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  • 51.
    Devin, James L
    et al.
    School of Human Movement and Nutrition Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.
    Bolam, Kate A
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group. School of Human Movement and Nutrition Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.
    Jenkins, David G
    School of Human Movement and Nutrition Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.
    Skinner, Tina L
    School of Human Movement and Nutrition Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.
    The influence of exercise on the insulin-like growth factor axis in oncology: physiological basis, current and future perspectives.2016In: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, ISSN 1055-9965, E-ISSN 1538-7755, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 239-249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exercise and physical activity have been shown to reduce the risk of many common cancers and strongly influence tumour biology. A cause-effect mechanism explaining this relationship is dependent on cellular pathways that can influence tumour growth and are exercise-responsive. The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis is reported to promote the development and progression of carcinomas through cellular signalling in cancerous tissues. This review summarises the physiological basis of the role of the IGF axis in oncology and the influence of exercise on this process. We examined the effects of exercise prescription on the IGF axis in cancer survivors by evaluating the current scope of the literature. The current research demonstrates a remarkable heterogeneity and inconsistency in the responses of the IGF axis to exercise in breast, prostate and colorectal cancer survivors. Finally, this review presents an in-depth exploration of the physiological basis and mechanistic underpinnings of the seemingly disparate relationship between exercise and the IGF axis in oncology. Whilst there is currently insufficient evidence to categorise the effects of exercise prescription on the IGF axis in cancer survivors, the inconsistency of results suggests a multifaceted relationship, the complexities of which are considered in this review.

  • 52.
    Ek, Amanda
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Kallings, Lena
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Hambraeus, Kristina
    Cardiologkliniken, Falu lasarett.
    Börjesson, Mats
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Association between physical activity level and risk of all-cause mortality after myocardial infarction2017In: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, Vol 24, Issue 1 Suppl, April 2017: Abstract Book EuroPrevent 2017 Malaga, Spain, 2017, Vol. 24, article id 45Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background/Introduction: There is little knowledge of the association between physical activity (PA) level and the mortality risk post myocardial infarction (MI). Steffen/Batey et al (2000), concluded in a smaller study, that individuals who remained active or increased their level of PA after MI had a lower risk of death. However, in order to confirm this and adjust for confounders larger studies are needed.

    Purpose: Explore any association between PA level after MI and all-cause mortality during follow-up in a large MI-cohort.

    Methods: A national cohort study including all patients <75 years of age, with a diagnosis of MI between 1991-2014 (Swedish MI register SWEDEHEART). From the register self-reported PA, 6-10 weeks post MI, (i.e. number of sessions during the past seven days with moderate and/or vigorous PA lasting ≥30 minutes) was obtained. The answers were grouped into 0-1 sessions (inactive), 2-4 sessions (moderately active) and 5-7 sessions (regularly active). Associations were first assessed unadjusted, stratified by potential confounders (sex, age, smoking status, ejection fraction, ST-elevation and quality of life). Thereafter, a multiple logistic regression was performed to control for possible confounders.

    Results: Complete data was obtained from 37 655 individuals (median 63 years, 74 % men). A total of 2512 deaths occurred during a mean of 4.1 years of follow-up. The mortality rate was 17.0 cases/1000 person-years. Moderate and regular activity, was associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality (OR 0,356 95 %, CI 0,320-0,396 and OR 0,334, 95 % CI 0,305-0,366) compared to being physically inactive. The OR´s remained largely unchanged when stratifying for age, sex, NSTEM/STEMI and ejection fraction. However, active smokers had a lower OR, for subsequent death, as had patients with a low EQ5D. The associations persisted in the multiple logistic regression, after adjustment for confounders (Figure 1).

    Conclusion(s): A higher level of physical activity seems to be associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality. These results suggest that physical activity assessment is important post MI, not least as an important predictor.

     

  • 53.
    Ek, Amanda
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Kallings, Lena
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Hambraeus, Kristina
    Cardiologkliniken, Falu lasarett.
    Börjesson, Mats
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Samband mellan fysisk aktivitetsnivå efter hjärtinfarkt och risken för mortalitet: Association between physical activity level and risk of all-cause mortality after myocardial infarction2017In: Fria föredrag, nr 025, 2017, article id 025Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There is little knowledge of the association between physical activity (PA) level and the mortality risk post myocardial infarction (MI)Steffen/Batey et al (2000), concluded in a smaller study, that individuals who remained active or increased their level of PA post-MI had a lower risk of death. This study aimed to explore any association between PA level post-MI and all-cause mortality during follow-up in a large MI-cohort.

    Methods: A national cohort study including patients <75 years of age, with a diagnosis of MI between 2005-2014 (SWEDEHEART, SEPHIA-register). Self-reported PA, 6-10 weeks post-MI, (i.e. number of sessions during the past seven days with moderate and/or vigorous PA lasting ≥30 minutes) was obtained. The answers were grouped into 0-1 sessions (inactive), 2-4 sessions (moderately active) and 5-7 sessions (regularly active). First, stratified unadjusted associations were investigated. Thereafter, a multiple logistic regression was performed to control for possible confounders.

    Results: Complete data was obtained from 37 655 individuals (median age 63 years, 74 % men). A total of 2512 deaths occurred during a mean of 4.1 years of follow-up. The mortality rate was 17.0 cases/1000 person-years. Moderate and regular activity, was associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality (OR 0.36, 95 % CI: 0.32-0.40 and OR 0.33, 95 % CI: 0.31-0.37) compared to being physically inactive. The OR´s remained largely unchanged when stratifying for age, gender, NSTEM/STEMI and ejection fraction. However, compared to inactive patients, physically active smokers and patients with ≤ 0.85 Eq5D had a higher OR, for subsequent death. The associations persisted in the multiple logistic regression, after adjustment for confounders (Figure 1).

    Conclusions: A higher level of PA, post-MI was associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality. These results suggest that PA assessment is important post-MI, not least as an important predictor for risk of death.

  • 54.
    Ek, Amanda
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Kallings, Lena
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Börjesson, Mats
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Promoting physical activity - an established part of the clinical practice?2015In: 23rd International Conference on Health Promoting Hospitals and Health Services: "Person-oriented health promotion in a rapidly changing world:Co-production – continuity – new media & technologies", 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Insufficient physical activity is a considerable risk factor for mortality and premature death. The healthcare has a unique role in health promotion as they reach a large part of the population. The evidence based recommendation is that the healthcare sector should offer “counseling with the adjunct of exercise on prescription or a pedometer, as well as special follow-up” to promote patients physical activity. Despite this, physical activity is underutilized in prevention and treatment of disease, for reasons not fully known.

     

     

    Purpose/Method

    We aimed to study the attitudes of different healthcare professionals in the hospital setting, towards the importance of physical activity and its clinical use at different levels.

    The study comprised 264 (78% women) health care professionals at the cardiac department/outpatient cardiac center in Stockholm (response rate 91%). Data was obtained in 2013, by questionnaire. Containing 28 multiple choice questions on participants attitudes towards physical activity behavior change, the perceived importance of such measures, practical implementation and possible barriers for implementation.

     

    Results

    All participants stated importance of physical activity promotion within healthcare. Forty-seven percent reported that they promoted physical activity in clinical practice, however only a minority fulfilled the evidence based recommendations (n=65), as brief advice (n=165) or counseling (n=111) were most common. Sixty-one percent aimed to improve the use of physical activity promotion, factors hampering were inadequate knowledge, follow-up possibilities and length of patient visits. Less than half group reported insufficient routines (46%), goals (37%) and lack of management support (42%).

     

    Conclusion         

    Although health professionals generally are positive towards promoting physical activity, just a small proportion actually use the evidence based methods in clinical practice. To improve the promotion of physical activity in patients there is need for further implementation strategies at all levels to create a well-functioning structure, clear goals and routines. Our study suggests, that implementation should focus at education, logistics for follow-up and increased amount of time with direct patient care. 

     

  • 55.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Att mäta stillasittande2013In: Långvarigt stillasittande: en hälsofara i tiden / [ed] Elin Ekblom Bak, Studentlitteratur, 2013, p. 79-102Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 56.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Det riskfyllda stillasittandet2017In: Blå boken: årsbok, ISSN 2000-7272, Vol. 110, p. 224-235Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 57.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Långvarigt stillasittande: En hälsofara i tiden2013Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vetenskaplig evidens visar att långvarigt dagligt stillasittande, oberoende av övrig fysisk aktivitet och motion, innebär en ökad risk för flertalet av de stora folksjukdomarna samt förtida död. Stillasittande är således inte samma sak som brist på motion, utan de bör ses som två separata beteenden med delvis oberoende betydelse för utfallet hälsa och sjukdom.

    Stillasittande innebär frånvaro av muskelkontraktioner, muskulär inaktivitet, i de större muskelgrupperna i kroppen och karaktäriseras av en mycket låg energiomsättning. Långvarigt stillasittande ersätter framför allt den lågintensiva vardagliga aktiviteten, och genom att öka denna kan ett stillasittande beteende motverkas. I dag finns stora möjligheter, men också krav, på att vara stilla­sittande stora delar av den vakna tiden. Att arbeta med det stillasittande beteendet är således relevant för många olika professioner och yrkeskategorier; alltifrån den som möter individen i det enskilda samtalet, till samhällsplaneraren och beslutsfattaren.

    I denna bok beskrivs för första gången det stillasittande beteendet och bl.a. berörs den epidemiologiska forskningsgrunden hos såväl vuxna som barn, föreslagna mekanismer samt metoder för att mäta och motverka stillasittande. Dessutom ger fyra olika professioner sin syn på saken och hur dom har arbetat med det i sin yrkesroll.

    Innehåll

    • Epidemiologi och mekanismer
    • Stillasittande och psykisk ohälsa
    • Stillasittande hos barn och ungdomar
    • Att mäta stillasittande
    • Sambands- och bestämningsfaktorer för stillasittande
    • Metoder för att reducera ett stillasittande beteende
    • Allmänläkarens perspektiv på stillasittande
    • Sjuksköterskans perspektiv på stillasittande
    • Sjukgymnastens perspektiv på stillasittande
    • Hälsopedagogens perspektiv på stillasittande
  • 58.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and abdominal obesity in relation to cardiovascular disease risk: epidemiological studies2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Although Sweden saw a decline in death rates related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) between 1987 and 2011, it is still the most common cause of death for both women and men. Lifestyle-related factors such as inadequate physical activity (PA), poor cardiorespiratory fitness (CF), and excess body fat are all recognised as important predictors of CVD morbidity and mortality. More recently, studies have highlighted the possible detrimental effects of prolonged sitting, which mainly substitutes for daily non-exercise PA (NEPA). Conversely, more preferable levels of these lifestyle factors are associated with lower CVD risk and increased life expectancy. Despite the extensive research performed within this field, there is still no consensus.

    The main objective of this thesis was therefore to examine the interrelationship between different levels of PA, CF, and abdominal adiposity and their association with CVD risk factors, CVD morbidity, and longevity in population-based samples of Swedish men and women of different ages. A second objective was to develop a new and more precise method for estimation of CF in a mixed, healthy, population.

    The main findings were

    - In a cross-sectional population based random sample of Swedish men (n=781) and women (n=890) aged 20 to 65 years were CF and abdominal obesity each independently and strongly beneficially associated with individual CVD risk factors, as well as to a clustered CVD risk factor profile. For the clustered risk, each unit of fitness (ml·kg-1·min-1) was associated with a 5% decrease in risk and each unit of waist circumference (cm) with a 5% increase in risk. This was seen in women as well as men, younger as well as older people, and daily smokers as well as non-smokers; however, there were some differences within the subgroups.

    - In the same population, higher levels of self-reported PA and CF, but mainly the latter, were independently associated in a beneficial way with both individual and clustered CVD risk factors. Furthermore, a notable interaction of excess clustered CVD risk was shown for being insufficiently physical active according to general guidelines in combination with not being fit.

    - In a representative cohort of 60-year-old men (n=2039) and women (n=2193) in Stockholm County, a generally active daily life was associated with beneficial metabolic health at baseline and an approximately 30% lower risk for a first-time cardiovascular event and all-cause mortality, respectively, after 12.5 years. These relationships were independent of regular exercise.

    - A new submaximal cycle ergometer test for estimation of maximal oxygen uptake was developed. The test is simple, low-risk, and easily administered, and does not require laboratory equipment or expertise. In a mixed population (in terms of age, activity status, and gender), the test showed a significantly increased precision compared with one of the most commonly used submaximal exercise tests today.

    In conclusion, these results indicate that in clinical practice it is important to evaluate both PA and CF as well as abdominal obesity status. Regarding PA, it is important to highlight the separate beneficial associations of a daily active life including NEPA on the one hand, and intentional regular exercise on the other.

  • 59.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Börjesson, Mats
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Större studier vid GIH2013In: Idrottsmedicin, ISSN 2001-3302, no 2, p. 5-10Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    På Åstrandslaboratoriet vid Gymnastik- och idrotthögskolan i Stockholm finns tradition och erfarenhet av att göra populationsundersökningar. För närvarande finns tre pågående projekt av populationskaraktär; Skola-Idrott-Hälsa (SIH), SCAPIS-undersökningen samt LIV-studierna.

  • 60.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Börjesson, Mats
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Olsson, Gustav
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Bolan, Kate
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Kallings, Lena
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Svenskar rör sig för lite2015In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 30-31Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    För den som betraktar svenskarna som ett aktivt folk är det dags att tänka om. Bara sju procent av 50-65 åringarna är tillräckligt fysiskt aktiva, visar  resultat från den stora SCAPIS-studien.

  • 61.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Långvarigt stillasittande - ett riskbeteende2013In: Idrottsmedicin, ISSN 2001-3302, no 2, p. 14-17Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Stillasittande innebär en hälsorisk som är skiljd från den risk som otillräcklig fysisk aktivitet utgör. Långvarig inaktivitet är alltså ett eget område med tidigare endast delvis kända riskfaktorer som kräver egna insatser för att motverka ohälsa.

  • 62.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Nytt submaximalt test för beräkning av maximal syreupptagning.2013In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, no 6, p. 271-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 63.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Engström, Lars-Magnus
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Sambands- och bestämningsfaktorer för stillasittande2013In: Långvarigt stillasittande: en hälsofara i tiden / [ed] Elin Ekblom Bak, Studentlitteratur, 2013, p. 103-111Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 64.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Stillasittandets effekter på barns hälsa är underbeforskat: Svårt att definiera säker gräns för ökad risk för ohälsa2015In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 112, no 25-26Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattat:

    De få studier som gjorts om stillasittande hos barn har fokuserat på övervikt och metabola risker.

    Den svaga kopplingen mellan stillasittande och metabola effekter kan bero på att dessa tillstånd inte har hunnit manifesteras hos barn.

    Fler longitudinella studier med upprepade mätpunkter och objektiv mätmetodik behövs.

    Andra utfall, t ex kognition, bör studeras.

  • 65.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    HPI Health Profile Institute AB.
    Wallin, Peter
    HPI Health Profile Institute AB.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Physical Education and Leisure-Time Physical Activity in Youth Are Both Important for Adulthood Activity, Physical Performance, and Health.2018In: Journal of Physical Activity and Health, ISSN 1543-3080, E-ISSN 1543-5474, Vol. 15, no 9, p. 661-670Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The importance of youth physical activity (PA) for adulthood PA, performance, and health was retrospectively evaluated. Methods: A total of 258,146 participants (49% women), aged 19–70, with a first-time health-profile assessment between 1982 and 2015, provided self-reported data on current perceived health, PA, lifestyle, and physical education class participation, and PA outside school hours before age 20. Data on anthropometrics, blood pressure, and estimated maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) were obtained. Results: Women participating in physical education class, compared with those who did not, had significantly lower OR (range: 0.81–0.87) for perceiving poor overall health, general obesity, and high diastolic blood pressure after adjustment for potential confounders, and increased OR (range: 1.17–1.23) for exercising regularly and a normal/high VO2max in adulthood. For men, the ORs were significantly lower (range: 0.66–0.86) for poor perceived overall health, general, and abdominal obesity. These associations were seen for participants up to 70 years. Increased PA outside school hours revealed even stronger beneficial associations. In joint analyses, both youth and current PA were important for lower OR of poor health and being obese in adulthood. Conclusions: Physical education class participation and additional PA after school hours were both important for perceived health, PA, VO2max, and metabolic health in adulthood up to 70 years.

  • 66.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Comments on Point: Counterpoint "Positive effects of intermittent hypoxia (live high:train low) on exercise performance are/are not mediated primarily by augmented red cell volume2005In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 99, no 6, p. 2462-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 67.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Counterpoint: maximal oxygen uptake is not limited by a central nervous system governor.2009In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 106, no 1, p. 339-41; discussion 341Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 68.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    D-vitamin och förkylning2012In: StOF-nytt, no 3, p. 21-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 69.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    En reparativ ortopedisk kirurgi kan ge fantastiska resultat2005In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 102, no 40, p. 2889-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 70.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Fysiologisk forskning åren 1988-2013: ett personligt perspektiv2014In: Från Kungl. Gymnastiska Centralinstitutet till Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan: en betraktelse av de senaste 25 åren som del av en 200-årig historia / [ed] Suzanne Lundvall, Stockholm: Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH , 2014, p. 181-186Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 71.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Hade artrosen kunnat förebyggas?2004In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 101, no 40, p. 3098-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 72.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    "In health and in a normoxic environment, VO2 max is/is not limited primarily by cardiac output and locomotor muscle blood flow".: Comment2006In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 100, no 4, p. 1416-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 73.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Regular snuff dipping does not impair physical performance.2013Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 74.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    The muscle biopsy technique: Historical and methodological considerations.2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 458-461Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The muscle biopsy method is an important tool for clinical and scientific work. In this study, the two most used instruments, the Bergström needle and the Well-Blakesley conchotome, are described. The technique of using those instruments, risks, and other considerations are discussed. Finally, a few consequences and the error of the method for determining muscle fiber type, fiber area, substrates, and metabolites are presented.

  • 75.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Välskrivet om träning vid sjukdom: recension av boken Idrott, hälsa och sjukdom2011In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 108, no 44, p. 2236-Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Recension av boken Idrott, hälsa och sjukdom av Bengt O. Eriksson, Mats Börjesson m fl. (Studentlitteratur, 2011)

  • 76.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Världsledande idrottsforskare har gått ur tiden: Vi minns Bengt Saltin2014In: Idrottsmedicin, ISSN 1103-7652, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 32-33Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 77.
    Ekblom, Björn
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Stroke volume and the endurance athlete.2006In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 70-1Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 78.
    Ekblom, Björn
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Vasaloppet – idrott eller folkhälsointervention?: [Skiers int the long-distance race "Vasaloppet" really do invest in their health]2007In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 104, no 14-15, p. 1162-1165Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Om man ser dagens Vasaloppsåkare som medverkande i hälsofrämjande program eller som självmedvetna »hälsoinvesterare «, missar man att de flesta deltar därför att det är roligt och stimulerande.

  • 79.
    Ekblom, Björn
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Malm, Christer
    Infectious episodes before and after a marathon race.2006In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 287-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of self-reported infectious episodes (IE) during 3 weeks before (pre-IE) and 3 weeks after (post-IE) a marathon race and relate these figures to training status, running time, socioeconomic and demographic factors. Two questionnaires, including questions about important factors for IE incidence, were given to a representative cohort of 1694 runners (17% of all finishers) in the Stockholm Marathon 2000. Pre-IE incidence in the cohort was 17% with no difference between women and men. Post-IE incidence in the whole cohort was 19% with no significant (P>0.05) difference between women and men. The post-IE incidence in runners without a pre-IE was 16% (P>0.05 to pre-IE incidence). In the group of runners with pre-IE, 33% experienced an IE after the race also (P<0.05 to Pre-IE incidence). A logistic regression analysis showed that younger age and pre race health status and, for men only, experienced nausea during and after the race were depended factors explaining post-IE incidence. Younger runners were more prone to experience IE both before and after the race. There was no relation between training volume 6 months before the race, finishing time and socioeconomic and demographic factors and pre-IE or post-IE. This study does not support the theory of increased infection rate after exhaustive long-distance running ("The Open Window Theory") in recreational runners, but suggests that the sometimes experienced increased rate of infections among athletes can be caused by strenuous exercise too soon after an infection.

  • 80.
    Ekblom, Björn
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekblom-Bak, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Långvarigt stillasittande är en metabol riskfaktor2012In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, no 34-35, p. 1467-1470Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Längre stunder av stillasittande, oberoende av övrig medel- och högintensiv fysisk aktivitet, ökar risken för flertalet av de stora folksjukdomarna och förtida död.

    Stillasittande innebär frånvaro av kontraktioner i de stora muskelgrupperna, dvs muskulär inaktivitet.

    Bakomliggande patogena mekanismer som kopplar långvarigt stillasittande till negativa hälsoeffekter har föreslagits vara låg energiomsättning, vilket leder till ansamling av visceralt fett och låggradig systemisk inflammation; uteblivna endokrina svar från den inaktiva skelettmuskulaturen med påföljande försämrad effekt i flera organ och vävnader samt låg s k skjuvspänning.

    Minskad tid i stillasittande och ökad lågintensiv vardaglig aktivitet är faktorer som kan motverka framtida ohälsa.

  • 81.
    Ekblom, Björn
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Engström, Lars-Magnus
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Secular trends of physical fitness in Swedish adults.2007In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 267-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to study differences in fitness (maximal aerobic power (VO(2max)), balance control, abdominal strength and endurance) and anthropometric data in Swedish women and men (20-65 years of age) between two national cross-sectional samples, studied in 1990/1991 and 2000/2001, respectively. The absolute and relative VO(2max) (aerobic fitness), estimated from a submaximal test, declined with increasing age in both genders. The submaximal test was validated against running VO(2max). Furthermore, the relative aerobic fitness (mL/min/kg) was lower in the 2000/2001 sample in men but not in women. Overall physical activity level was unchanged in both genders. An unexpected finding was that in both samples there were no major differences in relative VO(2max) between men and women of the same age. Combined overweight and obesity (body mass index> or =25) is becoming more prevalent in men, but not in women with prevalence in 2000/2001 of 61% and 38% for men and women, respectively. Balance control and abdominal strength and endurance decrease with increasing age with no differences between the two samples. Thus, the near future health situation for men may be worse, while for women it may be less or no differences compared with today.

  • 82.
    Ekblom, Björn
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group. Militärmedicinska forskningsgruppen, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Godhe, Manne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group. Militärmedicinska forskningsgruppen, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Helge, Torbjörn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group. Militärmedicinska forskningsgruppen, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Pettersson, Tobbe
    Militärmedicinska forskningsgruppen, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Mattsson, C. Mikael
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences. Militärmedicinska forskningsgruppen, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Studier av stridsvärde vid långvarigt arbete - Sammanfattning och reflektioner: Rapport 9.2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den militärmedicinska forskningsgruppen vid Åstrandlaboratoriet, Gymnastik- och Idrottshögskolan, Stockholm, har som forskningsuppgift med stöd från Försvarsmakten att studera och föreslå insatser för att upprätthålla stridsvärdet för trupp under långvarigt fysiskt arbete. Forskningen har hitintills resulterat i åtta rapporter, där fysisk arbetsförmåga studerats under olika förhållanden. Föreliggande rapport sammanfattar de huvudsakliga resultaten från dessa undersökningar men omfattar också en diskussion gällande skillnader och likheter mellan kvinnors jämfört med mäns adaptation till långvarigt och tungt arbete samt ett kort avsnitt om fortsatta undersökningar, byggda på tidigare resultat.

  • 83.
    Ekblom, Björn
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Helge, Torbjörn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH.
    Godhe, Manne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH.
    Pettersson, Tobbe
    Mattsson, Mikael C
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Rekommendationer gällande bärvikter och förflyttningshastigheter under längre fältoperationer. Beräkningar av energiomsättning2016Report (Other academic)
  • 84.
    Ekblom, Björn
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Huot, R
    Stein, E M
    Thorstensson, Alf T
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Effect of changes in arterial oxygen content on circulation and physical performance.1975In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 0021-8987, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 71-5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To evaluate the effect of different levels of arterial oxygen content on hemodynamic parameters during exercise nine subjects performed submaximal bicycle or treadmill exercise and maximal treadmill exercise under three different experimental conditions: 1) breathing room air (control); 2) breathing 50% oxygen (hyperoxia); 3) after rebreathing a carbon monoxide gas mixture (hypoxia). Maximal oxygen consumption (Vo2 max) was significantly higher in hyperoxia (4.99 1/min) and significantly lower in hypoxia (3.80 1/min) than in the control experiment (4.43 1/min). Physical performance changes in parallel with Vo2 max. Maximal cardiac output (Qmax) was similar in hyperoxia as in control but was significantly lower in hypoxia mainly due to a decreased stroke volume. A correlation was found between Vo2 max and transported oxygen, i.e., Cao2 times Amax, thus suggesting that central circulation is an important limiting factor for human maximal aerobic power. During submaximal work HR was decreased in hyperoxia and increased in hypoxia. Corresponding Q values were unchanged except for a reduction during high submaximal exercise in hyperoxia.

  • 85.
    Ekblom, Björn
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Mattsson, C. Mikael
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Multisport en trend för alltfler2011In: Svensk IdrottsMedicin, ISSN 1103-7652, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 4-7Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En intressant trend i motions- och tävlingsvärlden är att extrema uthållighetsidrotter blir alltfler och dessa får dessutom alltfler utövare. Multisport (engelska Adventure Racing) är en av dessa. Tävlingarna består i allmänhet av löpning, cykling och paddling men ibland läggs också olika fysiska aktiviteter såsom repklättring, inlines och simning in i tävlingen.

  • 86.
    Ekblom, Björn
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Mattsson, C. Mikael
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH.
    Enqvist, Jonas
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH.
    Multisport - en utmaning i extrem uthållighet2008In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 18-21Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 87.
    Ekblom, Björn
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Mattsson, Mikael
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Försvarsrelaterad Medicin 22011Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 88.
    Ekblom, Björn
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Stear, SJ
    Castell, LM
    Burke, LM
    Jeacocke, N
    Shing, C
    Calder, PC
    Lewis, N
    A–Z of nutritional supplements: dietary supplements, sports nutrition foods and ergogenic aids for health and performance—part                                          102010In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 44, p. 688-690Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 89.
    Ekblom, Björn T
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Last word on point: counterpoint : Maximal oxygen uptake is/is not limited by a central nervous system governor : Letter to the editor2009In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 106, no 1, p. 348-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 90.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Barn och ungdomars fysiska träning och utveckling2007In: Idrottsledare för barn och ungdom, Stockholm: SISU Idrottsböcker , 2007Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 91.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Från barn till vuxen: Barn och ungdomars fysiska utveckling2011In: Orientera för att lära sig träna: att träna 13-16 år / [ed] Anders Stjerndahl, Stockholm: SISU Idrottsböcker , 2011, p. 50-56Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 92.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Från barn till vuxen: barn och ungdomars fysiska utveckling2011In: Orientera för att ha kul: att träna upp till 13 år / [ed] Anders Stjerndahl, Stockholm: SISU Idrottsböcker , 2011, p. 42-47Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 93.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Hur får vi inaktiva barn att röra på sig?2011In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 32-36Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det är svårt att påverka barns fysiska aktivitet. Att få de minst intresserade att lägga om sina levnadsvanor kräver uthålliga insatser. I dagsläget verkar skolan vara den mest lovande arenan och särskilt satsningar riktade mot barn i den yngre skolåldern.

  • 94.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Physical fitness and overweight in Swedish youths2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present thesis was to describe the level of physical fitness and prevalence of overweight and obesity in Swedish youths, and their trends over 14 years. Additionally, the relation between fitness and overweight on the one hand and physical activity on the other was examined. In 2001, a total of 2118 children, aged 10, 13 and 16 years, were invited from 48 randomly selected schools in Sweden. Out of these, 1732 or 81.8 % participated in the testing. For trend analyses, data collected in 1987 from a sample of 516 children were used. When subjects in the 2001 sample were analysed according to proposed cut-off values, 15.7% (95% CI: 14.1% to 17.6%) of all subjects were found to be overweight and 4.3% (95% CI: 3.4% to 5.4%) were obese. The total prevalence accordingly being 20.1% (95% CI: 18.3% to 22.0%). This sample proved to be heterogeneous concerning overweight status. When obesity and overweight were combined the highest prevalence (26.6%, 95% CI: 21.2 to 32.7) was found in 10-year-old girls and the lowest (17.5%, 95% CI: 13.6 to 22.2) in 16-year-old girls. The prevalence in 2001 was nearly 2.5 times higher, compared to the 1987-sample. Girls attending schools in smaller towns or on the countryside had a nearly two-fold prevalence of overweight and obesity, compared to girls living in the major cities. The difference was less pronounced in boys. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was related to level of physical activity in 10 and 13 years old children but not in 16 years old. Results from the performance tests in the 1987 and 2001 samples were compared. Concerning cardio-respiratory performance, girls aged 16 years showed only small differences, whereas boys in the 2001 sample performed worse compared to boys in the 1987-sample (46 ml x kg-1 x min-1 vs. 41 ml x kg-1 x min-1 for 1987 and 2001, respectively, and median difference 9.2 %, 95% CI: -16.7 to -2.2). Concerning neuro-muscular performance, the comparisons of results between the 1987 and 2001 samples showed varying results. Generally, performance on the upper body and trunk muscles strength and endurance tests was lower in 2001 compared to 1987. Neuromuscular performance in the lower body differed less. For both boys and girls, differences in neuro-muscular performance between subjects in different activity strata increased with age. Results showed only small differences in neuro-muscular performance between active and less active strata at age 10, but larger at age 13 and 16 years in both boys and girls. And at age 13 and 16 years, neuro-muscular performance differed widely between active and less active girls. At age 10, only small differences were found in cardio-respiratory performance between active and less active subjects (both girls and boys). At age 13 and 16 years both girls and boys showed large differences in cardio-respiratory performance between activity levels, with better performance in more active children.

  • 95.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Testing the validity of three submaximal ergometer tests for estimating maximal aerobic capacity in children.2014In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 103, no 5, p. 559-563Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM:

    Aerobic capacity in children has been linked to health-related outcomes, but the validity of existing assessment methods is largely unknown. This study evaluated the validity of the Åstrand-Rhyming, Woynarowska and Olgun Binyildiz methods.

    METHODS:

    Aerobic capacity was estimated from the heart rate response to submaximal ergometer cycling in 62 children aged 11-12 years. Direct measurement of peak oxygen consumption during a graded maximal treadmill test was used as the criterion method.

    RESULTS:

    We found low mean bias for age-adjusted Åstrand-Rhyming data and Woynarowska data, (-14 and 23 mL/min, respectively), low correlation to criterion values (0.81 and 0.74, respectively) and high standard error of estimate (SEE) (340 and 395 mL/min). The Olgun Binyildiz method gave high correlation (0.87) and low SEE (298 mL/min), but large bias (-660 mL/min). All methods underestimated capacity in well-trained children.

    CONCLUSION:

    The Olgun Binyildiz method is recommended for following an individual over time, due to its low random error. But for comparing individual data with those obtained using direct measurements, the Woynarowska or Åstrand-Rhyming method may be the first choice. However, they all underestimated aerobic capacity in well-trained children.

  • 96.
    Ekblom, Örjan B
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Bak, Elin A M Ekblom
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekblom, Björn T
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Cross-sectional trends in cardiovascular fitness in Swedish 16-year-olds between 1987 and 2007.2011In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 100, no 4, p. 565-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: We sought to investigate the temporal trends in estimated maximal aerobic capacity in adolescents (mean age 16.1).

    METHODS: Analyses were based on data from three population-based samples, collected in 1987 (n=221), 2001 (n=537) and 2007 (n=265). Subjects underwent sub-maximal ergometer testing. Absolute and relative aerobic capacities were estimated using the Åstrand-Ryhming nomogram.

    RESULTS: Compared to 1987, values for estimated relative and absolute maximal aerobic capacities were lower in 2001 and 2007, and values in 2007 were lower compared to 2001, in both boys and girls, except for absolute capacity between 1987 and 2001 in girls. The differences over time did not differ between genders. Absolute values changed from 3.0 and 2.5 L/min in 1987 to 2.5 and 2.2 L/min in 2007, for boys and girls, respectively. Relative values changed from 46.5 and 45.9 mL/min/kg in 1987 to 35.0 and 36.6 mL/min/kg, in 2007, for boys and girls, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: Based on earlier reports on the relationship between aerobic capacity and metabolic risk, the results from the present study provide argument that future public health will be affected negatively.

  • 97.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Börjesson, Mats
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Hela rörelsemönstret har betydelse2016In: Idrottsmedicin, ISSN 2001-3302, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 5-7Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 98.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Temporal Trends In Cardiovascular Fitness Among Swedish Adolescents In Ninth Grade Between 1987 And 20072012In: Journal of General Internal Medicine, 2012, Vol. 27, p. 390-390Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 99.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekblom, Björn T
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Trends in body mass in Swedish adolescents between 2001 and 2007.2009In: Acta paediatrica (Oslo, Norway : 1992), ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 98, no 3, p. 519-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: (1) Compare BMI standard deviation scores (BMIsds) in 16-year olds in 2001 and 2007 to assess trends. (2) Describe tracking of BMIsds between ages 10 and 16 years, in a longitudinal 6-year follow-up. (3) Identify possible predictors in 2001 for high BMIsds in 2007 and increase in BMIsds between 2001 and 2007. METHODS: A six-year follow-up study on 296 subjects, aged 10 years at baseline and a panel study among 16-year olds. BMIsds was used as the main outcome. RESULTS. No difference in BMIsds in 16-year-old adolescents was found between 2001 and 2007. Strong tracking (r = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.75-0.84) was found for BMIsds between ages 10 and 16 years. Low aerobic capacity and high BMIsds at age 10 years predicted overweight at age 16 years. High BMIsds in 2001 predicted a decline in BMIsds (OR: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.43-0.76) and high level of self-reported moderate-to-vigorous physical activity predicted an increased BMIsds (OR: 1.38, 95% CI: 1.13-1.67). CONCLUSION: There was no difference in prevalence of overweight plus obesity between the 2001 and 2007 samples. Normal weight and good aerobic fitness in 10-year-old children seems to decrease the risk of elevated relative BMI in 16-year olds.

  • 100.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Rosengren, Annika
    Hallsten, Mattias
    Bergström, Göran
    Börjesson, Mats
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Sedentary Behaviour and Physical Activity Are Independently Associated with the Metabolic Syndrome, Results from the SCAPIS Pilot Study.2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 6, article id e0131586Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: 

    Previous studies on the relation between lifestyle and the metabolic syndrome lack one or several aspects of the physical activity pattern in the analyses or cardiorespiratory fitness. Likewise, both uni- and triaxial accelerometry have been used, though, the predictive validity of these two modes has not been compared.

    OBJECTIVES: 

    The aims of the present study were firstly to investigate the independent relation between cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity pattern to the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and secondly to examine the predictive validity of uni- and triaxial accelerometry, respectively.

    METHODS: 

    Data was extracted from the SCAPIS pilot study (n=930, mean age 57.7 yrs). Physical activity pattern was assessed by accelerometry. Cardiorespiratory fitness was estimated using cycle ergometry. MetS was defined per the Adult Treatment Panel III from the National Cholesterol Education Program definition.

    RESULTS: 

    Time spent sedentary (OR: 2.38, 95% CI: 1.54-4.24 for T3 vs T1), in light intensity (OR: 0.50, 95% CI: 0.28-0.90) and in moderate-to-vigorous activity (OR: 0.33, 95% CI: 0.18-0.61), as well as cardiorespiratory fitness (OR: 0.24, 95% CI:0.12-0.48), were all independently related to the prevalence of MetS after adjustment for potential confounders, fitness and/or the other aspects of the physical activity pattern. In addition, we found that triaxial analyses were more discriminant, with ORs farther away from the reference group and additional significant ORs.

    CONCLUSION: 

    The finding that several aspects of the physical activity pattern reveal independent relations to the MetS makes new possible targets for behaviour change of interest, focusing on both exercise and everyday life. When assessing the risk status of a patient, it is advised that triaxial accelerometry is used.

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