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  • 3851. Yu, M
    et al.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Chibalin, A V
    Krook, A
    Zierath, J R
    Marathon running increases ERK1/2 and p38 MAP kinase signalling to downstream targets in human skeletal muscle.2001In: Journal of Physiology, ISSN 0022-3751, E-ISSN 1469-7793, Vol. 536, no Pt 1, p. 273-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. We tested the hypothesis that long-distance running activates parallel mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades that involve extracellular signal regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) and p38 MAPK and their downstream substrates. 2. Eleven men completed a 42.2 km marathon (mean race time 4 h 1 min; range 2 h 56 min to 4 h 33 min). Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were obtained before and after the race. Glycogen content was measured spectrophotometrically. ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK phosphorylation was determined by immunoblot analysis using phosphospecific antibodies. Activation of the downstream targets of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK, MAPK-activated protein kinase-1 (MAPKAP-K1; also called p90 ribosomal S6 kinase, p90rsk), MAPK-activated protein kinase-2 (MAPKAP-K2), mitogen- and stress-activated kinase 1 (MSK1) and mitogen- and stress-activated kinase 2 (MSK2) was determined using immune complex assays. 3. Muscle glycogen content was reduced by 40 +/- 6 % after the marathon. ERK1/2 phosphorylation increased 7.8-fold and p38 MAPK phosphorylation increased 4.4-fold post-exercise. Prolonged running did not alter ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK protein expression. The activity of p90rsk, a downstream target of ERK1/2, increased 2.8-fold after the marathon. The activity of MAPKAPK-K2, a downstream target of p38 MAPK, increased 3.1-fold post-exercise. MSK1 and MSK2 are downstream of both ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK. MSK1 activity increased 2.4-fold post-exercise. MSK2 activity was low, relative to MSK1, with little activation post-exercise. 4. In conclusion, prolonged distance running activates MAPK signalling cascades in skeletal muscle, including increased activity of downstream targets: p90rsk, MAPKAP-K2 and MSK. Activation of these downstream targets provides a potential mechanism by which exercise induces gene transcription in skeletal muscle.

  • 3852. Yu, M
    et al.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Chibalin, A V
    Wallberg-Henriksson, H
    Zierath, J R
    Krook, A
    Exercise-associated differences in an array of proteins involved in signal transduction and glucose transport.2001In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 90, no 1, p. 29-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were obtained from endurance-trained (running approximately 50 km/wk) and untrained (no regular physical exercise) men, and the expression of an array of insulin-signaling intermediates was determined. Expression of insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate-1 and -2 was decreased 44% (P < 0.05), 57% (P < 0.001), and 77% (P < 0.001), respectively, in trained vs. untrained muscle. The downstream signaling target, Akt kinase, was not altered in trained subjects. Components of the mitogenic signaling cascade were also assessed. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase expression was 190% greater (P < 0.05), whereas p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase expression was 32% lower (P < 0.05), in trained vs. untrained muscle. GLUT-4 protein expression was twofold higher (P < 0.05), and the GLUT-4 vesicle-associated protein, the insulin-regulated aminopeptidase, was increased 4.7-fold (P < 0. 05) in trained muscle. In conclusion, the expression of proteins involved in signal transduction is altered in skeletal muscle from well-trained athletes. Downregulation of early components of the insulin-signaling cascade may occur in response to increased insulin sensitivity associated with endurance training.

  • 3853.
    Zakaria, Pascal
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Whole-body kinematics during paddling on kayak ergometer in elite able-bodied athletes: a first step to develop a classification for para-kayak athletes2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The purpose of the study was to define three dimensional range of motion for all major joints (wrist, elbow, shoulder, trunk, pelvis, hip, knee, and ankle) in a group of able-bodied elite canoeists during paddling on a kayak ergometer. An additional purpose was to analyze if the range of motion changed with increased intensity and if there were any differences between body sides during paddling on the ergometer.

    Method

    Ten elite athletes (four women and six men) volunteered for the study (22 ± 3.5 years, 78.3 ± 10.2 kg, 1.79 ± 0.06 m). Three-dimensional kinematic data was recorded using an optoelectronic system and twelve cameras were placed in a circle around the ergometer. Fifty-four reflective markers were attached on the subject and 14 body segments were defined in the model used in the analysis to evaluate range of motion for each joint. Kinematic and force data were collected during paddling on the kayak ergometer at incremental intensities starting at 50 W ("Low") and increased with 50 W until the athlete was not able to hold the predetermined level ("Submaximal"). The participants were asked to maintain each intensity level as stable as possible during at least 20 kayak cycles, i.e. approximately 60 sec during the lowest intensity level. Finally, a maximal test was performed ("Maximal"). Mean values of 10 stroke cycles were used in the statistics.

    Result

    The mean range of motion was for shoulder flexion; 3 – 101°, shoulder abduction; 9–53°, shoulder inward/outward rotation; 39–51°, elbow flexion; 13–118°, wrist palmar/dorsiflexion; 9–31°, wrist radial/ulnar deviation; 9–22°, trunk flex/extension; 8 –1°, trunk rotation left/right; 24–24, trunk lateral bending right/left; 7 – 8°, hip flexion 85-116°, knee flexion; 7–56° and foot flexion 64–91°. When intensity increased the range of motion significantly increased in peak joint angle for shoulder flexion, shoulder inward rotation, trunk- , hip-, knee- and foot flexion. In general, there were no significant differences observed between left and right side for maximal and minimal range of motion.

    Conclusion

    The results from this kinematic study can be used as adequate reference values in the development for an evidence-based classification system for para-canoeists.

  • 3854.
    Zakariasson, Mari
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Nu rullar hjulet: En kvantitativ studie om aktiv transport2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syfte

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka hur studenter i Stockholm transporterar sig till och frånhögskola/universitet samt se deras förändringsbenägenhet att gå från inaktiv transport till aktivtransport.

    Frågeställning

    – Hur tar sig studenterna till sin högskola/universitet?

    – Vad påverkar deras val av transportmedel?

    – Vad kan få dem att välja ett aktivt transportmedel?

    Metod

    En kvantitativ studie genomfördes där datainsamlingsmetoden var en webenkätundersökning viaprogrammet Defgo. Ett riktat urval skedde på målgruppspopulationen där samtliga rektorer förhögskolor samt universitet inom Stockholm stad tillhörande portalen ”Studera i Stockholm”tillfrågades via mail om deltagande, totalt nitton av tjugoen högskolor är anslutna till portalen. Urvalsgruppen kom att bestå av 541 respondenter på enkäten från tolv högskolor av totalt tjugoeninom Stockholm stad. Enkäten utformades utifrån tidigare enkäter inom samma område som grund. En pilotstudie genomfördes i gratisprogrammet SurveyMonkey för att sedan distribuera denslutgiltig version av enkäten via programmet Defgo. Enkäten i sin helhet bestod av 21 frågor medöppna samt givna svarsalternativ. Resultatbearbetningen utfördes i samma program, Defgo. Diagram utformades i Excel.

    Resultat

    Hela 32 % använder sig av lokaltrafiken för att ta sig till sin högskola/universitet, 34 % använderlokaltrafiken i kombination med promenad, 5 % använder lokaltrafiken i kombination med cykel, 11 % promenerar samt 9 % tar cykeln. Knappt 4 % tar bilen och ingen åker taxi. Lite mer än 3 % tarsig på annat sätt till universitet/högskolan så som lokaltrafik i kombination medskateboard/longboard eller på inlines. Ungefär 70 % väljer det tidseffektivaste ressättet, 41 % väljertransportmedlet utifrån bekvämlighet, medan cirka 30 % väljer det billigaste transportmedlet. 32 % skulle välja annat transportmedel om det innebar en vinst i tid, tidseffektivare transport. 18 % uppgav ett billigare alternativ skulle få respondenterna att byta transportmedel. 74 % uppgav att omderas krav uppfylldes för ett annat transportmedel så var de villiga att byta. 15 % var ej villiga attbyta transportmedel. På frågan om respondenterna kan tänka sig att gå eller cykla, alternativt ikombination med lokaltrafiken, till högskolan/universitetet svarade cirka 70% att de kan tänka sigdet, 6 % svarade nej, medan 11 % svarade kanske.

    Slutsats

    De flesta studenter använder sig av lokaltrafiken för transport till högskola/universitet. Valet avtransport för studenter vid högskola/universitet i Stockholm stad pekar således mot att det somavgör valet av transportmedel är sträckan, tidsåtgång och ekonomin. Förändringsbenägenheten ärstor bland de tillfrågade, att gå från inaktiv till aktiv transport. Förslag ges på implementering avprogram omfattande aktiv transport vid olika högskolor, samt förslag på utbildning om aktivtransport, för att få fler studenter delaktiga och mer fysiskt aktiva. Program av dessa slag kan varaav betydelse för att få fler studenter att promenera eller cykla till sina studier.

  • 3855.
    Zetterlund, Kristina
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Finns preventiva strategier mot muskelskada i lårets baksida hos fotbollsspelare i allsvenskan?: En enkätstudie2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of this study was to investigate if the Swedish elite soccer teams, both males and females, have preventive strategies to reduce the risk of muscular injuries in the posterior thigh.

    Method

    A survey was created and sent by mail to all (n=28) Swedish elite soccer teams in allsvenskan (both males and females) to be answered by the head of physical exercise within each team. A pilot study regarding the survey was performed by two soccer coaches on elite level and was revised afterwards. The survey was conducted between May through July 2013. In total, 18 soccer teams participated in this survey.

    Results

    10 soccer teams did not respond to the survey, which resulted in a drop out of 36%. Preventive strategies to reduce the risk of muscular injuries in the posterior thigh existed in 16 of the teams. The strategy included both specific and complex and were performed during both pre-season and match play. The most frequent specific exercises performed were; bridging (pre-season n=9/match play n=8), Nordic hamstring (n=7/n=4) and leg-curl on a balance ball (n=6/n=4). The most common complex exercises performed were; single limb balance (pre-season n=11/match play n=10), split squats (n=9/n=9) and Romanian deadlifts (n=6/n=4). Eleven teams also used screening as a method to identify players at risk of injury. Active range of motion in the lower extremity was the most common screening method.

    Conclusions

    In 16 of the teams there existed a preventive strategy consisting of both specific and complex exercises that were performed during both pre-season and match play to prevent muscle injuries in the posterior thigh. Two thirds of the teams used screening to identify players at risk of muscle injury in the posterior thigh.

  • 3856.
    Zhou, Guang-Quan
    et al.
    Southeast University, Nanjing, China.
    Zhang, Yi
    Southeast University, Nanjing, China.
    Wang, Ruo-Li
    Karolinska Institute & Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Zhou, Ping
    Southeast University, Nanjing, China.
    Zheng, Yong-Ping
    The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Hong Kong.
    Tarassova, Olga
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Arndt, Anton
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control. Karolinska Institute.
    Chen, Qiang
    Southeast University, Nanjing, China.
    Automatic Myotendinous Junction Tracking in Ultrasound Images with Phase-Based Segmentation.2018In: BioMed Research International, ISSN 2314-6133, E-ISSN 2314-6141, article id 3697835Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Displacement of the myotendinous junction (MTJ) obtained by ultrasound imaging is crucial to quantify the interactive length changes of muscles and tendons for understanding the mechanics and pathological conditions of the muscle-tendon unit during motion. However, the lack of a reliable automatic measurement method restricts its application in human motion analysis. This paper presents an automated measurement of MTJ displacement using prior knowledge on tendinous tissues and MTJ, precluding the influence of nontendinous components on the estimation of MTJ displacement. It is based on the perception of tendinous features from musculoskeletal ultrasound images using Radon transform and thresholding methods, with information about the symmetric measures obtained from phase congruency. The displacement of MTJ is achieved by tracking manually marked points on tendinous tissues with the Lucas-Kanade optical flow algorithm applied over the segmented MTJ region. The performance of this method was evaluated on ultrasound images of the gastrocnemius obtained from 10 healthy subjects (26.0±2.9 years of age). Waveform similarity between the manual and automatic measurements was assessed by calculating the overall similarity with the coefficient of multiple correlation (CMC).<italic> In vivo</italic> experiments demonstrated that MTJ tracking with the proposed method (CMC = 0.97±0.02) was more consistent with the manual measurements than existing optical flow tracking methods (CMC = 0.79±0.11). This study demonstrated that the proposed method was robust to the interference of nontendinous components, resulting in a more reliable measurement of MTJ displacement, which may facilitate further research and applications related to the architectural change of muscles and tendons. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

  • 3857. Zinner, Christoph
    et al.
    Morales-Alamo, David
    Ørtenblad, Niels
    Larsen, Filip J
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Research group for Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Schiffer, Tomas A
    Willis, Sarah J
    Gelabert-Rebato, Miriam
    Perez-Valera, Mario
    Boushel, Robert
    Calbet, Jose A L
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    The Physiological Mechanisms of Performance Enhancement with Sprint Interval Training Differ between the Upper and Lower Extremities in Humans.2016In: Frontiers in Physiology, ISSN 1664-042X, E-ISSN 1664-042X, Vol. 7, article id 426Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the differences in adaptation of arm and leg muscles to sprint training, over a period of 11 days 16 untrained men performed six sessions of 4-6 × 30-s all-out sprints (SIT) with the legs and arms, separately, with a 1-h interval of recovery. Limb-specific VO2peak, sprint performance (two 30-s Wingate tests with 4-min recovery), muscle efficiency and time-trial performance (TT, 5-min all-out) were assessed and biopsies from the m. vastus lateralis and m. triceps brachii taken before and after training. VO2peak and Wmax increased 3-11% after training, with a more pronounced change in the arms (P < 0.05). Gross efficiency improved for the arms (+8.8%, P < 0.05), but not the legs (-0.6%). Wingate peak and mean power outputs improved similarly for the arms and legs, as did TT performance. After training, VO2 during the two Wingate tests was increased by 52 and 6% for the arms and legs, respectively (P < 0.001). In the case of the arms, VO2 was higher during the first than second Wingate test (64 vs. 44%, P < 0.05). During the TT, relative exercise intensity, HR, VO2, VCO2, VE, and Vt were all lower during arm-cranking than leg-pedaling, and oxidation of fat was minimal, remaining so after training. Despite the higher relative intensity, fat oxidation was 70% greater during leg-pedaling (P = 0.017). The aerobic energy contribution in the legs was larger than for the arms during the Wingate tests, although VO2 for the arms was enhanced more by training, reducing the O2 deficit after SIT. The levels of muscle glycogen, as well as the myosin heavy chain composition were unchanged in both cases, while the activities of 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA-dehydrogenase and citrate synthase were elevated only in the legs and capillarization enhanced in both limbs. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that the variables that predict TT performance differ for the arms and legs. The primary mechanism of adaptation to SIT by both the arms and legs is enhancement of aerobic energy production. However, with their higher proportion of fast muscle fibers, the arms exhibit greater plasticity.

  • 3858.
    Zitek, Martin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Elevers motivation till idrott och hälsa2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim was to examine the relationship between students’ motivation for physical education (PE) and:  i) habits regarding physical activity during leisure time; and ii) parents’ commitment towards PE. The study is based on the self-determination theory (SDT).

    Method: High school students (n = 147) answered a self-report questionnaire about physical activity habits and parent’s involvement. Data were analyzed by correlations, multiple regression analysis and MANOVA.

    Results: Subtile interrelations were found between students’ motivation and level of physical activity. Students who were physically active more frequently also tended to be more autonomous motivated for the subject compared with none-physically active. Subtile interrelations were also obtained between type of motivation and parental involvement.

    Conclusions: Autonomous motivation seems beneficial in relation to student’s level of physical activity and in relation to parental involvement. It is proposed that PE should promote psychological needs within SDT, to further autonomous motivation and healthy behaviors.

  • 3859.
    Zoellner, Anja
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Post-activation Potentiation: Effects on performance, tensile, and contractile properties of the plantar flexor muscles2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 3860.
    Zoellner, Anja
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Validity and Reliability of Two Methods of Calculating Leg Power: Force plate only vs combined force plate and motion analysis2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of this study was to compare the reliability and describe the concurrent validity of two methods of measuring leg power; the use of a force plate only and the combination of force plate and motion analysis data.

    Methods

    Eight female second division volleyball players (Mean±SD: Age: 26.5±3.93 years, height: 1.70±0.053m, weight: 65.9±11.1kg) participated in two testing sessions, separated by one to six weeks. In each testing session participants performed three squat jumps (SJ) and three countermovement jumps (CMJ), with leg power for all jumps calculated both from force plate data only, and using force plate data combined with displacement data from motion analysis. Statistics calculated were t-test, intra-class correlation (ICC), and Bland-Atman plots.

    Results

    While the ICC of the calculated peak power using the two methods was moderate to high (ranging 0.715-0.847) for all jumps, the peak power was always significantly lower using the combined method indicating poor concurrent validity. Leg power decreased from test to retest in both CMJ and SJ, using both methods of calculation, although this decrease was only significant in the SJ using the combined method. The force plate only method showed no significant difference between test and retest, with a small bias (indicating a small systematic error) and a strong test retest correlation in both SJ and CMJ. However, both of these jumps also had quite a large range in the limits of agreements in the Bland-Altman plots. Peak power calculated using the combined method of force plate and motion analysis data showed a greater difference between test and retest values, significant in SJ and tending towards significance in CMJ. This indicates a greater systematic error than in the force plate only method. However, it still had a strong correlation and the range of the limits of agreement was slightly smaller than it was when using the force plate only, indicating a smaller random error.

    Conclusions

    The systematic differences between test and retest for the two tests indicates that the true peak power achieved by the subjects of the subjects in this study was lower in the retest. The ICC values still indicate results from this study suggest that reliability is acceptable for both methods. Limits of agreement and CI of the mean differences are presented to guide interpretation of individual and group data respectively. Either method could be used to test leg power, but the results from different methods should not be used interchangeably.

  • 3861.
    Zou, Ding
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Wennman, Heini
    National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Grote, Ludger
    University of Gothenburg.
    Arvidsson, Daniel
    University of Gothenburg.
    Blomberg, Anders
    Umeå University.
    Torén, Kjell
    University of Gothenburg.
    Bergström, Göran
    University of Gothenburg.
    Börjesson, Mats
    University of Gothenburg.
    Hedner, Jan
    University of Gothenburg.
    Insomnia and cardiorespiratory fitness in a middle-aged population: the SCAPIS pilot study.2019In: Sleep and Breathing, ISSN 1520-9512, E-ISSN 1522-1709, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 319-326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The relationship between insomnia and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular disease, has not been extensively studied. We aimed to assess the independent association between insomnia and CRF in a population-based cohort of subjects aged 50 to 64 years.

    METHODS: Subjects participating in the Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImaging Study (SCAPIS) pilot cohort (n = 603, men 47.9%) underwent a submaximal cycle ergometer test for estimation of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). Data on physical activity and sedentary time were collected via waist-worn accelerometers. An insomnia severity index score ≥ 10 was used to define insomnia.

    RESULTS: Insomnia was identified in 31.8% of the population. The VO2max was significantly lower in insomnia subjects compared with the non-insomnia group (31.2 ± 6.3 vs. 32.4 ± 6.5 ml* kg-1 *min-1, p = 0.028). There was no difference in objectively assessed physical activity or time spent sedentary between the groups. In a multivariate generalized linear model adjusting for confounders, an independent association between insomnia status and lower VO2max was found in men, but not in women (β = - 1.15 [95% CI - 2.23-- 0.06] and - 0.09 [- 1.09-0.92], p = 0.038 and 0.866, respectively).

    CONCLUSIONS: We found a modest, but significant, association between insomnia and lower CRF in middle-aged men, but not in women. Our results suggest that insomnia may link to cardiovascular disease via reduced CRF. Insomnia may require a specific focus in the context of health campaigns addressing CRF.

  • 3862.
    Zuidersma, Marij
    et al.
    University of Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Sjöberg, Linnea
    Karolinska institutet.
    Pantzar, Alexandra
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Fratiglioni, Laura
    Karolinska institutet.
    Wang, Hui-Xin
    Karolinska institutet.
    A bi-factor model of the Montgomery Åsberg depression rating scale and future cognitive impairments in older adults: A 6-year follow-up study.2019In: Journal of Psychiatric Research, ISSN 0022-3956, E-ISSN 1879-1379, Vol. 109, p. 1-9, article id S0022-3956(18)30418-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Depression has been found to be associated with cognitive decline. This study evaluated the association of general depressive symptoms and motivational-related symptoms with cognitive impairment 6 years later and to explore the role of potential underlying mechanisms. In 2690 cognitively healthy persons aged ≥60 from the Swedish National study on Aging and Care in Kungsholmen (SNAC-K) depressive symptoms were derived from the Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). Cognitive performance was assessed at baseline and 6 years later in 1810 persons with the Mini Mental State Examination (global cognition), Digit Span Forward (short-term memory), Digit Span Backward (working memory), Clock-test (visuospatial construction), and the 5-item test (immediate and delayed recall). Bi-factor analysis on the MADRS yielded a General Depression factor and an unrelated Motivational factor. After adjusting for demographics, the General Depression factor was only associated with 6-year impairment in delayed recall (OR (95% CI): 1.18 (1.04-1.34)). This association was no longer significant after adjusting for demographics, cardiovascular risk, lifestyle factors and medication use. The Motivational factor was not significantly associated with future cognitive impairments after adjusting for demographics. Concluding, almost all associations of general depressive symptoms and motivational-related symptoms with future cognitive impairments appeared to be confounded by demographics. Only the association of general depressive symptoms with future memory impairments appeared to be explained by a combination of demographics, cardiovascular risk, lifestyle and medication use.

  • 3863.
    Åberg, Anna Cristina
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Care recipients' perceptions of activity-related life space and life satisfaction during and after geriatric rehabilitation.2008In: Quality of Life Research, ISSN 0962-9343, E-ISSN 1573-2649, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 509-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The debate concerning older people's life spaces should be based on subjective priorities of the elderly themselves. The purpose of this study was therefore to improve the understanding of preferences of elderly care recipients regarding activity-related life space (ARLS) and life satisfaction. A mainly qualitative design was used. Fifteen persons aged 80-94 years, undergoing geriatric rehabilitation, were interviewed during hospital stay and on two follow-up occasions after discharge. Transcribed interviews were analyzed in line with the thematic framework approach. The results point to three approaches related to preferences of ARLS: hierarchical limitations, changing continuity, and boundary breaking. Adaptive approaches were employed when physical incapacity was considered a hindrance to activity, adaptations which as a rule resulted in limitations of ARLS preferences. Activity related to the area 'close to one's own body' emerged as one of three identified key activities with importance for life satisfaction, the others being socializing and going out of doors. Continuity of activity in a familiar life space was expressed as a common ideal. If the aim of geriatric rehabilitation is to improve care recipients' life satisfaction, attention needs to be paid to the subjective dimensions of the ARLS in the goal setting.

  • 3864.
    Åberg, Anna Cristina
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Elderly Care Recipients' perceptions of Activity-Related Life Space - A Qualitative Study2007In: International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics VI European Congress. St Petersburg, Russia, July 2007, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 3865.
    Åberg, Anna Cristina
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Gender comparisons of function-related dependence pain and insecurity in geriatric rehabilitation.2006In: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 1650-1977, E-ISSN 1651-2081, Vol. 38, no 1, p. 73-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate possible gender differences regarding the effect of intervention in geriatric rehabilitation, expressed in terms of change in function-related dependence, pain and insecurity. DESIGN: Comparative study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 110 women and 44 men undergoing geriatric rehabilitation. METHODS: Performance-based assessments with use of the General Motor Function assessment scale. Non-parametric statistics were mainly used. RESULTS: The women showed higher degrees of function-related dependence, pain and insecurity on admission than the men. Both women and men displayed significant improvement in all 3 variables during the rehabilitation period. However, the positive changes regarding pain and insecurity were according to the analyses of systematic group changes, at a low degree among the men, probably because of the low levels on admission. Gender comparisons of proportions with positive intervention outcome indicated that a significantly larger proportion of the women showed a positive treatment effect after intervention, with a difference in recovery of 19% in dependence, 23% in pain and 33% in insecurity (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Gender differences in disability, with higher degrees of function-related dependence, pain and insecurity among women on admission for geriatric rehabilitation, can be diminished during the rehabilitation period. These promising results may have relevance for the public health of the elderly population.

  • 3866.
    Åberg, Anna Cristina
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Frykberg, Gunilla Elmgren
    Halvorsen, Kjartan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Medio-lateral stability of sit-to-walk performance in older individuals with and without fear of falling.2010In: Gait & Posture, ISSN 0966-6362, E-ISSN 1879-2219, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 438-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most falls in older people are due to loss of balance during everyday locomotion, e.g., when initiating walking from sitting; sit-to-walk (STW). It has been considered that the broader stride width in walking that is seen in many people with fear of falling (FoF) does not increase stability, but could be predictive of future falls because of increased medio-lateral (ML) velocity of the body centre of mass (CoM). This study was aimed to examine step-, velocity- and stability-related parameters, focusing on ML stability, in STW performance of people with and without FoF. Ten subjects with FoF and 10 matched controls, aged > or = 70 years, were included. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected in a laboratory. Stability parameters were calculated from a formula implying that the vertical projection of the CoM extrapolated by adding its velocity times a factor radicall/g (height of inverted pendulum divided by gravity) should fall within the base of support (BoS). A related spatial margin of stability (SMoS), defined as the minimum distance from the extrapolated CoM (XCoM) to the boundaries of the BoS, was also calculated. In the phase 'seat-off-second-toe-off', the FoF group had significantly (p<0.05) shorter and broader steps, lower forward but similar ML CoM velocity, and broader CoM and XCoM widths. The FoF group therefore exhibited a disproportionately large sideways velocity compared to the controls. This indicates that STW may be a hazardous transfer for older people with FoF, which should be relevant in assessment and training aimed at preventing falls.

  • 3867.
    Åberg, Anna Cristina
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Frykberg, Gunilla
    Hirschfeld, Helga
    Gait initiation from sitting in a 93 year old woman with “fear of falling” - a single case pilot study2006In: JEGM 06: The 1st Joint ESMAC – GCMAS Meeting. Amsterdam, Holland, September 2006, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 3868.
    Åberg, Anna Cristina
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH.
    Lundin-Olsson, Lillemor
    Umeå Universitet.
    Rosendahl, Erik
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Förebygg fall och fallskador i samband med vård.: Nationell satsning för ökad patientsäkerhet.2008Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Sveriges Kommuner och Landsting har tillsammans med landsting och regioner inlett en nationell satsning för att minska vårdskadorna i Sverige. Strategierna är att öka riskmedvetenheten hos alla som kan påverka patientsäkerheten, att förbättra säkerhetskulturen samt att utforma rutiner,  processer och strukturer så att det är lätt att göra rätt och svårt att göra fel. Sist men inte minst ska undersökningar, behandlingar och omvårdnad utgå från vetenskap och beprövad erfarenhet.

  • 3869.
    Åberg, Anna Cristina
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Lundin-Olsson, Lillemor
    Rosendahl, Erik
    Implementation of evidence-based prevention of falls in rehabilitation units: a staff's interactive approach.2009In: Journal of rehabilitation medicine : official journal of the UEMS European Board of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 1651-2081, Vol. 41, no 13, p. 1034-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A well-developed patient safety culture focusing on prevention of falls will, when successfully achieved, be seen by staff, patients and their significant others as being characteristic of the organization, and will be evident in attitudes, routines and actions. Moreover, it provides potential for positive side-effects concerning organizational and clinical improvements in additional areas.

  • 3870.
    Åberg, Anna Cristina
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Thorstensson, Alf
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Tarassova, Olga
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Halvorsen, Kjartan
    School of Technology and Health, KTH-Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Calculations of mechanisms for balance control during narrow and single-leg standing in fit older adults: A reliability study.2011In: Gait & Posture, ISSN 0966-6362, E-ISSN 1879-2219, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 352-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For older people balance control in standing is critical for performance of activities of daily living without falling. The aims were to investigate reliability of quantification of the usage of the two balance mechanisms M1 ‘moving the centre of pressure’ and M2 ‘segment acceleration’ and also to compare calculation methods based on a combination of kinetic (K) and kinematic (Km) data, (K–Km), or Km data only concerning M2. For this purpose nine physically fit persons aged 70–78 years were tested in narrow and single-leg standing. Data were collected by a 7-camera motion capture system and two force plates. Repeated measure ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc tests were used to detect differences between the standing tasks. Reliability was estimated by ICCs, standard error of measurement including its 95% CI, and minimal detectable change, whereas Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to investigate agreement between the two calculation methods. The results indicated that for the tasks investigated, M1 and M2 can be measured with acceptable inter- and intrasession reliability, and that both Km and K–Km based calculations may be useful for M2, although Km data may give slightly lower values. The proportional M1:M2 usage was approximately 9:1, in both anterio-posterior (AP) and medio-lateral (ML) directions for narrow standing, and about 2:1 in the AP and of 1:2 in the ML direction in single-leg standing, respectively. In conclusion, the tested measurements and calculations appear to constitute a reliable way of quantifying one important aspect of balance capacity in fit older people.

  • 3871.
    Åberg, John
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Fotbollsmålvakters rörelsemönster: En deskriptiv videoanalys av herrmålvakter säsongen 20132014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med denna undersökning var att studera rörelsemönster och ingripanden hos en Allsvensk toppklubbs herrfotbollsmålvakter under matcher säsongen 2013. Studien är en fallstudie av deskriptiv karaktär. Följande frågeställningar formulerades:

     Vilka aktioner används av målvakter i försvars- respektive anfallsspel?

     Vilka faktorer och aktioner är det som inverkar mest på målvakten i samband med insläppta mål?

    Metod

    För att besvara syftet och frågeställningarna har videoinspelningar av målvakters agerande under matcher gjorts. Studien omfattade tre herrmålvakter i en Allsvensk toppklubb under säsongen 2013. Med hjälp av tidigare utförda studier och kontakt med olika aktörer, förbund, kommittéer samt individer, gavs möjligheten att skapa en struktur för vilka egenskaper och kapaciteter som skulle analyseras vid granskningen av de gjorda videoinspelningarna. För varje match studerades vilka och hur många aktioner målvakterna utfördes, både i försvars- och anfallsspel samt deras aktionstid. Dessutom analyserades målvakternas agerande i samband med insläppta mål.

    Resultat

    Den mest och minst förekommande försvarsaktionen var när målvakten hoppade i sidled (61,9 gånger/match) respektive gjorde en box (0,4 gånger/match). Vid anfallsaktioner var den mest och minst använda en utspark (13,4 gånger/match) respektive en inpass (2,4 gånger/match). Förhållandet mellan dessa två grupper visa att en match består utav 75 % försvarsaktioner och 25 % anfallsaktioner. De aktioner och faktorer som inverkade mest på målvakterna i samband med insläppta mål var dels missbedömningar av situationer som ledde till antingen ingen aktion alls eller till en felaktig aktion, dels långsamma förflyttningar som ledde till felaktiga aktioner.

    Slutsats

    Slutsatsen av studien är att fler matcher och betydligt fler målvakter måste ingå i en undersökning av detta slag för att resultaten skulle kunna ligga till grund för att skapa en kravprofil för fotbollsmålvakter.

  • 3872.
    Åberg, Katja
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    En kvantitativ studie hos tennisspelare: en studie om tennisskador hos tävlingsspelare2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med denna studie var att kartlägga skador hos tävlingsaktiva tennisspelare.

    ·        Vilka är de vanligaste tennisskadorna?

    ·        Får kvinnor och män olika typer av skador?

    ·        Hur varierar skadelokalisation och skaderisk mellan olika spelunderlag?

    ·        Hur stor andel av skadorna är kroniska kontra akuta?

    Metod

    En kvantitativ undersökning genomfördes där enkäter skickades till 160 licensierade tävlingsaktiva tennisspelande män och kvinnor i division 1-3, i åldrarna 18-54 år. Enkätfrågorna berörde tennisspelarnas eventuella skador som uppkommit från tennisen. Enkätsvaren behandlades statistiskt med hjälp av SPSS och signifikansnivån sattes till p≤0,05.

    Resultat

    SPSS- bearbetningen av enkätsvaren från tennisspelarna visade att knäskador, armbågsskador samt axelskador var främst förekommande. De vanligaste skadorna bland männen var knä-, armbågs- och axelskador och hos kvinnorna hand-, armbågs- och fotskador. Det fanns ingen statistiskt säkerhetsställd skillnad mellan könen i incidensen av skador på någon av kroppsområdena. De flesta av skadorna inträffade på hardcourt. Merparten av knäskadorna uppstod akut. Bland armbågsskadorna så väl som axelskador var en signifikant större andel kroniska.

    Slutsats

    Den kvantitativa enkätstudien ger ungefär samma resultat som tidigare forskning: knä-, armbågs- och axelskador är vanligt förekommande skador. Enkätresultaten stämmer väl överens med de skador som enligt tidigare forskning uppstår hos motionärer. Att de flesta skador sker på hardcourt, kan bero att hardcourt är det vanligaste spelunderlaget bland spelarna i denna undersökning. Männen hade procentuellt något fler skador än kvinnorna men visar inte på några statistiska säkerhetsställda skillnader mellan könen. Den procentuella skillnaden mellan könen kan bero på att männen är genomsnittligt något äldre än kvinnorna i undersökningen samt att fler män svarade på enkäten.

     

  • 3873.
    Åbom, Lisa
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Sharro, Jessy
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    "Jag borde utnyttja deras kunskaper": En studie om lärares möte med nyanlända elever i undervisnigen i idrott och hälsa utifrån ett interkulturellt perspektiv2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The overall aim of the study is to examine the challenges teachers in the subject sports and health is facing in their teaching with newly arrived students. To answer the aim of the study, we have chosen to be based on the following questions: How do teachers describe their work with newly-arrived student in the subject sports and health? -What educational tools do the teachers mention that they use in their work with newly arrived students? – What support do the teachers asks for in the work with newly arrived students?

    Method

    We have been collected qualitative data through semi-structured interviews to examine teachers ' meeting with newly arrived students in the subject of sport and health. The selection has been strategically and consists of six physical education teachers who works with newly arrived students. The collected empirical data has been analyzed from an intercultural perspective using the analyses concepts normative, critical and innovative.

    Results

    The results shows that the teachers challenges is to mediate the subject's purpose, get the students to reflect, language difficulties, swimming and girls ' approach to sport and movement. Through educational tools, such as customization and alternative explanatory models do teachers make their teaching more comprehensible to students. All teacher mentions that they have not been prepared to teach newly arrived. They want a forum for exchange of experience with discussions between colleagues about the work of newly arrived students.

    Conclusions

    The challenges that the teachers testify is largely linked to the students ' past experiences and cultural values that permeate the school community both in Sweden and in the students' countries of origin. The teachers are positive and reflect an open-minded and curious approach to students ' diverse cultures. They are also try to use students ' experiences as teaching tools. There are examples of an intercultural approach in the teachers ' statements but in most cases teachers ' descriptions of their work methods stops at a depictions of cultural meetings.

  • 3874.
    Åkerlundh, Susanna
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Barn med övervikt och fetma: en jämförelse av upplevelser av skolidrott och vattengymnastik2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka hur barn med överviktigt och fetma upplever skolidrotten jämfört med ett vattengymnastikpass specifikt för just barn med övervikt.

    Frågeställningar:

    • Hur upplever barnen aktiviteterna på skolidrotten jämfört med aktiviteterna på vattengymnastiken?

    • Hur upplever barnen kamraterna i skolan jämfört med kamraterna på vattengymnastiken?

    • Hur upplever barnen läraren i skolidrotten jämfört med ledaren i vattengymnastiken?

    • Hur upplever barnen lokalerna i skolan jämfört med lokalerna på vattengymnastiken?

    Metod

    För att besvara frågeställningarna genomfördes en kvalitativ studie med öppna, ostrukturerade intervjuer. Jag vände mig till en vattengymnastikgrupp för barn med övervikt och fetma och frågade om tillstånd att intervjua dem. Fem intervjuer genomfördes varav en inte gav några väsentliga svar alls så den används inte utan klassas som externt bortfall.

    De övriga fyra intervjuerna skrevs ner, svaren analyserades och användes sedan för att besvara frågeställningarna.

    Resultat

    Generellt så skiljer sig aktiviteterna ganska mycket åt. Informant A och D som går i skolår 1 respektive 2 tycker att aktiviteterna i skolidrotten är roligast medan informant B och C som går i skolår 6 respektive 7 föredrar aktiviteterna på vattengymnastiken.

    Alla fyra informanterna känner sina klasskamrater bättre och har fler bättre kamrater där som de umgås med på fritiden än i vattengymnastikgruppen. Samarbetet på idrottstimmarna fungerar bra. Generellt sett så brukar de inte prata så mycket i samband med vattengymnastikpassen.

    Alla informanterna har okej eller bra idrottslärare som de är nöjda med. Alla är nöjda med ledaren i vattengymnastiken. Det är ingen som tycker att de får för lite uppmärksamhet på lektionerna eller vattengymnastikpassen.

    Barnen är överlag nöjda med lokalerna. Det enda negativa är att informant B tycker det finns för få duschar på vattengymnastiken och informant D tycker att skolidrottens omklädningsrum är för små och att bassängen på vattengymnastiken kunde vara större

    Slutsats

    Tre av barnen i studien är positivt inställda till fysisk aktivitet och tycker om både skolidrotten och vattengymnastiken och att det är roligt. Det fjärde barnet är inte lika positiv till skolidrotten som de andra men däremot till fysisk aktivitet och vattengymnastiken . Två informanter föredrar skolidrotten och två föredrar vattengymnastiken. De har övervägande bra upplevelser av båda aktiviteterna och det är deras personliga smak som avgör vilken de föredrar.

  • 3875.
    Åkerman Sandberg, Christoffer
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Sörndal, Gustav
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Padelns bidrag till den samtida rörelsekulturen: En kvalitativ intervjustudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att genom en kvalitativ intervjustudie med padelutövare undersöka vilka möjligheter padel har att växa som sport i Sverige.

    Som frågeställningar har följande valts ut: 1. Vad lockar människor att utöva padel? 2. Vilka utövar padel? 3. Vad har padel att erbjuda den samtida rörelsekulturen och skolämnet idrott och hälsa i Sverige?

    Metod

    Uppsatsen har använt sig av en kvalitativ intervjustudie där intervjuer tog plats med 6 padelutövare i en medelstor stad i Sverige. Intervjuerna utgick ifrån semistrukturerade intervjufrågor som gav möjlighet att formulera frågorna på lite annorlunda sätt beroende på vad deltagaren svarade. Dessa frågor var förberedda och strukturerade i olika teman. Urvalet till deltagarna i intervjuerna gjordes med hjälp av ett strategiskt urval.

    Resultat

    Enligt resultatet har padel ett flertal egenskaper som visat sig tidigare haft stor betydelse i en sports framväxt. Samtidigt uppkommer även olikheter och eventuella hinder. Resultatet visar att padel erbjuder det svenska folket en god motionsmiljö då sporten är social och har en bred kravnivå. I stort sätt alla kan spela padel då den inte kräver hög fysisk ansträngning på motionärsnivå samtidigt som padel kräver hög ansträngning på elitnivå.

    Slutsats

    Studien ger en fördjupad vetenskap kring ämnet då alla deltagare var väl insatta i ämnet och gav utförliga svar. Tydliga kopplingar till bakgrunden från andra sporter ger förståelse för varför padel anses vara den snabbast växande sporten i Sverige 2016. Dels genom att padel upplevs vara en mycket social sport vilket det svenska folket lägger stor vikt på den sociala faktorn vid val av sport. Men främst att man upplever att man är bra på sporten relativt fort.

  • 3876.
    Åkesdotter, Cecilia
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Affect, Engagement and Reaction time in Swedish elite Athletes: A randomized control study regarding the effects of a Self-regulation training log2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The study had the aim to increase knowledge of characteristics possessed by Swedish elite athletes. More specific the level of affect, athlete engagement and reaction time were investigated. A second aim was to test if a reflective training log based on principles from self-regulation could influence these variables.

     

    Questions part one: Baseline

    • What are the level of affect, athlete engagement and reaction time in a sample of Swedish elite athletes?
    • How strong are the correlations between these variables?

    Questions part two: Intervention

    • Does a self-regulation training log effect athlete engagement, affect or reaction time in Swedish elite athletes?
    • Is there a difference if the reflections are based on either personal strengths or weaknesses?
    • How do the athletes perceive the use of a self-regulation training log?

    Method/Experiment design

    The general outline is a randomized controlled trial on a population of Swedish elite athletes using a baseline measurement and an intervention consisting of two experiments (EG1; EG2) and one placebo group (PG). Eligibility criteria for participants were a membership in Sport Campus Sweden (SCS). The data were collected in the participants own home or current location using correspondence by mail/e-mail and a web-based test platform provided by Hogrefe psykologiförlag. A simple 1:1:1 randomization was used for allocation. Only previously tested and validated measurements were used (PANAS; AEQ; CompACT simple RT). 40 athletes performed the baseline registration of reaction time and 32 persons participated in the measurements of affect and athlete engagement. 23 athletes completed all stages of the one month intervention including pre and post-tests.

    EG1 (reflections on personal weaknesses) N=6; EG2 (reflections on personal strengths) N=8;

    PG (writing down time spent by watching TV or by the computer as a placebo) N=9.

     

    Result

    Part 1 showed that Swedish elite athletes outperformed 91 % of a normative sample in reaction time. They were also more stable than 87 % of the norm. Correlation analysis show a strong significant correlation between positive affect and athlete engagement (0.74) (p=0.00). In Part 2 the training log intervention showed no significant results in affect, athlete engagement or reaction time. There were no differences if the reflections were based on personal strengths or weaknesses. In general the athletes perceived the self-regulation training log as rewarding and easy to use.

     

    Conclusions

    Swedish elite athletes have a superior reaction time compared to a normative sample and are also more stable in their reactions. They experience a high level of positive affect and athlete engagement and these variables are also strongly correlated. A self-regulation training log did not show any results on affect, athlete engagement or reaction time. The training log got positive feedback. Consequences of these findings are discussed.

  • 3877.
    Åkesdotter, Cecilia
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Does Writing Down Positive Self Talk – Self Reflection Affect Reaction Time?: A laboratory experiment with young Swedish athletes2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of this study is to evaluate if positive Self-talk (ST) or Self-Reflection (SR) by writing in a training diary can affect Reaction Time (RT) in young Swedish Athletes.

     

    Does reaction time change between the pre-test and the post-tests?

     

    Is there a difference in reaction time changes between groups when the positive ST group and the SR group are compared to the control group?

     

    How did the athletes experience the intervention?

     

    Experiment design

    This study is a randomized laboratory experiment. It is a between subjects design and therefore differences will only be seen on a group level. The participants N=29 were male and female 16 year old athletes. They were randomized in to two experiment groups (EG 1, EG 2) and a control group (CG), males and females were evenly distributed between groups. First two different (RT) tests were conducted with a computer program for all participants (Simple RT and 4Choice RT). After this an intervention of positive ST (EG1) or SR (EG2) was conducted with the use of training diaries for one week. The CG wrote down their habits of watching TV and this was used as a placebo. A re-test of RT was conducted after the completion of the intervention. After this an inquiry was handed to the participants to address their thoughts about using the diary and if they believed it could affect their performance.

     

    Results

    EG2 was the only group that provided a statistically significant decrease in RT time compared to the pre-test in both simple RT (p=0.028) and choice (p=0.018). No statistical significant differences in RT were found in EG1 or in the CG when comparing pre-and post tests of both simple and choice RT.

    Comparing between groups showed no statistical significant difference in improved RT between the CG and EG 1 in simple RT or in 4choice RT. A statistical significant difference in improved RT was found between CG and EG2 in choice RT (p=0.003) where the EG 2 had a statistical significant improvement in RT compared to the CG. Comparing simple RT no statistical significant differences was found between EG2 and CG.

    The three groups experienced using the diary in a similar way. In general they found the diary intervention somewhat giving and believed that the diary could have a little affect on performance. Interesting to notice is that the participators that wrote down their TV habits believed this could have the same impact on performance as the participators writing down positive ST or SR.

     

    Conclusions

    A connection was found between strategies of SR an RT. These results are analyzed regarding the theoretical framework provided by Self-determination theory, information processing and focus of attention. Strength and weakness is discussed and the conclusion is that more and reproduced studies are needed to determine the connection between interventions positive ST, SR and RT. If a training diary would be used in a team or a club some modifications should be done to make them more meaningful for the athletes.

  • 3878.
    Åkesdotter, Cecilia
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Elitens osynliga ohälsa2016In: Idrottsforskning, ISSN 2002-3944, article id 11 januariArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Cirka 30 procent av svenska elitidrottare har upplevt psykisk ohälsa under karriären, visar ny forskning. Elitidrottare lider sannolikt av psykisk ohälsa i samma eller något högre grad än normalbefolkningen. De som drabbas lider ofta i det tysta och avstår dessutom från söka hjälp för sina problem.

  • 3879.
    Åkesdotter, Cecilia
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Vikten av återhämtning2018In: Idrottens träning, Stockholm: SISU idrottsböcker , 2018, p. 137-151Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Det är en utmaning att hitta en balans mellan hög träningsbelastning och återhämtning. Är idrottare lika bra på högkvalitativ vila och återhämtning som de är på att träna? För många kan det finnas vinster att göra både gällande prestation och hälsa om den fysiska och psykologiska återhämtningen uppgraderas. Detta kapitel vänder sig till dig som är tränare för idrottare som tränar för att prestera och tävla, och där balansen mellan belastning och återhämtning blir mycket viktig både ur prestations- och hälsosynpunkt

  • 3880.
    Åkesdotter, Cecilia
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Balans, återhämtning och utveckling i rollen som tränare2018In: Idrottens ledarskap, Stockholm: SISU idrottsböcker , 2018, p. 111-125Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Tränare behöver precis som idrottare hitta vägar för att utvecklas, må bra och prestera över tid. [...] Detta kapitel handlar om hur viktigt det är att ha en balanserad totalbelastning vilket innebär att de grundläggande förutsättningarna finns på plats: äta bra, sova och ha möjlighet till psykosocial återhämtning.

  • 3881.
    Åkesdotter, Cecilia
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Elitens osynliga ohälsa2015In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 32-35Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Cirka 30 procent av svenska elitidrottare har upplevt psykisk ohälsa under karriären, visar ny forskning. Elitidrottare lider sannolikt av psykisk ohälsa i samma eller något högre grad än normalbefolkningen. De som drabbas lider ofta i det tysta och avstår dessutom från söka hjälp för sina problem.

  • 3882.
    Åkesdotter, Cecilia
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Idrottens psykologi2018In: Specialidrott: Tränings- och tävlingslära, Stockholm: SISU idrottsböcker , 2018, p. 109-141Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 3883.
    Åman, Malin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Acute sports injuries in Sweden and their possible prevention: an epidemiological study using insurance data2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Physical activity is an essential component of a healthy life, e.g. to prevent obesity, cardiovascular disease and premature death, of which sports can be an important part. Unfortunately, sports activities increase the risk of both overuse and acute injuries. Severe acute injuries may also lead to a permanent medical impairment (PMI), which may influence the ability to be physically active throughout life. However, sports injuries may be prevented, but a profound understanding of the injuries and how to prevent them is needed.

    This doctoral thesis examine acute sports injuries reported by licensed athletes of all ages and level of sports nationwide in Sweden, by using national insurance data. Approximately 80% of all the Sports Federations (SF) had their mandatory accident insurance in the insurance company Folksam, and since there is no national sports injury surveillance system in Sweden, this is a unique database, able to be used in epidemiological studies on acute injuries occurring in organized sports in Sweden. The main aim of this thesis was to identify high-risk sports for acute injuries, the most common and the most severe injuries, especially in large sports with numerous licensed athletes, many injuries and injuries resulting in PMI. Based on the results, there will be recommendations regarding sports and body locations where injury prevention efforts should be focused to gain the greatest prevention effect at a national level in Sweden. Another aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of a neuromuscular knee control training program (KCP) that has been implemented nationwide to reduce knee and cruciate ligament injuries, among football players in Sweden.

    After evaluating the validity and reliability of the information within the database based on international guidelines, acute injury data were examined and the results presented in four papers. These results showed that there is a need of injury prevention especially in motorcycle sports, team ball sports, and ice hockey. Particularly, knee injuries need to be prevented since they were both the most common injuries and leading to PMI. The severe head- and upper limb injuries also need attention. Sixty-nine percent of the PMI injured athletes, were younger than 25 years. The injury prevention training program, KCP can be considered partially implemented nationwide, since 21 out of 24 district SFs provided KCP educations. The incidence of knee and cruciate ligament injuries has decreased among football players in Sweden. A concerning aspect is that there is no national official policy regarding sports injury and injury prevention in Sweden, nor an official authority that has the explicit responsibility for these issues.

  • 3884.
    Åman, Malin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Forssblad, M
    Karolinska institutet.
    Henriksson-Larsén, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Incidence and severity of reported acute sports injuries in 35 sports using insurance registry data2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 451-462Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Acute injuries in sport are still a problem where limited knowledge of incidence and severity in different sports at national level exists. In Sweden, 80% of the sports federations have their mandatory injury insurance for all athletes in the same insurance company and injury data are systematically kept in a national database. The aim of the study was to identify high-risk sports with respect to incidence of acute and severe injuries in 35 sports reported to the database. The number and incidences of injuries as well as injuries leading to permanent medical impairment (PMI) were calculated during 2008–2011. Each year approximately 12 000 injuries and 1 162 660 licensed athletes were eligible for analysis. Eighty-five percent of the injuries were reported in football, ice hockey, floorball, and handball. The highest injury incidence as well as PMI was in motorcycle, handball, skating, and ice hockey. Females had higher risk of a PMI compared with males in automobile sport, handball, floorball, and football. High-risk sports with numerous injuries and high incidence of PMI injuries were motorcycle, handball, ice hockey, football, floorball, and automobile sports. Thus, these sports ought to be the target of preventive actions at national level.

  • 3885.
    Åman, Malin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Forssblad, M
    Karolinska institutet.
    Larsén, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH.
    Acute injuries in floorball, football, handball and ice hockey at a national level and recommended prevention measuresManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 3886.
    Åman, Malin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Forssblad, M
    Karolinska institutet.
    Larsén, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Incidence and body location of reported acute sport injuries in seven sports using a national insurance database.2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 1147-1158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sports with high numbers of athletes and acute injuries are an important target for preventive actions at a national level. Both for the health of the athlete and to reduce costs associated with injury. The aim of this study was to identify injuries where injury prevention should focus, in order to have major impact on decreasing acute injury rates at a national level. All athletes in the seven investigated sport federations (automobile sports, basketball, floorball, football (soccer), handball, ice hockey, and motor sports) were insured by the same insurance company. Using this insurance database, the incidence and proportion of acute injuries, and injuries leading to permanent medical impairment (PMI), at each body location, was calculated. Comparisons were made between sports, sex, and age. In total, there were 84 754 registered injuries during the study period (year 2006-2013). Athletes in team sports, except in male ice hockey, had the highest risk to sustain an injury and PMI in the lower limb. Females had higher risk of injury and PMI in the lower limb compared to males, in all sports except in ice hockey. This study recommends that injury prevention at national level should particularly focus on lower limb injuries. In ice hockey and motor sports, head/neck and upper limb injuries also need attention.

  • 3887.
    Åman, Malin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Forssblad, Magnus
    Henriksson-Larsén, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Insurance claims data: a possible solution for a national sports injury surveillance system? An evaluation of data information against ASIDD and consensus statements on sports injury surveillance.2014In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 4, no 6, p. e005056-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Before preventive actions can be suggested for sports injuries at the national level, a solid surveillance system is required in order to study their epidemiology, risk factors and mechanisms. There are guidelines for sports injury data collection and classifications in the literature for that purpose. In Sweden, 90% of all athletes (57/70 sports federations) are insured with the same insurance company and data from their database could be a foundation for studies on acute sports injuries at the national level.

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the usefulness of sports injury insurance claims data in sports injury surveillance at the national level.

    METHOD: A database with 27 947 injuries was exported to an Excel file. Access to the corresponding text files was also obtained. Data were reviewed on available information, missing information and dropouts. Comparison with ASIDD (Australian Sports Injury Data Dictionary) and existing consensus statements in the literature (football (soccer), rugby union, tennis, cricket and thoroughbred horse racing) was performed in a structured manner.

    RESULT: Comparison with ASIDD showed that 93% of the suggested data items were present in the database to at least some extent. Compliance with the consensus statements was generally high (13/18). Almost all claims (83%) contained text information concerning the injury.

    CONCLUSIONS: Relatively high-quality sports injury data can be obtained from a specific insurance company at the national level in Sweden. The database has the potential to be a solid base for research on acute sports injuries in different sports at the national level.

  • 3888.
    Åman, Malin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Forssblad, Magnus
    Karolinska institutet.
    Larsén, Karin
    Umeå university.
    National injury prevention measures in team sports should focus on knee, head, and severe upper limb injuries.2019In: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy, ISSN 0942-2056, E-ISSN 1433-7347, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 1000-1008Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To examine acute injuries in licensed floorball, football, handball, and ice hockey players in all ages nationwide in Sweden, and to identify the most common and severe injuries in each body location and recommend injury prevention measures.

    METHODS: Using national sport insurance data from years 2006-2015 was the incidence and proportion of acute injuries, and injuries leading to permanent medical impairment (PMI), calculated in the four team sports. The most common injury type and injured body part was identified, with a particular focus of the severe injuries. Comparison between sexes was made.

    RESULTS: In total, there were 92,162 registered injuries in all sports together. Knee injuries were most common, and also had the highest incidence of PMI, in all ball sports and in female ice hockey players. In male ice hockey, the most common injury was a dental and face injury, and PMI injuries were mostly in the shoulder. The most severe PMI injuries were rare and most often a face/eye injury in male floorball and ice hockey, a concussion in female ice hockey, and a knee injury in female floorball, and in both sexes in football and handball.

    CONCLUSIONS: To achieve the greatest impact in reducing the adverse effects of acute sport injuries nationwide in Sweden, preventive measures should focus on knee injuries in all the investigated team sports. The severe head/face and upper limb injuries also need attention. Protective equipment, neuromuscular training programs, rules enforcements, and fair-play interventions may reduce the incidence of injuries.

  • 3889.
    Åman, Malin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Henriksson-Larsen, Karin
    Umeå University.
    Forssblad, Magnus
    Karolinska institutet.
    Näsmark, Annica
    Capio Artro Clinic, Stockholm.
    Waldén, Markus
    Linköping University.
    Hägglund, Martin
    Linköping University.
    A Nationwide Follow-up Survey on the Effectiveness of an Implemented Neuromuscular Training Program to Reduce Acute Knee Injuries in Soccer Players2018In: The Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 2325-9671, Vol. 6, no 12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A cruciate ligament (CL) injury is a severe injury in soccer. Neuromuscular training programs have a well-documented preventive effect, but there are few studies on the effectiveness of such a program at a national level. The Swedish Knee Control Program (KCP) was found to be effective in preventing CL injuries in youth female soccer players. The KCP was implemented nationwide in Sweden in 2010.

    Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of the Swedish KCP in reducing acute knee injuries in soccer players at a nationwide level.

    Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study.

    Methods: All licensed soccer players in Sweden are covered by the same insurance company. Using this insurance database, around 17,500 acute knee injuries that were reported to the insurance company between 2006 and 2015 were included in the study. By matching the number of licensed soccer players with the number of reported injuries each year, the annual incidence of knee and CL injuries was able to be calculated. To evaluate the spread of the KCP nationally, a questionnaire was sent to all 24 Swedish district football associations (FAs) with questions regarding KCP education. The number of downloads of the KCP mobile application (app) was obtained.

    Results: The incidence of CL injuries decreased during the study period for both male (from 2.9 to 2.4 per 1000 player-years) and female players (from 4.9 to 3.9 per 1000 player-years). The overall incidence of knee injuries decreased in both male (from 5.6 to 4.6 per 1000 player-years) and female players (from 8.7 to 6.4 per 1000 player-years). Comparing before and after the nationwide implementation of the KCP, there was a decrease in the incidence of CL injuries by 6% (rate ratio [RR], 0.94 [95% CI, 0.89-0.98]) in male players and 13% (RR, 0.87 [95% CI, 0.81-0.92]) in female players and a decrease in the incidence of knee injuries by 8% (RR, 0.92 [95% CI, 0.89-0.96]) and 21% (RR, 0.79 [95% CI, 0.75-0.83]), respectively (P < .01 for all). This trend corresponded to a reduction of approximately 100 CL injuries each year in Sweden. A total of 21 of 24 district FAs held organized KCP educational courses during the study period. The percentage of district FAs holding KCP courses was between 46% and 79% each year. There were 101,236 downloads of the KCP app.

    Conclusion: The KCP can be considered partially implemented nationwide, and the incidence of knee and CL injuries has decreased in both sexes at a nationwide level.

  • 3890.
    Åman, Malin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Larsen, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Forssblad, Magnus
    Karolinska institutet.
    Waldén, Markus
    Linköpings universitet.
    Hägglund, Martin
    Linköpings universitet.
    A NATIONWIDE FOLLOW-UP ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF AN IMPLEMENTED NEUROMUSCULAR TRAINING PROGRAM TO REDUCE SEVERE KNEE INJURIES IN FOOTBALL PLAYERS2018In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 52, suppl. 1, abstr 18, 2018, Vol. 2, p. A7-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 3891.
    Åman, Malin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Larsén, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH.
    Forssblad, M
    Karolinska institutet.
    Näsmark, A
    Waldén, M
    Hägglund, M
    A nationwide follow-up survey on the effectiveness of an implemented neuromuscular training program to reduce severe knee injuries in football playersManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 3892.
    Årbro, Erika
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Äldre medelålders attityder till hälsa: en kvantitativ undersökning över vilka hälsorön 55-70-åringar tar till sig samt om och hur de applicerar dem2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of this study has been to examine the attitudes towards nutrition, exercise and health in persons aged 55 to 70. Do they see the connection between the lifestyles they lead and their perceived health today and in the future? Moreover, what do they know about current research about nutrition and exercise? Do they act upon what they read? What advice do they apply in their lives? Their attitudes towards exercise, their experiences of exercise, what effect they have experienced, and what obstacles to increasing their exercising they experienced were also charted. Questions about nutrition were also brought up since these are relevant in this context.

    Method

    The investigation was conducted as a quantitative study in the form of a survey. It was done via the Internet as this was the most practical way. The respondents were chosen and contacted through parents, in-laws, and friends who in turn spread the word further.

    Results

    The majority of the respondents took part in regular physical activity, most commonly walking and/or cycling. Most respondents were aware of most health related advice and results of scientific studies common in the media today, claiming to follow some of them. They showed a certain hesitation and inability to fully get grips on them as it was their opinion that such results were overly abundant - they simply didn’t have the time or energy to form their own opinion. They were generally positive on exercise but many deemed they need help to get going or to increase their activity level. Most had made modifications to their diet in response to nutritional advice. There is a positive correlation between an interest in health and exercise, and also with better perceived health.

    Conclusions

    The generation of older adults are reasonably willing to accept and apply advice and change their lifestyle in order to improve their long term health. Most feel they need some help to get over obstacles of a practical nature preventing them from exercising more, and in order to get a clearer view of what they should do. But with interest and knowledge comes action. Thus it can be conclude that this is an excellent opportunity for a health advisor to have a positive impact on people of this generation.

  • 3893.
    Åstrand, Per-Olof
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH. Department of Physiology, Kungliga Gymnastiska Centralinstitutet, Stockholm.
    Experimental studies of physical working capacity in relation to sex and age1952Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 3894. Åstrand, Per-Olof
    et al.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Ekblom, Bjorn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Född Till rörelse: En bok om kost och motion2011Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Praktiskt taget alla vuxna svenskar anser att regelbunden motion är bra för hälsa och arbetsförmåga. Vi är också upplysta om hur våra matvanor, alkoholintag och rökning påverkar vår hälsa. Varför är det då en minoritet som har en livsstil som styrs av kunskap och förnuft? Finns svaret förankrat i vårt biologiska arv? Hur levde våra förfäder? Att sitta still i flera timmar utan att röra sig alls utgör en risk för utveckling av hjärt- och kärlsjukdom, cancer och annan ohälsa, trots att man kanske motionerar ett par gånger i veckan. Den fysiologiska förklaringen är den att om inte musklerna får arbeta regelbundet, om än mycket lite, så påverkas viktiga processer i musklerna, som sedan påverkar hela kroppen. Det räcker att regelbundet resa sig och gå en liten bit för att undvika de negativa effekterna av långvarigt sittande.I Född till rörelse kan du läsa om faktorer som har betydelse för vår kondition och hälsa. Varför är det så viktigt att vi rör på oss? Hur kan man motverka eller mildra effekten av vissa sjukdomar? Vad innebär det att vara fysiskt aktiv? Hur ska man träna och hur jobbigt bör det vara?

  • 3895.
    Åstrand, PO
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Age, physical fitness and health.1994In: Sborník lékar̆ský, ISSN 0036-5327, Vol. 95, no 2, p. 59-63Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3896.
    Åstrand, PO
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Exercise physiology and its role in disease prevention and in rehabilitation.1987In: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0003-9993, E-ISSN 1532-821X, Vol. 68, no 5 Pt 1, p. 305-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is an impressive fact that many musicians can perform perfectly at an advanced age. Arthur Rubenstein played very demanding compositions of Chopin at the age of 88 and Andre Segovia at the age of 91 is still giving concerts on the classical guitar. Apparently, through practice very demanding neuromuscular activities can be maintained at advanced ages. Yet hours of daily "training" are behind these achievements. This review discusses some of the general aspects of training and their effects on function and health. As an overall goal it is more important to add life to years rather than add years to life.

  • 3897.
    Åstrand, PO
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    From exercise physiology to preventive medicine.1988In: Annals of clinical research, ISSN 0003-4762, Vol. 20, no 1-2, p. 10-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study of the normal human individual provides an important baseline for the study of disease. Exercise physiology is particularly important because an exercise situation provides a unique opportunity to study how different functions are coordinated and integrated. In fact, most functions and structures are in one way or another affected by acute and chronic (i.e. training) exercise. There is unanimous agreement that regular exercise is essential for optimal function of the human body. It is evident that extrinsic factors, such as diet and exercise habits, are reflected in the morbidity and mortality statistics, especially in aging. Both healthy individuals and those with chronic illnesses and functional handicaps can improve their performances and, therefore, their quality of life by increased physical activity. In my opinion, epidemiological research has established that physical inactivity from a medical viewpoint is a risk factor threatening health and an optimal life style. Adverse effects of non-competitive exercises are very small in comparison with health benefits.

  • 3898.
    Åstrand, PO
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    J.B. Wolffe Memorial Lecture. "Why exercise?".1992In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 153-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a pronounced plasticity and adaptability in the structural and/or functional properties of cells, tissues, and organ systems in the human body when exposed to various stimuli. While there is unanimous agreement that regular exercise is essential for optimal function of the human body, it is evident that extrinsic factors, such as diet and exercise habits, are reflected in the morbidity and mortality statistics, especially in the aged. Aging is obligatorily associated with reduced maximal aerobic power and reduced muscle strength, i.e., with reduced physical fitness. As a consequence of diminished exercise tolerance, a large and increasing number of elderly persons will be living below, at, or just above "thresholds" of physical ability, needing only a minor intercurrent illness to render them completely dependent. Physical training can readily produce a profound improvement of functions essential for physical fitness in old age. Adaptability to regular physical activity serves to cause less disruption of the cell's "milieu interieur" and minimizes fatigue, thereby enhancing performance and the economy of energy output during exercise.

  • 3899.
    Åstrand, PO
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Physical activity and fitness.1992In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 55, no 6 Suppl, p. 1231S-1236SArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is unanimous agreement that regular exercise is essential for optimal function of the human body. It is evident that extrinsic factors, such as diet and exercise habits, are reflected in the morbidity and mortality statistics, especially in aging. Aging is obligatorily associated with reduced maximal aerobic power and reduced muscle strength, ie, with reduced physical fitness. As a consequence of diminished exercise tolerance, a large and increasing number of elderly people will be living below, at, or just above "thresholds" of physical ability, needing only a minor intercurrent illness to render them completely dependent. Physical training can readily produce a profound improvement of functions also essential for physical fitness in old age. From a nutritional viewpoint one advantage of physical activity, and increased metabolic rate, is that a higher energy intake can better secure an adequate intake of essential nutrients.

  • 3900.
    Åstrand, PO
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Bergh, U
    Kilbom, A
    A 33-yr follow-up of peak oxygen uptake and related variables of former physical education students.1997In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 82, no 6, p. 1844-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 1949, 27 female and 26 male physical education students were studied at a mean age of 22 and 25 yr, respectively. They were restudied in 1970 and 1982. Measurements included oxygen uptake, heart rate, and pulmonary ventilation during submaximal and maximal exercise on a cycle ergometer and treadmill. After 21 yr, peak aerobic power was significantly reduced, from 2.90 to 2.18 l/min and from 4.09 to 3.28 l/min for women and men, respectively. After another 12 yr, the 1970 maxima were not reduced further. From 1949 to 1982 there was a decrease in peak heart rate from 196 to 177 beats/min in women and from 190 to 175 beats/min in men (P < 0.05). Highest pulmonary ventilation did not change significantly. At an oxygen uptake of 1.5 l/min, the heart rate was the same in 1949 as in 1982. In conclusion, the physical fitness level of the subjects was well above average for these ages. From 1970 to 1982 there was no decline in the average peak aerobic power, a finding possibly related to increased habitual physical activity.

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