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  • 401.
    Björkman, Frida
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Eggers, Andrea
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Stenman, Adam
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Bohman, Tony
    Karolinska institutet.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Sex and maturity status affected the validity of a submaximal cycle test in adolescents.2018In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 107, no 1, p. 126-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: This study assessed the validity and reliability of the Ekblom-Bak (EB) submaximal cycle test in adolescents and identified any sex- or maturity-related factors for prediction errors.

    METHODS: We recruited 50 healthy subjects through a public announcement in Stockholm, Sweden, in 2016. The 27 boys and 23 girls were aged 10-15 years and in Tanner stages I-IV. They performed an EB test and incremental treadmill running test for direct measurement of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max).

    RESULTS: The estimation error of VO2 max was 0.09 L/min. The correlation (r) was 0.86, and the standard error of the estimate (SEE) was 0.29 L/min. The largest overestimation was seen in prepubertal boys (0.49 L/min). The best precision of the EB test was achieved when boys in Tanner stages I and II were re-calculated using the prediction equation developed for adult women. This yielded a mean difference of -0.05 L/min, r = 0.92 and SEE 0.23 L/min, in the entire sample. The prediction error was lowered in boys, but not girls, with increasing pubertal maturity.

    CONCLUSION: The EB test was reasonably valid in adolescents, seemed to be related to sex and maturity status, and our findings support its use.

  • 402.
    Björkman, Frida
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekblom-Bak, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Validity of the revised Ekblom Bak cycle ergometer test in adults.2016In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 116, no 9, p. 1627-1638Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To further develop the Ekblom Bak-test prediction equation for estimation of VO2max from submaximal cycle ergometry.

    METHODS: The model group (117 men and 100 women, aged 48.3 ± 15.7 and 46.1 ± 16.8 years, VO2max 46.6 ± 11.1 and 40.4 ± 9.6 mL kg(-1) min(-1), respectively) and the cross-validation group (60 men and 55 women, aged 40.6 ± 17.1 and 41.6 ± 16.7 years, VO2max 49.0 ± 12.1 and 43.2 ± 8.9 mL min(-1) kg(-1), respectively) performed 4 min of cycling on a standard work rate (30 W) directly followed by 4 min on a higher work rate. Heart rate (HR) at each work rate was recorded. Thereafter, participants completed a graded maximal treadmill test for direct measurement of oxygen uptake. The new prediction equation was cross-validated and accuracy compared with the original Ekblom Bak equation as well as by the Åstrand test method.

    RESULTS: The final sex-specific regression models included age, change in HR per-unit change in power (ΔHR/ΔPO), the difference in work rates (ΔPO), and HR at standard work rate as independent variables. The adjusted R (2) for the final models were 0.86 in men and 0.83 in women. The coefficient of variation (CV) was 8.7 % and SEE 0.28 L min(-1). The corresponding CV and SEE values for the EB-test2012 and the Åstrand tests were 10.9 and 18.1 % and 0.35 and 0.48 L min(-1), respectively.

    CONCLUSION: The new EB-test prediction equation provides an easy administered and valid estimation of VO2max for a wide variety of ages (20-86 years) and fitness levels (19-76 mL kg(-1) min(-1)).

  • 403.
    Björkman, Frida
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Holm, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Fysisk status hos pojkar med typ 1 diabetes2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of this study was to survey the physical fitness in boys with type 1 diabetes (IDDM). The results were compared to a control group with healthy boys that have preformed the same tests in other studies. Our questions were:

    1. How does BMI relate between IDDM-children and healthy peers?

    2. How does physical activity level relate between IDDM-children and healthy peers?

    3. How does aerobic fitness (VO2max), grip strength and balance relate between IDDM-children and healthy peers?

    Method

    Subjects were recruited in cooperation with Astrid Lindgrens Barnsjukhus. Height, body mass, VO2max, grip strength, balance and measurement of physical activity level with accelerometry were data collected from five boys with type 1 diabetes. The results were compared to data found in healthy subjects. The collected data were presented as z scores.

    Results

    Two subjects showed a main difference in their test results compared to the mean value of healthy boys. The subjects that were deviated from mean values performed poor results in some or all of the tests. Only two subjects provided sufficiently registration of physical activity level for comparison with the control group. Data showed a lower activity level in one subject compared to healthy controls and a higher activity level in the other subject.

    Conclusions

    The examined group cannot be proven to be a representative selection, and no general conclusion regarding children with type 1 diabetes and their physical status could be drawn. No statistic significant differences could be found based on the data of this study. One notable tendency was that the subjects that differs a lot from mean values in some test also show the same discrepancy in the other tests.

  • 404.
    Björkman, Frida Maria Eleonora
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Validity and reliability of a submaximal cycle ergometer test for estimation of maximal oxygen uptake2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) is the highest obtained rate of oxygen consumption during a physically intense dynamic whole-body activity. VO2max is an important factor for many types of physical performance, as well as a strong independent predictor of health and longevity. Thus, it is important to have accurate and precise methods for assessment of VO2max.

    A direct measurement of VO2max is often conducted via indirect calorimetry during maximal exercise. The demand for maximal effort from an individual, along with the need for laboratory equipment, makes direct measurements unsuitable in the general, non-athlete population. There are also a number of contraindications that limit the possibility to conduct direct measurements of VO2max in many settings. Instead, several other exercise tests have been developed in order to facilitate the procedure of determination and evaluation of cardiorespiratory fitness in different populations. These tests can be either of submaximal or maximal character. Commonly used work modes are stepping, walking, and cycling. The overall aim of this thesis was to describe the background to, and the development of, submaximal cycle ergometer tests for estimation of VO2max.

    The present thesis focuses on the validity and reliability of a new submaximal cycle ergometer test – the Ekblom-Bak test (EB test). The first study described the test procedure for the new cycle ergometer test and the creation of an accompanying mathematical model (prediction equation) for estimation of VO2max. The development of the test and its associated prediction equation was continued in study II, while it was further validated in adults and adolescents in study II and IV. Study III examined the ability to use a submaximal cycle ergometer test in order to detect changes in VO2max over time.

    The EB test comprises of 8 minutes of continuous cycling – 4 minutes at 0.5 kp, followed by 4 minutes at a higher, individually chosen work rate – with a pedalling rate of 60 revolutions per minute. The test measures the change in HR (ΔHR) between the two different work rates (ΔPO), and the variable ΔHR/ΔPO was obtained and linked to measured VO2max. In study I, the validity and reliability of the EB test and the associated prediction equation was tested in a mixed population with regard to sex, age, and physical activity status. The subjects performed repeated submaximal cycle ergometer tests and maximal running tests for direct determination of VO2max (reference value). There was a strong correlation between estimated and measured VO2max, with an adjusted R2 of 0.82 and a corresponding coefficient of variation (CV) of 9.3%. Although there was a relatively high precision in the estimation of VO2max by the prediction equation, it was evident that individuals with high VO2max were underestimated and individuals with low VO2max were overestimated. This issue was further addressed in study II.

    In study II, the size of the study population was increased, in order to broaden the valid range and evaluate the use of sex-specific prediction equations. The estimation error was slightly decreased, and the sex-specific prediction equations resulted in an adjusted R2 of 0.91 and a CV of 8.7% in the whole group. The new models were also evaluated in a cross-validation group, where the adjusted R2 was 0.90 and CV 9.4%.

    The relation between the estimation error and changes in VO2max over time was investigated in study III. Follow-up tests were conducted in 35 subjects, in order to examine the conformity between changes in measured and estimated VO2max over a timespan of 5 to 8 years. Results showed a moderate correlation between change in measured VO2max and change in estimated VO2max (r = 0.75). Changes in body mass or changes in work efficiency did not relate to the change in assessment error. 

    In study IV, the aim was to determine the applicability and validity of the EB test in pre-pubertal and pubertal adolescents. Medical examinations and assessment of sexual maturity (according to the stages of Tanner) were performed in addition to the physical tests. The included subjects (n = 50) were 10 to 15 years old and in Tanner stages I–IV. The measurement error (the difference between measured and estimated VO2max) was related to maturity in boys, but not in girls. The measurement error decreased for the whole group when the equation developed for women was used for the boys in Tanner I and II. This modification in the calculations of VO2max resulted in an adjusted R2 of 0.83 and SEE 0.23 L/min. Hence, the most accurate prediction of VO2max from the EB test is generated if the test result is accompanied by ratings of sexual maturity in adolescents. Analysis of the test-retest values showed no significant change in estimated VO2max from repeated tests within two weeks of each other. 

    In summary, the EB test proved to be a reliable and valid test throughout a wide range of ages (20 to 85 years) and fitness levels (1.33 to 3.94 L/min in women, and 1.67 to 5.97 L/min in men). The test was also found to be useful and reasonably valid for determination of VO2max in pre-pubertal and pubertal adolescents, preferably after adjustment for sexual maturity status in boys. Furthermore, it was shown that the EB test captured fairly well an actual change in VO2max during a period of 5 to 8 years. However, it is still unknown whether the test has an acceptable sensitivity for detection of a training-induced increase in VO2max. Further studies are needed to evaluate if the test can be used in diseased individuals with or without different medications. The EB test can be used in health-related clinical settings, sports and fitness clubs.

  • 405.
    Björkman, Frida
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Mattsson, C. Mikael
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Antiinflammatoriska medel troliga storsäljare i OS2012In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, no 2, p. 40-43Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det är mycket vanligt att idrottare använder antiinflammatoriska läkemedel både för att behandla skador och döva smärta. Hur lämpligt är det att använda preparaten under hård träning och tävling, och vad kan medicineringen ha för konsekvenser?

  • 406.
    Björkman, Frida
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Mattsson, C. Mikael
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Hur farlig är multisport?2011In: Svensk IdrottsMedicin, ISSN 1103-7652, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 8-11Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den övervägande delen av deltagarna i större multisporttävlingar drabbas av någon typ av skada som i de flesta fall är lindrig. Men det är ändå ingen tvekan om att multisport kan vara farligt. Det ställs höga krav på medicinsk personal att kunna hantera en mångfald av skador och sjukdomar.

  • 407.
    Björkman, Niklas
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Nordström, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Ett hopp om högt betyg: En kvantitativ studie om elevuppskattade fysiska förmågors betydelse för slutbetyget i idrott och hälsa årskurs 92017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of the study is to establish whether the four self-rated quantifiable attributes speed, elasticity, strength and endurance correlate with the acquired grade for physical education in year 9 in the Swedish school. The following questions were predominant: Is the data from the self-formulated questions consistent with data from the CY-PSPP form? Is there a correlation to be found between any or some of the self-rated four attributes and the grade in physical education? Is there any difference between the above-mentioned self-rated physical abilities in how they correlate with the grade in physical education?

     

    Method

    The data presented in the study is based on answers from surveys from 233 high school students in Stockholm. The survey is constructed partly by the CY-PSPP method and partly from self-formulated questions. Data was processed in excel and the statistical program SPSS, where Spearman-correlations were calculated. The CY-PSPP variables were compared to variable data from self-formulated questions.

     

    Results

    The result of the comparison between the CY-PSPP form and the self-formulated questions show evident correlation. Based on the student answers, elasticity was the attribute that showed strongest correlation toward the grade, closely followed by speed and endurance. The strength attribute correlated significantly less with the grade than the other attributes. 

     

    Conclusions

    Data from the survey display a positive correlations between all of the attributes and grades in physical education. Anchored in Bourdieu’s terminology, it is hard to decide whether the attribute endurance can be ascribed to be a capital with respect to the grade in physical education, meanwhile, the attribute strength show few signs of being a capital in that sense. Some suggest that speed and elasticity to a wider extent than endurance can be regarded as a capital for high grades. 

  • 408.
    Björkstrand, Caroline
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Lodin, Jenny
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Man får titta på förutsättningar och individanpassa, oavsett om det är på grundskolan eller grundsärskolan: En kvalitativ studie om betyg, bedömning och omdömen i idrott och hälsa i grundskolan jämfört med grundsärskolan2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The purpose of the study was to examine how students with special needs compared with other students are assessed and evaluated in physical education and health. The study will also analyze if the different syllabuses and knowledge requirements for special education schools compared with elementary schools are different and how they are interpreted and used by different teachers.

    The questions that will be addressed in the study are:

    •                    Are there any similarities or differences between the two different syllabuses?

    •                    How do the teachers interpret the key contents and knowledge requirements and how do they work with them?

    •                    Do the teachers interpretations of the key contents and knowledge requirements affect the students’ assesment? 

    •                    Do teachers in physical education and health have different demands on their students in special education school compared with elementary schools if the knowledge requirements are different?

    Method

    The study consists of both qualitative interviews and a comparison between the two syllabus’. After the comparison was completed, we contacted five teachers who work with both special education students and elementary students. The interviews were conducted based on a semi-structured interview base. The results of the interviews and the comparison were then analyzed by using a curriculum theory.

    Results

    The results of the study showed that there are a few differences between the two syllabus’, but at large they were quite similar.  How the five teachers interpreted the content of the knowledge requirements and core contents was very different, and they interpret the syllabus differently and in their own way. Seeing as the syllabus is so vague allowed the teachers to work with the content in different ways. The results also show that students’ grades are affected because of the teachers' different interpretations.

    Conclusion

    The main conclusion of this study is that the syllabus’ are too open for interpretation in the current situation, which leads to different teachers interpreting the content very differently.

  • 409.
    Björling, Monika
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Dans är inte idrott!: En kvalitativ studie om elevers attityder till dans2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The purpose of this study has been to examine attitudes towards dance in a broad sense, among Swedish schoolchildren. The study has been done with three different questions in mind: What do pupils think and express about dance? Are there any differences in attitude towards dance between girls and boys? And how do the pupils relate to gender conceptions in connection to dance illustrations?

    Method

    Eight pupils 12 – 14 years of age have been interviewed separately during physical education lessons. During parts of the interviews dance illustrations were used in order to encourage the pupils in their discussions, especially when asked to relate to dance and gender conceptions. The statements have been interpreted from a gender theoretical perspective.

    Results

    My interview study shows that male pupils to a larger extent than female pupils inhabit hostile feelings towards dance as part of physical education lessons. This study reveals an almost non-existing dance education. On the rare occasions when dance lessons are actually given, pupils tend to be dissatisfied. Other conclusions are that the pupils don’t regard dance as a “sport” and that dance is considered as a feminine activity. Furthermore, it is clear that pupils have a more positive attitude towards dance when it comes to dance as an extracurricular activity.

    Conclusions

    Since pupils´ attitudes towards dance are more negative when dance becomes a part of physical education than towards dance as an extracurricular activity, the physical education curriculum should provide for this. By accommodating the pupils´ requests and by introducing dance lessons in the first grade, pupils can become more confident in their dancing abilities. Perhaps then attitudes towards dance can be more positive. Dance is considered as something feminine by the pupils and their views of normal femininity and masculinity behavior become very clear in this context. Therefore, issues about tolerance and gender may be addressed through a dance education that is serious and well thought out.

  • 410.
    Björn, Tobias
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Arbetskravsprofil och kapacitetsanalys inom kvinnlig truppgymnastik2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study has been to examine the workdemands and physical capacity of elite female teamgymnasts. Another purpose has been to investigate if there are any differences in physical ability between two elite teams. Research questions: What is the physical demands on female teamgymnasts during training and competition? What is the general physical capacity of Swedish elite female in teamgymnastics?

    Method: Gymnasts from two different elite teams in teamgymnastics have participated in different testexercises to evaluate their physical qualities of aerobic capacity, explosive and endurance strength, speed and flexibility. Both teams has been in the top of Swedish gymnastics for several years, the first team has won the nationals and competed international, and the second team has been placed third to sixth on the nationals. Heart rate and bloodlactate analysis were made to examine the workload in training and a simulated competition of the sport.

    Results: Teamgymnastics training are performed at a quite low intensity 60-69 % of maximum heart rate. During competition, the floor program is the event with the highest intensity of 91 %, second is the mini-trampoline 87 % and third the tumbling program 84 % of maximum heart rate. In all the events during competition there were an accumulation of lactate in the blood (5,5 to 8,0 mmol/l). The gymnasts had a VO2max of 45,8 ml x min-1 x kg-1, CMJ 33,7 cm, 20m sprint 3,22s, dips 15,3 reps and flexibility in an active hipflexion of 102-107º. When the teams were compared there were significant differences in four events: passive hipflexion with the right and the left leg, v-sit and dips.

    Conclusion: The workload and intensity are high during a competition. Training are normaly performed at a relatively low intensity, and should therefore be adapted so parts of the training levels with the high intensity of the competition. The gymnasts have a relatively low maximal aerobic capacity, which indicates that the aerobic demands of the sport aren´t that high. An increased capacity could enable a higher intensity and effectiveness during training, and a better restitution between and during the training. It´s mostly the anaerobic processes that are used and challenged in tumbling and mini-trampoline. The teamgymnast had much greater general strength compared to university students of sports and exercise in dips, chin ups and vertical sit ups. Athletes of similar sports as tumbling and artistic gymnastics have shown a better power in vertical jumping and in hip and abdominal flexion, but is equal to teamgymnasts in 20m sprint. The differences between the two teams that were shown in the strength session, in advantage of the higher ranked team, could indicate that a higher strength gives positive effects in training and in competition, however it should be further investigated.

  • 411.
    Blackwood, Sarah J
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Katz, Abram
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Isoproterenol enhances force production in mouse glycolytic and oxidative muscle via separate mechanisms.2019In: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology, ISSN 0031-6768, E-ISSN 1432-2013Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fight or flight is a biologic phenomenon that involves activation of β-adrenoceptors in skeletal muscle. However, how force generation is enhanced through adrenergic activation in different muscle types is not fully understood. We studied the effects of isoproterenol (ISO, β-receptor agonist) on force generation and energy metabolism in isolated mouse soleus (SOL, oxidative) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL, glycolytic) muscles. Muscles were stimulated with isometric tetanic contractions and analyzed for metabolites and phosphorylase activity. Under conditions of maximal force production, ISO enhanced force generation markedly more in SOL (22%) than in EDL (8%). Similarly, during a prolonged tetanic contraction (30 s for SOL and 10 s for EDL), ISO-enhanced the force × time integral more in SOL (25%) than in EDL (3%). ISO induced marked activation of phosphorylase in both muscles in the basal state, which was associated with glycogenolysis (less in SOL than in EDL), and in EDL only, a significant decrease (16%) in inorganic phosphate (Pi). ATP turnover during sustained contractions (1 s EDL, 5 s SOL) was not affected by ISO in EDL, but essentially doubled in SOL. Under conditions of maximal stimulation, ISO has a minor effect on force generation in EDL that is associated with a decrease in Pi, whereas ISO has a marked effect on force generation in SOL that is associated with an increase in ATP turnover. Thus, phosphorylase functions as a phosphate trap in ISO-mediated force enhancement in EDL and as a catalyzer of ATP supply in SOL.

  • 412.
    Blom, Victoria
    Stockholms universitet.
    Contingent self-esteem, stressors and burnout in working women and men.2012In: WORK: A Journal of Prevention, Assessment, & Rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, Vol. 43, no 2, p. 123-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE:

    A high work involvement is considered central in the burnout process. Yet, research investigating how high work involvement and psychosocial stressors relate to burnout is scarce. High involvement in terms of performance-based self-esteem (PBSE) refers to individuals' strivings to validate self-worth by achievements, a disposition linked to poor health. The aim of the present study was to examine longitudinally PBSE in relation to burnout while also taking into account work- and private life stressors.

    PARTICIPANTS:

    The sample consisted of 2121 working women and men.

    METHODS:

    Main- and mediation effects were investigated using hierarchical regression analysis.

    RESULTS:

    The results showed performance-based self-esteem mediated partially between the stressors and burnout. Performance-based self-esteem was the strongest predictor of burnout over time, followed by private life stressors. Women experienced more work stress than did men. Men had stronger associations between work stressors and burnout, while women had stronger associations between performance-based self-esteem and burnout.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Individual characteristics along with both private life and work stressors are important predictors of burnout. Factors associated with burnout differ somewhat between women and men.

  • 413.
    Blom, Victoria
    Stockholms universitet.
    Striving for self-esteem: Conceptualizations and role in burnout2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    When self-esteem is dependent on competence individuals invest a great deal of effort in their accomplishments in order to validate themselves. The aim of the present thesis was to develop a theoretically sound and valid concept and measure of contingent self-esteem dependent on competence, and examine its vulnerable implications and role in burnout. In Study I a concept and measure of contingent self-esteem dependent on competence, termed competence-based self-esteem (CBSE), was developed. Confirmatory factor analyses showed its distinctiveness from other sources of self-esteem and revealed two dimensions comprising behaviors referring to: i) Self-esteem conditional upon competence and ii) Frustrated self-critical strivings. The new scale showed high reliability and gained both convergent and discriminative validity through different methods in different samples. Study II set out to experimentally test the vulnerable implications of CBSE in a performance situation. The results showed that high, as compared to low, scorers on the scale exhibited stronger physiological reactivity and momentary exertion coupled with frustrated mood. Study III focused on the role of self-esteem contingent on competence in the burnout process and its association with work- and private-life stressors over time in working women and men. The analyses showed that contingent self-esteem was a predictor of burnout. In addition, women scored higher on both contingent self-esteem and burnout and reported higher general life stress than did men, whereas men showed stronger associations between work stressors and burnout. The results of the three studies suggest that contingent self-esteem, where outcomes of one’s acts and performance serve to compensate an impoverished basic self-worth, facilitates the understanding of stress-related vulnerability and ill-health.

  • 414.
    Blom, Victoria
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group. Karolinska Insitutet.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Karolinska institutet.
    Hallsten, Lennart
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Bodin, Lennart
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Svedberg, Pia
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Genetic susceptibility to burnout in a Swedish twin cohort.2012In: European Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0393-2990, E-ISSN 1573-7284, Vol. 27, p. 225-231Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most previous studies of burnout have focused on work environmental stressors, while familial factors so far mainly have been overlooked. The aim of the study was to estimate the relative importance of genetic influences on burnout (measured with Pines Burnout Measure) in a sample of monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) Swedish twins. The study sample consisted of 20,286 individuals, born 1959–1986 from the Swedish twin registry who participated in the cross-sectional study of twin adults: genes and environment. Probandwise concordance rates (the risk for one twin to be affected given that his/her twin partner is affected by burnout) and within pair correlations were calculated for MZ and DZ same—and opposite sexed twin pairs. Heritability coefficients i.e. the proportion of the total variance attributable to genetic factors were calculated using standard biometrical model fitting procedures. The results showed that genetic factors explained 33% of the individual differences in burnout symptoms in women and men. Environmental factors explained a substantial part of the variation as well and are thus important to address in rehabilitation and prevention efforts to combat burnout.

  • 415.
    Blom, Victoria
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Bodin, Lennart
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Hallsten, Lennart
    Svedberg, Pia
    The Importance of Genetic and Shared Environmental Factors for the Associations between Job Demands, Control, Support and Burnout.2013In: PloS one, ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 9, p. e75387-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within occupational health research, one of the most influential models is the Job Demands-Control-Support model. Numerous studies have applied the model to different domains, with both physical and psychological health outcomes, such as burnout. The twin design provides a unique and powerful research methodology for examining the effects of environmental risk factors on burnout while taking familial factors (genetic and shared environment) into account. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of familial factors on the associations of burnout with job demands, control and support. A total of 14 516 individuals from the Swedish Twin Registry, who were born between 1959 and 1986, and who participated in the Study of Twin Adults: Genes and Environment (STAGE) by responding to a web-based questionnaire in 2005, were included in the analyses. Of these, there were 5108 individuals in complete same-sex twin pairs. Co-twin control analyses were performed using linear mixed modeling, comparing between-pairs effects and within-pair effects, stratified also by zygosity and sex. The results indicate that familial factors are of importance in the association between support and burnout in both women and men, but not between job demands and burnout. There are also tendencies towards familial factors being involved in the association between control and burnout in men. These results offer increased understanding of the mechanisms involved in the associations between work stress and burnout.

  • 416.
    Blom, Victoria
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Bodin, Lennart
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Svedberg, Pia
    Applying the demand-control-support model on burnout in managers and non-managers.2016In: International Journal of Workplace Health Management, ISSN 1753-8351, E-ISSN 1753-836X, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 110-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to study the demand-control-support (DCS) model on burnout in male and female managers and non-managers, taking into account genetic and shared family environmental factors, contributing to the understanding of mechanisms of how and when work stress is related to burnout. Design/methodology/approach – A total of 5,510 individuals in complete same-sex twin pairs from the Swedish Twin Registry were included in the analyses. Co-twin control analyses were performed using linear mixed modeling, comparing between-pairs and within-pair effects, stratified by zygosity and sex. Findings – Managers scored higher on demands and control in their work than non-managers, and female managers seem to be particularly at risk for burnout facing more demands which are not reduced by a higher control as in their male counterparts. Co-twin analyses showed that associations between control and burnout as well as between demands and burnout seem to be affected by shared family environmental factors in male non-managers but not in male managers in which instead the associations between social support and burnout seem to be influenced by shared family environment. Practical implications – Taken together, the study offers knowledge that shared environment as well as sex and managerial status are important factors to consider in how DCS is associated to exhaustion. Originality/value – Using twin data with possibilities to control for genetics, shared environment, sex and age, this study offers unique insight into the DCS research, which focusses primarily on the workplace environment rather than individual factors.

  • 417.
    Blom, Victoria
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Maarit, Johnson
    Stockholms universitet.
    Geoffrey, Patching
    Stockholms universitet.
    Physiological and behavioral reactivity when one's self-worth is staked on competence.2011In: Individual Differences Research, ISSN 1541-745X, E-ISSN 2169-3951, Vol. 9, p. 138-152Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 418.
    Blom, Victoria
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Richter, Anne
    Hallsten, Lennart
    Svedberg, Pia
    The associations between job insecurity, depressive symptoms and burnout: The role of performance-based self-esteem2018In: Economic and Industrial Democracy, ISSN 0143-831X, E-ISSN 1461-7099, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 48-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite agreement on the negative effects of job insecurity, more knowledge needs to be generated on the health effects in terms of burnout and depressive symptoms and for whom job insecurity has these negative effects. The present study aims to investigate the associations between job insecurity and burnout and depressive symptoms respectively, by studying the moderation influences of performance-based self-esteem (PBSE), a form of contingent self-esteem. A population-based sample with 4145 twins was used. The results showed that job insecurity was significantly associated with both burnout and depressive symptoms, and that PBSE acted as a moderator, so that the associations were stronger for individuals with high PBSE than for individuals with low PBSE. The study contributes by including a personality characteristic to gain more knowledge about the mechanisms of job insecurity on mental ill-health, and by illustrating that job insecurity has an impact on severe health outcomes in terms of burnout and depressive symptoms.

  • 419.
    Blom, Victoria
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group. Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Psychol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Svedberg, Pia
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Bergstrom, Gunnar
    Karolinska Inst, Div Intervent & Implementat Res, Inst Environm Med, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Mather, Lisa
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Psychol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Stress in paid and unpaid work as related to cortisol and subjective health complaints in women working in the public health care sector2017In: International Journal of Workplace Health Management, ISSN 1753-8351, E-ISSN 1753-836X, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 286-299Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - Focusing on 420 women employed within the woman-dominated health care sector, the purpose of this paper is to investigate how any variation in their total workload (TWL) in terms of paid and unpaid work relate to various subjective health complaints (SHC) (n = 420) and the neuroendocrine stress marker cortisol (n = 68). Design/methodology/approach - The authors explored how any variation in their TWL in terms of paid and unpaid work related cross-sectionally to SHC (n = 420), and the neuroendocrine stress marker cortisol (n = 68). Findings - Hierarchical regression analyses showed that stress of unpaid work was most strongly related to diurnal variations in cortisol. Both stress of paid and unpaid work as well as TWL stress, but not hours spent on TWL, were related to SHC. Practical implications - Taken together, objective measures of hours spent on various TWL domains were unrelated to outcome measures while perceptions of having too much TWL and TWL stress were linked to both cortisol and SHC, i.e. how individuals perceive a situation seem to be more important for health than the actual situation, which has implications for research and efforts to reduce individual TWL. Originality/value - This study is unique in showing that unpaid work and perceptions having too much TWL relate to stress markers in women working in the public health care sector.

  • 420.
    Blom, Victoria
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Bodin, Lennart
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Lindfors, Petra
    Svedberg, Pia
    Work-home interference and burnout: a study based on Swedish twins.2014In: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1076-2752, E-ISSN 1536-5948, Vol. 56, no 4, p. 361-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: This study sets out to investigate the impact of work-home interference on burnout in women and men, while taking genetic and family environmental factors into account.

    METHODS: A total of 4446 Swedish twins were included in the study. The effects of work-home conflict (WHC) and home-work conflict (HWC) on burnout between and within pairs were analyzed with co-twin control analyses.

    RESULTS: Both WHC and HWC were significantly associated with burnout. Genetic factors may be involved in the association between HWC and burnout in women. Familial factors were not involved for WHC and burnout, neither for women nor for men.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study shows the importance to encounter WHC per se to prevent burnout. Because of genetic confounding in HWC and burnout in women, preventive efforts may also take into account individual characteristics.

  • 421.
    Blomberg, Emmy
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Norling, Therése
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Hälsoombud och hälsoinspiratörer: ett företags hälsofrämjande arbete2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med vår studie var att undersöka arbetsmetoden hälsoombud/hälsoinspiratörer för att se hur den tillämpades på två olika avdelningar inom samma företag, samt att ta reda på om medarbetarna var medvetna om att det fanns ett hälsofrämjande arbete på deras arbetsplats och vad detta innebar.

    Våra frågeställningar var:

    -         Hur är arbetsmetoden hälsoombud och hälsoinspiratörer i det hälsofrämjande arbetet utformad på detta företag?

    -         Når det hälsofrämjande arbetet ut till medarbetarna och i sådant fall hur?

     

    Metod

    Vi undersökte två hälso- och arbetsmiljökommittéer, vilka vi kom i kontakt med genom företagshälsovården som samarbetar med företaget. Personliga intervjuer gjordes med två hälsoombud från dessa kommittéer och därtill fem hälsoinspiratörer. Vi skickade även enkäter till medarbetarna för att få svar på om det hälsofrämjande arbetet når ut.

     

    Resultat

    Trots att företaget hade strukturer för hälsoarbetet som gällde för hela företaget visade våra resultat att avdelningarna skiljde sig åt. Faktorer som visade sig viktiga för ett framgångsrikt hälsoarbete var bl.a. utbildning, stöd från företagshälsovård och närmaste chef, tydliga riktlinjer i organisationen för hur arbetet skulle bedrivas, samt kommunikation i alla riktningar. Av resultaten från enkäterna kunde vi konstatera att en stor del av medarbetarna hade dålig eller ingen kännedom om företagets hälsoarbete och därmed hälsoinspiratörernas arbete på den egna avdelningen. Resultaten skiljde sig dock åt mellan avdelningarna, då medarbetarna på den ena avdelningen hade större insyn i hälsoarbetet.

     

    Slutsats

    Arbetsmetoden med hälsoombud och hälsoinspiratörer är ett bra sätt att arbeta hälsofrämjande på en arbetsplats, då man effektivt når alla medarbetare. En förutsättning för detta är dock att arbetet är bra strukturerat och att det finns ansvariga personer på arbetsplatsen som är insatta och engagerade. En annan viktig faktor är att det finns en väl fungerande kommunikation inom organisationen.  

  • 422.
    Blomberg, Oscar
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Becker, Anna
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Att vila sig stark i musculus quadriceps femoris: en systematisk litteraturstudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte

    Syftet med litteraturstudien var att göra en granskning av vetenskapliga studier med avsikt att undersöka vilotidens effekt för styrkeutveckling i musculus quadriceps femoris. Med vilotid avses vilan mellan seten vid aktuellt träningstillfälle samt antal träningstillfällen per vecka.

     

    Frågeställningar:

    1. Hur ser sambandet ut med avseende på vilan mellan seten och styrkeutvecklingen?

    2. Hur påverkar antal träningstillfällen per vecka styrkeutvecklingen?

     

    Metod

    En systematisk litteraturstudie genomfördes i de utvalda databaserna PubMed, SportDiscus, Cochrane och PEDro. Specifika sökord och kombinationer av dessa utgjorde en grund för sökningarna. Inklusions- och exklusionskriterier formulerades för att hitta relevanta artiklar. Fem artiklar inkluderades och kvalitetsgranskades med hjälp av PEDro scale, för att sedan rangordnas efter kvalitet.

     

    Resultat

    De inkluderade artiklarna hade en medelgod kvalitet enligt PEDro scale. En längre vila mellan seten gav mer ökning i styrka i m. quadriceps femoris än en kortare vila. Tre träningstillfällen per vecka gav en större styrkeutveckling än färre gånger hos vuxna män och kvinnor. För äldre gav en till två träningstillfällen per vecka samma styrkeutveckling som tre träningstillfällen per vecka.

     

    Slutsats

    Det behövs mer forskning med högre kvalitet än den som hittats i denna studie. Detta för att kunna klargöra vilan mellan setens effekt på styrkeutveckling. En vila längre än 160 sekunder behöver också utforskas. Antal träningstillfällen per vecka verkar dock ha större betydelse för vuxna män och kvinnor än för äldre män och kvinnor. 

  • 423.
    Blomhage, Jonas
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Kombinationsträningseffekter på fysiologiska egenskaper relevanta för handbollsprestation på elitnivå.: En experimentell interventionsstudie på manliga elithandbollsspelare under tävlingssäsong.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of compact complex strength training (CCT) combined with interval training, either with short shuttle sprints (~6 s) in a repeated sprint exercise (RSE) or with longer all-out sprints (30 s) also involving change of direction in a high intensity interval training (HIIT), on handball related, in-season, physical performance in male elite players.

    MethodFor 12 weeks, in-season, 15 elite handball players performed, in addition to their normal handball training, either RSE (n = 8) sessions consisting of 10 repetitions of shuttle sprints (2x15m), start every 60 s and with passive recovery or HIIT (n = 7) consisting of 5 repetitions of 30-s all-out sprints with change of direction. Both groups also did CCT consisting of 3 sets of 3 exercises (3 x squat 90% of 1RM, 6 x jump squat 50% of the bodyweight and 6 x drop jump from 30 cm).. Pre- and posttests included jump squat (JS) (RFD (Ns/kg)), jump for distance test (5JT) (m), 30m sprint (5m (s), 20-30m (m/s)), repeated shuttle sprint ability test (RSSA) (RSA Best, Worst, Tot (s), FI (%), Sdec (%)),  1 RM squat (concentric) (kg/kg bodyweight), Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test (YYIRT 1) (m) and maximum oxygen test (VO2max) (l O2/min, ml·kg-0.75·min-1).

    Results: Both groups significantly (p<0.01) improved their maximum strength in squat, the RSE-group (8.8 %) more so than HIIT (7.4 %). In contrast the HIIT-group showed greater improvements in rate of force development (RFD) (63.5%) than RSE (56.3%) (p< 0.05). VO2max was significantly increased with similar gains in both groups (~2%). In the test for specific endurance, YYIRD1, the RSE-group’s improvement was 9.4 % compared with HIIT’s 5.8%. Both RSE (-5.7 %) and HIIT (-2%) groups showed decrements in acceleration (5 m sprint time). The results in the RSSA show decrements in all components in the RSE-group. HIIT’s significantly improved the ability to resist fatigue Sdec (29.1%) (p <0.09).

    Conclusion: CCT appear to be an effective in-season training method for gaining strength and RFD, but may not positively affect acceleration. HIIT may be a more effective interval training method (than RSE) for maintaining or improving components linking to RSA for elite male handball players during competition (match) season. Concurrent training of CCT and HIIT shows no interference in the development of strength, running speed, jump, RFD, VO2max or specific handball endurance.

    Keywords: Team sport, Repeated sprint ability, Rate of force development.

  • 424.
    Blomkvist, Sandra
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Hur arbetar lärare med elevinflytande?: en kvalitativ intervjustudie med lärare i idrott och hälsa i skolans tidigare år2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syftet med studien är att analysera hur elevinflytande fungerar i praktiken. Frågeställningarna är: Vilka erfarenheter har lärarna i idrott och hälsa när det gäller elevinflytande? Hur arbetar lärare i idrott och hälsa med elevinflytande? Om det finns några likheter och skillnader mellan lärarna vilka är då dessa?

    Metod

    I studien har kvalitativa intervjuer använts. De som har deltagit är tre stycken män och tre stycken kvinnor som är verksamma lärare i idrott och hälsa. Alla arbetar med elever i årskurs F-6. Kontakt togs med lärarna för att informera om studien. Tid och plats bestämdes för mötet och intervjuerna genomfördes. Sedan transkriberades och tolkades materialet för att till sist sammanställas.

    Resultat

    Lärarnas erfarenheter Majoriteten av lärarna anser att elevinflytande togs upp under utbildningen. Hälften tycker att de har fått tillräckligt med hjälpmedel och hälften tycker inte det. Eleverna har inte stort inflytande men de får vara med och påverka direkt i undervisningen. Hälften anser att det behövs tid för att ge ökat inflytande, andra menar atteleverna har det inflytande som går att ha. Lärarnas arbete Elevinflytande betyder att eleverna får vara med att påverka i undervisningen och det är viktigt med inflytande. När det handlar om miljöns påverkan är lärarnas åsikter delade. Lärarna har olika synpunkter på hur en miljö borde se ut för att få in inflytande. För att göra eleverna mer delaktiga handlar det om att prata mer. Grovplaneringen och ”måste momenten” är det som eleverna inte kan påverka. Lärarna har skilda åsikter om reflektion hinns med i undervisningen. Nästan alla är positiva till förslag från eleverna och dialog är jättebra och viktigt. Det råder delade meningar om vad eleverna känner till om sin rätt till inflytande. Hälften tror att det är svårt för eleverna att ta tillvara sitt inflytande och hälften påstår att det handlar om att förvalta ansvaret på ett bra sätt.

    Slutsatser

    Lärarnas erfarenheter av elevinflytande ser olika ut och ute i verksamheterna förekommer inte inflytande i så stor utsträckning. De flesta av lärarna är positiva till elevinflytande men hur de ska få in det i undervisningen är svårt eftersom det finns så lite tid och deras elever är små. Studien visar på fler skillnader än likheter mellan lärarnas åsikter.

  • 425.
    Blomqvist, Hanna
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Sköld, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    "Jag tycker det ser jättebra ut": En kvalitativ intervjustudie om hur lärare tolkar ett kunskapskrav och bedömer elevers rörelseutförande2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of this paper is to see how physical education and health (PEH) teachers in year 7-9 interpreters one knowledge requirement and from that assess students movement capability.

    • How do teachers in PEH interpreter the knowledge requirement, The student can participate in games, play and sports that comprises complex movements to different environments and varies and adapts their movements to some part/relatively well/well to the activity and to the context?
    • How do teachers in PEH assess students movement capability in reference to the knowledge requirement above, by three film sequences?

    Method

    This is a qualitative interview study and there where six teachers in physical education and health in year 7-9 that participated. To answer the aim of this paper the interview was divided into different parts. One part focused on the first question, how teachers in PEH interpreter the knowledge requirement. The next part focused on, how teachers in PEH assess movement, by three film sequences. To get a deeper understanding of the teachers interpretation and assessment have the transformation arena been applied on the first question and the realisation arena been applied to the second question.

    Results

    The teachers interpreted complex movements and the word, to some part, relatively well and well, with a big variation. Some interpretations are in line with the Swedish National Agency for Education assessment template, but many are not. The teachers described and assessed the film sequences differently. The teachers have described the same movement performance similarly and then assessed them differently, they have described it differently and then assessed it the same and finally they have described and assessed it differently.

    Conclusions

    The teachers interpreter both same and different in the transformation and realisation arena. The teachers have a harder time describing the words in the transformation arena then in the realisation arena, when they can see different movements. The descriptions and assessments between teachers differ a lot. Because of this we need to develop a technical language, more tools and education around assessment.

  • 426.
    Blomqvist, Veronica
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Förändringsbenägenheten hos fyra familjer med fysiskt inaktiva barn: inställningar, förväntningar, hinder och möjligheter2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of this study was to study the life situation and experiences in families with physically inactive children, and to describe the tendency to change regarding increasing their physical activity. Furthermore the aim was to investigate the Families’ attitudes towards behavioural change and their expectations on the ISFAB-project. The aim was to answer the following questions: How does the Families’ life situations and experiences appear? What expectations does the Family have on the ISFAB-project? How important is it for the Family to change its behaviour towards being more physically active? How strong is the Families’ tendency to change? Which possibilities and barriers does the Family see regarding behavioural change?

    Method

    This study is a smaller part of a bigger intervention study called the ISFAB-project. The authors of this essay were lifestyle coaches during the ISFAB-project for four families living in Stockholm, Sweden. As data collection method for this study a Motivational Interview (MI) with each Family was used. The MI:s dealt with the Families expectations on the project, which possibilities and barriers the Families saw regarding a behavioural change. The tendency to change was assessed by using a visual analogue scale (VAS) and the transtheoretical model (TTM).

    Result

    The families’ expectations on the ISFAB-project were that it would give them new inspiration and ideas for what the family could do together, furthermore to get help to change their lifestyle and to find new solutions how to integrate more physical activity in their daily life. The families estimated their tendency to change as medium high to high on the VAS. According to our assessment the children in this study were in the preparation stage in the TTM. The parents were in the preparation or the contemplation stage. The most positive possibility with increased physical activity for the families were found to be that it is fun to exercise and they had a positive attitude towards physical activity. In our study the children wants to increase their physical activity, but they are depending on their parents’ priorities, regarding time, money and activities.

    Conclusion

    Remarkable is that even tough the children are physical inactive, the families in this study estimate their tendency to change as relatively high. The problem seems to be during the children’s spare time, when they are not occupied with an organised activity, their lifestyle is far too sedentary. Our conclusion is that these children do not necessarily need more organised activities, instead they need more everyday exercise and less sitting at home in front of the TV and the computer.

  • 427.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    A role for branched-chain amino acids in reducing central fatigue.2006In: Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0022-3166, E-ISSN 1541-6100, Vol. 136, no 2, p. 544S-547SArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several factors have been identified to cause peripheral fatigue during exercise, whereas the mechanisms behind central fatigue are less well known. Changes in the brain 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) level is one factor that has been suggested to cause fatigue. The rate-limiting step in the synthesis of 5-HT is the transport of tryptophan across the blood-brain barrier. This transport is influenced by the fraction of tryptophan available for transport into the brain and the concentration of the other large neutral amino acids, including the BCAAs (leucine, isoleucine, and valine), which are transported via the same carrier system. Studies in human subjects have shown that the plasma ratio of free tryptophan (unbound to albumin)/BCAAs increases and that tryptophan is taken up by the brain during endurance exercise, suggesting that this may increase the synthesis of 5-HT in the brain. Ingestion of BCAAs increases their concentration in plasma. This may reduce the uptake of tryptophan by the brain and also 5-HT synthesis and thereby delay fatigue. Accordingly, when BCAAs were supplied to human subjects during a standardized cycle ergometer exercise their ratings of perceived exertion and mental fatigue were reduced, and, during a competitive 30-km cross-country race, their performance on different cognitive tests was improved after the race. In some situations the intake of BCAAs also improves physical performance. The results also suggest that ingestion of carbohydrates during exercise delays a possible effect of BCAAs on fatigue since the brain's uptake of tryptophan is reduced.

  • 428.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Amino acids and central fatigue.2001In: Amino Acids, ISSN 0939-4451, E-ISSN 1438-2199, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 25-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an increasing interest in the mechanisms behind central fatigue, particularly in relation to changes in brain monoamine metabolism and the influence of specific amino acids on fatigue. Several studies in experimental animals have shown that physical exercise increases the synthesis and metabolism of brain 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). Support for the involvement of 5-HT in fatigue can be found in studies where the brain concentration of 5-HT has been altered by means of pharmacological agents. When the 5-HT level was elevated in this way the performance was impaired in both rats and human subjects, and in accordance with this a decrease in the 5-HT level caused an improvement in running performance in rats. The precursor of 5-HT is the amino acid tryptophan and the synthesis of 5-HT in the brain is thought to be regulated by the blood supply of free tryptophan in relation to other large neutral amino acids (including the branched-chain amino acids, BCAA) since these compete with tryptophan for transport into the brain. Studies in human subjects have shown that the plasma ratio of free tryptophan/BCAA increases during and, particularly, after sustained exercise. This would favour the transport of tryptophan into the brain and also the synthesis and release of 5-HT which may lead to central fatigue. Attempts have been made to influence the 5-HT level by giving BCAA to human subjects during different types of sustained heavy exercise. The results indicate that ingestion of BCAA reduces the perceived exertion and mental fatigue during exercise and improves cognitive performance after the exercise. In addition, in some situations ingestion of BCAA might also improve physical performance; during exercise in the heat or in a competitive race when the central component of fatigue is assumed to be more pronounced than in a laboratory experiment. However, more experiments are needed to further clarify the effect of BCAA and also of tryptophan ingestion on physical performance and mental fatigue.

  • 429.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Branched-chain Amino Acids and Central Fatigue: Implications for Diet and Behavior2011In: Handbook of Behavior, Food and Nutrition / [ed] V.R. Preedy et al., Springer Science + Business Media , 2011, p. 865-877Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 430.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Fysiologisk forskning åren 1997-20132014In: Från Kungl. Gymnastiska Centralinstitutet till Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan: en betraktelse av de senaste 25 åren som del av en 200-årig historia / [ed] Suzanne Lundvall, Stockholm: Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH , 2014, p. 200-206Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 431.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Maximera träningen med fokus på kosten2018In: Idrottsmedicin, ISSN 2001-3302, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 6-7Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Med fokus på kosten kan idrottare maximera träningens effekter. Genom att träna med låga glykogendepåer kan den aeroba prestationsförmågan öka och intag av essentiella aminosyror i samband med styrketräning kan stimulera tillväxt av muskelmassa.

  • 432.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Utilisation of different energy sources during exercise and nutritional strategies for effective recovery2014In: Women and sport, Stockholm: SISU idrottsböcker , 2014Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this text, we will examine how the body uses the nutrients in food to produce energy during exercise, and whether these processes differ between the sexes. If they do, does this mean that the nutritional requirements should be different for men and women? We will also present current knowledge on the effects of nutrition on recovery after physical activity, a topic that has attracted much interest in the sports world. finally, we will briefl y discuss the nutritional requirements of physically active women and the common nutritional problems they encounter.

  • 433.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Apro, William
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Det viktigaste du behöver veta om protein och träning2018In: Idrottsforskning.se, ISSN 2002-3944, article id 30 majArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 434.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Celsing, F
    Newsholme, E A
    Changes in plasma concentrations of aromatic and branched-chain amino acids during sustained exercise in man and their possible role in fatigue.1988In: Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6772, E-ISSN 1365-201X, Vol. 133, no 1, p. 115-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The plasma concentrations of branched-chain and aromatic amino acids have been measured in two different types of sustained dynamic exercise. Twenty-two subjects participated in the 1986 Stockholm Marathon and eight subjects took part in an army training programme of approximately 1.5-h duration. Both types of exercise caused a significant decrease in the plasma concentration of branched-chain amino acids, while there was no change in the concentration of total (free plus bound to albumin) tryptophan. The plasma concentration of free tryptophan, which was measured in the marathon runners, was found to increase 2.4-fold during the race. This increase is probably caused by a pronounced elevation in the concentration of plasma free fatty acids during exercise, since these are known to displace tryptophan from albumin. The observed increase in plasma free tryptophan concentration, together with the decrease in plasma concentration of branched-chain amino acids, gives rise to a marked increase in the plasma concentration ratio of free tryptophan/branched-chain amino acids. This should lead to an increase in the rate of transport of tryptophan across the blood-brain barrier and hence to an increase in the rate of synthesis of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in the brain. An elevated concentration of 5-HT in specific areas of the brain may be responsible, at least in part, for the development of physical, and/or mental fatigue during prolonged exercise.

  • 435.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Ek, Sonja
    Newsholme, Eric A
    Influence of ingesting a solution of branched-chain amino acids on plasma and muscle concentrations of amino acids during prolonged submaximal exercise.1996In: Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.), ISSN 0899-9007, E-ISSN 1873-1244, Vol. 12, no 7-8, p. 485-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On two occasions, seven male endurance-trained cyclists performed sustained exhaustive exercise with reduced muscle glycogen stores. During exercise, the subjects were supplied in random order with an aqueous solution of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) or flavored water (placebo). Ingestion of BCAA caused the concentration of these amino acids to increase by 135% in the plasma and by 57% in muscle tissue during exercise, whereas in the placebo trial there was no change or a slight decrease in the concentration in plasma and a decrease of 18% in the muscle. The plasma concentration of alanine increased by 48% during exercise when BCAA were ingested, and the increase in the muscle concentration of alanine during exercise was larger (70% versus 31% in the placebo trial), suggesting an increased rate of alanine production. Also, the plasma concentration of arginine increased by 14% during exercise when BCAA were ingested, whereas there was no change during exercise in the placebo trial. There was a smaller decrease in the muscle glutamate concentration during exercise in the BCAA trial (32% versus 47% in the placebo trial; p < 0.05), but, for the remaining amino acids, there was no difference between the BCAA and placebo trials. There was a significant decrease in the muscle glycogen concentration during exercise in the placebo trial, whereas only a small decrease was found in the BCAA trial (28 and 9 mmol/kg wet wt [p < 0.05] in the placebo and BCAA trial, respectively). This might indicate that an increased supply of BCAA has a sparing effect on muscle glycogen degradation during exercise.

  • 436.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Hedman, Rune
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Irma Åstrand: Nekrolog2016Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 437.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Eliasson, Jörgen
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Karlsson, Håkan K R
    Köhnke, Rickard
    Branched-chain amino acids activate key enzymes in protein synthesis after physical exercise2006In: Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0022-3166, E-ISSN 1541-6100, Vol. 136, no 1 Suppl, p. 269S-273SArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 438.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Essén-Gustavsson, B
    Influence of reduced muscle temperature on metabolism in type I and type II human muscle fibres during intensive exercise.1987In: Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6772, E-ISSN 1365-201X, Vol. 131, no 4, p. 569-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Six male subjects performed intensive cycle exercise to exhaustion after cooling their legs in water at 10-12 degrees C (muscle temperature (Tm) 28 +/- 2.6 degrees C, mean +/- SD). Exercise at exactly the same rate and duration (370 +/- 34 W, 1.5 +/- 0.2 min) was then repeated by each subject 2-5 weeks later at normal Tm (35 +/- 1.0 degrees C). Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis muscle at rest and after exercise. The muscle tissue was freeze-dried and fragments of single fibres were dissected out. The fibres were classified and pooled into groups of type I and type II. Analyses of glycogen, glucose 6-phosphate, lactate and phosphagens were performed on pools of type-identified fibres. After exercise at reduced Tm, all subjects had higher concentrations of glucose 6-phosphate and lactate in both type I and type II fibres, and in most subjects the concentrations of ATP and phosphocreatine were lower as compared with the findings after exercise at normal Tm. During exercise the glycogen content of both fibre types decreased to a greater extent at reduced than at normal Tm in most subjects. The results suggest that during intensive dynamic exercise at reduced Tm there is a higher degree of glycolysis from glycogen in the muscle than in the normal situation. In some subjects the cause of fatigue may be related to a more rapid accumulation of lactate in the cold muscle, while in others fatigue may be related to alternative factors, e.g. low levels of ATP and phosphocreatine.

  • 439.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Essén-Gustavsson, Birgitta
    Changes in amino acid concentration in plasma and type I and type II fibres during resistance exercise and recovery in human subjects.2009In: Amino Acids, ISSN 0939-4451, E-ISSN 1438-2199, Vol. 37, no 4, p. 629-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eight male subjects performed leg press exercise, 4 x 10 repetitions at 80% of their maximum. Venous blood samples were taken before, during exercise and repeatedly during 2 h of recovery. From four subjects, biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis muscle prior to, immediately after and following one and 2 h of recovery. Samples were freeze-dried, individual muscle fibres were dissected out and identified as type I or type II. Resistance exercise led to pronounced reductions in the glutamate concentration in both type I (32%) and type II fibres (70%). Alanine concentration was elevated 60-75% in both fibre types and 29% in plasma. Glutamine concentration remained unchanged after exercise; although 2 h later the concentrations in both types of fibres were reduced 30-35%. Two hours after exercise, the plasma levels of glutamate and six of the essential amino acids, including the branched-chain amino acids were reduced 5-30%. The data suggest that glutamate acts as an important intermediate in muscle energy metabolism during resistance exercise, especially in type II fibres.

  • 440.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Hassmén, Peter
    Ek, S
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Newsholme, E A
    Influence of ingesting a solution of branched-chain amino acids on perceived exertion during exercise.1997In: Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6772, E-ISSN 1365-201X, Vol. 159, no 1, p. 41-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On two occasions, seven male endurance-trained cyclists performed exhaustive exercise on a cycle ergometer in the morning after they had performed a bout of exercise the preceding evening in an attempt to lower the muscle glycogen stores. The subjects exercised at a work rate corresponding to approximately 70% of their maximal oxygen uptake for 60 min, followed by another 20 min of maximal exercise. During exercise the subjects were given either a solution of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) or flavoured water (placebo). Every 10 min during exercise the subjects rated their perceived exertion and mental fatigue on two different Borg scales. During the 60 min exercise at a given work rate the subjects ratings of perceived exertion when they were given BCAAs were 7% lower, and their ratings of mental fatigue were 15% lower than when they were given placebo. In addition, the performance in the colour task of Stroops Colour Word Test performed after exercise was improved when BCAAs had been ingested during exercise, compared with the results from the placebo trial. There was no difference in the physical performance between the two trials measured as the amount of work done during the last 20 min of exercise when the subjects performed at their maximum. The plasma concentration ratio of free tryptophan/BCAAs, which increased by 45% during exercise and by 150% 5 min after exercise in the placebo trial, remained unchanged or even decreased when BCAAs were ingested.

  • 441.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Krustrup, Peter
    Søndergaard, Hans
    Rådegran, Göran
    Calbet, José A L
    Saltin, Bengt
    Exercise training induces similar elevations in the activity of oxoglutarate dehydrogenase and peak oxygen uptake in the human quadriceps muscle.2011In: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology, ISSN 0031-6768, E-ISSN 1432-2013, Vol. 462, no 2, p. 257-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During exercise involving a small muscle mass, peak oxygen uptake is thought to be limited by peripheral factors, such as the degree of oxygen extraction from the blood and/or mitochondrial oxidative capacity. Previously, the maximal activity of the Krebs cycle enzyme oxoglutarate dehydrogenase has been shown to provide a quantitative measure of maximal oxidative metabolism, but it is not known whether the increase in this activity after a period of training reflects the elevation in peak oxygen consumption. Fourteen subjects performed one-legged knee extension exercise for 5-7 weeks, while the other leg remained untrained. Thereafter, the peak oxygen uptake by the quadriceps muscle was determined for both legs, and muscle biopsies were taken for assays of maximal enzyme activities (at 25°C). The peak oxygen uptake was 26% higher in the trained than in the untrained muscle (395 vs. 315 ml min(-1) kg(-1), respectively; P<0.01). The maximal activities of the Krebs cycle enzymes in the trained and untrained muscle were as follows: citrate synthase, 22.4 vs. 18.2 μmol min(-1) g(-1) (23%, P<0.05); oxoglutarate dehydrogenase, 1.88 vs. 1.54 μmol min(-1) g(-1) (22%, P<0.05); and succinate dehydrogenase, 3.88 vs. 3.28 μmol min(-1) g(-1) (18%, P<0.05). The difference between the trained and untrained muscles with respect to peak oxygen uptake (80 ml min(-1) kg(-1)) corresponded to a flux through the Krebs cycle of 1.05 μmol min(-1) g(-1), and the corresponding difference in oxoglutarate dehydrogenase activity (at 38°C) was 0.83 μmol min(-1) g(-1). These parallel increases suggest that there is no excess mitochondrial capacity during maximal exercise with a small muscle mass.

  • 442.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Møller, K
    Secher, N H
    Nybo, L
    Effect of carbohydrate ingestion on brain exchange of amino acids during sustained exercise in human subjects.2005In: Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6772, E-ISSN 1365-201X, Vol. 185, no 3, p. 203-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: This study investigated the effect of prolonged exercise with and without carbohydrate intake on the brain exchange of amino acids, especially focussing on tryptophan and branched-chain amino acids (BCAA). METHODS: Five male subjects exercised for 3 h on a cycle ergometer at 200 +/- 7 W on two occasions; either supplemented with a 6% carbohydrate solution or with flavoured water (placebo). Catheters were inserted into the right internal jugular vein and the radial artery of the non-dominant arm. The brain exchange of amino acids during exercise was calculated from the arterial-jugular venous concentration difference multiplied by plasma flow. RESULTS: About 106 micromol (22 mg) of tryptophan was taken up by the brain during exercise in the placebo trial, whereas no significant uptake was observed in the carbohydrate trial. In accordance, the arterial concentration of free tryptophan increased from 12 +/- 1 to 20 +/- 2 micromol L(-1) during the placebo trial and was significantly higher compared with the glucose trial (14 +/- 1 micromol L(-1) at the end of exercise). Also, the arterial concentration of total tryptophan (free and albumin-bound) increased during the first 30 min of exercise in both trials, but returned to the basal level at 180 min of exercise. In both trials, BCAA were taken up by the brain while glutamine was released. CONCLUSION: The present data show that both tryptophan and BCAA are taken up by the brain during prolonged exercise, and we suggest that the cerebral uptake of tryptophan may relate to increased synthesis of serotonin (5-HT) in the brain.

  • 443.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Rådegran, Göran
    Saltin, Bengt
    Maximum rate of oxygen uptake by human skeletal muscle in relation to maximal activities of enzymes in the Krebs cycle.1997In: Journal of Physiology, ISSN 0022-3751, E-ISSN 1469-7793, Vol. 501 ( Pt 2), p. 455-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Ten subjects performed incremental exercise up to their maximum work rate with the knee extensors of one leg. Measurements of leg blood flow and femoral arteriovenous differences of oxygen were made in order to be able to calculate oxygen uptake of the leg. 2. The volume of the quadriceps muscle was determined from twenty-one to twenty-five computer tomography section images taken from the patella to the anterior inferior iliac spine of each subject. 3. The maximal activities of three enzymes in the Krebs cycle, citrate synthase, oxoglutarate dehydrogenase and succinate dehydrogenase, were measured in biopsy samples taken from the vastus lateralis muscle. 4. The average rate of oxygen uptake over the quadriceps muscle at maximal work, 353 ml min-1 kg-1, corresponded to a Krebs cycle rate of 4.6 mumol min-1 g-1. This was similar to the maximal activity of oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (5.1 mumol min-1 g-1), whereas the activities of succinate dehydrogenase and citrate synthase averaged 7.2 and 48.0 mumol min-1 g-1, respectively. 5. It is suggested that of these enzymes, only the maximum activity of oxoglutarate dehydrogenase can provide a quantitative measure of the capacity of oxidative metabolism, and it appears that the enzyme is fully activated during one-legged knee extension exercise at the maximal work rate.

  • 444.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Saltin, Bengt
    BCAA intake affects protein metabolism in muscle after but not during exercise in humans.2001In: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0193-1849, E-ISSN 1522-1555, Vol. 281, no 2, p. E365-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) or a placebo was given to seven subjects during 1 h of ergometer cycle exercise and a 2-h recovery period. Intake of BCAA did not influence the rate of exchange of the aromatic amino acids, tyrosine and phenylalanine, in the legs during exercise or the increase in their concentration in muscle. The increase was approximately 30% in both conditions. On the other hand, in the recovery period after exercise, a faster decrease in the muscle concentration of aromatic amino acids was found in the BCAA experiment (46% compared with 25% in the placebo condition). There was also a tendency to a smaller release (an average of 32%) of these amino acids from the legs during the 2-h recovery. The results suggest that BCAA have a protein-sparing effect during the recovery after exercise, either that protein synthesis has been stimulated and/or protein degradation has decreased, but the data during exercise are too variable to make any conclusions about the effects during exercise. The effect in the recovery period does not seem to be mediated by insulin.

  • 445.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Saltin, Bengt
    Effect of muscle glycogen on glucose, lactate and amino acid metabolism during exercise and recovery in human subjects.1999In: Journal of Physiology, ISSN 0022-3751, E-ISSN 1469-7793, Vol. 514 ( Pt 1), p. 293-302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Eight subjects performed two-legged exercise, one leg with low and the other with normal muscle glycogen content. The purpose was to study the effect of low initial muscle glycogen content on the metabolic response during 1 h of exercise and 2 h of recovery. This model allows direct comparison of net fluxes of substrates and metabolites over the exercising legs receiving the same arterial inflow. 2. Muscle glycogen breakdown during exercise was 60% lower in the leg with a reduced pre-exercise glycogen concentration and the rate of glucose uptake during exercise was 30% higher. 3. The amount of pyruvate that was oxidized during exercise was calculated to be approximately 450 mmol in the low-glycogen leg and 750 mmol in the normal-glycogen leg, which suggests more fat and amino acid oxidation in the low-glycogen leg. 4. During exercise, there was a significant release of amino acids not metabolized in the muscle, e. g. tyrosine and phenylalanine, only from the low-glycogen leg, suggesting an increased rate of net protein degradation in this leg. 5. The release of tyrosine and phenylalanine from the low-glycogen leg during the exercise period and the change in their muscle concentrations yield a net tyrosine and phenylalanine production rate of 1.4 and 1.5 mmol h-1, respectively. The net rate of protein degradation was then calculated to be 7-12 g h-1. 6. The results suggest that the observed differences in metabolism between the low-glycogen and the normal-glycogen leg are induced by the glycogen level per se, since the legs received the same arterial supply of hormones and substrates.

  • 446.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Berit Sjöberg: 1939-20182019Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 447.
    Blyckert, Hanna
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Crowén, Hanna
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Att leva livet med Reumatoid Artrit: En kvalitativ intervjustudie om upplevelser kring att bära och hantera en kronisk diagnos2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med denna studie var att beskriva och få djupare förståelse för hur olika psykosociala faktorer kan påverka livssituationen för personer med Reumatoid Artrit (RA) samt hur de hanterar sin diagnos. Syftet var även att undersöka vilken roll fysisk aktivitet spelar i deras liv.

    Frågeställningar:

    • Hur upplever personer med RA att de påverkas av den psykosociala miljön?
    • Hur beskriver personer med RA att de hanterar sin sjukdom?
    • Hur upplever personer med RA att de påverkas av fysisk aktivitet i sin vardag?

     Metod: Denna kvalitativa studie bygger på fem stycken semistrukturerade djupgående intervjuer. Intervjupersonerna söktes för frivilligt deltagande genom Reumatikerförbundets medlemmar samt en sluten Facebookgrupp för reumatiker. Intresseanmälan gjordes via mejl, samtliga som kontaktade oss var kvinnor. Slutligen bestod urvalet av fem kvinnor bosatta i Stockholm i åldrarna 30-40 som fått diagnosen RA mellan 2006 och 2013. Intervjuerna genomfördes med hjälp av en semistrukturerad intervjuguide som grund och under samtalets gång ställdes följdfrågor. Intervjuerna transkriberades ordagrant till en skriven text som sedan analyserades med syfte att finna kategorier och teman.

    Resultat: Personer med RA upplever att de påverkas både positivt och negativt av den psykosociala miljön. Stöd från nära relationer visade sig vara en viktig faktor i påverkan av deras livssituation. Upplevelsen över hur människor omkring dem uppfattar deras kroniska diagnos ingav en negativ påverkan. Hanteringen av sjukdomen framställs som olika svår för individerna. Problem- och emotionellt inriktad coping användes utifrån olika livssituationer och utvecklade förmågor. Även passiv coping skildras i berättelserna. Den fysiska aktiviteten upplevs svår att upprätthålla i vardagen men samtliga upplever att det är något de känner positiva effekter av.

    Slutsats: Psykosociala faktorer ses ha en ytterst betydande inverkan på livssituationen för individerna i studien. De hanterar RA diagnosen utefter sina egna förmågor och utvecklingen av copingstrategier är individuell. Den fysiska aktiviteten ses som något positivt men har en begränsad roll i deras liv både pga. det generella livspusslet samt den kroniska trötthet som sjukdomen medför.

  • 448. Blücher, Gösta
    et al.
    Edmar, Désirée
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Eva Nordenson: nekrolog2014Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 449.
    Bodén, Amanda
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Lundin, Emelie
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Cykelintervaller som kompletterande träning för handbollsspelare på U16-nivå.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar Syftet med studien var att undersöka effekten av cykelintervaller som komplement till handbollsträning för att förbättra prestationsförmågan hos manliga ungdomsspelare på elitnivå. Den frågeställning studien svarat på är om cykelintervaller som komplement till handbollsträning har några effekter på den specifika prestationsförmågan.

    Metod En kvantitativ experimentell studie genomfördes med 13 manliga ungdomsspelare (fp) i handboll. Under 3 veckor fick fp genomföra cykelintervaller som komplement till ordinarie träning 2 gånger i veckan. Effekten av träningen kontrollerades genom förtest och eftertest där fp:s aeroba förmåga (Yo-Yo IR L1), anaeroba kapacitet (150 m shuttle run) samt anaeroba effekt (CMJ) testades. Utifrån resultaten vid förtesterna delades fp in i antingen cykelgrupp (CG) eller kontrollgrupp (KG). Indelning gjordes genom matchning av fp:s profil följt av lottning. CG genomförde 2 olika intervalltyper, 4 min intervaller och 30 sekunders intervaller med ökat antal set över tid. Efter 3 veckor, totalt 6 träningspass, fick samtliga fp återigen genomföra tester med identiskt testförfarande. Genom detta kunde skillnader i utveckling av delkapaciteter relevanta för handboll mellan grupperna utvärderas.

    Resultat CG förbättrade signifikant både sitt Yo-Yo IR L1 resultat (p≤0,05) samt resultatet i de tre 150 m shuttle run mätningarna (löpning 1, p=0,03; löpning 2, p<0,001; differens löpning 1 och 2, p<0,001). KG hade ingen förbättring i Yo-Yo IR L1 och bara en signifikant trend till förbättring i löpning 2 i 150 m shuttle run (p=0,08). Mellan grupperna förelåg dock inte några signifikanta skillnader. Det sågs ingen förändring i någon av grupperna vid eftertesterna av CMJ. 

    Slutsats Trots att CG förbättrade sig signifikant i såväl aeroba som anaeroba tester förelåg ingen signifikant skillnad mellan grupperna vilket bland annat tros bero på för få fp samt för kort interventionstid. Resultatet indikerar dock att cykelträning kan vara av värde för handbollsspelare men vidare forskning på en större försöksgrupp och längre interventionstid behövs för att med säkerhet kunna dra några generella slutsatser gällande cykelträningens effektivitet för handbollsspelare.

  • 450.
    Bogren, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Grinsfeldt, Michaela
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    "Det gäller ju att uppmuntra eleverna att titta över tröskeln”: En studie av den fysiska aktiviteten i idrott och hälsa på gymnasiesärskolan ur ett sociokulturellt perspektiv2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Aim

    The aim of the study was through a socio-cultural approach; examine the physical activity in P.E on upper special schools. The aim was also to analyze factors that could prevent or promote students to be physical active. The study is based on following questions: How do teachers perceive students' physical activity? What kind of support and resources do teachers use to promote students' physical activity? How do teachers perceive students' social interaction?

     

    Method

    This study is based on six, qualitative semi-structured interviews with P.E teachers that are working in upper special schools in the central parts of Sweden. All interviews have been recorded on a Dictaphone. They have also been transcribed and processed thematically. The result of the study has been put into meaningful themes and all themes are based on three aspects from the socio-cultural perspective; scaffolding, mediators and shared activity. To protect the participant’s integrity during the study, we followed ethical principles.

     

    Results

    The study shows that students with intellectual disabilities often become inactive during lessons and outside school. The physical activity seems therefore especially important for these students. The teachers perceived these students activity level as rather low comparing to students during P.E in ordinary school. The students’ impairments seem to be one factor that contributes to lower activity levels. Educational support to teach students with intellectual disabilities seems to fall short according to these P.E teachers. The P.E teachers try to motivate the students to participate. They give them peptalk and they try to have good structure during the lessons that also is quite alike time to time. Easy and clear instructions that P.E teachers visually can demonstrate seem to prepare and help these students to participate. Some activities can better than other activities support these students to be more independent. The keywords seem to be simple movements, exercises and games. The rules also have to be short, clear and simple. Assistants seem as a necessary resource that can promote students' physical activity. To do that the assistant have to be reversed, committed, positive, have a peppery spirit and be physical active during the P.E lessons. To promote the students to be physical active outside school it’s important that the students get opportunity to meet different kind of physical activities. The P.E teachers mean that it’s important to have good contact with sport associations to guide these students into the voluntary sector. To develop independent students in P.E class, these students need different kind of tools (mediators) like image that they could follow, watch, schedule, exerciseprogram etc. Social interaction seems by the teachers as a valuable thing, both for the students’ physical activity and for their social development. Social interaction can thou be difficult sometimes, especially among students who have autism.

     

    Conclusions

    Motivated students, special adaptations and reversed and active assistants can probably promote physical activity among these students during P.E lesson. To promote physical activity outside school it’s important that these students get opportunity to meet the voluntary sector. Therefore P.E teachers have to have good contact with different sport associations so they can guide these students to a more physical active lifestyle. A conclusion from the study is that support from teachers and assistants are necessary to promote these students to be physical active in a higher level. It’s also important that these students get "tools" to develop their independent in P.E lessons. The social interaction seems important to promote physical activity even thou it sometimes can be difficult for some students to interact with other students.   

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