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  • 451.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Hassmén, Peter
    Ek, S
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Newsholme, E A
    Influence of ingesting a solution of branched-chain amino acids on perceived exertion during exercise.1997In: Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6772, E-ISSN 1365-201X, Vol. 159, no 1, p. 41-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On two occasions, seven male endurance-trained cyclists performed exhaustive exercise on a cycle ergometer in the morning after they had performed a bout of exercise the preceding evening in an attempt to lower the muscle glycogen stores. The subjects exercised at a work rate corresponding to approximately 70% of their maximal oxygen uptake for 60 min, followed by another 20 min of maximal exercise. During exercise the subjects were given either a solution of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) or flavoured water (placebo). Every 10 min during exercise the subjects rated their perceived exertion and mental fatigue on two different Borg scales. During the 60 min exercise at a given work rate the subjects ratings of perceived exertion when they were given BCAAs were 7% lower, and their ratings of mental fatigue were 15% lower than when they were given placebo. In addition, the performance in the colour task of Stroops Colour Word Test performed after exercise was improved when BCAAs had been ingested during exercise, compared with the results from the placebo trial. There was no difference in the physical performance between the two trials measured as the amount of work done during the last 20 min of exercise when the subjects performed at their maximum. The plasma concentration ratio of free tryptophan/BCAAs, which increased by 45% during exercise and by 150% 5 min after exercise in the placebo trial, remained unchanged or even decreased when BCAAs were ingested.

  • 452.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Krustrup, Peter
    Søndergaard, Hans
    Rådegran, Göran
    Calbet, José A L
    Saltin, Bengt
    Exercise training induces similar elevations in the activity of oxoglutarate dehydrogenase and peak oxygen uptake in the human quadriceps muscle.2011In: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology, ISSN 0031-6768, E-ISSN 1432-2013, Vol. 462, no 2, p. 257-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During exercise involving a small muscle mass, peak oxygen uptake is thought to be limited by peripheral factors, such as the degree of oxygen extraction from the blood and/or mitochondrial oxidative capacity. Previously, the maximal activity of the Krebs cycle enzyme oxoglutarate dehydrogenase has been shown to provide a quantitative measure of maximal oxidative metabolism, but it is not known whether the increase in this activity after a period of training reflects the elevation in peak oxygen consumption. Fourteen subjects performed one-legged knee extension exercise for 5-7 weeks, while the other leg remained untrained. Thereafter, the peak oxygen uptake by the quadriceps muscle was determined for both legs, and muscle biopsies were taken for assays of maximal enzyme activities (at 25°C). The peak oxygen uptake was 26% higher in the trained than in the untrained muscle (395 vs. 315 ml min(-1) kg(-1), respectively; P<0.01). The maximal activities of the Krebs cycle enzymes in the trained and untrained muscle were as follows: citrate synthase, 22.4 vs. 18.2 μmol min(-1) g(-1) (23%, P<0.05); oxoglutarate dehydrogenase, 1.88 vs. 1.54 μmol min(-1) g(-1) (22%, P<0.05); and succinate dehydrogenase, 3.88 vs. 3.28 μmol min(-1) g(-1) (18%, P<0.05). The difference between the trained and untrained muscles with respect to peak oxygen uptake (80 ml min(-1) kg(-1)) corresponded to a flux through the Krebs cycle of 1.05 μmol min(-1) g(-1), and the corresponding difference in oxoglutarate dehydrogenase activity (at 38°C) was 0.83 μmol min(-1) g(-1). These parallel increases suggest that there is no excess mitochondrial capacity during maximal exercise with a small muscle mass.

  • 453.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Møller, K
    Secher, N H
    Nybo, L
    Effect of carbohydrate ingestion on brain exchange of amino acids during sustained exercise in human subjects.2005In: Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6772, E-ISSN 1365-201X, Vol. 185, no 3, p. 203-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: This study investigated the effect of prolonged exercise with and without carbohydrate intake on the brain exchange of amino acids, especially focussing on tryptophan and branched-chain amino acids (BCAA). METHODS: Five male subjects exercised for 3 h on a cycle ergometer at 200 +/- 7 W on two occasions; either supplemented with a 6% carbohydrate solution or with flavoured water (placebo). Catheters were inserted into the right internal jugular vein and the radial artery of the non-dominant arm. The brain exchange of amino acids during exercise was calculated from the arterial-jugular venous concentration difference multiplied by plasma flow. RESULTS: About 106 micromol (22 mg) of tryptophan was taken up by the brain during exercise in the placebo trial, whereas no significant uptake was observed in the carbohydrate trial. In accordance, the arterial concentration of free tryptophan increased from 12 +/- 1 to 20 +/- 2 micromol L(-1) during the placebo trial and was significantly higher compared with the glucose trial (14 +/- 1 micromol L(-1) at the end of exercise). Also, the arterial concentration of total tryptophan (free and albumin-bound) increased during the first 30 min of exercise in both trials, but returned to the basal level at 180 min of exercise. In both trials, BCAA were taken up by the brain while glutamine was released. CONCLUSION: The present data show that both tryptophan and BCAA are taken up by the brain during prolonged exercise, and we suggest that the cerebral uptake of tryptophan may relate to increased synthesis of serotonin (5-HT) in the brain.

  • 454.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Rådegran, Göran
    Saltin, Bengt
    Maximum rate of oxygen uptake by human skeletal muscle in relation to maximal activities of enzymes in the Krebs cycle.1997In: Journal of Physiology, ISSN 0022-3751, E-ISSN 1469-7793, Vol. 501 ( Pt 2), p. 455-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Ten subjects performed incremental exercise up to their maximum work rate with the knee extensors of one leg. Measurements of leg blood flow and femoral arteriovenous differences of oxygen were made in order to be able to calculate oxygen uptake of the leg. 2. The volume of the quadriceps muscle was determined from twenty-one to twenty-five computer tomography section images taken from the patella to the anterior inferior iliac spine of each subject. 3. The maximal activities of three enzymes in the Krebs cycle, citrate synthase, oxoglutarate dehydrogenase and succinate dehydrogenase, were measured in biopsy samples taken from the vastus lateralis muscle. 4. The average rate of oxygen uptake over the quadriceps muscle at maximal work, 353 ml min-1 kg-1, corresponded to a Krebs cycle rate of 4.6 mumol min-1 g-1. This was similar to the maximal activity of oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (5.1 mumol min-1 g-1), whereas the activities of succinate dehydrogenase and citrate synthase averaged 7.2 and 48.0 mumol min-1 g-1, respectively. 5. It is suggested that of these enzymes, only the maximum activity of oxoglutarate dehydrogenase can provide a quantitative measure of the capacity of oxidative metabolism, and it appears that the enzyme is fully activated during one-legged knee extension exercise at the maximal work rate.

  • 455.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Saltin, Bengt
    BCAA intake affects protein metabolism in muscle after but not during exercise in humans.2001In: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0193-1849, E-ISSN 1522-1555, Vol. 281, no 2, p. E365-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) or a placebo was given to seven subjects during 1 h of ergometer cycle exercise and a 2-h recovery period. Intake of BCAA did not influence the rate of exchange of the aromatic amino acids, tyrosine and phenylalanine, in the legs during exercise or the increase in their concentration in muscle. The increase was approximately 30% in both conditions. On the other hand, in the recovery period after exercise, a faster decrease in the muscle concentration of aromatic amino acids was found in the BCAA experiment (46% compared with 25% in the placebo condition). There was also a tendency to a smaller release (an average of 32%) of these amino acids from the legs during the 2-h recovery. The results suggest that BCAA have a protein-sparing effect during the recovery after exercise, either that protein synthesis has been stimulated and/or protein degradation has decreased, but the data during exercise are too variable to make any conclusions about the effects during exercise. The effect in the recovery period does not seem to be mediated by insulin.

  • 456.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Saltin, Bengt
    Effect of muscle glycogen on glucose, lactate and amino acid metabolism during exercise and recovery in human subjects.1999In: Journal of Physiology, ISSN 0022-3751, E-ISSN 1469-7793, Vol. 514 ( Pt 1), p. 293-302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Eight subjects performed two-legged exercise, one leg with low and the other with normal muscle glycogen content. The purpose was to study the effect of low initial muscle glycogen content on the metabolic response during 1 h of exercise and 2 h of recovery. This model allows direct comparison of net fluxes of substrates and metabolites over the exercising legs receiving the same arterial inflow. 2. Muscle glycogen breakdown during exercise was 60% lower in the leg with a reduced pre-exercise glycogen concentration and the rate of glucose uptake during exercise was 30% higher. 3. The amount of pyruvate that was oxidized during exercise was calculated to be approximately 450 mmol in the low-glycogen leg and 750 mmol in the normal-glycogen leg, which suggests more fat and amino acid oxidation in the low-glycogen leg. 4. During exercise, there was a significant release of amino acids not metabolized in the muscle, e. g. tyrosine and phenylalanine, only from the low-glycogen leg, suggesting an increased rate of net protein degradation in this leg. 5. The release of tyrosine and phenylalanine from the low-glycogen leg during the exercise period and the change in their muscle concentrations yield a net tyrosine and phenylalanine production rate of 1.4 and 1.5 mmol h-1, respectively. The net rate of protein degradation was then calculated to be 7-12 g h-1. 6. The results suggest that the observed differences in metabolism between the low-glycogen and the normal-glycogen leg are induced by the glycogen level per se, since the legs received the same arterial supply of hormones and substrates.

  • 457.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Berit Sjöberg: 1939-20182019Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 458.
    Blyckert, Hanna
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Crowén, Hanna
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Att leva livet med Reumatoid Artrit: En kvalitativ intervjustudie om upplevelser kring att bära och hantera en kronisk diagnos2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med denna studie var att beskriva och få djupare förståelse för hur olika psykosociala faktorer kan påverka livssituationen för personer med Reumatoid Artrit (RA) samt hur de hanterar sin diagnos. Syftet var även att undersöka vilken roll fysisk aktivitet spelar i deras liv.

    Frågeställningar:

    • Hur upplever personer med RA att de påverkas av den psykosociala miljön?
    • Hur beskriver personer med RA att de hanterar sin sjukdom?
    • Hur upplever personer med RA att de påverkas av fysisk aktivitet i sin vardag?

     Metod: Denna kvalitativa studie bygger på fem stycken semistrukturerade djupgående intervjuer. Intervjupersonerna söktes för frivilligt deltagande genom Reumatikerförbundets medlemmar samt en sluten Facebookgrupp för reumatiker. Intresseanmälan gjordes via mejl, samtliga som kontaktade oss var kvinnor. Slutligen bestod urvalet av fem kvinnor bosatta i Stockholm i åldrarna 30-40 som fått diagnosen RA mellan 2006 och 2013. Intervjuerna genomfördes med hjälp av en semistrukturerad intervjuguide som grund och under samtalets gång ställdes följdfrågor. Intervjuerna transkriberades ordagrant till en skriven text som sedan analyserades med syfte att finna kategorier och teman.

    Resultat: Personer med RA upplever att de påverkas både positivt och negativt av den psykosociala miljön. Stöd från nära relationer visade sig vara en viktig faktor i påverkan av deras livssituation. Upplevelsen över hur människor omkring dem uppfattar deras kroniska diagnos ingav en negativ påverkan. Hanteringen av sjukdomen framställs som olika svår för individerna. Problem- och emotionellt inriktad coping användes utifrån olika livssituationer och utvecklade förmågor. Även passiv coping skildras i berättelserna. Den fysiska aktiviteten upplevs svår att upprätthålla i vardagen men samtliga upplever att det är något de känner positiva effekter av.

    Slutsats: Psykosociala faktorer ses ha en ytterst betydande inverkan på livssituationen för individerna i studien. De hanterar RA diagnosen utefter sina egna förmågor och utvecklingen av copingstrategier är individuell. Den fysiska aktiviteten ses som något positivt men har en begränsad roll i deras liv både pga. det generella livspusslet samt den kroniska trötthet som sjukdomen medför.

  • 459. Blücher, Gösta
    et al.
    Edmar, Désirée
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Eva Nordenson: nekrolog2014Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 460.
    Bodén, Amanda
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Lundin, Emelie
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Cykelintervaller som kompletterande träning för handbollsspelare på U16-nivå.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar Syftet med studien var att undersöka effekten av cykelintervaller som komplement till handbollsträning för att förbättra prestationsförmågan hos manliga ungdomsspelare på elitnivå. Den frågeställning studien svarat på är om cykelintervaller som komplement till handbollsträning har några effekter på den specifika prestationsförmågan.

    Metod En kvantitativ experimentell studie genomfördes med 13 manliga ungdomsspelare (fp) i handboll. Under 3 veckor fick fp genomföra cykelintervaller som komplement till ordinarie träning 2 gånger i veckan. Effekten av träningen kontrollerades genom förtest och eftertest där fp:s aeroba förmåga (Yo-Yo IR L1), anaeroba kapacitet (150 m shuttle run) samt anaeroba effekt (CMJ) testades. Utifrån resultaten vid förtesterna delades fp in i antingen cykelgrupp (CG) eller kontrollgrupp (KG). Indelning gjordes genom matchning av fp:s profil följt av lottning. CG genomförde 2 olika intervalltyper, 4 min intervaller och 30 sekunders intervaller med ökat antal set över tid. Efter 3 veckor, totalt 6 träningspass, fick samtliga fp återigen genomföra tester med identiskt testförfarande. Genom detta kunde skillnader i utveckling av delkapaciteter relevanta för handboll mellan grupperna utvärderas.

    Resultat CG förbättrade signifikant både sitt Yo-Yo IR L1 resultat (p≤0,05) samt resultatet i de tre 150 m shuttle run mätningarna (löpning 1, p=0,03; löpning 2, p<0,001; differens löpning 1 och 2, p<0,001). KG hade ingen förbättring i Yo-Yo IR L1 och bara en signifikant trend till förbättring i löpning 2 i 150 m shuttle run (p=0,08). Mellan grupperna förelåg dock inte några signifikanta skillnader. Det sågs ingen förändring i någon av grupperna vid eftertesterna av CMJ. 

    Slutsats Trots att CG förbättrade sig signifikant i såväl aeroba som anaeroba tester förelåg ingen signifikant skillnad mellan grupperna vilket bland annat tros bero på för få fp samt för kort interventionstid. Resultatet indikerar dock att cykelträning kan vara av värde för handbollsspelare men vidare forskning på en större försöksgrupp och längre interventionstid behövs för att med säkerhet kunna dra några generella slutsatser gällande cykelträningens effektivitet för handbollsspelare.

  • 461.
    Bogren, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Grinsfeldt, Michaela
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    "Det gäller ju att uppmuntra eleverna att titta över tröskeln”: En studie av den fysiska aktiviteten i idrott och hälsa på gymnasiesärskolan ur ett sociokulturellt perspektiv2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Aim

    The aim of the study was through a socio-cultural approach; examine the physical activity in P.E on upper special schools. The aim was also to analyze factors that could prevent or promote students to be physical active. The study is based on following questions: How do teachers perceive students' physical activity? What kind of support and resources do teachers use to promote students' physical activity? How do teachers perceive students' social interaction?

     

    Method

    This study is based on six, qualitative semi-structured interviews with P.E teachers that are working in upper special schools in the central parts of Sweden. All interviews have been recorded on a Dictaphone. They have also been transcribed and processed thematically. The result of the study has been put into meaningful themes and all themes are based on three aspects from the socio-cultural perspective; scaffolding, mediators and shared activity. To protect the participant’s integrity during the study, we followed ethical principles.

     

    Results

    The study shows that students with intellectual disabilities often become inactive during lessons and outside school. The physical activity seems therefore especially important for these students. The teachers perceived these students activity level as rather low comparing to students during P.E in ordinary school. The students’ impairments seem to be one factor that contributes to lower activity levels. Educational support to teach students with intellectual disabilities seems to fall short according to these P.E teachers. The P.E teachers try to motivate the students to participate. They give them peptalk and they try to have good structure during the lessons that also is quite alike time to time. Easy and clear instructions that P.E teachers visually can demonstrate seem to prepare and help these students to participate. Some activities can better than other activities support these students to be more independent. The keywords seem to be simple movements, exercises and games. The rules also have to be short, clear and simple. Assistants seem as a necessary resource that can promote students' physical activity. To do that the assistant have to be reversed, committed, positive, have a peppery spirit and be physical active during the P.E lessons. To promote the students to be physical active outside school it’s important that the students get opportunity to meet different kind of physical activities. The P.E teachers mean that it’s important to have good contact with sport associations to guide these students into the voluntary sector. To develop independent students in P.E class, these students need different kind of tools (mediators) like image that they could follow, watch, schedule, exerciseprogram etc. Social interaction seems by the teachers as a valuable thing, both for the students’ physical activity and for their social development. Social interaction can thou be difficult sometimes, especially among students who have autism.

     

    Conclusions

    Motivated students, special adaptations and reversed and active assistants can probably promote physical activity among these students during P.E lesson. To promote physical activity outside school it’s important that these students get opportunity to meet the voluntary sector. Therefore P.E teachers have to have good contact with different sport associations so they can guide these students to a more physical active lifestyle. A conclusion from the study is that support from teachers and assistants are necessary to promote these students to be physical active in a higher level. It’s also important that these students get "tools" to develop their independent in P.E lessons. The social interaction seems important to promote physical activity even thou it sometimes can be difficult for some students to interact with other students.   

  • 462.
    Bojsen-Møller, Emil
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Blom, Victoria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control. Karolinska institutet.
    Relationships between Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour and Cognitive Functions in Office Workers.2019In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, no 23, article id E4721Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing evidence from animal experiments suggests that physical activity (PA) promotes neuroplasticity and learning. For humans, most research on the relationship between PA, sedentary behaviour (SB), and cognitive function has relied on self-reported measures of behaviour. Office work is characterised by high durations of SB combined with high work demands. While previous studies have shown that fitter office workers outperform their less fit colleagues in cognitive tests, the importance of PA and SB remains unknown. This study investigated associations between objectively measured PA and SB, using hip-worn accelerometers, and cognitive functions in 334 office workers. Time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) was not associated with any cognitive outcome. However, time spent in SB tended to be positively associated with words recalled in free recall (β = 0.125). For the least fit participants, the average length of MVPA bouts was favourably related to Stroop performance (β = -0.211), while for the fitter individuals, a longer average length of MVPA bouts was related to worse recognition (β = -0.216). While our findings indicate that the length of MVPA bouts was associated with better Stroop performance in the least fit participants, our findings do not support the notion that more time spent in MVPA or less time in SB is associated with better cognitive function.

  • 463.
    Bolam, Kate A
    et al.
    School of Human Movement Studies, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia .
    Beck, Belinda R
    Adlard, Kirsten N
    Skinner, Tina L
    Cormie, Prue
    Galvao, Daniel A
    Spry, Nigel
    Newton, Robert U
    Taaffe, Dennis R
    The relationship between BPAQ-derived physical activity and bone density of middle-aged and older men2014In: Osteoporosis International, ISSN 0937-941X, E-ISSN 1433-2965, Vol. 25, no 11, p. 2663-2668Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The bone-specific physical activity questionnaire (BPAQ) accounts for activities that affect bone but has not been used in studies with older adults. Relationships exist between the BPAQ-derived physical activity and bone density in healthy middle-aged and older men but not men with prostate cancer. Disease-related treatments detrimental to bone should be considered when administering the BPAQ.

    INTRODUCTION:

    The bone-specific physical activity questionnaire (BPAQ) was developed to account for bone-specific loading. In this retrospective study, we examined the relationship between BPAQ-derived physical activity and bone mineral density (BMD) in middle-aged and older men with and without prostate cancer.

    METHODS:

    Two groups, 36 healthy men and 69 men with prostate cancer receiving androgen suppression therapy (AST), completed the BPAQ and had whole body, total hip, femoral (FN) and lumbar spine BMD assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    RESULTS:

    Past (pBPAQ), current (cBPAQ) and total BPAQ (tBPAQ) scores for the healthy men were related to FN BMD (pBPAQ r = 0.36, p = 0.030; cBPAQ r s = 0.35, p = 0.034; tBPAQ r = 0.41, p = 0.014), and pBPAQ and tBPAQ were related to total hip (r s = 0.35, p = 0.035 and r s = 0.36, p = 0.029, respectively) and whole body BMD (r s = 0.44, p = 0.007 and r s = 0.45, p = 0.006, respectively). In men with prostate cancer, the BPAQ was not significantly associated with BMD. In stepwise regression analyses, body mass and tBPAQ predicted 30 % of the variance in total hip BMD (p = 0.003), cBPAQ predicted 14 % of the variance in FN BMD (p = 0.002), and body mass, age and tBPAQ predicted 47% of the variance in whole body BMD (p < 0.001) in healthy men. In men with prostate cancer, the BPAQ was not an independent predictor of BMD.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Although BPAQ-derived estimates of physical activity are related to bone status in healthy middle-aged and older men, the adverse effect of AST on bone appears to obscure this relationship in men with prostate cancer.

  • 464.
    Bolam, Kate A.
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Skinner, T L
    Sax, A T
    Adlard, K N
    Taaffe, D R
    A Comparison of Bone Mineral Density in Amateur Male Boxers and Active Non-boxers.2016In: International Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0172-4622, E-ISSN 1439-3964, Vol. 37, no 9, p. 694-699Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To examine the site-specific osteogenic effect of upper limb impact-loading activity we compared the forearm and arm bone mineral density (BMD) of male boxers to that of active controls. A cross-sectional study was performed with 30 amateur male boxers (aged 18-44 years) and 32 age-matched, non-boxing, active controls. Participants had their regional and whole body BMD and bone mineral content (BMC) assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Hand grip strength, testosterone, oestradiol, sex hormone-binding globulin, vitamin D, lean and fat mass, and past and current physical activity were also assessed. Forearm and arm BMD were 1.5-2.2% higher in boxers than the control group although this was not statistically significant (p>0.05), with no significant difference for BMC (p>0.05). There were no differences between groups for spine, hip, or whole body BMD or BMC, or for body composition or hormone status. Within the arms, lean mass was associated with BMD and BMC in both boxers and the control group (BMD, r=0.60-0.76, p<0.001; BMC, r=0.67-0.82, p<0.001). There were no significant differences between amateur boxers and the control group for upper limb BMD and BMC. However, muscle mass appears to be particularly important to bone health of the upper limbs.

  • 465.
    Bolam, Kate A
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Skinner, Tina L
    Jenkins, David G
    Galvão, Daniel A
    Taaffe, Dennis R
    The Osteogenic Effect of Impact-Loading and Resistance Exercise on Bone Mineral Density in Middle-Aged and Older Men: A Pilot Study.2016In: Gerontology, ISSN 0304-324X, E-ISSN 1423-0003, Vol. 62, no 1, p. 22-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Regular exercise has been recommended as a potential strategy to counteract the age-related bone loss experienced by men; however, the optimal exercise prescription is not known.

    OBJECTIVE: To perform a pilot study to examine the osteogenic effect, safety and feasibility of a combined program of upper body resistance exercise and two doses of impact-loading exercise on bone mineral density (BMD) of middle-aged and older men.

    METHODS: Forty-two community-dwelling men aged 50-74 years were randomly assigned to either an exercise program of combined upper body resistance exercise and either high-dose impact-loading (HI; 80 jumps per session) or moderate-dose impact-loading (MOD; 40 jumps per session) or a control (CON) group. The 9-month intervention involved 4 sessions each week: 2 supervised clinic-based and 2 home-based. BMD of the lumbar spine, femoral neck, total hip, trochanter and whole body as well as lean and fat mass were assessed at baseline and 9 months by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Bone turnover markers, hormone levels, physical function and muscle strength were also assessed.

    RESULTS: Following 9 months of training, significant differences in BMD among groups were found at the total hip (p = 0.010) and trochanter (p = 0.047) with BMD in the MOD group decreasing relative to the HI group. Although not significant, the HI group consistently preserved BMD, whereas BMD of the MOD and CON groups declined at the hip sites. Mean change for all groups at all skeletal sites was approximately within ±1%. There was no change in bone turnover markers. There were no adverse events as a result of the intervention; however, overall attendance for the HI and MOD groups was 53% (clinic: 68%, home: 38%) and 65% (clinic: 74%, home: 55%), respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that while impact-loading exercise can be safely undertaken in middle-aged and older men, the current combined program did not elicit significant improvements in BMD. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  • 466.
    Bolam, Kate A
    et al.
    School of Human Movement Studies, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia .
    van Uffelen, Jannique G
    Taaffe, Dennis R
    The effect of exercise training on the bone density of middle aged and older men: A systematic review.2013In: Osteoporosis International, ISSN 0937-941X, E-ISSN 1433-2965, Vol. 24, no 11, p. 2749-2762Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although trials have shown that exercise has positive effects on bone mineral density (BMD), the majority of exercise trials have been conducted in older women. The aim of this study was to systematically review trials examining the effect of weight-bearing and resistance-based exercise modalities on the BMD of hip and lumbar spine of middle-aged and older men. Eight electronic databases were searched in August 2012. Randomised controlled or controlled trials that assessed the effect of weight-bearing and resistance-based exercise interventions on BMD measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and reported effects in middle-aged and older men were included. Eight trials detailed in nine papers were included. The interventions included walking (n = 2), resistance training (n = 3), walking + resistance training (n = 1), resistance training + impact-loading activities (n = 1) and resistance training + Tai Chi (n = 1). Five of the eight trials achieved a score of less than 50% on the modified Delphi quality rating scale. Further, there was heterogeneity in the type, intensity, frequency and duration of the exercise regimens. Effects of exercise varied greatly among studies, with six interventions having a positive effect on BMD and two interventions having no significant effect. It appears that resistance training alone or in combination with impact-loading activities are most osteogenic for this population, whereas the walking trials had limited effect on BMD. Therefore, regular resistance training and impact-loading activities should be considered as a strategy to prevent osteoporosis in middle-aged and older men. High quality randomised controlled trials are needed to establish the optimal exercise prescription.

  • 467.
    Bolam, Kate
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Hagströmer, Maria
    Karolinska institutet.
    Hur finner vi de fysiskt inaktiva?2016In: Idrottsmedicin, ISSN 2001-3302, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 8-11Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 468.
    Bolander, Rasmus
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Konsten att motivera omotiverade elever: En studie om idrottslärares arbete med omotiverade elever.2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med min uppsats var att undersöka hur idrottslärare arbetar för att motivera omotiverade högstadietelever till att delta i ämnet idrott och hälsa.

    Frågeställningar:

    • Hur ser lärares erfarenheter och upplevelser ut av omotiverade elever i ämnet idrott och hälsa?
    • Hur arbetar idrottslärare för att förebygga ointresse och skapa motivation hos eleverna?

    Metod

    Metoden som har använts under datainsamlingen är semistrukturerade intervjuer. Detta eftersom det lämpade sig bäst för uppsatsens syfte. Fyra stycken idrottslärare med varierande erfarenheter som idrottslärare intervjuades. Innan intervjuer med lärarna skrevs en intervjuguide som senare låg till grund för intervjuerna. Intervjuerna spelades in, med respondentens godkännande, för att sedan transkriberas ner för en tydligare överblick.

    Resultat

    Min första frågeställning lyder: Hur ser lärares erfarenheter och upplevelser ut av omotiverade elever i ämnet idrott och hälsa? Resultatet som framkommit tyder på att lärarna inte upplever att det är något problem med elever som inte vill delta. Deras erfarenheter är att de flesta tycker att idrottslektionerna är roliga men att det såklart finns undantag.  Min andra frågeställning är: Hur arbetar idrottslärare för att förebygga ointresse och skapa motivation hos eleverna? Resultaten är att idrottslärarna framförallt försöker hitta elevernas inre motivation, de försöker få eleverna att ha roligt. Detta gör de genom att utmana och berömma eleverna. 

    Slutsats

    Min slutsats är att lärarna använder olika metoder för att motivera omotiverade elever till att delta på idrottslektionerna. Alla försöker involvera eleverna på ett eller annat sätt. De försöker också jobba mycket med beröm och positivförstärkning. En annan intressant slutsats är att alla elever är olika och att det som lärare krävs att man kan vara flexibel och behandla eleverna efter vad situationen kräver. 

  • 469.
    Bolldén, Johanna
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Ekdahl, Frida
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    NOA Relaxation: stressreduktion på flaska?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka om den stressreducerande drycken NOA relaxation, innehållande L-theanin och Citronmeliss, har någon fysiologisk samt psykologisk effekt på kvinnliga ishockeyspelare vid konsumtion. Studien undersökte även hur ishockeyspelarnas prestationsförmåga vid kognitiva datortester påverkades vid intag av NOA relaxation. Hypotesen för denna studie är att drycken NOA relaxation har en lugnande, fokusgivande samt stressreducerande effekt både psykologiskt och fysiologiskt på deltagarna.

    Metod

    I studien har 7 kvinliga ishockeyspelare deltagit. Deltagarna antingen studerade eller var arbetslösa, åldersspann mellan 17 till 22 år (medelålder 20). Tre stycken testtillfällen utfördes, det första tillfället då deltagarna enbart fick pröva på de kognitiva datortesterna. Dessa datortester kommer från testbatteriet Psychology Experiment Building Language (PEBL) och syftar till att undersöka deltagarens koncentration, minne samt mental flexibilitet. Vid andra och tredje tillfället fick deltagarna konsumera antingen placebo-drycken (FUN light) eller NOA relaxation och sedan utföra datortesterna. Under dessa tillfällen mättes den psykologiska effekten genom enkäten State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) som mäter upplevd ångest, oro och stress. De fysiologiska effekterna mättes med hjälp av blodtryck och puls innan, under och efter utförande av de kognitiva datortesterna. Innan testtillfällena fick deltagarna fylla i en hälsoenkät om deras upplevda hälsa, efter testtillfällena fick de fylla i enkäten STAI.

    Resultat

    Resultaten från de kognitiva datortesterna visade inga signifikanta effekter vid konsumtion av NOA relaxation jämfört med placebodrycken. Samma resultat gäller för sammanställningen av poängen från STAI. Ingen signifikans kunde visas gällande lägre puls vid konsumtion av NOA relaxation jämfört med placebodrycken. Samma resultat gäller för det systoliska blodtrycket, dock fann man ett signifikant lägre diastoliskt blodtryck vid konsumtionen av NOA relaxation jämfört med placebodrycken.

    Slutsats

    Resultaten från de kognitiva datortesterna samt STAI kunde inte påvisa hypotesen om att NOA relaxation skulle ge en mentalt lugnande samt stressreducerande effekt. Det samma gäller hypotesen om fysiologiskt lugnande samt stressreducerande effekt gällande puls, dock bekräftades hypotesen om ett lägre blodtryck (diastoliskt), detta tyder eventuellt på ett ökat lugn.

  • 470. Bolling, Hans
    et al.
    Yttergren, Leif
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport History Research Group.
    200 år av kroppsbildning - Gymnastiska centralinstitutet / Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan: en introduktion2013In: 200 år av kroppsbildning: Gymnastiska Centralinstitutet / Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan 1813-2013 / [ed] Hans Bolling och Leif Yttergren, Stockholm: Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan , 2013, p. 15-57Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 471. Bolling, Hans
    et al.
    Yttergren, LeifSwedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    200 år av kroppsbildning: Gymnastiska centralinstitutet / Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan 1813-20132013Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den 5 majl 1814 utfärdades ett kungligt brev med uppdrag åt Per Henrik Ling att i Stockholm inrätta ett institut för utbildning av gymnastiklärare. Det var början till Gymnastiska centralinstitutet (GCI), idag Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan. GIH är därmed världens äldsta verksamma offentliga lärosäte för utbildning av gymnastiklärare/lärare i idrott och hälsa och en unik institution inom svensk och internationell kroppskultur och högskoleväsende.

    GCI/GIH har varit tongivande inom svensk fysisk fostran under två sekel. Det gymnastiksystem som utvecklades med GCI som huvudman, linggymnastik, och som under 1800- och 1900-talen spreds över världen utgör Sveriges i särklass viktigaste bidrag till den internationella kroppskulturen.

    Dessutom har den svenska idrottsrörelsen sedan slutet av 1800-talet starkt påverkats av den verksamhet som bedrivits vid institutet/högskolan. Många är de aktiva, ledare och tränare som genomgått utbildningen på GCI/GIH och sedan med framgång verkat inom idrotter på olika nivåer.

    Med föreliggande antologi, där forskare från olika vetenskapliga discipliner medverkar, lyfts några perspektiv på den verksamhet som bedrivits vid GCI/GIH genom seklen: Tvåhundra år av kroppsbildning är i sanning en gärning väl värd att uppmärksamma.

    Innehåll:

    • 200 år av kroppsbildning : Gymnastiska centralinstitutet / Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, en introduktion / Hans Bolling och Leif Yttergren 
    • Gymnastik, nation och manlighet : grundandet av Gymnastiska centralinstitutet 1813 / Jens Ljunggren
    • Svärdet, facklan och staven samt en ek på villovägar? : synen på sjuk och frisk vid GCI 1813 till cirka 1950 / Anders Ottosson 
    • Elin Falk, GCI och föreställningar om barnet : en analys av gymnastikstriden vid Stockholms folkskolor 1910-1913 / Pia Lundquist Wanneberg 
    • Sally Högström og det moderne kvindeprojekt : svensk gymnastik og GCI's betydning i Danmark / Else Trangbæk 
    • Pionjärer med moraliskt mod : ett sekel med en kvinnlig lärarutbildning i kroppsövning / Suzanne Lundvall och Jane Meckbach 
    • Rationell träning : GCI:s fysiologiska forskning i möte med samhälle och idrott / Daniel Svensson och Sverker Sörlin 
    • Från exercis och dagövningar till Idrott och hälsa : skolans fysiska övningar / Björn Sandahl 
    • Idrottsvetenskap - läran om ... idrott? : en nutidshistoria om forskarutbildningsämnet idrottsvetenskap / Håkan Larsson 
    • Hövdingarna : GCI/GIH:s chefer under 200 år / Jan Lindroth
  • 472.
    Bolling, Hans
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Yttergren, LeifSwedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport History Research Group.
    Stockholmsolympiaden 1912: tävlingarna - människorna - staden2012Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den 6 juli 2012 är det 100 år sedan de olympiska spelen invigdes av kung Gustaf V på Stadion i Stockholm. Festligheterna var en unik chans för Stockholm och Sverige att visa upp sig för omvärlden under en tid som annars präglades av motsättningar och turbulens. Arrangemangen gick till historien som Solskensolympiaden eller ”the Swedish Masterpiece”, men det var även ett projekt som blev betydligt dyrare än beräknat och där läktare på sina ställen gapade tomma.

    I elva fristående kapitel belyser författare från olika vetenskapliga discipliner Stockholmsolympiaden med särskilt fokus på det kulturella, politiska och sociala kring idrottandet. Vi får följa planerandet inför spelen, marknadsföringen, deltagarnas förberedelser, publikens beteende och de kvinnor som gavs möjlighet att tävla. I korta personporträtt möter vi dessutom deltagare och ledare, och ett särskilt kapitel tar upp tävlingsresultat och andra fakta kring olympiaden.Med hundra år i backspegeln får vi genom bidragen i Stockholmsolympiaden 1912 även perspektiv på evenemangets betydelse för vårt lands idrottsutövande och den olympiska rörelsens fortsatta framtid, samt dess effekter på det arrangerade samhället, inte minst den i Stockholm alltid aktuella arenafrågan.

    Hans Bolling är fil.dr i historia och forskar för närvarande om svensk handikappidrott. Leif Yttergren är docent i historia vid Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan i Stockholm och hans avhandling Täflan är lifvet har utgivits av Stockholmia förlag.

  • 473. Bolling, Hans
    et al.
    Yttergren, Leif
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport History Research Group.
    Swedish Gymnastics for Export: A Study of the Professional Careers and Lives of Swedish Female Gymnastic Directors, 1893-€“19332015In: International Journal of the History of Sport, ISSN 0952-3367, E-ISSN 1743-9035, Vol. 32, no 11-12, p. 1437-1455Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study is to analyze the careers of women gymnastics directors about the turn of the century in 1900. This is done by means of a collective biographical study of the women'€™s course at the Royal Central Institute of Gymnastics in Stockholm from 1891 to 1893. The study is based above all on unique correspondence between the members of the course, namely a correspondence book circulated among them between 1893 and 1943. This book contained a total of almost 500 letters comprising thousands of handwritten pages with detailed accounts of their professional career and family, as well as life'€™s positive and negative sides. The study shows that their opportunities of making a career€“ in Sweden and abroad€“ in the occupation they had received training in were good. There are several reasons for this success. Swedish gymnastics€™ treatment methods were the height of fashion round about the turn of the century in 1900 and there was great demand for their services. They remained faithful to their choice of occupation, even if their career took a back seat for half of them when they married: family life and a professional career could not be combined for them.

  • 474. Bonnard, M
    et al.
    Sirin, A V
    Oddsson, L
    Thorstensson, Alf
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Different strategies to compensate for the effects of fatigue revealed by neuromuscular adaptation processes in humans.1994In: Neuroscience Letters, ISSN 0304-3940, E-ISSN 1872-7972, Vol. 166, no 1, p. 101-5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An initially submaximal hopping task was maintained with the same global power output until it became the maximal performance; since there was no decrease in performance, any change in behavior occurring with fatigue characterizes the strategies allowing to compensate for the effects of fatigue. In a prolonged hopping task, fatigue is likely to be most prominent in the ankle extensor muscles since they are the main contributors to vertical propulsion in the hop. With fatigue, all subjects landed with more flexed knees and with an increased activity in the biarticular rectus femoris muscle indicating some compensation between the knee and ankle joint. Furthermore, two different strategies appeared to further compensate for the important fatigue of the ankle extensor muscles: one was organized across joints and consisted in a heavier reliance of the knee extensor vastus lateralis, and the other was organized within the fatigued joint and consisted in an earlier preactivation of the gastrocnemius. As a consequence, two different adaptations of the ground reaction force profiles appeared at the end of the session; each being related to one of these two strategies.

  • 475.
    Bonér, Jenny
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Ätas eller kräkas: En komparativ undersökning av två elitidrottskvinnor med ätstörningar2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet har varit att ur ett komparativt perspektiv undersöka två elitidrottskvinnor med ätstörningar.

    • Vilka likheter och skillnader finns det i hur de beskriver sin identitet?

    • Vilka likheter och skillnader finns det i hur de framställer upplevda krav?

    • Vilka likheter och skillnader finns det i hur de uttrycker sin självkänsla?

    Metod

    Som metod valde jag textundersökning av de två böckerna Genom helvetet: om fotboll, kärlek och anorexi av Tina Nordlund och Simon Bank och Simmar-Emma: Min kamp mot bulimin av Emma Igelström och Carina Olofsson.

    Resultat

    Tina är fotbollspelare, utan fotbollen är hon ingen, det är hela hennes identitet. Även Emma är sin idrott, hon är känd som ”Simmar-Emma”. Emma och Tina har höga krav på sig själva och från andra. I början är det de själva som har kontrollen men ju högre kraven utifrån blir desto mindre blir deras egen kontroll. De beskriver hur kontrollen övergår till en kontroll av ätandet. Idrotten är en trygghet för både Tina och Emma. Dock tycker båda att det är viktigt vad andra tycker och de är rädda att uppfattas som diviga. De vill även förtjäna uppmärksamhet genom att prestera och vara duktiga.

    Slutsats

    Slutsatsen är att det finns mer likheter än skillnader mellan Emma och Tina. En likhet som påverkat deras framgångar som idrottskvinnor och som personer med ätstörningar är deras enorma vilja, viljan att vara bäst och viljan att vinna. Andra likheter är den endimensionella identiteten som framträder. De är sin idrott och utan den är de ingenting. Det finns även andra likheter så som den låga bassjälvkänslan i kombination med den höga prestationsbaserade självkänslan. De har även höga krav, dels på sig själva och dels utifrån. Kontrollbehovet tar sig uttryck i hur och vad de äter. Skillnader mellan dem är de olika typer av ätstörningarna som de har, Emma bulimi och Tina anorexi samt att Emma utövar en individuell idrott medan Tina utövar en lagidrott.

  • 476.
    Book, Karin
    et al.
    Malmö universitet.
    Bäckström, Åsa
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Att göra det organiserade spontant eller organisera det spontana: om lösa relationer i en flytande tid2018In: Sport management: Idrottens organisationer i en svensk kontext. Del 1 / [ed] Bäckström, Å., Book, K., Carlsson, B., & Fahlström, P., Stockholm: SISU idrottsböcker , 2018, 1, p. 190-217Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 477.
    Borg, David
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Fair-way: Om kvinnliga golfare tillåts vara mer idrottare än kvinnor idag jämfört med för två decennier sedan2010Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    In my study is to examine possible differences in the description of two elite female athletes’, Liselotte Neumann in 1988 and Anna Nordqvist in 2009, breakthroughs. This in order to see if and possibly how the dominating way to speak about elite female athletes’, lady golfers’ and golf for ladies is challenged and/or is strengthened.

    Method

    Discourse analysis of two local newspapers, a national newspaper and a professional journal published within one month before and two months after the players’ breakthrough.

    Results

    Between the two survey periods in 1988 and 2009 there has come about a clear change in how female golfers can be described in the chosen publications. The differences are present both when it comes to the description of sport arena performance and person.  Neumann and Nordqvist are portrayed partly much alike but also differently in crucial ways. The resemblances are among other thing in that the private life is withdrawn from the media coverage or that Neumanns and Nordqvists background not at all is described. Stories about childhood, school time and youth is totally absent. Neither is there any stories told about the family's history or present state. The only reference to the players origins is geographic. It can then be assumed that both athletes follow what is presumed or perhaps wanted by the public. There are ethnic Swedes, working or middle class, ordinary education and with home relations similar to everyday people.

    Within the differences’ lays that Neumann is marginalized as an athlete. She is portrayed more as a woman and more Swedish. Nordqvist is permitted to be an athlete and to be strong without being unfeminine.

    Conclusions

    The discourse analysis revealed a change in the portrayal of the female golfers is a result of that public endeavor for equality in Sweden. The sport is a mirroring the change that the society has undergone.

  • 478.
    Borg, David
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Granlund, Jesper
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Skolidrotten ger mer!: Om möjligheten att påverka motoriken positivt med mer fysisk aktivitet på schemat.2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte  

    Undersöka om skolbarns motoriska kompetens påverkas av mängden schemalagd fysisk aktivitet. 

    Frågeställningar

    I hur stor utsträckning får skolbarn med fysisk aktivitet schemalagd fem gånger i veckan bättre motorik än de som har schemalagd fysisk aktivitet två gånger i veckan?

    Metod

    Vi har använt oss av ett motoriktest, kallat NyTidstestet, för att testa 111 elever i årskurserna 3-5. Testet består av sexton olika stationer där utförandet av respektive rörelse bedöms på en fyrgradig skala. Testet har genomförts två gånger för att fastställa interreliabiliteten. Det är författarna av studien som agerat bedömare vid motoriktesterna. Motoriktestet har i studien kompletterats av styrketest, enkäter, vägning och mätning. De styrketest som genomförts är upphopp som skall mäta styrkan i underkroppen och arm-hang som skall mäta styrkan i överkroppen. Utöver styrketest har vi även använt oss av enkäter för att få en uppfattning om elevernas aktivitetsgrad utanför skolan och under lektioner i idrott och hälsa. Vägning och mätning har genomförts för att fastställa elevernas BMI. Resultaten ifrån respektive elev och grupp har sedan sammanställts och beräknats i statistik bearbetningsprogrammet SPSS.    

    Resultat

    Elever med schemalagd fysisk aktivitet fem gånger i veckan har bättre motoriska färdigheter än de elever som har det två gånger i veckan. Elevernas aktivitetsgrad utanför skolan påverkar resultatet av motoriktestet. Likaså påverkar elevernas styrka resultatet. När dessa data vägs in i resultatet så finns det ändå stora skillnader i de motoriska färdigheterna mellan de olika skolornas elever. Eleverna som har fysisk aktivitet fem gånger i veckan presterar bäst.

    Slutsats

    Elevernas motoriska kompetens påverkas positivt av antalet timmar schemalagd fysisk aktivitet.

  • 479.
    Borg, Linda
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Wedberg, Helen
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    16-17 åringars lunchvanor i relation till de svenska energi- och näringsrekommendationerna: En prospektiv konstanalysstudie i Stockhomsområdet2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka gymnasieelevers lunchvanor i relation till de svenska energi- och näringsrekommendationerna. Följande frågeställningar kommer att besvaras:

    • Hur väl uppfyller gymnasieelevers lunch[1] de svenska näringsrekommendationerna med avseende på energi och näring?
    • Finns det några könsskillnader beträffande i hur väl energi- och näringsrekommendationerna uppfylls?

    Metod

    Metoden som användes var en prospektiv kostregistreringsmetod med hjälp av fotografering. De undersökta eleverna går i årskurs 1 och 2 på gymnasiet i en skola söder om Stockholm. Vi fotograferade elevernas tallrikar, glas och eventuella tillbehör som knäckebröd samt en nummerlapp som identifierade eleverna under lunchtiderna i en skolveckas tid. Analyser gjordes i ett kostregistreringsprogram med stöd av portionsguidböcker för att bedöma vikten på olika råvaror utifrån fotografierna. Resultatet har jämförts mot Livsmedelsverkets rekommenderade lunchintag.

    Resultat

    Resultatet i vår studie visar på låga intag av samtliga energi- och näringsämnen som vi har undersökt. Ett undantag finns där pojkarna i undersökningen uppnår rekommenderad mängd av protein i varje lunch (100- 196 %) medan flickorna uppnår mellan 8-136 procent. Kolhydratsintaget per lunch varierade mellan kön och dag där pojkarna uppnådde mellan hälften till dubbelt så stora mängder medan tjejerna näst intill aldrig uppnår rekommenderat intag (49-230 % för pojkarna samt 4-102 % för flickorna). Intaget av fett varierade mellan hälften och fyra gånger rekommenderat intag för pojkarna medan flickorna aldrig uppnådde rekommenderat intag. Energiintaget varierar från 4,8 procent till 166 procent per lunch för båda könen. Pojkarna får i sig mer än rekommenderad mängd energi(protein, kolhydrater och fett tillsammans) tre av fem undersökta luncher medan flickorna inte uppnår rekommenderad mängd energi vid någon av luncherna. Intag av vitaminer och mineraler är generellt lägre än rekommenderade intag. Resultatet av intaget av vitamin D utmärkte sig dagen då fet fisk serverades (15 samt 7 gånger så stora intag jämt emot de rekommenderade mängderna).

    SlutsatsGymnasieelevernas lunchvanor i vår undersökning resulterade i låga energi- och näringsintag i relation till de svenska energi- och näringsrekommendationerna. Förutom pojkarnas samtliga intag av protein. Generellt ligger pojkarna närmare de rekommenderade intagen än vad flickorna gör varje dag i samtliga ämnen, dock är de sällan uppnådda.

    [1] Mat som intas mellan klockan 11.00 -13.00

     

  • 480.
    Borg, Robin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Bohlin, Patrik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Alla ska vara med!: även muslimska kvinnor i simning2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim and questions

    Aim:

    To investigate participation of muslim women in swimming education in secondary school subject sports and health.

    Questions:

    • Which experiences do women with a muslim background have of swimming education?
    • What obstacles or possibilities do women with a muslim background have for participation in swimming education?

    Method

    The study was conducted with semi-structured interviews. The interviews where conducted on acquaintances of acquaintances, whom all where women with a muslim background. Subsequently, the interviews were transcribed and analyzed based on a theoretical model consisting of categories related to the two issues in this study. Previous research where also used in the same way, which highlighted the area of this study.

    Results

    The result indicated that our participants had a positive experience of their swimming classes. The biggest factor to this positive experience however where the schools ability to organize separate classes to those who could not participate in the common ones. When a school did not organize separate classes, our participants generally face two options. Either not to participate and risk not getting a grade, or to challenge their principles and participate anyway, which could lead to bad experiences.

    Conclusions

    Separate classes where the key to participation amongst the participants in our study. There where both obstacles and possibilities affecting the degree of which separate classes where necessary and the participants were divided on the topic of who were responsible to adapt in the situation.

  • 481.
    Borg, Robin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Bohlin, Patrik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Fysisk aktivitet: Hur påverkar det den mentala hälsan?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka mentala effekter av fysisk aktivitet bland en grupp gymnasieelever.

    Hur upplever gymnasieeleverna att den fysiska aktivitet de ägnar sig åt påverkar deras:

    1. Sociala gemenskap?

    2. Mentala hälsa?

    3. Förmåga att vara självstyrande?

    Metod

    Studien genomfördes med hjälp av kvalitativa intervjuer. Vi intervjuade fyra fysiskt aktiva elever på en gymnasieskola där eleverna spelade fotboll, innebandy och gymnastik på fritiden. Semistrukturerade intervjuer genomfördes med hjälp av en intervjuguide. Intervjuerna spelades in, transkriberades och analyserades utifrån en teoretisk modell bestående av tre kategorier som relaterar till studiens tre frågeställningar; social gemenskap, mental hälsa och förmåga att vara självstyrande.

    Resultat och slutsatser

    Det resultat vi kom fram till var att fysisk aktivitet ansågs ge en förbättrad mental hälsa, en bidragande faktor till att ha förmågan till att vara självstyrande- och en tydlig aspekt till social gemenskap. Gymnasieeleverna påpekade även att det var viktigt att ha en balans mellan den fysiska aktiviteten och resterande delar i vardagslivet för att den fysiska aktiviteten skulle leda till något positivt inom de ovan givna områdena. Vid en obalans, oavsett om det förekom för lite eller för mycket fokus på den fysiska aktiviteten så kunde detta resultera i en försämring av de givna aspekterna snarare än en förbättring.

  • 482.
    Borgenvik, Marcus
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Apro, William
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Supplementation with BCAA Reduces MAFbx Expression and Phenylalanine Concentration in Rested and Exercised Human Muscle2011In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 2011, Vol. 43, no 5, p. 419-419Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 483.
    Borgenvik, Marcus
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Apró, William
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Intake of branched-chain amino acids influences the levels of MAFbx mRNA and MuRF-1 total protein in resting and exercising human muscle.2012In: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0193-1849, E-ISSN 1522-1555, Vol. 302, no 5, p. E510-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Resistance exercise and amino acids are two major factors that influence muscle protein turnover. Here, we examined the effects of resistance exercise and branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), individually and in combination, on the expression of anabolic and catabolic genes in human skeletal muscle. Seven subjects performed two sessions of unilateral leg press exercise with randomized supplementation with BCAA or flavored water. Biopsies were collected from the vastus lateralis muscle of both the resting and exercising legs before and repeatedly after exercise to determine levels of mRNA, protein phosphorylation, and amino acid concentrations. Intake of BCAA reduced (P < 0.05) MAFbx mRNA by 30 and 50% in the resting and exercising legs, respectively. The level of MuRF-1 mRNA was elevated (P < 0.05) in the exercising leg two- and threefold under the placebo and BCAA conditions, respectively, whereas MuRF-1 total protein increased by 20% (P < 0.05) only in the placebo condition. Phosphorylation of p70(S6k) increased to a larger extent (∼2-fold; P < 0.05) in the early recovery period with BCAA supplementation, whereas the expression of genes regulating mTOR activity was not influenced by BCAA. Muscle levels of phenylalanine and tyrosine were reduced (13-17%) throughout recovery (P < 0.05) in the placebo condition and to a greater extent (32-43%; P < 0.05) following BCAA supplementation in both resting and exercising muscle. In conclusion, BCAA ingestion reduced MAFbx mRNA and prevented the exercise-induced increase in MuRF-1 total protein in both resting and exercising leg. Further-more, resistance exercise differently influenced MAFbx and MuRF-1 mRNA expression, suggesting both common and divergent regulation of these two ubiquitin ligases.

  • 484.
    Borgenvik, Marcus
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Nordin, Marie
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Mattsson, C. Mikael
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Enqvist, Jonas K.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Alterations in amino acid concentrations in the plasma and muscle in human subjects during 24 h of simulated adventure racing2012In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 112, p. 3679-3688Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This investigation was designed to evaluate changes in plasma and muscle levels of free amino acids during an ultra-endurance exercise and following recovery. Nine male ultra-endurance trained athletes participated in a 24-h standardized endurance trial with controlled energy intake. The participants performed 12 sessions of running, kayaking and cycling (4 x each discipline). Blood samples were collected before, during and after exercise, as well as after 28 h of recovery. Muscle biopsies were taken 1 week before the test and after exercise, as well as after 28 h of recovery. During the 24-h exercise, plasma levels of branched-chain (BCAA), essential amino acids (EAA) and glutamine fell 13%, 14% and 19% (P<0.05) respectively, whereas their concentrations in muscle were unaltered. Simultaneously, tyrosine and phenylalanine levels rose 38% and 50% (P<0.05) in the plasma and 66% and 46% (P<0.05) in muscle, respectively. After the 24-h exercise, plasma levels of BCAA were positively correlated with muscle levels of glycogen (r2=0.73, P<0.05), as was the combined concentrations of muscle tyrosine and phenylalanine with plasma creatine kinase (r2=0.55, P<0.05). Following 28-h of recovery, plasma and muscle levels of amino acids had either returned to their initial levels or were elevated. In conclusion, ultra-endurance exercise caused significant changes elevations in plasma and muscle levels of tyrosine and phenylalanine, which suggest an increase in net muscle protein breakdown during exercise. There was a reduction in plasma concentrations of EAA and glutamine during exercise, whereas no changes were detected in their muscle concentration after exercise.

  • 485.
    Borgström, Christian
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Tränarlänken.
    Kapacitet & kravanalys för golf2006Student thesis
  • 486.
    Borgström, Christian
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Ericsson, Johanna
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    ”Golf är bara golf… jag håller på med det här för att jag själv tycker att det är kul och då blir det inte lika läskigt”: En kvalitativ intervjustudie om professionella golfspelares förmåga att hantera press2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med arbetet var att undersöka hur fyra professionella golfspelare hanterar pressade situationer under tävling samt få en fördjupad förståelse för när den pressade situationen uppstår.

    Frågeställningarna var:

    1. Hur agerar spelarna vid pressade situationer?

    2. När uppstår de pressade situationerna?

    3. Finns det någon skillnad och/eller samband mellan kvinnliga och manliga golfspelare?

    Metod

    Vi valde att göra en kvalitativ studie där vi intervjuade fyra personer. Undersökningsgruppen utgjordes av elitaktiva golfspelare mellan 20 och 30 år. Urvalet grundades på ett strategiskt urval där goda meriter både nationellt och internationellt och att spelarna hade spelat som professionell golfspelare i minst 2 år. Vi använde oss av en halvstrukturerad intervju där vi intervjuade två män och två kvinnor.

    Resultat

    Det framkom i intervjuerna att alla spelarna agerar på sitt individuella sätt när de kommer i en pressad situation. Det var bara en av intervjupersonerna som trivdes i en stressad situation. De pressade situationerna uppkommer vid olika tillfällen, allt från innan tävlingen, under pågående runda eller när tekniken sviker. Familjen och personer som står spelarna nära har en stor betydelse i hur spelarna agerar och trivs på golfbanan. Intervjupersonernas syn på hur kvinnor och män agerar och hanterar stressade situationer är att männen blir mer aggressiva än vad kvinnorna blir, annars så tror de inte skillnaderna är så stora mellan män och kvinnor.

    Slutsats

    Slutsatser som vi kan dra utifrån denna studie är att våra informanter påverkas av press och stress på något sätt, antingen positivt eller negativt. Enligt våra informanter så är de stressade situationerna ytterst individuella. Hanteringen av de stressade situationerna är också individuella. Av egen kunskap och stor erfarenhet från de här situationerna vet vi att mentalträning är en viktig del om man ska lyckas i golf. Det krävs en mentalstyrka för att hantera de pressade situationerna på ett bra sätt. Det är hur man hanterar den pressade situationen som är det viktiga och det har en stor inverkan på resultatet.

  • 487.
    Bott, Eleonor
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Vertikalhoppet uppvisar högre sensitivitet i jämförelse med horisontalhoppet och trippelhoppet - 7 månader efter ACL-rekonstruktion2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Huvudsyftet med denna studie var att se om ett vertikalhopp eller ett trippelhopp uppvisade större känslighet att identifiera skillnader mellan opererat och icke-opererat ben i jämförelse med ett horisontalhopp hos individer som genomgått främre korsbands(ACL)-rekonstruktion.

    Studien syftade även till att undersöka om individens kön påverkade resultatet och om prestationen på de olika hoppen hade ett samband med isokinetisk benstyrka respektive det knäspecifika instrumentet KOOS, The Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score.

    Metod

    17 försökspersoner, 9 män och 8 kvinnor (medelålder 28 år) deltog i studien. De hade alla genomgått primär unilateral ACL-rekonstruktion i genomsnitt 7 månader tidigare. Vid ett och samma mättillfälle utfördes ett isokinetiskt styrketest samt tre funktionella hopp: vertikalhopp (”Jump and Reach”), trippelhopp samt horisontalhopp. KOOS fylldes i av försökspersonerna runt samma tidpunkt (nätbaserat frågeformulär för utvärdering av patientens upplevelse av sitt knä och knärelaterade besvär).

    Resultat

    Vertikalhoppet uppvisade en högre sensitivitet i jämförelse med horisontalhoppet vid test 7 månader efter ACL-rekonstruktion.

    Gällande de absoluta värdena (opererat ben) uppvisade både vertikalhoppet som trippelhoppet ett statistiskt samband med explosiv quadricepsstyrka (240grader/sekund), r=0,75 respektive r=0,73.

    Inget samband kunde ses mellan hopp och resultatet på KOOS.

    Inga könsskillnader hittades.

    Slutsats

    Resultaten visar att vertikalhoppet är ett mer sensitivt test för att identifiera funktionella nedsättningar i ACL-rekonstruerat knä i jämförelse med horisontalhoppet som ofta används som ”gold standard” i forskning och i den kliniska vardagen.

    En enkel och billig testmetod för vertikalhoppet, ”Jump and Reach” som användes i denna studie visar liknande resultat på sensitiviteten i jämförelse med datoriserade mätmetoder som är dyra och ofta inte tillgängliga i sjukgymnastens kliniska vardag.

  • 488. Bouchard, Claude
    et al.
    Antunes-Correa, Ligia M.
    Ashley, Euan A.
    Franklin, Nina
    Hwang, Paul M.
    Mattsson, C. Mikael
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Negrao, Carlos E.
    Phillips, Shane A.
    Sarzynski, Mark A.
    Wang, Ping-yuan
    Wheeler, Matthew T.
    Personalized Preventive Medicine: Genetics and the Response to Regular Exercise in Preventive Interventions2015In: Progress in cardiovascular diseases, ISSN 0033-0620, E-ISSN 1873-1740, Vol. 57, no 4, p. 337-346Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Regular exercise and a physically active lifestyle have favorable effects on health. Several issues related to this theme are addressed in this report. A comment on the requirements of personalized exercise medicine and in-depth biological profiling along with the opportunities that they offer is presented. This is followed by a brief overview of the evidence for the contributions of genetic differences to the ability to benefit from regular exercise. Subsequently, studies showing that mutations in TP53 influence exercise capacity in mice and humans are succinctly described. The evidence for effects of exercise on endothelial function in health and disease also is covered. Finally, changes in cardiac and skeletal muscle in response to exercise and their implications for patients with cardiac disease are summarized. Innovative research strategies are needed to define the molecular mechanisms involved in adaptation to exercise and to translate them into useful clinical and public health applications.

  • 489.
    Boushel, Robert
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Capacity and hypoxic response of subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow in humans2014In: Circulation Journal, ISSN 1346-9843, E-ISSN 1347-4820, Vol. 78, no 6, p. 1501-1506Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    The blood flow capacity in subcutaneous adipose tissue in humans remains largely unknown, and therefore the aim of this study was to determine the physiological range of blood flow in this tissue.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    The subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF) was measured in 9 healthy young men by positron emission tomography using radiowater tracer. Subcutaneous ATBF was determined in regions adjacent to knee extensors at rest and during dynamic knee extensor exercise, and with 2 physiological perturbations: while breathing moderate systemic hypoxic air (14% O2) at rest and during exercise, and during intra-femoral artery infusion of high-dose adenosine infusion. ATBF was 1.3±0.6ml·100g(-1)·min(-1) at rest and increased with exercise (8.0±3.0ml·100g(-1)·min(-1), P<0.001) and adenosine infusion (10.5±4.9ml·100g(-1)·min(-1), P=0.001), but not when breathing moderate systemic hypoxic air (1.5±0.4ml·100g(-1)·min(-1)). ATBF was similar during exercise and adenosine infusion, but vascular conductance was lower during adenosine infusion. Finally, ATBF during exercise in moderate systemic hypoxia was reduced (6.3±2.2ml·100g(-1)·min(-1)) compared to normoxic exercise (P=0.004).

    CONCLUSIONS:

    The vasodilatation capacity of human subcutaneous adipose blood flow appears to be comparable to, or even higher, than that induced by moderate intensity exercise. Furthermore, the reduced blood flow response in subcutaneous adipose tissue during systemic hypoxia is likely to contribute, in part, to the redistribution of blood flow to exercising muscle in a condition of reduced oxygen availability.

  • 490.
    Boushel, Robert
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Functional Response Of Mitochondria To Exercise And Extreme Environments2014In: Acta Physiologica, 212(698), S22, 2014, Vol. 212, no 698, p. S22-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 491.
    Boushel, Robert
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    KCNMA1 encoded cardiac BK channels afford protection against ischemia-reperfusion injury2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9e, no 7, p. 103402.-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mitochondrial potassium channels have been implicated in myocardial protection mediated through pre-/postconditioning. Compounds that open the Ca2+- and voltage-activated potassium channel of big-conductance (BK) have a pre-conditioning-like effect on survival of cardiomyocytes after ischemia/reperfusion injury. Recently, mitochondrial BK channels (mitoBKs) in cardiomyocytes were implicated as infarct-limiting factors that derive directly from the KCNMA1 gene encoding for canonical BKs usually present at the plasma membrane of cells. However, some studies challenged these cardio-protective roles of mitoBKs. Herein, we present electrophysiological evidence for paxilline- and NS11021-sensitive BK-mediated currents of 190 pS conductance in mitoplasts from wild-type but not BK−/− cardiomyocytes. Transmission electron microscopy of BK−/− ventricular muscles fibres showed normal ultra-structures and matrix dimension, but oxidative phosphorylation capacities at normoxia and upon re-oxygenation after anoxia were significantly attenuated in BK−/− permeabilized cardiomyocytes. In the absence of BK, post-anoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) production from cardiomyocyte mitochondria was elevated indicating that mitoBK fine-tune the oxidative state at hypoxia and re-oxygenation. Because ROS and the capacity of the myocardium for oxidative metabolism are important determinants of cellular survival, we tested BK−/− hearts for their response in an ex-vivo model of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Infarct areas, coronary flow and heart rates were not different between wild-type and BK−/− hearts upon I/R injury in the absence of ischemic pre-conditioning (IP), but differed upon IP. While the area of infarction comprised 28±3% of the area at risk in wild-type, it was increased to 58±5% in BK−/− hearts suggesting that BK mediates the beneficial effects of IP. These findings suggest that cardiac BK channels are important for proper oxidative energy supply of cardiomyocytes at normoxia and upon re-oxygenation after prolonged anoxia and that IP might indeed favor survival of the myocardium upon I/R injury in a BK-dependent mode stemming from both mitochondrial post-anoxic ROS modulation and non-mitochondrial localizations.

  • 492.
    Boushel, Robert
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ara, I
    Gnaiger, E
    Helge, J W
    González-Alonso, J
    Munck-Andersen, T
    Sondergaard, H
    Damsgaard, R
    van Hall, G
    Saltin, B
    Calbet, J A L
    Low-intensity training increases peak arm VO2 by enhancing both convective and diffusive O2 delivery.2014In: Acta Physiologica, ISSN 1748-1708, E-ISSN 1748-1716, Vol. 211, no 1, p. 122-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: It is an ongoing discussion the extent to which oxygen delivery and oxygen extraction contribute to an increased muscle oxygen uptake during dynamic exercise. It has been proposed that local muscle factors including the capillary bed and mitochondrial oxidative capacity play a large role in prolonged low-intensity training of a small muscle group when the cardiac output capacity is not directly limiting. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relative roles of circulatory and muscle metabolic mechanisms by which prolonged low-intensity exercise training alters regional muscle VO2 .

    METHODS: In nine healthy volunteers (seven males, two females), haemodynamic and metabolic responses to incremental arm cycling were measured by the Fick method and biopsy of the deltoid and triceps muscles before and after 42 days of skiing for 6 h day(-1) at 60% max heart rate.

    RESULTS: Peak pulmonary VO2 during arm crank was unchanged after training (2.38 ± 0.19 vs. 2.18 ± 0.2 L min(-1) pre-training) yet arm VO2 (1.04 ± 0.08 vs. 0.83 ± 0.1 L min(1) , P < 0.05) and power output (137 ± 9 vs. 114 ± 10 Watts) were increased along with a higher arm blood flow (7.9 ± 0.5 vs. 6.8 ± 0.6 L min(-1) , P < 0.05) and expanded muscle capillary volume (76 ± 7 vs. 62 ± 4 mL, P < 0.05). Muscle O2 diffusion capacity (16.2 ± 1 vs. 12.5 ± 0.9 mL min(-1)  mHg(-1) , P < 0.05) and O2 extraction (68 ± 1 vs. 62 ± 1%, P < 0.05) were enhanced at a similar mean capillary transit time (569 ± 43 vs. 564 ± 31 ms) and P50 (35.8 ± 0.7 vs. 35 ± 0.8), whereas mitochondrial O2 flux capacity was unchanged (147 ± 6 mL kg min(-1) vs. 146 ± 8 mL kg min(-1) ).

    CONCLUSION: The mechanisms underlying the increase in peak arm VO2 with prolonged low-intensity training in previously untrained subjects are an increased convective O2 delivery specifically to the muscles of the arm combined with a larger capillary-muscle surface area that enhance diffusional O2 conductance, with no apparent role of mitochondrial respiratory capacity.

  • 493. Boushel, Robert
    et al.
    Gnaiger, E
    Larsen, Filip J
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Helge, J W
    González-Alonso, J
    Ara, I
    Munch-Andersen, T
    van Hall, G
    Søndergaard, H
    Saltin, Bengt
    Calbet, J A L
    Maintained peak leg and pulmonary VO2 despite substantial reduction in muscle mitochondrial capacity.2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 25, no Suppl 4, p. 135-143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We recently reported the circulatory and muscle oxidative capacities of the arm after prolonged low-intensity skiing in the arctic (Boushel et al., 2014). In the present study, leg VO2 was measured by the Fick method during leg cycling while muscle mitochondrial capacity was examined on a biopsy of the vastus lateralis in healthy volunteers (7 male, 2 female) before and after 42 days of skiing at 60% HR max. Peak pulmonary VO2 (3.52 ± 0.18 L.min(-1) pre vs 3.52 ± 0.19 post) and VO2 across the leg (2.8 ± 0.4L.min(-1) pre vs 3.0 ± 0.2 post) were unchanged after the ski journey. Peak leg O2 delivery (3.6 ± 0.2 L.min(-1) pre vs 3.8 ± 0.4 post), O2 extraction (82 ± 1% pre vs 83 ± 1 post), and muscle capillaries per mm(2) (576 ± 17 pre vs 612 ± 28 post) were also unchanged; however, leg muscle mitochondrial OXPHOS capacity was reduced (90 ± 3 pmol.sec(-1) .mg(-1) pre vs 70 ± 2 post, P < 0.05) as was citrate synthase activity (40 ± 3 μmol.min(-1) .g(-1) pre vs 34 ± 3 vs P < 0.05). These findings indicate that peak muscle VO2 can be sustained with a substantial reduction in mitochondrial OXPHOS capacity. This is achieved at a similar O2 delivery and a higher relative ADP-stimulated mitochondrial respiration at a higher mitochondrial p50. These findings support the concept that muscle mitochondrial respiration is submaximal at VO2max , and that mitochondrial volume can be downregulated by chronic energy demand.

  • 494.
    Boushel, Robert
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Lundby, Carsten
    Qvortrup, Klaus
    Sahlin, Kent
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Research group for Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Mitochondrial plasticity with exercise training and extreme environments.2014In: Exercise and sport sciences reviews, ISSN 0091-6331, E-ISSN 1538-3008, Vol. 42, no 4, p. 169-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mitochondria form a reticulum in skeletal muscle. Exercise training stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis, yet an emerging hypothesis is that training also induces qualitative regulatory changes. Substrate oxidation, oxygen affinity, and biochemical coupling efficiency may be regulated differentially with training and exposure to extreme environments. Threshold training doses inducing mitochondrial upregulation remain to be elucidated considering fitness level.

  • 495.
    Boushel, Robert
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Bengt Saltin: Nekrolog2014Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Bengt Saltin

    Professor Bengt Saltin, Stockholm, har avlidit i en ålder av 79 år. Hans närmast sörjande är Ann-Sofi Colling-Saltin med barnen Ola, Åsa, och Anna med familjer.  

    Bengt Saltin föddes i Ålsten den 3 juni 1935. Han växte upp med modern Margareta och sin sociale far, Sven Saltin, som båda var folkskolelärare. Under läroverkstiden i Södertälje fångade stadens apotekare upp vinnaren vid en terränglöpning och bjöd in honom till en orienteringskurs. Ett livslångt intresse skapades. De bästa ämnena i skolan, svenska språket och svensk litteratur, representerade ett annan viktig ådra. Men det skogliga lockade mest; han ville bli jägmästare. Modern sa dock nej; ”Du ska bli läkare!” Så blev det. Under studier vid Karolinska Institutet rekryterade fysiologen Ulf von Euler honom som amanuens. Bengt nämnde sitt intresse för idrott, varvid han introducerades för professor Erik Hohwü Christensen vid Kungl. Gymnastiska Centralinstitutet.

    Sommaren 1959 inleddes skolningen till arbetsfysiolog. Det första arbetet handlade om det intermittenta arbetets fysiologi, publicerades 1960, och bidrog till intervallträningens utveckling. Det blev tidigt uppenbart att Bengt hade en ovanlig talang för forskning. Efter en centralcirkulatorisk avhandling 1964, med Hohwü Christensen och Per-Olof Åstrand som handledare, visade han även prov på stor självständighet genom att utveckla en ny forskningslinje om skelettmuskulaturen. Den blev snart världsledande. Från 1973 fortsatte Bengt sin bana som professor vid Köpenhamns universitet. Med ett kort undantag vid Karolinska Institutet, förblev Köpenhamn basen för hans gärning. De sista knappa 20 åren ledde han Copenhagen Muscle Research Centre, vars forskning redan är inskriven i vetenskapshistoriska läroböcker.

    Bengt hade en enorm arbetskapacitet, publicerade mer än 440 arbeten, och handledde drygt 40-50 doktorander. Han blev ledamot av Danmarks Kungliga Vetenskapsakademi, hedersdoktor vid tolv universitet, och fick Internationella Olympiska Kommitténs vetenskapliga pris, det finaste man kan få inom det rörelsevetenskapliga fältet. Men för att rätt förstå hans storhet bör man även ha mött honom som den oerhört stimulerande, generösa och stöttande människa han var, och fått ta del av de skarpa samhällsanalyserna samt utblickarna inom litteraturens, teaterns, operans och dansens världar. Han var beundrad av studenter över hela världen för den människa han var, för det arbete han utförde och för det han inspirerade till. Vi sörjer förlusten av en av de riktigt stora inom det arbetsfysiologiska fältet, och en ovanligt klok och vidsynt människa. 

     

    För vänner och kolleger

    Robert Boushel, professor

    Peter Schantz, professor

  • 496.
    Brandt, Hedwig
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Plate, Andreas
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Simundervisning: - “...jag simundervisar inte, tycker inte jag. För jag har alldeles för lite tid för det.”2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract 

    Aim

    The aim of this study is to investigate how teachers in physical education (PE) in primary school (9th grade) are working with students who do not meet the requirement in the segment swimming.

    1. In which way do the teachers interpret the requirements and the main content in Lgr 11, regarding swimming?

    2. How do the teachers work with students who do not meet the requirements in the segment swimming?

    3. What do the teachers consider to be the reason why students do not meet the requirements for swimming in grade 9?

    Method

    In this study we have used a qualitative approach using interviews conducted with five primary school PE teachers. The interviews are semi-structured with specific themes, but with open questions that provide opportunities for follow-up questions. The teachers were chosen based on a convenience selection with teachers in the Stockholm area. All interviews took place at the schools where the teachers themselves worked. The interviews were recorded and later transcribed. The theoretical starting points chosen for the study are curriculum theory, frame factorial theory and the teacher's repertoire.

    Results

    The results showed that the teachers consider the syllabus to be interpretable and that there is too little amount of time for swimming lessons, at the moment only regular checks are made. The teachers contact and talk with the students who do not meet the proficiency requirement. Those who do not meet the proficiency requirement are offered swimming schools organized by the municipality. The results also showed that teachers believe that students’ lack of swimming competence are dependent on external factors, such as fitness, home relationships and the students’ origins.

    Conclusion

    There is too little amount of time for teachers to accomplish swimming lessons in primary school. The proficiency requirement for the segment swimming in 9th grade are, according to the teachers, too broad and interpretable. External factors such as time, resources and past experiences affect how the swimming competence looks like among the students in 9th grade primary school.

  • 497.
    Brandwold, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Deltagande och skadepanorama inom svensk triathlon: En deskriptiv studie om svensk triathlons deltagarfördelning beträffande kön, ålder och huvudsaklig tävlingsdistans, samt relaterade skador2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Triathlon is the sport in which the athlete compete in the order swimming, cycling and running. Swedish triathlon has since year 2005 grown in numbers of practitioners and events.

    The aim of this study was to investigate how the previously non-examined Swedish triathlon have developed regarding numbers of events, practitioners, common injuries for the triathletes and at what distances the Swedish triathletes train and compete? The issues to be resolved were:

    • How is the distribution between the sexes and race distance?
    • How is the distribution between different categories of experiences (years as athlete) and different race distances?
    • What is the prevalence for triathlon injuries and what injuries are there?
    • What is the prevalence of injuries among the triathletes in different primary race distances?

    The method involved previous international research done in the field to serve as a basis for the creation of a questionnaire containing twelve multiple choice questions regarding the Swedish triathletes previous experiences within the sport and previous (if any) injuries sustained during either practice or race. 614 answers were collected of which 562 (92 %) were complete. Results from this study shows that the triathletes which are active at the sprint distance are those who have the highest rate (30 %) of answers with "no injury". Longer race distances means an increased risk for overuse injury, almost 18 % of the triathletes which train and/or compete at the longer distances have suffered from an acute muscle rupture.

    Most of the triathletes (49,3 %) in this study were active in the Olympic and/or half-Ironman distance. The conclusions of this study are that Swedish triathlon and triathletes are comparable to previous international studies. There is a slight difference between the sexes in race distance; there are slightly more (24 %) women active in sprint than men (15 %) and there are slightly less women (27 %) who are active in the Ironman distance than men (36 %). Among the Swedish triathletes there are marginally more of them who are 40 years of age or more and 85 % of all the triathletes train and/or race in Olympic distance or longer. The Swedish triathletes suffers commonly from overuse injury, regardless of race distance, in the lower extremities. This was the case for 64 % of the triathletes of which who completed the questionnaire.

  • 498.
    Bratland-Sanda, Solfrid
    et al.
    University College of Southeast Norway.
    Andersson, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control. Karolinska institutet.
    Best, James
    Jaeren Psychiatric Center, Norway.
    Høegmark, Simon
    Naturama Museum, Denmark.
    Roessler, Kirsten Kaya
    University of Southern Denmark.
    The use of physical activity, sport and outdoor life as tools of psychosocial intervention: the Nordic perspective2019In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 22, no 4, SI, p. 654-670Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The core values in the Nordic welfare model are health equality and social inclusion. Individuals with mental disorders and/or a history of substance use disorder are often excluded from the core value of equality. Psychosocial interventions such as physical activity and outdoor life can have several benefits for those suffering from mental disorders. Firstly, such interventions can have therapeutic effects. Secondly, they show benefits for somatic health and the risk of lifestyle-related diseases. Finally, they can provide an environment for experiencing self-efficacy, lead to improved quality of life, and promote the development and building of social relationships. This paper provides a critical review of current evidence for physical activity and outdoor life as psychosocial interventions in psychiatric and substance misuse treatment, with specific examples from Norway, Sweden and Denmark.

  • 499.
    Brattsell, Ann-Christin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Excentrisk träning av quadriceps i kombination med träning av höft- och bålmuskulatur vid patellar tendinopati: en pilotstudie2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate changes over time during eccentric quadriceps training with a previously unstudied exercise dosage in combination with hip and core exercises for a period of 12 weeks in patients with patellar tendinopathy. The outcome measures were: pain, self-evaluated symptoms, functions and ability to participate in sport, functional jumptest and patellar tendon tissue changes.

    Method: This was an uncontrolled pilot study. Twelve patients diagnosed with patellar tendinopathy using clinical testing and ultrasound imaging participated in the study voluntarily (2 female and 10 men, mean age 29.2 years, duration of symptoms > 3 months). To evaluate the intervention a visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to measure pain at rest and during activity. The Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment score (VISA-P) was used to evaluate self-assessed symptoms, function and ability to participate in sport. One-leg hop test for distance (OLH) was used as a functional test. Changes in the patellar tendon were examined using ultrasound imaging and colour doppler. Measurements took place at baseline and at 12 weeks. The exercise program contained eccentric quadriceps training (drop-squat on one leg) standing on a decline board, quadriceps stretching in combination with hip and core exercises performed 3 times per week for twelve weeks. P-value was set at < 0.05 and a tendency was included between 0.05 < p < 0.1

    Results: At 12 weeks a significant reduction of pain was observed at rest (from 64 to 11.5) and during activity (from 80 to 21) as well as improved VISA-P scores (from 44 to 71.5). A significant improvement was observed on the functional hop test (from 103 to 132 cm). No significant changes in the patellar tendon were observed with ultrasound imaging. Although there was a tendency towards structural improvement of the patellar tendon (p=.083) after 12 weeks of intervention.

    Conclusion: After twelve weeks of intervention a significant improvement was observed with respect to pain and function. It would be of interest to examine long-term changes of this combined training program. These results may be used as a foundation for a future randomised controlled intervention study.

  • 500.
    Bredberg, Maria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Talangutveckling inom fälttävlan: En deskriptiv jämförande studie mellan Sveriges och Storbritanniens talangutvecklingssystem2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka och jämföra hur Storbritanniens och Sveriges system för talangutveckling inom fälttävlan såg ut. Ett delsyfte var även att undersöka hur ryttare upplevde systemet och vad de ansåg hade gjort dem till framgångsrika talanger. Följande frågeställningar användes:

    Hur arbetar det Brittiska fälttävlansförbundet och det Svenska ridsportförbundet med talangutveckling i fälttävlan?

    Hur skiljer sig talangutvecklingssystemet mellan dessa länder?

    Hur upplever ryttarna sitt lands talangutvecklingssystem?

    Vilka framgångsfaktorer upplever ryttarna hade gjort dem framgångsrika talanger?

     

    Metod

    Triangulering baserad på följande metoder användes; (1) textanalyser utifrån Svenska ridsportförbundets och British Eventings respektive hemsidor; (2) omfattande kvalitativa intervjuer med två förbundsledare, en från respektive land. Intervjuguiden till förbundsledarna innehöll följande fyra förutbestämda teman: Definition, Utvecklingsmodell, Finansiering och Övrigt; och (3) intervjuer med två svenska ryttare och e-post konversation med brittisk ryttare kring erfarenheter och karriärer, baserade på en standardiserad intervjuguide.

     

    Resultat

    Definitionen av talang skilde sig åt mellan länderna. Sverige hade tydligt definierat talang, vilket inte var fallet för Storbritannien. Båda länderna hade modeller och system för att få fram och utveckla talanger. Ryttarna verkade tycka att dessa modeller var bra. Ryttarna tyckte, oavsett vilket land de kom ifrån, att steget till elit, eller till det Storbritannien benämner som world class programme, var det svåraste steget att ta. Enligt ryttarna var faktorerna till att de kommit så pass långt som det har ambitioner, bra grund, bra hästar, att de tagit stegen i modellen samt hur de arbetar med sitt team.

     

    Slutsats

    Mycket fokus och resurser läggs på att utveckla talangfulla ryttare i de studerade länderna trots att det endast är några få som blir riktigt bra. Systemen verkar innebära att de yngre ryttarna får en större chans än i tidigare system att komma med i seniorlandslag. Hästarna får ett mycket större fokus i det brittiska systemet än i det svenska.

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