and 16 years. In addition, height and body mass were assessed and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Design: In total, 2118 children and adolescents in 48 randomly selected schools in Sweden were invited and 1737 subjects participated. Testing procedures were similar to the Eurofit tests, but with some modifications. Results : Results show generally better performance in boys than in girls and increasing performance with age. BMI increased with age with only small differences between genders. Large variations were found within age and gender groups. Conclusions: The present studyprovides reference data on physical performance and body size in Swedish children and adolescents. The results from the present study may be used to compare performance and anthropometric data over time or between countries, to evaluate performance in different patient groups or to set goals for athletes.

  • 57.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Oddsson, Kristjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Prevalence and regional differences in overweight in 2001 and trends in BMI distribution in Swedish children from 1987 to 2001.2004In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 257-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS: This study was undertaken to assess current prevalence and regional differences of overweight in 2001 and changes in body mass index (BMI) distribution between 1987 and 2001 in Swedish adolescents. METHODS: Comparison was made of two independent samples. For assessment of prevalence and regional differences in 2001, a total of 1732 subjects were used. For trend analyses a total of 1,949 children (516 and 1,470 in 1987 and 2001, respectively), aged 10, 13, and 16 years. RESULTS: The prevalence of overweight in 2001 was between 21.7% and 13.3% for boys and girls aged 10 to 16 years and the prevalence of obesity was between 2.9% and 6.2%. Mean BMI as well as prevalence of overweight and obesity was higher in subjects from schools in smaller towns or from the countryside. Median BMI among adolescents changed from 1987 to 2001, most notably in 13- and 16-year-old children. The prevalence of overweight and obesity combined has changed more than 2.5-fold in children aged 10 to 16 years. In this study, the most pronounced elevation in BMI is found in the upper part of the BMI spectrum. This change is especially apparent in girls. CONCLUSION: The change in mean BMI and prevalence of overweight and obesity in children in this study is mainly due to the pronounced change in BMI at the upper end of the spectrum, indicating that the factors leading to overweight or obesity have changed in only a subgroup of the child population.

  • 58.
    Ekblom-Bak, Elin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Bergström, Göran
    Börjesson, Mats
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Isotemporal substitution of sedentary time by physical activity of different intensities and bout lengths, and its associations with metabolic risk.2016In: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, ISSN 2047-4873, E-ISSN 2047-4881, Vol. 23, no 9, p. 967-974Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Time spent being sedentary, regardless of time in exercise, has been associated with metabolic risk using regression modelling. By using isotemporal substitution modelling, the effect of replacing sedentary time with an equal amount of time in physical activity (PA) of different intensities can be considered. The present study aims to investigate the effect of replacing sedentary time with time in light, moderate and vigorous PA to the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Also, replacement of sedentary time by PA of different bout lengths was studied.

    METHODS: In total, 836 participants (52% women), aged 50-64 years, from the SCAPIS pilot study were included. Daily time spent sedentary and in PA of different intensities was assessed using hip-worn accelerometers.

    RESULTS: In this cross-sectional study, replacing 10 minutes of sedentary time with the same amount of light PA was associated with significant lower MetS prevalence, odds ratio (OR) 0.96 (95% confidence interval 0.93-0.98). Replacement with moderate PA resulted in even lower OR, 0.89 (0.82-0.97), with the lowest OR for vigorous PA, 0.41 (0.26-0.66). Participants with high energy intake and high daily sedentary time benefitted more from the replacement of sedentary time with light PA. Significant associations were seen for all bout lengths of light, moderate and vigorous PA in a stepwise-like fashion from one minute to up to 120 minute bouts.

    CONCLUSION: Theoretical substitutions of sedentary time with PA of any intensity and of as little as one minute were associated with significantly lower ORs for MetS. This may be an easily communicable message in clinical practice and for public health purposes.

  • 59.
    Ekblom-Bak, Elin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Bolam, Kate
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Bergström, Göran
    Börjesson, Mats
    SCAPIS Pilot Study: Sitness, Fitness and Fatness - Is Sedentary Time Substitution by Physical Activity Equally Important for Everyone's Markers of Glucose Regulation?2016In: Journal of Physical Activity and Health, ISSN 1543-3080, E-ISSN 1543-5474, Vol. 13, no 7, p. 697-703Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Although moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is mainly recommended for glucose control, light physical activity (LIPA) may also have the potential to induce favorable changes. We investigated sedentary time (SED) substitution with equal time in LIPA and MVPA, and the association with markers of glucose regulation and insulin sensitivity after stratification by waist circumference, fitness and fasting glucose levels.

    METHODS: A total of 654 men and women, 50-64 years, from the SCAPIS pilot study were included. Daily SED, LIPA and MVPA were assessed using hip-worn accelerometers. Fasting plasma glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR were determined.

    RESULTS: Substituting 30 min of SED with LIPA was significantly associated with 3.0% lower fasting insulin values and 3.1% lower HOMA-IR values, with even lower levels when substituting SED with MVPA. Participants with lower fitness and participants with high fasting glucose levels benefited significantly more from substituting 30 min of SED with LIPA compared to participants with normal to high fitness levels and participants with normal glucose levels, respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: LIPA, and not only MVPA, may have beneficial associations with glucose regulation. This is of great clinical and public health importance, not least because it may confer a higher compliance rate to regular PA.

  • 60.
    Ekblom-Bak, Elin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Fagman, Erika
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Angerås, Oskar
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Schmidt, Caroline
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Rosengren, Annika
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Börjesson, Mats
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Bergström, Göran
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Fitness attenuates the prevalence of increased coronary artery calcium in individuals with metabolic syndrome.2018In: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, ISSN 2047-4873, E-ISSN 2047-4881, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 309-316, article id 2047487317745177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background The association between cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity and coronary artery calcium (CAC) is unclear, and whether higher levels of fitness attenuate CAC prevalence in subjects with metabolic syndrome is not fully elucidated. The present study aims to: a) investigate the independent association of fitness on the prevalence of CAC, after adjustment for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary time, and b) study the possible attenuation of increased CAC by higher fitness, in participants with metabolic syndrome. Design Cross-sectional. Methods In total 678 participants (52% women), 50-65 years old, from the SCAPIS pilot study were included. Fitness (VO2max) was estimated by submaximal cycle ergometer test and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary time were assessed using hip-worn accelerometers. CAC score (CACS) was quantified using the Agatston score. Results The odds of having a significant CACS (≥100) was half in participants with moderate/high fitness compared with their low fitness counterparts. Further consideration of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, sedentary time and number of components of the metabolic syndrome did only slightly alter the effect size. Those with metabolic syndrome had 47% higher odds for significant CAC compared with those without metabolic syndrome. However, moderate/high fitness seems to partially attenuate this risk, as further joint analysis indicated an increased odds for having significant CAC only in the unfit metabolic syndrome participants. Conclusions Being fit is associated with a reduced risk of having significant CAC in individuals with metabolic syndrome. While still very much underutilized, fitness should be taken into consideration in everyday clinical risk prediction in addition to the traditional risk factors of the metabolic syndrome.

  • 61.
    Ekblom-Bak, Elin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Engström, Lars-Magnus
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    LIV 2000: Motionsvanor, fysisk prestationsförmåga och levnadsvanor bland svenska kvinnor och män i åldrarna 20-65 år2011Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    LIV 2000; syfte och frågeställningar

    LIV 90-studien avspeglade för första gången motionsvanor, fysisk status och övergripande hälsostatus i en väl definierad grupp av hela svenska befolkningen. Följaktligen ledde de resultat som LIV 90-studien redovisade till en rad direkta, centrala och övergripande frågor rörande vilka förändringar av det i många avseenden turbulenta 1990-talet som kunde iakttas i den svenska befolkningen vad gäller fysisk aktivitet, levnadsvanor, fysisk kapacitet och hälsotillstånd. Dessutom finns ett intressant perspektiv att jämföra hur den fysiska aktivitetsgraden, prestationsförmågan och hälsorelaterade variabler ser ut i samma ålderskohort med 10 års mellanrum.

    I stort sett sammanfaller undersökta variabler i LIV 2000 av naturliga skäl med den tidigare LIV 90-studiens, men vissa enkätfrågor har med erfarenheter från denna och andra studier, och den forskning som därefter bedrivits, ytterligare preciserats. Det gäller framförallt frågor om den totala fysiska aktiviteten samt frågor som rör inställning till den egna kroppen, den fysiska förmågan liksom frågor om hinder och förutsättningar att ägna sig åt motion. För att säkerställa möjligheterna att studera trender och eventuella förändringar i befolkningen under 1990-talet var designen och genomförandet av LIV 2000 studien i stort sett identisk med LIV 90. Förutom ett samlat tabellverk över de ingående undersökningsvariablerna i LIV 2000-studien (Bilaga B.1)belyser denna rapport mer specifikt följande  områden och frågeställningar:

    I. Omfattning och inriktning av den vuxna befolkningens motionsvanor samt totala fysiska aktivitet. Hur många är motionärer? Hur många är tillräckligt fysiskt aktiva? Motionär och fysiskt aktiv – är det samma  sak?

    II. Fysisk prestationsförmåga; kondition, balans, ben- och bukmuskelstyrka. Hur skiljer det mellan könen och olika åldrar? Hur många har en låg fysisk prestationsförmåga?

    III. Psykisk och fysisk hälsa. Hur är den upplevda hälsan? Och hur är den metabola hälsan? Hur många har en samlad metabol riskbild?

    IV. Förändringar och trender av motionsvanor, total fysisk aktivitet, fysisk prestationsförmåga, livsstil och hälsotillstånd mellan LIV 90 och LIV 2000. Vad hände mellan 1990 och början av 2000-talet? Vilka hälsomässiga riskgrupper finns i befolkningen?

    Innehåll

    1. Bakgrund

    2. Metod och genomförande

    3. Deltagare

    4. Motionsvanor och fysisk aktivitet

    5. Fysisk prestationsförmåga

    6. Hälsa

    7. LIV 90 och LIV 2000 - Vad har hänt över 10 år?

    8. Sammanfattning

    B. 1 Tabellverk

    B. 2 Enkät och testprotokoll

  • 62.
    Ekblom-Bak, Elin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Hellenius, Maj-Lis
    Karolinska institutet.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Engström, Lars-Magnus
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Fitness and abdominal obesity are independently associated with cardiovascular risk.2009In: Journal of internal medicine, ISSN 1365-2796, no 21 MayArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. To examine the relationship between cardiovascular fitness (VO(2)max) and abdominal obesity (waist circumference) and individual cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, as well as a clustered risk factor profile, and to study the impact of gender, age and smoking on these relationships. Design. Cross-sectional. Setting. Astrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden. Subjects. Men (n = 781) and women (n = 890) from two random population-based samples of Swedish women and men aged 20 to 65 years. Main outcomes. Odds ratios. Results. Each unit of higher fitness was associated with a decrease in all individual risk factors ranging from 2% to 4% independent of waist circumference, each unit of higher waist circumference was associated with an increased risk ranging from 2% to 5% independent of fitness. For clustering of three or more of the risk factors, each unit of fitness was associated with a 5% decrease in risk and each unit of waist circumference with a 5% increase in risk. The clustered risk was higher in unfit participants who were older or smoked daily, regardless of waist circumference. Obese participants were at higher risk if they were men or older, regardless of fitness level. However, neither a higher fitness level nor lean status reduced the risk associated with smoking. Conclusions. Higher fitness and lower waist circumference are each independently associated to a similar extent with a lower CVD risk. Simultaneous evaluation of both fitness and abdominal obesity status in clinical practice is important.

  • 63.
    Ekblom-Bak, Elin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Hellénius, Mai-Lis
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Engström, Lars-Magnus
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Independent associations of physical activity and cardiovascular fitness with cardiovascular risk in adults.2010In: European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention & Rehabilitation, ISSN 1741-8267, E-ISSN 1741-8275, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 175-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Uncertainty still exists whether physical activity (PA) and cardiovascular fitness (CF) contribute separately to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. This study examined the associations of PA and CF on individual as well as clustered CVD risk factors. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. METHODS: Seven hundred and eighty-one men and 890 women, aged 20-65 years, from two random population-based samples of Swedish women and men were included. PA was assessed by questionnaire and CF was predicted by a submaximal cycle ergometry test. Waist circumference, blood pressure, and fasting levels of blood lipids were assessed and dichotomized by conventional cut-off points. RESULTS: Participants reporting high PA level benefited from lower triglycerides and atherogenic cholesterol levels, regardless of CF. Higher CF level was, regardless of PA, associated with lower risk for all risk factors. With regard to clustering of risk factors, each higher CF level was associated with a gradually reduced risk by half or more, independent of PA. Furthermore, being unfit but reporting high PA was associated with a 50% lower risk compared with being unfit and inactive. Furthermore, high reported PA was associated with an additional reduced risk among fit participants. In addition, an excess risk of interaction was found for waist circumference, triglycerides, and the clustered CVD risk between neither being sufficiently active nor being fit. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that both PA and CF are independently associated with lower cardiovascular risk, and that both variables should be taken into account when CVD risk is estimated.

  • 64.
    Ekblom-Bak, Elin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Olsson, Gustav
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Bergström, Göran
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Börjesson, Mats
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    The Daily Movement Pattern and Fulfilment of Physical Activity Recommendations in Swedish Middle-Aged Adults: The SCAPIS Pilot Study.2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 5, article id e0126336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Different aspects of the daily movement pattern-sitting, light intensity physical activity, and moderate- and vigorous intensity physical activity-have each independently been associated with health and longevity. Previous knowledge of the amount and distribution of these aspects in the general Swedish population, as well as the fulfilment rate of physical activity recommendations, mainly relies on self-reported data. More detailed data assessed with objective methods is needed. The aim of the study was to present descriptive data on the daily movement pattern in a middle-aged Swedish population assessed by hip-worn accelerometers. The cohort consisted of 948 participants (51% women), aged 50 to 64 years, from the Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImage pilot Study. In the total sample, 60.5% of accelerometer wear time was spent sitting, 35.2% in light physical activity and 3.9% in moderate- and vigorous physical activity. Men and participants with high educational level spent a larger proportion of time sitting, compared to women and participants with low educational level. Men and participants with a high educational level spent more time, and the oldest age-group spent less time, in moderate- and vigorous physical activity. Only 7.1% of the study population met the current national physical activity recommendations, with no gender, age or education level differences. Assessment of all three components of the daily movement pattern is of high clinical relevance and should be included in future research. As the fulfilment of national physical activity recommendations is very low and sitting time is very high in our middle-aged population, the great challenge remains to enhance the implementation of methods to increase the level of physical activity in this population.

  • 65.
    Ekstedt, Mirjam
    et al.
    KTH.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ingre, Mikael
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Marcus, Claude
    Karolinska Insitutete.
    Sleep, physical activity and BMI in six to ten-year-old children measured by accelerometry: a cross-sectional study.2013In: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, ISSN 1479-5868, E-ISSN 1479-5868, Vol. 22, no 10, p. 82-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    The aim of this study is to describe the relationship between objective measures of sleep, physical activity and BMI in Swedish pre-adolescents. The day-to-day association between physical activity and sleep quality as well as week-day and weekend pattern of sleep is also described.

    METHOD:

    We conducted a cross sectional study consisted of a cohort of 1.231 children aged six to ten years within the Stockholm county area. Sleep and physical activity were measured by accelerometry during seven consecutive days. Outcome measures are total sleep time, sleep efficiency, sleep start and sleep end; physical activity intensity divided into: sedentary (<1.5 METS), light (1.5 to 3 METS) and moderate-to-vigorous (> 3 METS); and Body Mass Index standard deviations score, BMIsds.

    RESULTS:

    Total sleep time decreased with increasing age, and was shorter in boys than girls on both weekdays and weekends. Late bedtime but consistent wake-up time during weekends made total sleep time shorter on weekends than on weekdays. Day-to-day within-subject analysis revealed that moderate-to-vigorous intense physical activity promoted an increased sleep efficiency the following night (CI < 0.001 to 0.047), while total sleep time was not affected (CI -0.003 to 0.043). Neither sleep duration (CI -0.024 to 0.022) nor sleep efficiency (CI -0.019 to 0.028) affected mean physical activity level the subsequent day. The between-subject analysis indicates that the sleep of children characterized by high moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during the day was frequently interrupted (SE = -.23, P < .01). A negative association between BMIsds and sleep duration was found (-.10, p < .01).

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Short sleep duration was associated with high BMI in six to ten year old children. This study underscores the importance of consistent bedtimes throughout the week for promoting sleep duration in preadolescents. Furthermore, this study suggests that a large proportion of intensive physical activity during the day might promote good sleep quality.

  • 66. Farahmand, B Y
    et al.
    Ahlbom, A
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Hållmarker, U
    Aronson, D
    Brobert, G Persson
    Mortality amongst participants in Vasaloppet: a classical long-distance ski race in Sweden.2003In: Journal of Internal Medicine, ISSN 0954-6820, E-ISSN 1365-2796, Vol. 253, no 3, p. 276-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess mortality amongst participants in long-distance ski races during the Vasaloppet week. We considered the 90 km races for men and 90 or 30 km for women. The vast majority of the participants in these races are not competing on the elite level. It is assumed, however, that they have to undergo regular physical training during a long period of time in order to successfully finish the race. DESIGN: The cohort study consisted of 49 219 men and 24 403 women, who participated in any of the races during 1989-1998. All subjects were followed up in the National-Cause-of-Death-Register until 31 December 1999. We computed the standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) adjusting for age and calendar year. RESULTS: Overall, 410 deaths occurred, compared with 850.6 expected, yielding an SMR of 0.48 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.44-0.53]. Low SMRs were found in all age groups in both men and women and in all groups after categorization by finishing time and number of races. The lowest SMRs were found amongst older participants and in those who participated in several races. A decreased mortality was observed in all major diagnostic groups, namely cancers (SMR = 0.61; 95% CI 0.52-0.71), diseases of the circulatory system (SMR = 0.43; 95% CI 0.35-0.51), and injuries and poisoning (SMR = 0.73; 95% CI 0.60-0.89). For lung cancer the SMR was 0.22, but even after exclusion of lung cancer the all-cancer mortality was low (SMR = 0.72; 95% CI 0.59-0.86). CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that participants in long-distance skiing races, which demand prolonged regular physical training, have low mortality. The extent to which this is due to physical activity, related lifestyle factors, genetics or selection bias is yet to be assessed.

  • 67.
    Flygare Wallén, Eva
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Müllersdorf, Maria
    Mälardalens universitet.
    Christensson, K
    Mälardalens universitet.
    Malm, Gunilla
    Mälardalens universitet.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Marcus, Claude
    Karolinska Insitutet.
    High prevalence of cardio-metabolic risk factors among adolescents with intellectual disability.2009In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 98, no 5, p. 853-859Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Adults with intellectual disabilities (IDs) have poor lifestyle-related health compared with the general population. Our aim was to study whether such differences are present already in adolescents.

    AIM:

    To compare the prevalence and severity of cardio-metabolic risk factors and cardio-vascular fitness in adolescents with and without IDs.

    METHODS:

    Intellectual disability (ID) students (n = 66) and non-intellectual disability (non-ID) students from practical (non-ID-p) (n = 34) and theoretical (non-ID-t) (n = 56) programmes were recruited from three upper secondary schools. Anthropometric data, blood pressure, body composition, fasting-insulin, fasting-glucose, fasting-lipids and cardio-vascular fitness were measured.

    RESULTS:

    Participants with and without ID differed significantly in the prevalence of cardio-metabolic risk factors with participants with ID having a higher percentage of total fat mass, wider waist circumferences (WCs), lower levels of fat-free mass (FFM), lower bone mineral density (BMD) and higher insulin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA) levels and poorer cardio-vascular fitness. The healthiest levels were found in the non-ID-t group compared to the group with ID and the group with non-ID-p in between.

    CONCLUSION:

    The prevalence of cardio-metabolic risk factors and poor cardio-vascular fitness was found to be high in this young population with intellectual disabilities. Measures should be taken to improve the health messages directed towards children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities.

  • 68. Flygare Wallén, Eva
    et al.
    Müllersdorf, Maria
    Christensson, Kyllike
    Malm, Gunilla
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Marcus, Claude
    High prevalence of cardio-metabolic risk factors among adolescents with intellectual disability.2009In: Acta paediatrica (Oslo, Norway : 1992), ISSN 1651-2227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Adults with intellectual disabilities (IDs) have poor lifestyle-related health compared with the general population. Our aim was to study whether such differences are present already in adolescents. Aim: To compare the prevalence and severity of cardio-metabolic risk factors and cardio-vascular fitness in adolescents with and without IDs. Methods: Intellectual disability (ID) students (n = 66) and non-intellectual disability (non-ID) students from practical (non-ID-p) (n = 34) and theoretical (non-ID-t) (n = 56) programmes were recruited from three upper secondary schools. Anthropometric data, blood pressure, body composition, fasting-insulin, fasting-glucose, fasting-lipids and cardio-vascular fitness were measured. Results: Participants with and without ID differed significantly in the prevalence of cardio-metabolic risk factors with participants with ID having a higher percentage of total fat mass, wider waist circumferences (WCs), lower levels of fat-free mass (FFM), lower bone mineral density (BMD) and higher insulin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA) levels and poorer cardio-vascular fitness. The healthiest levels were found in the non-ID-t group compared to the group with ID and the group with non-ID-p in between. Conclusion: The prevalence of cardio-metabolic risk factors and poor cardio-vascular fitness was found to be high in this young population with intellectual disabilities. Measures should be taken to improve the health messages directed towards children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities.

  • 69. Forsell, Yvonne
    et al.
    Hallgren, Mats
    Mattson, Maria
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Lavebratt, Catharina
    FitForLife: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.2015In: Trials, ISSN 1745-6215, E-ISSN 1745-6215, Vol. 16, no 1, article id 553Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Psychosis is a serious mental illness that typically emerges during early adulthood. The disorder is characterized by inactivity, cognitive deficits and the need for ongoing support. Regular exercise has mood enhancing and anxiolytic effects that could benefit this patient group. To date, few studies have examined the effects of prescribed exercise on autonomy, health and cognitive functioning in psychosis.

    METHODS/DESIGN: This is a single-center, randomized controlled trial (RCT) with a 3-month follow-up. Usual care plus a 12-week supervised exercise program will be compared to usual outpatient care alone. The primary outcome will be patient autonomy measured by the Camberwell Assessment of Need (CAN) schedule - clinician rated. Secondary outcomes include cardiovascular risk factors, cognitive functioning, substance abuse, body awareness, depression and mood state. Changes in inflammatory markers and microbiotica will be explored. The feasibility of using patients as exercise trainers will also be assessed.

    DISCUSSION: The treatment potential for exercise in psychosis is large because most individuals with the disorder are young and inactive. The study is one of the first to comprehensively assess the effects of regular exercise in young adults with psychosis. Sessions will be closely supervised and adjusted to meet patient needs. Both the feasibility and treatment effects of exercise interventions in psychosis will be discussed.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00008991 7 August 2015.

  • 70.
    Fridolfsson, Jonatan
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Börjesson, Mats
    University of Gothenburg.
    Buck, Christoph
    Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and epidemiology (BIPS), Bremen, Germany.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Hunsberger, Monica
    University of Gothenburg.
    Lissner, Lauren
    University of Gothenburg.
    Arvidsson, Daniel
    University of Gothenburg.
    Effects of Frequency Filtering on Intensity and Noise in Accelerometer-Based Physical Activity Measurements.2019In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 19, no 9, article id E2186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In objective physical activity (PA) measurements, applying wider frequency filters than the most commonly used ActiGraph (AG) filter may be beneficial when processing accelerometry data. However, the vulnerability of wider filters to noise has not been investigated previously. This study explored the effect of wider frequency filters on measurements of PA, sedentary behavior (SED), and capturing of noise. Apart from the standard AG band-pass filter (0.29-1.63 Hz), modified filters with low-pass component cutoffs at 4 Hz, 10 Hz, or removed were analyzed. Calibrations against energy expenditure were performed with lab data from children and adults to generate filter-specific intensity cut-points. Free-living accelerometer data from children and adults were processed using the different filters and intensity cut-points. There was a contribution of acceleration related to PA at frequencies up to 10 Hz. The contribution was more pronounced at moderate and vigorous PA levels, although additional acceleration also occurred at SED. The classification discrepancy between AG and the wider filters was small at SED (1-2%) but very large at the highest intensities (>90%). The present study suggests an optimal low-pass frequency filter with a cutoff at 10 Hz to include all acceleration relevant to PA with minimal effect of noise.

  • 71.
    Fröberg, Andreas
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindroos, Anna-Karin
    Swedish Food Agency, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Organised physical activity during leisure time is associated with more objectively measured physical activity among Swedish adolescents.2020In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate associations between participation in organised physical activity (PA), such as sport and exercise during leisure time, and objectively measured PA and sedentary time in a large representative sample of Swedish adolescents.

    METHODS: This study was part of the school-based cross-sectional Swedish national dietary survey Riksmaten Adolescents 2016-17. Data from 3477 adolescents aged 11-12, 14-15 and 17-18 years were used in the analyses. Participation in organised PA and parental education were reported in questionnaires. PA and sedentary time were objectively measured through accelerometry during seven consecutive days.

    RESULTS: Adolescents who participated in organised PA had significantly higher total PA (14%, p<0.001), more time spent on moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) (eight minutes, p<0.001) and had less sedentary time (15 minutes, p<0.001). Those who participated in organised PA were more likely to reach recommended PA levels. Total PA and MVPA did not differ by parental education among those who participated in organised PA.

    CONCLUSION: Adolescents who participated in organised PA were more physically active, less sedentary and more likely to reach PA recommendations than those who did not.

  • 72.
    Godhe, Manne
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control. Karolinska Institutet.
    Pontén, Marjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Andersson, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control. Karolinska Institutet.
    Improved daily movement patterns in an accelerometer-assessed 8-weeks exercise project in older adults2019In: British Journal of Sports Medicine Vol 53, suppl 1, BMJ Publishing Group Ltd, 2019, Vol. 53, p. A2-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 73.
    Godhe, Manne
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Helge, Torbjörn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Mattsson, C. Mikael
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Physiological factors of importance for load carriage2017In: ICSPP Abstracts: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, November 2017 20 Supplement 2:S105, 2017, Vol. 20, no Supplement 2, p. S105-, article id 176Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 74.
    Godhe, Manne
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Helge, Torbjörn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Mattsson, C Mikael
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Physiological factors of importance for load carriageManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The energy expenditure during carrying no load, 20, 35 and 50 kg at two walking speeds, 3 and 5 km/h, was studied in 36 healthy participants, 19 men (30 ± 6 yrs, 82.5 ± 7.0 kg) and 17 women (29 ± 6 yrs, 66.1 ± 8.9 kg). Anthropometric data, leg muscle strength as well as trunk muscle endurance and muscle fibre distribution of the thigh were also obtained. To load the participant a standard backpack filled with extra weight according to the carrying weight tested was used. Extra Load Index (ELI), the oxygen uptake (VO2) during total load over no-load-exercise, was used as a proxy for load carrying ability. In addition to analyzing factors of importance for the ELI values, we also conducted mediator analyzes using sex and long term carrying experience as causal variables for ELI as the outcome value. For the lowest load (20 kg), ELI20, was correlated with body mass but no other factors. Walking at 5 km/h body mass, body height, leg muscle strength and absolute VO2max were correlated to ELI35 and ELI50, but relative VO2max, trunk muscle endurance and leg muscle fibre distribution were not. Sex as causal factor was evaluated in a mediator analyses with ELI50 as outcome. ELI50 at 5 km/h differed between the sexes. The limit for acceptable body load, 40% of VO2max (according to Astrand, 1967), was nearly reached for women carrying 35 kg (39%) and surpassed at 50 kg at 3 km/h, and for men carrying 50 kg at 5 km/h. This difference was only mediated by difference in body mass. Neither muscle fibre distribution, leg muscle strength, trunk muscle endurance and body height nor did absolute or relative VO2max explain the difference. Participants with long term experience of heavy load carrying had significant lower ELI20 and ELI50 values than those with minor or non-experience, but none of the above studied factors could explain this difference. The study showed that body mass and experience of carrying heavy loads are important factors for the ability to carry heavy loads.

  • 75.
    Gripeteg, Lena
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Arvidsson, Daniel
    University of Gothenburg.
    Johannesson, Elias
    University of Gothenburg.
    Larsson, Christel
    University of Gothenburg.
    Sjöberg, Agneta
    University of Gothenburg.
    Angerås, Oskar
    University of Gothenburg.
    Fagman, Erika
    University of Gothenburg.
    Brandberg, John
    University of Gothenburg.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Bergström, Göran
    University of Gothenburg.
    Börjesson, Mats
    University of Gothenburg.
    Concomitant Associations of Healthy Food Intake and Cardiorespiratory Fitness With Coronary Artery Calcium.2018In: American Journal of Cardiology, ISSN 0002-9149, E-ISSN 1879-1913, Vol. 122, no 4, p. 560-564, article id S0002-9149(18)31060-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conflicting findings remain regarding associations between lifestyle behaviors and coronary artery calcium (CAC). We investigated concomitant associations of healthy food intake and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) with CAC. Data from 706 men and women 50 to 64 years old from the Swedish SCAPIS pilot trial were analyzed. A CAC score was calculated using the Agatston method. A Healthy Food Index (HFI) was established using data from a web-based food frequency questionnaire. CRF was assessed from a bike exercise test. Regression analyses were performed with occurrence of CAC (dichotomous) and level of CAC score in patients with CAC (continuous) as outcomes. 58% had 0 CAC score. HFI was significantly associated with having no CAC (standardized coefficient β = 0.18, p <0.001) but not with level of CAC score (β = -0.09, p = 0.34). CRF showed no significant association with having no CAC (β = -0.08, p = 0.12) or with the level of CAC score (β = -0.04, p = 0.64). However, there was an interaction between HFI and CRF (β = -0.23, p = 0.02); for increasing levels of CRF there was stronger negative association between HFI and level of CAC score, reaching β = -0.48, p = 0.045 for the highest CRF level. In conclusion, these results emphasize the importance of a healthy food intake in combination with higher CRF to counteract CAC development.

  • 76. Haglind, Charlotte
    et al.
    Ask, Sara
    von Döbeln, Ulrika
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Stenlid, Maria
    Nordenström, Anna
    Energy expenditure and lipid metabolism in very long-chain Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency2015In: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism (ISSN 1096-7192), 2015, Vol. 114, no 3, p. 333-333Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 77.
    Hallgren, Mats
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet.
    Andersson, Victoria
    Center for Psychiatric Research, Stockholm.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Andréasson, Sven
    Karolinska institutet.
    Physical activity as treatment for alcohol use disorders (FitForChange): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.2018In: Trials, ISSN 1745-6215, E-ISSN 1745-6215, Vol. 19, no 1, article id 106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Help-seeking for alcohol use disorders (AUDs) is low and traditional treatments are often perceived as stigmatizing. Physical activity has positive effects on mental and physical health which could benefit this population. We propose to compare the effects of aerobic training, yoga, and usual care for AUDs in physically inactive Swedish adults.

    METHODS: This is a three-group, parallel, single-blind, randomized controlled trial (RCT). In total, 210 adults (aged 18-75 years) diagnosed with an AUD will be invited to participate in a 12-week intervention. The primary study outcome is alcohol consumption measure by the Timeline Follow-back method and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Secondary outcomes include: depression, anxiety, perceived stress, sleep quality, physical activity levels, fitness, self-efficacy, health-related quality of life, and cognition. Blood samples will be taken to objectively assess heavy drinking, and saliva to measure cortisol. Acute effects of exercise on the urge to drink alcohol, mood, and anxiety will also be assessed.

    DISCUSSION: The treatment potential for exercise in AUDs is substantial as many individuals with the disorder are physically inactive and have comorbid health problems. The study is the first to assess the effects of physical activity as a stand-alone treatment for AUDs. Considerable attention will be given to optimizing exercise adherence. Both the feasibility and treatment effects of exercise interventions in AUDs will be discussed. The Ethical Review Board (EPN) at Karolinska Institutet has approved the study (DNR: 2017/1380-3).

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: German Clinical Trials Register, ID: DRKS00012311. Registered on 26 September 2017.

  • 78. Hallgren, Mats
    et al.
    Herring, Matthew P
    Owen, Neville
    Dunstan, David
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Helgadottir, Björg
    Nakitanda, Olivia Aya
    Forsell, Yvonne
    Exercise, Physical Activity, and Sedentary Behavior in the Treatment of Depression: Broadening the Scientific Perspectives and Clinical Opportunities.2016In: Frontiers in Psychiatry, ISSN 1664-0640, E-ISSN 1664-0640, Vol. 7, article id 36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research exploring links between exercise and depression now span several decades, yet several clinically relevant research questions remain unanswered. This opinion article briefly describes the status of selected research issues from the exercise depression literature and offer insights into research areas that are currently lacking. We draw particular attention to the potential of research exploring links between sedentary behavior and depression.

  • 79. Hallgren, Mats
    et al.
    Nakitanda, Olivia Aya
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Herring, Matthew P
    Owen, Neville
    Dunstan, David W
    Helgadottir, Björg
    Forsell, Yvonne
    Habitual physical activity levels predict treatment outcomes in depressed adults: A prospective cohort study.2016In: Preventive Medicine, ISSN 0091-7435, E-ISSN 1096-0260, Vol. 88, p. 53-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Exercise is an efficacious stand-alone therapy for mild-to-moderate depression, but little is known about the influence of physical activity levels on responses to depression treatment. This study aimed to prospectively assess the association between self-reported habitual physical activity levels and depression severity following a 12-week intervention.

    METHOD: 629 adults (75% women; aged 18-71years) with mild-to-moderate depression were recruited from primary care centres across Sweden and treated for 12weeks. The interventions included internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (ICBT) and 'usual care' (CBT or supportive counselling). One third of all participants were taking anti-depressant medication. The primary outcome was the change in depression severity assessed using the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). Habitual physical activity levels were self-rated and based on the estimated frequency, duration and intensity of total physical activity, including planned exercise, 'during a typical week'. Prospective associations were explored using linear regression models (percentage change) with 95% confidence intervals (CI's).

    RESULTS: Following adjustment for relevant covariates, high levels of habitual physical activity were associated with larger relative reductions in depression severity compared to low physical activity (β=-9.19, 95% CI=-18.46, -0.09, p=0.052) and moderate physical activity (β=-10.81, 95% CI=-21.09, -0.53, p<0.05), respectively.

    CONCLUSION: Adults who routinely engage in high levels of physical activity respond more favourably to CBT-focused depression treatments than adults who engage in low-to-moderate levels of activity. The optimal level of physical activity associated with reductions in depression severity corresponds to consensus recommendations for maximizing general health. One limitation is the use of self-reported physical activity data.

  • 80.
    Hallgren, Mats
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet.
    Skott, Maria
    Karolinska institutet.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Firth, Joseph
    Western Sydney University, Australia.
    Schembri, Adrian
    Cogstate Pty Ltd, Melbourne, Australia..
    Forsell, Yvonne
    Karolinska institutet.
    Exercise effects on cognitive functioning in young adults with first-episode psychosis: FitForLife.2019In: Psychological Medicine, ISSN 0033-2917, E-ISSN 1469-8978, Vol. 49, no 3, p. 431-439Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Exercise has mood-enhancing effects and can improve cognitive functioning, but the effects in first-episode psychosis (FEP) remain understudied. We examined the feasibility and cognitive effects of exercise in FEP.

    METHOD: Multi-center, open-label intervention study. Ninety-one outpatients with FEP (mean age = 30 years, 65% male) received usual care plus a 12-week supervised circuit-training program, consisting of high-volume resistance exercises, aerobic training, and stretching. Primary study outcome was cognitive functioning assessed by Cogstate Brief Battery (processing speed, attention, visual learning, working memory) and Trailmaking A and B tasks (visual attention and task shifting). Within-group changes in cognition were assessed using paired sample t tests with effect sizes (Hedges' g) reported for significant values. Relationships between exercise frequency and cognitive improvement were assessed using analysis of covariance. Moderating effects of gender were explored with stratified analyses.

    RESULTS: Participants exercised on average 13.5 (s.d. = 11.7) times. Forty-eight percent completed 12 or more sessions. Significant post-intervention improvements were seen for processing speed, visual learning, and visual attention; all with moderate effect sizes (g = 0.47-0.49, p < 0.05). Exercise participation was also associated with a positive non-significant trend for working memory (p < 0.07). Stratified analyses indicated a moderating effect of gender. Positive changes were seen among females only for processing speed, visual learning, working memory, and visual attention (g = 0.43-0.69). A significant bivariate correlation was found between total training frequency and improvements in visual attention among males (r = 0.40, p < 0.05).

    CONCLUSION: Supported physical exercise is a feasible and safe adjunct treatment for FEP with potential cognitive benefits, especially among females.

  • 81. Helgadottir, B.
    et al.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Forsell, Y.
    Physical Activity Patterns of People Affected by Depressive and Anxiety Disorders: A Descriptive Study2014In: Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics, 17, (Suppl 1), S9., 2014, Vol. 17, no Suppl 1, p. S9-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 82.
    Helgadottir, Björg
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Forsell, Yvonne
    Karolinska Insitutet.
    Impact of expectations on the effects of exercise on psychological distress2014In: American Journal of Health Behavior, ISSN 1087-3244, E-ISSN 1945-7359, Vol. 38, no 5, p. 560-565Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE:

    To evaluate the influence of expectations on effectiveness of exercise in reducing psychological distress.

    METHOD:

    Data came from a Swedish longitudinal population-based study consisting of 4631 people aged 20-64 years. Psychological distress was measured with the Major Depressive Inventory. Expectations (positive expectations or indifference) towards exercise were combined with exercise (regular exercise: yes or no).

    RESULTS:

    Indifferent non-exercisers had increased risk of psychological distress. Regular exercisers who were indifferent towards exercise as a self-help method were less likely to be psychologically distressed compared to exercisers with positive expectations.

    CONCLUSION:

    The results encourage systematic use of exercise in prevention and rehabilitation of persons suffering from psychological distress. People's personal expectations might not be needed for treatment effect.

  • 83.
    Helgadottir, Björg
    et al.
    PHS, EPHIR Karolinska Institutet.
    Forsell, Yvonne
    PHS, EPHIR Karolinska Institutet.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Physical activity patterns of people affected by depressive and anxiety disorders as measured by accelerometers: a cross-sectional study2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 1, p. e0115894-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Exercise can relieve both depressive and anxiety disorders and it is therefore of importance to establish movement patterns of mildly to moderately affected sufferers to estimate the treatment potential. The aim is to describe the physical activity patterns of people affected by mild to moderate depressive and/or anxiety symptoms using objective measures of physical activity.

    METHODS:

    The design of the study was cross-sectional using data from 165 people aged 18-65 years, with mild to moderate depressive and/or anxiety disorder symptoms (scoring ≥10 on the PHQ-9). Diagnoses were made using Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and symptom severity was measured with the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). The participants wore accelerometers for a week to evaluate physical activity patterns.

    RESULTS:

    No statistically significant differences were detected between different diagnoses, though depressed participants tended to be less active and more sedentary. Only one-fifth of the sample followed public health guidelines regarding physical activity. Each one point increase in MADRS was associated with a 2.4 minute reduction in light physical activity, independent of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary time. MADRS was positively associated with number of sedentary bouts.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    The physical activity pattern of people with depressive and/or anxiety disorders was characterized by large amounts of sedentary time and low fulfillment of physical activity guidelines. There is therefore a large treatment potential for this group by increasing exercise. The results suggest that instead of focusing exclusively on high intensity exercise for treating depressive and anxiety disorders, health care providers might encourage patients to reduce sedentary time by increasing light physical activity and decreasing the number of sedentary bouts, though further studies are needed that can determine directionality.

  • 84. Helgadóttir, Björg
    et al.
    Dunstan, David
    Owen, Neville
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Hallgren, Mats
    Forsell, Yvonne
    Changes in Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior Associated with Exercise Interventions in Depressed Adults: 2109 Board #261 June 2, 3: 30 PM - 5: 00 PM.2016In: Medicine And Science In Sports And Exercise 2016 May; Vol. 48 (5S Suppl 1), pp. 594., 2016, Vol. 48, no 5S Suppl 1, p. 594-594Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: Exercise training programs are beneficial for depression, but less is known about their impact on non-intervention physical activity patterns and sedentary behavior patterns in depressed adults. We determined the extent to which participation in light-, moderate- and vigorous-intensity exercise intervention programs influenced the habitual physical activity and sedentary behavior patterns in depressed adults.

    METHODS: Accelerometer data were collected pre- and post-treatment from a subset of depressed participants randomized to one of three 12-week exercise intervention programs: light (n=21), moderate (n=25) and vigorous (n=22) exercise. Mixed models examined changes in accelerometer-measured overall time spent in sedentary, light and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA); accumulated sedentary and MVPA bouts; and number of MVPA bouts and interruptions in sedentary time.

    RESULTS: Overall sedentary time decreased while overall light activity increased across all intervention groups but neither significantly so. The light exercise intervention group reduced their MVPA minutes (-8.22, 95% CI: -16.44, -0.01), time in MVPA bouts (-8.44, 95% CI: -14.27, -2.62), and number of activity bouts (-0.43, 95% CI: -0.77, -0.09). The moderate exercise intervention group reduced the time in MVPA bouts (-6.27, 95% CI: -11.71, -0.82) and number of sedentary interruptions (-5.79, 95% CI: -9.11, -2.46). No changes were observed for the vigorous exercise intervention group.

    CONCLUSIONS: On the whole, participating in a structured exercise intervention did not lead people who are affected by depression to significantly reduce their overall light physical activity nor to increase their sedentary time. Participation in the light and moderate exercise intervention programs was associated with reductions in overall MVPA, but this was not evident for the vigorous exercise intervention program.

  • 85.
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet.
    Forsell, Y
    Karolinska institutet.
    Hallgren, M
    Karolinska institutet.
    Möller, J
    Karolinska institutet.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Exercise for depression: What are the long-term effects of different exercise intensities?2017In: European Journal of Public Health, Volume 27, Issue suppl_3, 1 November 2017, 2017, Vol. 27, no Suppl. 3, article id ckx187.168Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Key messages:

    • As all exercise conditions had at least a comparable effect to treatment as usual, exercise at any intensity can be recommended as treatment for mild-to-moderate depression.
    • Light intensity exercise should be emphasised more in treatment guidelines than it currently is, as its effects are potentially even greater than that of treatment as usual.
  • 86.
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Forsell, Yvonne
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hallgren, Mats
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Möller, Jette
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Long-term effects of exercise at different intensity levels on depression: A randomized controlled trial.2017In: Preventive Medicine, ISSN 0091-7435, E-ISSN 1096-0260, Vol. 105, p. 37-46, article id S0091-7435(17)30294-3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown positive effects of exercise on depression but studies have mainly focused on the short-term effects; few have examined the long-term effect, especially with regard to differences in intensity. The aim of this study was to examine the long-term effects of prescribed exercise on depression, performed at three intensity levels. People aged 18-67years with mild to moderate depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9 score of ≥10) participated in a single-blind, parallel randomized control trial lasting 12weeks (Sweden 2011-2013). Four arms were included: Treatment as usual (TAU, n=310), light (n=106), moderate (n=105) and vigorous exercise (n=99). Severity of depression was measured at baseline, post-treatment and 12-month follow-up using the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). Coefficients (β) and odds ratios were estimated using linear mixed models with time×group interactions. The results showed that at the 12month follow-up the light exercise group had significantly lower depression severity scores than the TAU (-1.9, 95% CI: -3.7, -0.04) and the moderate exercise group (-2.94 95% CI: -5.2, -0.7). The vigorous exercise group had significantly lower scores than the moderate exercise group only (-2.7, 95% CI: -4.9, -0.4). In conclusion, compared to usual care for depression, only light exercise resulted in significantly lower depression severity at 12-month follow-up. Both light and vigorous exercise was more effective than moderate exercise.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was registered with the German Clinical Trial Register (DRKS study ID: DRKS00008745).

  • 87.
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Hallgren, Mats
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Forsell, Yvonne
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Training fast or slow? Exercise for depression: A randomized controlled trial2016In: Preventive Medicine, ISSN 0091-7435, E-ISSN 1096-0260, Vol. 91, p. 123-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exercise can be used to treat depression but there is a lack of evidence regarding the optimal intensity and mode. Our aim was to compare the effects of different exercise intensities on post-treatment depression severity. People aged 18–67years with mild-to-moderate depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9 score of ≥10) participated in a single-blind, parallel randomized control trial lasting 12-weeks (Sweden 2011–2013). Four treatment arms were included: treatment as usual (TAU) (n=310), light exercise (yoga or similar n=106), moderate exercise (aerobic conditioning, n=105) and vigorous exercise (aerobic conditioning, n=99). Depression severity was measured at baseline and post-treatment using the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). Differences between the groups in depression severity at post-treatment were analysed using linear regression. Differences in exercise intensity were confirmed by heart rate monitoring. At post-treatment, the light (−4.05 Confidence Interval (CI)=−5.94, −2.17), moderate (−2.08 CI=−3.98, −0.18) and vigorous exercise groups (−3.13 CI=−5.07, −1.19) had reduced their MADRS scores significantly more than TAU. No significant differences were found between the exercise groups, and no significant interaction effect was observed between group and gender. In conclusion, exercise, whether performed at a low (yoga or similar), moderate or vigorous intensity (aerobic training) is effective in treating mild-to-moderate depression and is at least as effective as treatment as usual by a physician.

  • 88. Helgadóttir, Björg
    et al.
    Owen, Neville
    Dunstan, David W.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Hallgren, Mats
    Forsell, Yvonne
    Changes in physical activity and sedentary behavior associated with an exercise intervention in depressed adults2017In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 30, p. 10-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Exercise is beneficial for depression, but less is known about its impact on post-intervention physical activity and sedentary behavior. The aim of this paper was to determine the extent to which participation in light-, moderate- and vigorous-intensity exercise intervention influenced habitual physical activity and sedentary behavior patterns in depressed adults. Methods Accelerometer data was collected pre- and post-intervention from depressed participants randomized to one of three 12-week intervention groups: light (n = 21), moderate (n = 25) and vigorous (n = 22) exercise. Mixed models examined changes in time spent sedentary and in light and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA); time accumulated in sedentary and MVPA bouts; and, number of MVPA bouts and interruptions in sedentary time. Results Overall sedentary time decreased while light activity time increased across all intervention groups but not significantly so. The light exercise intervention group reduced MVPA minutes (−8.22, 95% CI: −16.44, −0.01), time in MVPA bouts (−8.44, 95% CI: −14.27, −2.62), and number of activity bouts (−0.43, 95% CI: −0.77, −0.09). The moderate exercise intervention group reduced time in MVPA bouts (−6.27, 95% CI: −11.71, −0.82) and number of sedentary interruptions (−6.07, 95% CI: −9.30, −2.84). No changes were observed for the vigorous exercise intervention group. Conclusions The exercise intervention led to an increase in overall light physical activity and decrease in sedentary time, though neither change was statistically significant. Participation in the light and moderate exercise intervention groups was associated with reductions of time in MVPA bouts, but this was not evident for the vigorous exercise intervention group.

  • 89.
    Hemmingsson, Erik
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Kallings, Lena
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Wallin, Peter
    Söderling, Jonas
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Blom, Victoria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Objectively measured prevalence and time trends of obesity and severe obesity in 447 925 Swedish adults, 1995-20172019Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 90.
    Kaldo, Viktor
    et al.
    Huddinge Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Lundin, Andreas
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hallgren, Mats
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kraepelien, Martin
    Huddinge Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Strid, Catharina
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Lavebratt, Catharina
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindefors, Nils
    Huddinge Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Öjehagen, Agneta
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Forsell, Yvonne
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Effects of internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy and physical exercise on sick leave and employment in primary care patients with depression: two subgroup analyses.2018In: Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1351-0711, E-ISSN 1470-7926, Vol. 75, no 1, p. 52-58, article id oemed-2017-104326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Depression can negatively impact work capacity, but treatment effects on sick leave and employment are unclear. This study evaluates if internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (ICBT) or physical exercise (PE), with already reported positive effects on clinical outcome and short-term work ability, has better effects on employment, sick leave and long-term work ability compared with treatment as usual (TAU) for depressed primary care patients (German clinical trials: DRKS00008745).

    METHODS: After randomisation and exclusion of patients not relevant for work-related analysis, patients were divided into two subgroups: initially unemployed (total n=118) evaluated on employment, and employed (total n=703) evaluated on long-term sick leave. Secondary outcomes were self-rated work ability and average number of sick days per month evaluated for both subgroups. Assessments (self-reports) were made at baseline and follow-up at 3 and 12 months.

    RESULTS: For the initially unemployed subgroup, 52.6% were employed after 1 year (response rate 82%). Both PE (risk ratio (RR)=0.44; 95% CI 0.23 to 0.87) and ICBT (RR=0.37; 95% CI 0.16 to 0.84) showed lower rates compared with TAU after 3 months, but no difference was found after 1 year (PE: RR=0.97; 95% CI 0.69 to 1.57; ICBT: RR=1.23; 95% CI 0.72 to 2.13). For those with initial employment, long-term sick leave (response rate 75%) decreased from 7.8% to 6.5%, but neither PE (RR=1.4; 95% CI 0.52 to 3.74) nor ICBT (RR=0.99; 95% CI 0.39 to 2.46) decreased more than TAU, although a temporary positive effect for PE was found. All groups increased self-rated work ability with no differences found.

    CONCLUSIONS: No long-term effects were found for the initially unemployed on employment status or for the initially employed on sick leave. New types of interventions need to be explored.

  • 91.
    Kallings, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Olsson, Sven Johan Gustav
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Börjesson, Mats
    Göteborg Universitet.
    The SED-GIH: A Single-Item Question for Assessment of Stationary Behavior-A Study of Concurrent and Convergent Validity.2019In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, no 23, article id E4766Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The unfavorable health consequences of prolonged time spent sedentary (stationary) make accurate assessment in the general population important. However, for many existing questionnaires, validity for identifying stationary time has not been shown or has shown low validity. This study aimed to assess the concurrent and convergent validity of the GIH stationary single-item question (SED-GIH). Data were obtained in 2013 and 2014 from two Swedish cohorts. A total of 711 men and women provided valid accelerometer data (Actigraph GT3X+) and were included for concurrent validity analyses. A total of 560 individuals answered three additional commonly used sedentary questions, and were included for convergent validity analysis. The SED-GIH displayed a significant correlation with total stationary time (rs = 0.48) and time in prolonged stationary time (rs = 0.44). The ROC analysis showed an AUC of 0.72 for identifying individuals with stationary time over 600 min/day. The SED-GIH correlated significantly with other previously used questions (r = 0.72-0.89). The SED-GIH single-item question showed a relatively high agreement with device-assessed stationary behavior and was able to identify individuals with high levels of stationary time. Thus, the SED-GIH may be used to assess total and prolonged stationary time. This has important implications, as simple assessment tools of this behavior are needed in public health practice and research.

  • 92.
    Khalaf, Atika
    et al.
    Högskolan i Kristianstad.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Kowalski, Jan
    Berggren, Vanja
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Westergren, Albert
    Högskolan i Kristianstad.
    al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa
    College of Education and Obesity Research Chair, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia.
    Female University Students’ Physical Activity Levels and Associated Factors — A Cross-Sectional Study in Southwestern Saudi Arabia2013In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 10, no 8, p. 3502-3517Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The high prevalence of physical inactivity in Saudi Arabia is a growing challenge to public health. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of physical activity (PA) and associated factors among female university students. Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 663 randomly selected female university students who completed the Arab Teens Life Style questionnaire. Data included measurements of anthropometric, socioeconomic and environmental factors, as well as self-reported PA. Ordinal regression was used to identify associated factors with low, moderate and high PA levels.Results: The mean age of participants was 20.4 years (SD 1.5). Mean BMI of the students in relation to PA were 23.0, 22.9, 22.1 for high, moderate and low levels of activity, respectively. The analysis revealed significantly higher PA levels among married students, those with high educated mothers, and those who lived far from parks, and lower activity levels among underweight students. Conclusions: This study raises four important determinants for female university students’ PA levels. These factors could be of great importance in the endeavor to prevent the health-threatening increase in physical inactivity patterns and thus non-communicable diseases and obesity where the focus should be on the specific situation and needs of women in Saudi Arabia.

  • 93. Khalaf, Atika
    et al.
    Westergren, Albert
    Berggren, Vanja
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M.
    Perceived and Ideal Body Image in Young Women in South Western Saudi Arabia.2015In: Journal of Obesity, ISSN 2090-0708, E-ISSN 2090-0716, article id 697163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. The aim of this study was to investigate perceived and ideal body image (BI) and associated factors among female university students in Saudi Arabia. Methods. This cross-sectional study included 663 university female students. Anthropometric measurements including weight, height, BMI, and BI perception (the 9-figure silhouette) were obtained. Descriptive and logistic regression analysis were conducted. Results. An agreement between actual, perceived, and ideal BI was found in 23% of the participants. Behavioral (activity levels), social (presence of obese parents and fathers’ level of education), and economic factors (households’ monthly income, number of cars in the household, and kind of residence) were positively and significantly associated with the desire to be thinner. Similarly, socioeconomic associations (number of sisters and number of cars in the household) correlated positively and significantly with the desire to be heavier. Conclusions. The whole family should rather be considered in interventions related to appearance concerns and BI discrepancies. Furthermore, campaigns targeting improvement of adolescents’ physical self-image should be a major priority of the public health sector. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

  • 94. Khalaf, Atika
    et al.
    Westergren, Albert
    Berggren, Vanja
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M
    Prevalence and association of female weight status and dietary habits with sociodemographic factors: a cross-sectional study in Saudi Arabia.2015In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 18, no 5, p. 784-796Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Research about the prevalence of underweight and overweight/obesity in the Saudi Arabian female population is limited. The aim of the present study was to examine the dietary habits and the prevalence of underweight and overweight/obesity and associated factors among female university students.

    DESIGN: A cross-sectional study.

    SETTING: A university centre for female students in south-western Saudi Arabia.

    SUBJECTS: The study involved 663 randomly selected female university students who self-reported their physical activities, nutritional habits and socio-economic factors. Multiple linear and logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with the students' BMI, dietary variables, underweight and overweight/obesity.

    RESULTS: The majority of the university females were normal weight (56·9 %), but a high prevalence of underweight (19·2 %) and overweight/obesity (23·8 %) occurred. Social factors significantly associated with BMI were the presence of obese parents and siblings as well as physical activity levels, marital status, number of sisters, father's level of education and more frequent intake of French fries/potato chips (>3 times/week). Several variables were found to correlate with dietary habits, underweight and overweight/obesity. Of special interest is the association between the number of siblings and the participants' BMI and dietary intake in both negative and positive ways.

    CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this research have implications for health promotion and prevention of malnutrition among college-aged females. Health-care providers and policy makers need to involve the whole family when promoting females' physical activity. The study serves as an evidence-based background for planning and implementation of interventions targeting improvement of highly educated populations' nutritional habits.

  • 95. Khalaf, Atika
    et al.
    Westergren, Albert
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M
    Berggren, Vanja
    Nurses' views and experiences of caring for malnourished patients in surgical settings in Saudi Arabia - a qualitative study.2014In: BMC Nursing, ISSN 1472-6955, E-ISSN 1472-6955, Vol. 13, p. 29-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Although the occurrence of malnutrition in hospitals is a growing concern, little is known about how hospital staff understand the care that nurses provide to patients with malnutrition. The purpose of this study was to explore nurses' views and experiences of caring for malnourished patients in Saudi Arabia (KSA).

    METHODS: Using a qualitative explorative design, fifteen nurses were interviewed as part of a purposive sample hospital staff. The transcripts were analyzed using latent content analysis.

    RESULTS: The nurses spontaneously and consistently linked malnutrition with physical inactivity. The two main categories, which emerged, were: 'Potentials for nurses to provide good nutrition and physical activity', and 'Having the ability but not the power to promote proper nutrition and physical activity'. These arose from the subcategories: Good nursing implies providing appropriate health education; Acknowledging the Mourafiq (sitter) as a potential resource for the nursing, but also as a burden; Inadequate control and lack of influence; Cultural diversity and lack of dialog; and Views of women's weight gain in KSA society.

    CONCLUSIONS: The nurses felt they have the capacity and passion to further improve the nutrition and activity of their patients, but obstacles in the health care system are impeding these ambitions. The implications for nursing practice could be acknowledgement of the nurses' views in the clinical practice; culturally adjusted care, improved communication and enhanced language skills.

  • 96.
    Kuster, Roman P
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Grooten, Wilhelmus J A
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Baumgartner, Daniel
    ZHAW Zurich University of Applied Sciences, Winterthur, Switzerland..
    Blom, Victoria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hagströmer, Maria
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Detecting Prolonged Sitting Bouts with the ActiGraph GT3X.2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ActiGraph has a high ability to measure physical activity, however, it lacks an accurate posture classification to measure sedentary behaviour. The aim of the present study was to develop an ActiGraph (waist-worn, 30Hz) posture classification to detect prolonged sitting bouts, and to compare the classification to proprietary ActiGraph data. The activPAL, a highly valid posture classification device, served as reference criterion.1 Both sensors were worn by 38 office workers over a median duration of 9 days. An automated feature selection extracted the relevant signal information for a minute based posture classification. The machine-learning algorithm with optimal feature number to predict the time in prolonged sitting bouts (≥5 and ≥10 minutes) was searched and compared to the activPAL using Bland-Altman statistics. The comparison included optimised and frequently used cut-points (100 and 150 counts-per-minute (cpm), with and without low-frequency-extension (LFE) filtering). The new algorithm predicted the time in prolonged sitting bouts most accurate (bias ≤7 minutes/day). Of all proprietary ActiGraph methods, only 150 cpm without LFE predicted the time in prolonged sitting bouts non-significantly different from the activPAL (bias ≤18 minutes/day). However, the frequently used 100 cpm with LFE accurately predicted total sitting time (bias ≤7 minutes/day). To study the health effects of ActiGraph measured prolonged sitting, we recommend using the new algorithm. In case a cut-point is used, we recommend 150 cpm without LFE to measure prolonged sitting, and 100 cpm with LFE to measure total sitting time. However, both cpm cut-points are not recommended for a detailed bout analysis.

  • 97.
    Larsson, Kristina
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences. Sophiahemmet University.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Kallings, Lena
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control. Karolinska institutet.
    Blom, Victoria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group. Karolinska institutet.
    Job Demand-Control-Support Model as Related to Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Time in Working Women and Men.2019In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, no 18, article id E3370Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A physically active lifestyle incurs health benefits and physically active individuals show reduced reactivity to psychosocial stressors. However, the findings are inconclusive and are based on self-reported physical activity and sedentary time. The present study aimed at studying the associations between psychological stressors (job demand, control, support, JD-C-S) and objectively measured physical activity (PA) on various intensities from sedentary (SED) to vigorous physical activity. The participants were 314 employees from a cross-sectional study. PA data were collected with the accelerometer ActiGraph GT3X (Pensacola, FL, USA), SED data with the inclinometer activPAL (PAL Technologies Ltd., Glasgow, Scotland, UK), and psychosocial stressors with a web questionnaire. Results showed that vigorous-intensity PA was negatively associated with demand (β -0.15, p < 0.05), even when adjusted for the covariates. SED was negatively associated to support (β -0.13, p < 0.05). Stress significantly moderated relations between support and sedentary time (β -0.12, p < 0.05). Moderate PA (MVPA) was negatively associated with demand, but only when controlling for overtime (β -0.13, p < 0.05). MVPA was also negatively associated with control (β -0.15, p < 0.05) but not when work engagement was included in the model. Being more physically active and spending less time sedentary may help to handle job situations with high demand and low support.

  • 98.
    Larsson, Kristina
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Kallings, Lena
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Blom, Victoria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Job demands control model as related to objectively measured physical activity and sitting time in working women and men2019Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 99.
    Larsson, Kristina
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Kallings, Lena
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Blom, Victoria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Andersson, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Criterion validity and test-retest reliability of SED-GIH, a single item question for assessment of daily sitting time.2019In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 19, no 1, article id 19:17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Sedentary behaviour has been closely linked to metabolic and cardiovascular health and is therefore of importance in disease prevention. A user-friendly tool for assessment of sitting time is thus needed. Previous studies concluded that the present tools used to assess a number of sedentary behaviours are more likely to overestimate sitting than single-item questions which often underestimate sitting time, and that categorical answering options are recommended. In line with this, the single-item question with categorical answering options, SED-GIH, was developed. The aim of this study was to investigate the criterion validity of the SED-GIH question using activPAL3 micro as the criterion measure. The second aim was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the SED-GIH questionnaire.

    METHOD: In the validity section of this study, 284 middle-aged adults answered a web questionnaire, which included SED-GIH, wore activPAL and filled in a diary log for one week. Spearman's rho assessed the relationship between the SED-GIH answers and the daily average sitting time as monitored by the activPAL (activPAL-SIT), a Weighted Kappa assessed the agreement, ANOVA assessed differences in activPAL-SIT between the SED-GIH answer categories, and a Chi2 compared the proportions of hazardous sitters between the different SED-GIH answer categories. In the reliability section, 95 elderly participants answered the SED-GIH question twice, with a mean interval of 5.2 days. The reliability was assessed with ICC and a weighted Kappa.

    RESULTS: The SED-GIH question correlated moderately with activPAL-SIT (rho = 0.31), with a poor agreement (weighted Kappa 0.12). In total, 40.8% underestimated and 22.2% overestimated their sitting time. The ANOVA showed significant differences in activPAL-SIT between the different SED-GIH answer categories (p < 0.001). The Chi2 showed a significant difference in proportion of individuals sitting more than 10 h per day within each SED-GIH answer category. ICC for the test-retest reliability of SED-GIH was excellent with ICC = 0.86, and the weighted Kappa showed an agreement of 0.77.

    CONCLUSIONS: The unanchored single item SED-GIH question showed excellent reliability but poor validity in the investigated populations. Validity and reliability of SED-GIH is in line with other questionnaires that are commonly used when assessing sitting time.

  • 100.
    Lindgren, Martin
    et al.
    Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital/Östra.
    Börjesson, Mats
    Department of Food, Nutrition and Sports Science, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy and, Sahlgrenska University Hospital/Östra.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Bergström, Göran
    Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital/Östra.
    Lappas, Georgios
    Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital/Östra.
    Rosengren, Annika
    Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital/Östra.
    Physical activity pattern, cardiorespiratory fitness, and socioeconomic status in the SCAPIS pilot trial — A cross-sectional study2016In: Preventive Medicine Reports, ISSN 0350-1159, E-ISSN 2211-3355, Vol. 4, p. 44-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Living in a low socioeconomic status (SES) area is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. Previous studies have suggested a socioeconomic gradient in daily physical activity (PA), but have mainly relied on self-reported data, and individual rather than residential area SES. This study aimed to investigate the relationships between residential area SES, PA pattern, compliance with PA-recommendations and fitness in a Swedish middle-aged population, using objective measurements. We included 948 individuals from the SCAPIS pilot study (Gothenburg, Sweden, 2012, stratified for SES, 49% women, median age: 58years), in three low and three high SES districts. Accelerometer data were summarized into intensity-specific categories: sedentary (SED), low (LIPA), and medium-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). Fitness was estimated by submaximal ergometer testing. Participants of low SES areas had a more adverse cardiovascular disease risk factor profile (smoking: 20% vs. 6%; diabetes: 9% vs. 3%; hypertension: 38% vs. 25%; obesity: 31% vs. 13%), and less frequently reached 150min of MVPA per week (67% vs. 77%, odds ratio [OR]=0.61; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]=0.46–0.82), from 10-minute bouts (19% vs. 31%, OR=0.53, 95% CI=0.39–0.72). Individuals in low SES areas showed lower PA levels (mean cpm: 320 vs. 348) and daily average MVPA (29.9 vs. 35.5min), and 12% lower fitness (25.1 vs. 28.5mL×min−1×kg−1) than did those in high SES areas. Reduced PA and fitness levels may contribute to social inequalities in health, and should be a target for improved public health in low SES areas.

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