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  • 401.
    Väisänen, Daniel
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Kallings, Lena
    Andersson, G
    Wallin, P
    Hemmingsson, Erik
    Stenling, A
    Johansson, P
    Paulsson, S
    Nyman, T
    Svartengren, M
    Ekblom-Bak, E
    Does cardiorespiratory fitness moderate the association between occupational physical workload and sickness absence in occupations with low educational demands?Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 402.
    Väisänen, Daniel
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Kallings, Lena
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    HPI.
    Wallin, Peter
    HPI.
    Hemmingsson, Erik
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Cardiorespiratory fitness in occupational groups - trends over 20 years and forecasting of future trends2021Inngår i: Svensk idrottsmedicin 2021:3, Svensk förening för fysisk aktivitet och idrottsmedicin , 2021, s. 39-Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 403.
    Väisänen, Daniel
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Kallings, Lena
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Health Profile Institute, HPI.
    Wallin, Peter
    Health Profile Institute, HPI.
    Hemmingsson, Erik
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Cardiorespiratory fitness in occupational groups — trends over 20 years and forecasting of future trends: Oral Presentation B6.`12021Inngår i: Health & Fitness Journal of Canada: Proceedings of the 8th International Society for Physical Activity and Health Congress, 2021, Vol. 14Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is a strong, independent predictor for chronic disease risk as well as lower work capacity. However, trend analyses of CRF in relation to different occupational groups are missing. Purpose: To study trends in CRF during the last 20 years and forecast possible future trends in different occupational groups of the Swedish working population. Methods: Data from 516,122 health profile assessments performed in occupational health screening between 2001 to 2020 was included. CRF was assessed as maximal oxygen consumption and estimated from a submaximal cycling test. Analyses include CRF as a weighted average per five-year period in 12 different occupational groups, and standardized proportions with low CRF (<32 ml/kg/min) in four aggregated occupational categories (white- and blue-collar, as well as low- and high-skilled). Also, adjusted annual change in CRF in the total population as well as by sex and age-group, also a forecast of future trends in CRF until 2040, are presented. Results: The largest decrease in both absolute and relative CRF were seen for Admin and customer service (-10.1% and -9.4%), Mechanical manufacturing (-6.5% and -7.8%) and Education (-4.8% and -7.3%) occupations. The greatest annual decrease was seen in Transport occupations (-1.62 ml/kg/min, 95% CI -0.190 to -0.134). Men and younger individuals (18-34 years) had in general a more pronounced decrease in CRF. All aggregated groups had an increase in the proportion with low CRF, with the greatest increase in blue-collar and low-skilled occupations, 16% to 21% relative change. Forecast analyses predict a continued downward trend of CRF, especially in low-skilled occupations of both white- and blue-collar occupational groups. Conclusion: There was a general trend of a decreasing CRF in all occupational groups, however the trend was more pronounced in blue-collar and low-skilled occupational groups. Structural changes at the workplaces and in society are needed to stop the downward trend in CRF. Funding: This work was supported by The Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare https://forte.se/en/ (Grant no 2018-00384) and The Swedish Heart-Lung Foundation https://www.hjartlungfonden.se/HLF/Om-Hjart-lungfonden/About-HLF/ (Grant no 20180636).

  • 404.
    Väisänen, Daniel
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Kallings, Lena
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Health Profile Institute, Danderyd, Sweden..
    Wallin, Peter
    Health Profile Institute, Danderyd, Sweden..
    Hemmingsson, Erik
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Occupational Groups—Trends over 20 Years and Future Forecasts2021Inngår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 18, nr 16, artikkel-id 8437Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Reports have indicated a negative trend in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in the general population. However, trends in relation to different occupational groups are missing. Therefore, the aim of our study was to examine the trends in CRF during the last 20 years, and to provide a prognosis of future trends in CRF, in different occupational groups of Swedish workers. Methods: Data from 516,122 health profile assessments performed between 2001 to 2020 were included. CRF was assessed as maximal oxygen consumption and was estimated from a submaximal cycling test. Analyses include CRF as a weighted average, standardized proportions with low CRF (&lt;32 mL/min/kg), adjusted annual change in CRF, and forecasting of future trends in CRF. Results: There was a decrease in CRF over the study period, with the largest decrease in both absolute and relative CRF seen for individuals working in administrative and customer service (−10.1% and −9.4%) and mechanical manufacturing (−6.5% and −7.8%) occupations. The greatest annual decrease was seen in transport occupations (−1.62 mL/min/kg, 95% CI −0.190 to −0.134). Men and younger individuals had in generally a more pronounced decrease in CRF. The proportion with a low CRF increased, with the greatest increase noted for blue-collar and low-skilled occupations (range: +19% to +27% relative change). The forecast analyses predicted a continuing downward trend of CRF. Conclusion: CRF has declined in most occupational groups in Sweden over the last two decades, with a more pronounced decline in blue-collar and low-skilled occupational groups.

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  • 405.
    Väisänen, Daniel
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Kallings, Lena
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    HPI Health Profile Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wallin, Peter
    HPI Health Profile Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hemmingsson, Erik
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Lifestyle-associated health risk indicators across a wide range of occupational groups: a cross-sectional analysis in 72,855 workers.2020Inngår i: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 20, nr 1, artikkel-id 1656Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Identify and compare health risk indicators for common chronic diseases between different occupational groups.

    METHODS: A total of 72,855 participants (41% women) participating in an occupational health service screening in 2014-2019 were included. Occupation was defined by the Swedish Standard Classification of Occupation, and divided into nine major and additionally eight sub-major groups. These were analysed separately, as white- and blue-collar occupations and as low- and high-skilled occupations. Seven health risk indicators were self-reported: exercise, physical work situation, sitting at work and leisure, smoking, diet, and perceived health, whereas cardiorespiratory fitness, BMI and blood pressure were measured. These were further dichotomized (yes/no) and as clustering of risk indicators (≥3 vs. <3).

    RESULTS: The greatest variation in OR across sub-major and major occupational groups were seen for daily smoking (OR = 0.68 to OR = 5.12), physically demanding work (OR = 0.55 to OR = 45.74) and high sitting at work (OR = 0.04 to OR = 1.86). For clustering of health risk indicators, blue-collar workers had significantly higher clustering of health risks (OR: 1.80; 95% CI 1.71-1.90) compared to white-collar workers (reference). Compared to high-skilled white-collar workers, low-skilled white-collar workers had similar OR (2.00; 1.88-2.13) as high-skilled blue-collar workers (1.98; 1.86-2.12), with low-skilled blue-collar workers having the highest clustered risk (2.32; 2.17-2.48).

    CONCLUSION: There were large differences in health risk indicators across occupational groups, mainly between high-skilled white-collar occupations and the other occupations, with important variations also between major and sub-major occupational groups. Future health interventions should target the occupational groups identified with the highest risk for effective disease prevention.

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  • 406.
    Väisänen, Daniel
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Kallings, Lena
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    HPI Health Profile Institute, Department of Research, Danderyd, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wallin, Peter
    HPI Health Profile Institute, Department of Research, Danderyd, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hemmingsson, Erik
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Department of Psychology, Sweden; University of Agder, Department of Sport Science and Physical Education, Norway.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Mediation of lifestyle-associated variables on the association between occupation and incident cardiovascular disease2023Inngår i: Preventive Medicine, ISSN 0091-7435, E-ISSN 1096-0260, artikkel-id 107411Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The main aim was to examine the association between occupational groups and incident cardiovascular disease (CVD), and to which extent associations are mediated by lifestyle-associated variables (cardiorespiratory fitness, smoking, BMI, exercise, and diet). A total of 304.702 participants (mean age 42.5 yrs., 47% women), who performed a health profile assessment in Sweden between 1982 and 2019, were included in the analyses. CVD incidence was obtained from national registers. All participants were free from CVD prior to the health profile assessment. Occupational group was defined using the Swedish Standard Classification of Occupations and analyzed separately (13 different occupational groups) as well as after aggregation into four occupational groups (white-collar high-skilled, white-collar low-skilled, blue-collar high-skilled and blue-collar low-skilled). Cardiorespiratory fitness, BMI, exercise, smoking, and diet were included as mediators and analyzed separately in single models and simultaneously in one multiple mediation model. All mediation analyses were adjusted for sex, age, length of education and calendar time. White-collar high-skilled was set as reference in all analyses. Blue-collar and low-skilled occupation had a higher risk of incident CVD compared to reference. Cardiorespiratory fitness, BMI, exercise, smoking, and diet mediated 48% to 54% of the associations between reference and the other aggregated occupational groups. In the single model, the strongest mediators were cardiorespiratory fitness, smoking and BMI. In conclusion, blue-collar and low skilled occupations had a significantly higher risk for incident CVD compared to white-collar high-skilled workers, with the association mediated to a large extent by variation in lifestyle-associated variables.

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  • 407.
    Väisänen, Daniel
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Kallings, Lena
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Hemmingsson, Erik
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    P08-10 Clustering of unhealthy lifestyle factors in occupational groups in the Swedish workforce2022Inngår i: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH, vol. 32, S2, Oxford University Press, 2022, Vol. 32Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
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  • 408.
    Wahlstedt, Vanessa
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Davidsson, Victoria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Effekterna på akut sinnesstämning efter ett högintensivt träningspass: En interventionsstudie med unga kvinnor2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar: Psykisk ohälsa är ett växande hälsoproblem i samhället där unga kvinnor mellan 16-29 år är överrepresenterade. Fysisk aktivitet är bevisat effektivt för att förbättra exempelvis psykosomatiska besvär bland unga vuxna. Dock finns det en kunskapslucka kring den kortvariga effekten på upplevd sinnesstämning och vilken träningsintensitet som anses påverka detta mest. Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka om högintensiv träning kan fungera som en effektiv mekanism för att påverka och förbättra sinnesstämning hos unga kvinnor.

    Metod: Detta är en pre-poststudie. 21 (24 ± 3,92 år) unga kvinnor deltog i ett fysiskt HIIT träningspass under 45 minuter vid ett tillfälle. Positiv och negativ affektskalan (PANAS) mättes direkt före och efter HIIT interventionen för att bedöma sinnesstämning. General Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) användes för utvärdering av ångestsymtom och i relation till PANAS för att se om effekten av träningspasset var relaterat till initial upplevd ångestnivå. För att jämföra sinnesstämning pre och postintervention analyserades data med parat T-test. Två linjära regressionsanalyser utfördes för att se om initial upplevd ångest var relaterat till post poängen på PANAS.

    Resultat: Deltagarnas genomsnittliga positiva affekter ökade med 12,5% (39,71 ± 3,78) efter träningen och genomsnittliga negativa affekter minskade med 3,4% (13 ± 2,89). Träningsinterventionen inducerade signifikanta ökningar av (PANAS) positiva affekter (p= <0,0001) och signifikanta minskningar av negativa affekter (p= <0,008). Högre ångestnivå korrelerade med högre nivåer av positiva affekter efter interventionen men detta samband var svagt (0,317) och inte signifikant (p= <0,081). För negativa affekter var riktningen på sambandet negativt (-0,121) men inte heller detta var signifikant (p= <0,3).   

    Slutsats: Denna studie undersökte effekterna av högintensiv träning på unga kvinnors sinnesstämning samt eventuella kopplingar mellan upplevd ångest och sinnesstämning efter träning. Resultaten indikerar att HIIT träning i grupp har en positiv inverkan på sinnesstämningen på kort sikt, och en trend observerades mellan högre initial ångestnivå och högre positiv sinnesstämning efter träning, trots ett svagt samband. Dessa resultat antyder att fysisk aktivitet kan främja känslor av välbefinnande på kort sikt.  

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  • 409.
    Wang, Rui
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Karolinska University Hospital at Huddinge, Sweden; University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, USA.
    Blom, Victoria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Nooijen, Carla F J
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Kallings, Lena
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Ekblom, Maria M.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The Role of Executive Function in the Effectiveness of Multi-Component Interventions Targeting Physical Activity Behavior in Office Workers2022Inngår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 19, nr 1, s. 266-266Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A knowledge gap remains in understanding how to improve the intervention effectiveness in office workers targeting physically active (PA) behavior. We aim to identify the modifying effect of executive function (EF) on the intervention effectiveness targeting PA-behaviors, and to verify whether the observed effect varies by Job Demand Control (JDC) categories. This workplace-based intervention study included 245 participants who were randomized into a control group and two intervention arms—promoting physical activity (iPA) group or reducing sedentary behavior (iSED) group. The interventions were conducted through counselling-based cognitive behavioral therapy and team activities over 6 months. PA-behaviors were measured by an accelerometer. EF was assessed by the Trail Making Test-B, Stroop, and n-back test. The JDC categories were measured by the demand control questionnaire. Higher EF level at baseline was significantly associated with the intervention effect on increased sleep time (β-coefficient: 3.33, p = 0.003) and decreased sedentary time (−2.76, p = 0.049) in the iSED-group. Participants with active jobs (high job demands, high control) presented significantly increased light-intensity PA in the iSED-group in comparison to the control group. Among participants with a high level of EF and active jobs, relative to the control group, the iPA-group showed a substantial increase in light-intensity PA (1.58, p = 0.036) and the iSED-group showed a tendency of reducing sedentary behavior (−5.35, p = 0.054). The findings suggest that office workers with a high EF and active jobs may benefit most from an intervention study targeting PA-behaviors.

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  • 410.
    Wang, Rui
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Dekhtyar, Serhiy
    Aging Research Center, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society (NVS), Karolinska Institute and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wang, Hui-Xin
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Stress Research Institute, Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Cognitive Reserve: A Life-Course Perspective2023Inngår i: Neurobiological and Psychological Aspects of Brain Recovery / [ed] Petrosini, Laura, Springer Publishing Company, 2023, s. 121-135Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of reserve has been developed to account for the discontinuity between the extent of brain damage at its clinical manifestation in the form of cognitive decline or dementia. In this chapter, we discuss contributors to cognitive reserve from various stages of the life-course, including childhood, early adulthood, middle age, and late life. Evidence from observational studies as well as intervention trials is presented and assessed. We conclude by arguing that reserve formation in dementia risk is a life-course process whereby baseline cognitive abilities are subjected to modulation by subsequent experiences at diverse stages over the entire life-course. Variations among individuals in their ability to withstand age-related brain changes are ultimately dependent on their life-time accumulation of mental, physical, and lifestyle inputs into cognitive reserve.

  • 411.
    Wang, Rui
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institute, Solna, Sweden; Wisconsin Alzheimer's Disease Research Center, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, United States.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. The Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Solna, Sweden.
    Arvidsson, Daniel
    Center for Health and Performance, Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, Faculty of Education, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Fridolfsson, Jonatan
    Center for Health and Performance, Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, Faculty of Education, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Börjesson, Mats
    Center for Health and Performance, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Sahlgrenska University Hospital/Östra, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    The interrelationship between physical activity intensity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and executive function in middle-aged adults: An observational study of office workers.2022Inngår i: Frontiers In Public Health, ISSN 2296-2565, Vol. 10, artikkel-id 1035521Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Previous evidence supports a beneficial effect of physical activity on executive function across the whole lifespan. Yet, the interrelationships of the intensities of physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and executive function require further investigation in adults.

    AIM: Using unfiltered accelerometry data and high-resolution intensity classification, we sought to estimate the associations of physical activity with cardiorespiratory fitness and executive function in adult office workers.

    METHODS: We included 343 full-time office workers (mean age: 42.41 years, range of age: 36-49 years). Executive function was assessed using Stroop, Trail making tests (part-B), and 2-back tests, and a composite score was produced to reflect the general executive function performance. Physical activity was assessed using the Actigraph GT3X+-monitor, worn by each participant for seven days at the hip. Raw accelerometry data were processed by the 10 Hz frequency extended method and divided into 22 intensity bins and sleep time. Cardiorespiratory fitness was estimated using the submaximal Ekblom-Bak cycle ergometer test. Data were analyzed using partial least squares regressions.

    RESULTS: In adults, cardiorespiratory fitness was closely correlated with a wide range of absolute physical activity intensity patterns. A higher level of executive function in adults was associated with both higher absolute physical activity intensities and cardiorespiratory fitness, which was independent of age, sex, and education levels. A very weak association between intensities, fitness, and executive function was observed in high-fit adults. Among low-fit adults, although a positive association started already toward the upper end of moderate intensity, there still appeared to be an association between intensities, cardiorespiratory fitness, and executive function. That is, cardiorespiratory fitness may mediate the association between absolute physical activity intensities and executive function up to a certain level.

    CONCLUSION: The maintenance of executive function in adulthood was related to both physical activity intensities and cardiorespiratory fitness, while their interrelationship was not equal across fitness levels. It is highly recommended to consider the cardiorespiratory fitness level in future studies that focus on executive functions in aging as well when designing individualized physical activity training programs.

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  • 412.
    Wang, Rui
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA; Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Oh, Jennifer M
    University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA.; Middleton Memorial Veterans Hospital, Madison, WI, USA..
    Motovylyak, Alice
    University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA.
    Ma, Yue
    University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA.
    Sager, Mark A
    University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA.
    Rowley, Howard A
    University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA.
    Johnson, Kevin M
    University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA.
    Gallagher, Catherine L
    University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA.
    Carlsson, Cynthia M
    University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA.
    Bendlin, Barbara B
    University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA.
    Johnson, Sterling C
    University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA.
    Asthana, Sanjay
    University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA.
    Eisenmenger, Laura
    University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA.
    Okonkwo, Ozioma C
    University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA.
    Impact of sex and APOE ε4 on age-related cerebral perfusion trajectories in cognitively asymptomatic middle-aged and older adults: A longitudinal study.2021Inngår i: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, ISSN 0271-678X, E-ISSN 1559-7016, Vol. 41, nr 11, s. 3016-3027Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cerebral hypoperfusion is thought to contribute to cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease, but the natural trajectory of cerebral perfusion in cognitively healthy adults has not been well-studied. This longitudinal study is consisted of 950 participants (40-89 years), who were cognitively unimpaired at their first visit. We investigated the age-related changes in cerebral perfusion, and their associations with APOE-genotype, biological sex, and cardiometabolic measurements. During the follow-up period (range 0.13-8.24 years), increasing age was significantly associated with decreasing cerebral perfusion, in total gray-matter (β=-1.43), hippocampus (-1.25), superior frontal gyrus (-1.70), middle frontal gyrus (-1.99), posterior cingulate (-2.46), and precuneus (-2.14), with all P-values < 0.01. Compared with male-ɛ4 carriers, female-ɛ4 carriers showed a faster decline in global and regional cerebral perfusion with increasing age, whereas the age-related decline in cerebral perfusion was similar between male- and female-ɛ4 non-carriers. Worse cardiometabolic profile (i.e., increased blood pressure, body mass index, total cholesterol, and blood glucose) was associated with lower cerebral perfusion at all the visits. When time-varying cardiometabolic measurements were adjusted in the model, the synergistic effect of sex and APOE-ɛ4 on age-related cerebral perfusion-trajectories became largely attenuated. Our findings demonstrate that APOE-genotype and sex interactively impact cerebral perfusion-trajectories in mid- to late-life. This effect may be partially explained by cardiometabolic alterations.

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  • 413.
    Wang, Rui
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Aging Research Center, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden ; University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin, USA..
    Qiu, Chengxuan
    Aging Research Center, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Dintica, Christina S
    Aging Research Center, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Shang, Ying
    Aging Research Center, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Larrañaga, Amaia Calderón
    Aging Research Center, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wang, Hui-Xin
    Aging Research Center, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Xu, Weili
    Aging Research Center, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden ; Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, P. R. China.
    Shared risk and protective factors between Alzheimer's disease and ischemic stroke: A population-based longitudinal study.2021Inngår i: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Journal of the Alzheimer's Association, ISSN 1552-5260, E-ISSN 1552-5279, Vol. 17, nr 2, s. 191-204Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Stroke, especially ischemic stroke's (IS) link with Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains unclear.

    METHODS: This prospective cohort study included 2459 AD- and cerebrovascular disease-free older adults at baseline (mean age 71.9 ± 10.3 years, Stockholm, Sweden). Using Cox regressions, shared risk factors (SRFs) and shared protective factors (SPFs) between AD and IS were recognized when their hazard ratios in both AD and IS models were significant and in the same direction.

    RESULTS: During the follow-up period of up to 15 years, 132 AD and 260 IS mutually exclusive cases were identified. SRFs were low education, sedentary lifestyle, and heart diseases. High levels of psychological well-being, actively engaging in leisure activities, and a rich social network were SPFs. Having ≥1 SPF reduced 47% of AD and 28% of IS risk among people with a low risk profile (<2 SRFs), and 38% of AD and 31% of IS risk with a high risk profile (≥2 SRFs). In total, 57.8% of AD/IS cases could be prevented if individuals have ≥1 SPF and no SRF.

    DISCUSSION: AD and IS share risk/protective profiles, and SPFs seem to counteract the adverse effects of SRFs on both AD and IS.

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  • 414.
    Warensjö Lemming, Eva
    et al.
    Department of Risk and Benefit assessment, Swedish Food Agency, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Petrelius Sipinen, Jessica
    Department of Risk and Benefit assessment, Swedish Food Agency, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Karolinska Institutet, Department of Global Public Health, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Moraeus, Lotta
    Department of Risk and Benefit assessment, Swedish Food Agency, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lindroos, Anna Karin
    Department of Risk and Benefit assessment, Swedish Food Agency, Uppsala, Sweden; Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Vitamin D status and associations with diet, objectively measured physical activity patterns and background characteristics among adolescents in a representative national cross-sectional survey.2022Inngår i: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 25, nr 6, s. 1427-1437Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To report on vitamin D status, measured as plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration (25(OH)D), the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency, and to explore associations between Vitamin D status and background characteristics.

    DESIGN: Data was collected in a national dietary survey, Riksmaten adolescents 2016-17. The participants completed dietary assessment and questionnaires on the web and wore accelerometers. [25(OH)D] was measured with a mass spectrometry method.

    SETTING: Representative survey conducted in schools throughout Sweden.

    PARTICIPANTS: Participants attended school years 5 (Y5, mean age 12. 5 years), 8 (Y8, mean age 14. 5 years) and 11(Y11, mean age 18 years), and included 1100 participants.

    RESULTS: Overall, there was no difference in plasma 25(OH)D between girls and boys. Vitamin D insufficiency differed between the three school years. The prevalence of insufficiency in Y5 was 32 (boys) and 48 (girls) percent, while in Y11 62 (boys) and 43 (girls) percent. The prevalence of deficiency in Y11 was 16 and 15 percent in boys and girls, respectively. Being born outside of Sweden was associated with a 10-fold increased risk of being vitamin D deficient. Deficiency was also associated with longer time spent in sedentary intensity, a lower consumption of fortified dairy products, and fats and oils.

    CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D deficiency was most common in the oldest age group and being born outside of Sweden increased the risk of being deficient. The present study will form a baseline for future follow-up studies of the implementation of a new mandatory vitamin D fortification policy in 2018.

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  • 415.
    Wejderman, Peter
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Are nocturnal blood glucose levels in elite endurance athletes associated withsleep metrics?: group and within-individual analysis2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Fulltekst tilgjengelig fra 2024-06-30 13:22
  • 416.
    Wendel, Hanna
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Avila, Alma
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Långvarig Smärta och Fysisk Aktivitet: En kvantitativ tvärsnittsstudie om förändringar i fysisk aktivitet och dess samband med stillasittande, trötthet och upplevd smärta2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med uppsatsen var att undersöka om den fysiska aktivitetsnivån förändrats efter att man fått en diagnos som innebär långvarig smärta. Samt om det finns något samband mellan förändrad fysisk aktivitetsnivå och stillasittande, trötthet respektive upplevd smärta. Två frågeställningar har undersökts: Har den fysiska aktivitetsnivån förändrats efter att man fått en diagnos som innebär långvarig smärta? Finns det något samband mellan stillasittande, trötthet, upplevd smärta och förändrad fysisk aktivitetsnivå för denna grupp?

     

    Metod

    En kvantitativ tvärsnittsstudie genomfördes för att besvara frågeställningarna. Data samlades in genom en webbenkät. Studien riktade sig till individer som lever med någon typ av långvarig smärta och var bosatt i Sverige. Enkäten bestod av olika delar som syftade till att fråga om individernas fysiska aktivitetsnivå (Socialstyrelsen), upplevda smärta (RAND-36), trötthet (Fatigue Assesment Scale), och stillasittande (Socialstyrelsen). Data sammanställdes samt analyserades i statistikprogrammet IBM SPSS. För att analysera skillnader mellan fysisk aktivitetsnivå innan och efter diagnos genomfördes ett t-test. Korrelationsanalyser genomfördes för att studera samband.

     

    Resultat

    Resultatet baserades på 275 enkätsvar. Det fanns en statistisk signifikant minskning i den fysiska aktivitetsnivån efter att man fått en diagnos inom långvarig smärta (p <0,001, r = 0,375). Resultaten visade att det fanns ett negativt signifikant samband mellan ökat stillasittande och minskad fysisk aktivitetsnivå (p <0,001, r = -0,213). Negativt signifikant samband sågs även mellan ökad trötthet och minskad fysisk aktivitetsnivå (p <0,001, r = -0,285). Ett signifikant positivt samband fanns mellan ökad fysisk aktivitetsnivå och minskad smärta (p <0,001, r = 0,282).

     

    Slutsats

    En diagnos inom långvarig smärta förändrar den fysiska aktivitetsnivån. Denna förändring var en statistisk signifikant minskning. Stillasittande, trötthet och upplevd smärta är variabler som alla korrelerar med en förändrad fysisk aktivitetsnivå. 

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  • 417.
    Widmark, Frida
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Skiljer sig den fysiska funktionen 12 månader efter kirurgisk behandlad akillesruptur beroende på tillämpning av accelererad jämfört med icke accelererad rehabilitering?2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Abstrakt

    Syfte och frågeställning: Syftet med studien är att undersöka den fysiska förmågan efter en kirurgisk behandlad akillesruptur genom att använda mätvärden från Heel-rise test,  ATRS eller angiven tidpunkt/kriterier för när löpning introducerades. Frågeställning ett; Skiljer sig den fysiska funktionen ett år efter en kirurgisk behandlad akillesruptur, enligt Akilles tendon rupture score (ATRS) eller Heel-rise test beroende på tillämpning av accelererad eller icke accelererad rehabilitering? Frågeställning två; Anges det några kriterier eller tid, för när löpning kan introduceras under rehabiliteringsperioden efter en kirurgisk behandlad akillesruptur? Metod: Systematisk litteratursökning med en meta-analys. Litteratursökning via databaserna pubmed, pedro, sportdiscus. Två sökningar utfördes, en för varje frågeställning. Kvalitetsgranskning med SBU:S mall för randomiserade kontrollerade studier och en samlad bedömning enligt GRADE. Resultat: Fem studier inkluderades i meta-analysen för att besvara frågeställning ett och en studie inkluderades för att besvara frågeställning två. Ingen signifikant skillnad i ATRS eller Heel rise index hittades mellan de som utfört accelererad rehabilitering jämfört med de som utfört icke accelererad rehabilitering efter kirurgisk behandlad akillesruptur. Löpning utförs signifikant tidigare vid accelererad rehabilitering jämfört med icke accelererad rehabilitering visar en studie. Slutsats: Fler studier behövs för att komma fram till den optimala tiden för återgång till löpning. Fler studier som undersöker ATRS och Heel-rise test tidigare i rehabiliteringen samt en tydlig redovisning av alla delar i ATRS. 

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  • 418.
    Wiklund, Camilla A.
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Paulsson, Sofia
    Research Department, HPI Health Profile Institute, Danderyd, Sweden..
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Cardiorespiratory fitness in midlife and subsequent incident depression, long-term sickness absence, and disability pension due to depression in 330,247 men and women.2024Inngår i: Preventive Medicine, ISSN 0091-7435, E-ISSN 1096-0260, Vol. 181, artikkel-id 107916Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Specific information for whom and when cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is associated with depression risk is lacking. We aimed to study the association between adulthood CRF and incident depression, long-term sickness absence, and disability pension due to depression, as well as examine moderation of sex, age, education, and occupation on associations.

    METHODS: A large prospective cohort study follows participants over time with Swedish occupational health screenings data. The study includes 330,247 individuals (aged 16-79 years, 46% women) without a depression diagnosis at baseline. CRF was estimated from a submaximal cycle test.

    RESULTS: CRF was associated beneficially from low to higher levels with incident depression and long-term sickness absence due to depression. Further, CRF at high levels (≥46 ml/min/kg) was associated with a decreased risk of receiving disability pension due to depression. The associations remained after adjustment for age and sex, but not lifestyle-related factors and co-morbidity. Participants with moderate and high CRF had 16% and 21%, respectively, lower risk for incident depression, and participants with high CRF had 11% lower risk for long-term sickness absence due to depression. Associations between higher CRF and the outcomes were mainly evident in men, younger participants, and individuals with low education.

    CONCLUSION: In a large sample of adults without a depression diagnosis at baseline, higher CRF was shown to be beneficially related to the risk of incident depression and, to some extent, long-term sickness absence due to depression. If causal, targeted interventions focusing on increasing CRF in these sub-groups should be prioritized.

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  • 419.
    Windahl, Mikael
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    En studie om militär förmåga: Kan kondition predicera kognitiv resiliens?2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med arbetet var att undersöka om det fanns faktorer som kunde predicera individers kognitiva resiliens i en militär kontext. För att svara på syftet användes följande frågeställningar:

    ·  Kan den fysiologiska parametern VO2max predicera kognitiv resiliens?

    ·  Kan militär förmåga predicera en kognitiv resiliens?

    Metod

    Metoden som användes var en observationsstudie där datainsamlingen skedde innan, under samt efter en övning som bestod av 4,5 dygns grundläggande vinterutbildning. Urvalsgruppen bestod av 76 kadetter från Försvarsmaktens specialistofficersutbildning. Kadetternas maximala syreupptagning estimerades genom Ekblom-Bak cykeltest och för att mäta kadetternas kognitiva förmåga användes Pearson D-KEFS mönsterflöde.  Militär förmåga mättes med ett subjektivt skattningsverktyg. För analysen användes Jamovi. T-test, Mann-Withney samt chi2 användes för att undersöka eventuella skillnader mellan olika grupper, och linjär regressionsanalys användes för att undersöka samband mellan faktorer som kunde predicera kognitiv resiliens.

    Resultat

    Resultatet visade att det fanns samband mellan kondition och kognitiv resiliens. Huvudfyndet var att för männen predicerade konditionsnivå hur väl de lyckades i de kognitiva testerna. Ju bättre kondition ju bättre kognitiv resiliens. Avseende kvinnorna var resultatet tvärtom, ju högre konditionsnivå, ju sämre resultat avseende den kognitiva resiliensen.Ett bifynd var även att militär skattning predicerade antal rätt på de kognitiva testerna avseende både pre- och posttesterna hos männen. Högre skattning gav bättre resultat.

    Slutsats

    Kondition är en viktig faktor för en militär, och kan vara ett verktyg för att predicera en kognitiv resiliens. Mer forskning behövs för att undersöka sambandet mellan kondition och kognitiv resiliens avseende eventuella skillnader mellan könen.

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  • 420.
    Wu, Jing
    et al.
    Aging Research Center, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Xiong, Ying
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Xia, Xin
    Aging Research Center, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Orsini, Nicola
    Department of Global Public Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Qiu, Chengxuan
    Aging Research Center, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Kivipelto, Miia
    Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Public Health and Welfare, Population Health Unit, Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland; Ageing Epidemiology Research Unit, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom; Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland; Theme Aging, Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden..
    Rizzuto, Debora
    Aging Research Center, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Gerontology Research Center, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wang, Rui
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Wisconsin Alzheimer's Disease Research Center, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA.
    Can dementia risk be reduced by following the American Heart Association's Life's Simple 7?: A systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis.2023Inngår i: Ageing Research Reviews, ISSN 1568-1637, E-ISSN 1872-9649, Vol. 83, artikkel-id 101788Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to quantify the relationships between the American Heart Association (AHA) Cardiovascular Health (CVH) metrics, namely AHA Life's Simple 7, and cognitive outcomes. We searched PubMed and Embase (January 1, 2010-August 24, 2022) and finally included 14 longitudinal studies (311654 participants with 8006 incident dementia cases). Random-effects meta-analysis and one-stage linear mixed-effects models were performed. Increased CVH score seemed to associate with decreased risk of incident dementia in a linear manner, but this relationship varied by the measurement age of CVH metrics. That is, midlife CVH tended to have a linear association with late-life dementia risk, whereas a J-shaped association was observed between the late-life CVH score and dementia. In addition, late-life dementia risk was reduced significantly if individuals maintained an ideal level of AHA's CVH guidelines of physical activity, fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol, and smoking. However, our meta-analysis did not show a significant association between CVH score and global cognitive decline rate. Following AHA's CVH guidelines and maintaining CVH at an optimal level would substantially reduce the late-life dementia risk. More research is required to explore the link between a favorable CVH score and cognitive trajectories among cognitively asymptomatic older populations.

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  • 421.
    Xia, Xin
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet & Stockholm University, Sweden .
    Wang, Rui
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Karolinska Institutet & Stockholm University, Sweden ; University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison (R.W.) USA.
    Vetrano, Davide L
    Karolinska Institutet & Stockholm University, Sweden ; Catholic University of Rome, Italy ; Centro di Medicina dell'Invecchiamento, Fondazione Policlinico A. Gemelli, Rome, Italy.
    Grande, Giulia
    Karolinska Institutet & Stockholm University, Sweden .
    Laukka, Erika J
    Karolinska Institutet & Stockholm University, Sweden ; Stockholm Gerontology Research Center, Sweden.
    Ding, Mozhu
    Karolinska Institutet & Stockholm University, Sweden .
    Fratiglioni, Laura
    Karolinska Institutet & Stockholm University, Sweden ; Stockholm Gerontology Research Center, Sweden.
    Qiu, Chengxuan
    Karolinska Institutet & Stockholm University, Sweden .
    From Normal Cognition to Cognitive Impairment and Dementia: Impact of Orthostatic Hypotension.2021Inngår i: Hypertension, ISSN 0194-911X, E-ISSN 1524-4563, Vol. 78, nr 3, s. 769-778Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of orthostatic hypotension (OH) in the continuum of cognitive aging remains to be clarified. We sought to investigate the associations of OH with dementia, cognitive impairment, no dementia (CIND), and CIND progression to dementia in older adults while considering orthostatic symptoms. This population-based cohort study included 2532 baseline (2001–2004) dementia-free participants (age ≥60 years; 62.6% women) in the SNAC-K (Swedish National Study on Aging and Care in Kungsholmen) who were regularly examined over 12 years. We further divided the participants into a baseline CIND-free cohort and a CIND cohort. OH was defined as a decrease by ≥20/10 mmHg in systolic/diastolic blood pressure upon standing and further divided into asymptomatic and symptomatic OH. Dementia was diagnosed following the international criteria. CIND was defined as scoring ≥1.5 SDs below age group-specific means in ≥1 cognitive domain. Data were analyzed with flexible parametric survival models, controlling for confounding factors. Of the 2532 participants, 615 were defined with OH at baseline, and 322 were diagnosed with dementia during the entire follow-up period. OH was associated with an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.40 for dementia (95% CI, 1.10–1.76), 1.15 (0.94–1.40) for CIND, and 1.54 (1.05–2.25) for CIND progression to dementia. The associations of dementia and CIND progression to dementia with asymptomatic OH were similar to overall OH, whereas symptomatic OH was only associated with CIND progression to dementia. Our study suggests that OH, even asymptomatic OH, is associated with increased risk of dementia and accelerated progression from CIND to dementia in older adults.

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  • 422.
    Xu, Yongshi
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Möller, Jette
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wang, Rui
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Wisconsin, United States of America.
    Liang, Yajun
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Life-course blood pressure trajectories and cardiovascular diseases: A population-based cohort study in China.2020Inngår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 15, nr 10, artikkel-id e0240804Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The patterns of blood pressure trajectory (i.e., change over time) over life-course remain to be explored. In this study, we aim to determine the trajectories of systolic blood pressure (SBP) from adulthood to late life and to assess its impact on the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs).

    METHODS: Based on the China Health and Nutrition Survey, a total of 3566 participants aged 20-50 years at baseline (1989) with at least three SBP measurements during 1989-2011 were included. SBP was measured through physical examination, and socio-demographic factors, lifestyles, medications, and CVDs were based on self-reported questionnaire. Latent class growth modeling was performed to examine SBP trajectory. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) from logistic regression was used to determine the association between SBP trajectory and CVDs.

    RESULTS: Five trajectory groups of SBP were identified: Class 1: rapid increase (n = 113, 3.2%); Class 2: slight increase (n = 1958, 54.9%); Class 3: stable (n = 614, 17.2%); Class 4: increase (n = 800, 22.4%); Class 5: fluctuant (n = 81, 2.3%). After adjustment of demographic factors, baseline SBP, and lifestyles, compared with the "slight increase" group, the OR (95% CI) of CVDs was 0.65 (0.32, 1.28) for "stable" group, 2.24 (1.40, 3.58) for "increase" group, 3.95 (1.81, 8.62) for "rapid increase" group, and 4.32 (1.76, 10.57) for "fluctuant" group. After stratified by use of antihypertensive drugs, the association was only significant for "rapid increase" group among those using antihypertensive drugs with OR (95% CI) of 2.81 (1.01, 7.77).

    CONCLUSIONS: Having a rapidly increasing SBP over life-course is associated with a higher risk of CVDs. This implies the importance of monitoring lifetime change of blood pressure for the prevention of CVDs.

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  • 423.
    Yman, Josefin
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Department of Food and Nutrition and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Kjellenberg, Karin
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Department of Global Public Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Associations between organised sports participation, general health, stress, screen-time and sleep duration in adolescents.2023Inngår i: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 112, nr 3, s. 452-459Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: Physical activity patterns in adolescents have been associated with general health. Stress, screen-time and sleep are other factors associated with physical activity that influence health in adolescents. Physical activity accounts for several health benefits; however, the impact of organised sports participation to achieve the same health benefits are less explored. This study explored the associations of organised sports participation with general health, stress, screen-time and sleep-duration in adolescents.

    METHODS: For this cross-sectional study, data from 1139 adolescents (age 13-14 years) from 34 schools were analysed. Data were collected during autumn 2019. Data collection consisted of self-reported questionnaires and standard methods for height and weight measurements.

    RESULTS: Adolescents with organised sports participation ≥3 times/week were twice as likely to report better general health (OR: 2.11, CI: 1.45-3.07) and lower screen-time (OR: 1.98, CI: 1.43-2.74). Adolescents with organised sports participation ≥3 times/week were less likely to meet the recommended sleep-duration on weekdays (OR: 0.43, 95% CI: 0.29-0.65).

    CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents with frequent organised sports participation had better general health, lower amounts of screen-time and shorter sleep-duration on weekdays than those with no participation. Although the causal relationships remain unknown, these results can be relevant when developing strategies promoting physical activity and health in adolescents.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 424.
    Åberg, Louise
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Halmstad Univ, Sch Hlth & Welf, Halmstad, Sweden.; Karolinska Inst, Ctr Social Sustainabil, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Osika, Walter
    Karolinska Inst, Ctr Social Sustainabil, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Ctr Psychiat Res, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Region Stockhol, Sweden.;Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, ,Reg Stockholm, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Kollberg, Gustav
    Univ Gothenburg, Sch Business Econ & Law, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Einhorn, Stefan
    Karolinska Inst, Ctr Social Sustainabil, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Stockholm, Sweden.; Karolinska Inst, Dept Oncol Pathol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    The relationship between benevolence and attitudes towards preventive behaviour during the COVID-19 pandemic in Sweden2024Inngår i: Journal of Public Health, ISSN 2198-1833, E-ISSN 1613-2238Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim. The COVID-19 pandemic initially required sustainable behavioural changes to mitigate the spread of the infection. Thus, people were requested to comply with the recommendations given by the authorities. However, adherence to the recommendations varied considerably. Therefore, it is important to understand the driving forces behind such behavioural change. This study aims to investigate how people's willingness to comply with preventive behaviour, including vaccination, during a pandemic is related to the prosocial emotion of benevolence, the inclination to do well.

    Subject and methods. An online cross-sectional study was performed (N = 1014).

    Result. The result showed a significant correlation for the whole study population between how well they followed the recommendations (M = 4.16, S = 0.92) and the levels of benevolence (M = 3.58, S = 0.74) r = 0.22, p = < 0.001.

    Conclusion. Further, there was a significant correlation between altruistic motives and compliance with recommendations, including the view on taking the vaccine. Our findings add to the concept that prosocial orientation during the COVID-19 pandemic increases compliance with preventive behaviour.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 425.
    Åkerman, Agnes
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Lindqvist, Tuva
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Optimera styrketräningsprestationen på morgonen, ät frukost!: En randomiserad kontrollerad studie2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Hypotes och frågeställning

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka om intag av frukost kan förbättra prestationsförmågan hos styrketräningsvana kvinnor som vill träna styrketräning tidigt på dagen. Hypotesen är att frukostintag kommer att ha en positiv påverkan på prestationen i isometriska styrketest som genomförs på morgonen och förmiddagen. De specifika frågeställningarna är: ”Skiljer sig ‘maximal force development’, ‘rate of force development’, upplevd muskulär och psykisk ansträngning, beroende på om testet (isometric mid-thigh pull) utförs i fastande tillstånd eller efter frukostintag?”

    Metod

    En randomiserad cross-over studie genomfördes på elva kvinnliga deltagare i åldrarna 20–30 år. Studiedeltagarna besvarade en enkät och genomförde ett isometriskt mid-thigh pull test. Deltagarna fick stå på en kraftplatta och dra i en statisk stång i uppåtgående riktning. Kraftplattan mätte den producerade kraften. Testet utfördes vid två tillfällen, en gång efter en natts fasta och en gång efter frukostintag. Kolhydratsinnehållet i frukosten var 2,5 gram per kilo kroppsvikt och frukostintaget skedde tre timmar innan testutförandet.

     

    Resultat

    Efter intag av frukost var ”maximal force development” signifikant högre än vid fasta (2051 [1876–2352] resp. 1944 [1736–2307] N, p=0,042). Även för “rate of force development” var det signifikant högre resultat efter frukost än vid fasta (3295 [3030–4659] resp. 2428 [2265–3076] N/s, p=0,03). Frukostintag hade ingen signifikant påverkan på upplevd psykisk och fysisk ansträngning, men det fanns en tendens till lägre upplevd psykisk ansträngning efter frukostintag (p=0,057).

     

    Slutsats

    Styrketräningsvana kvinnor i åldrarna 20–30 år presterade bättre i ett isometriskt mid-thigh pull test tre timmar efter en kolhydratrik frukost jämfört med efter en natts fasta. Därtill fanns en tendens till minskad upplevd psykisk ansträngning hos deltagarna vilket kan vara en del av förklaringen till de högre resultaten på testerna efter frukost än efter en natts fasta. Slutsatsen är därmed att kvinnor som vill träna prestationsinriktad styrketräning på morgonen bör inta en kolhydratrik frukost innan träningspasset.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 426.
    Åsberg Johnels, Jakob
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Yngvesson, Paul
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Billstedt, Eva
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gillberg, Christopher
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Halldner, Linda
    Umeå University, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Råstam, Maria
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Peik
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Selinus, Eva Noren
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Lichtenstein, Paul
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hellner, Clara
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Anckarsäter, Henrik
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lundström, Sebastian
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    The relationship between intelligence and global adaptive functioning in young people with or without neurodevelopmental disorders.2021Inngår i: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 303, artikkel-id 114076Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have shown an association between IQ and adaptive global functioning, i.e. how well a person is functioning in different domains of life. However, it is unclear to what extent such an association applies in children with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). The study group consisted of 550 population-screened children assessed with the K-SADS, WISC-IV, and the C-GAS. Approximately half of the sample had been diagnosed with one or several NDDs (ADHD, autism, language disorder and tic disorder). A factorial ANOVA with IQ level and the presence of NDD was conducted, with C-GAS score as the dependent variable. Results revealed a significant interaction effect between IQ-group and NDD-status. In the non-NDD group (49% girls), higher IQ scores were clearly linked with better global adaptive functioning. Among children with NDDs (35% girls), however, higher IQ scores were not clearly associated with better functioning. Thus, the association between IQ and adaptive functioning were found to differ depending on the presence of NDD. These results have implications for the interpretation of IQ test results in neurodevelopmental assessments and point towards the importance of providing support based on an assessment of needs and functioning rather than scores from IQ tests.

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