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  • 351.
    Berlin, Madelene
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Idrottslärares upplevelser av dans2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

     

    Aim

    The purpose of the study is to examine how teachers in grades 1-6 are experiencing dance in physical education and why dance instruction will be conducted in the school and how students develop through dance from a ramfaktorteoretiskt perspective.

    • How teachers perceive the dance in school

    • Why do the teachers think that students should be taught in dance?

    • What do the teachers think that dance develops in children?

     

    Method

    The study is based on a half-structured interview method. In the survey, I turned to physical education teachers who teach at primary and secondary school. Two women and three men have been interviewed. All interviews were recorded and subsequently transcribed.

     

    Results

    Most of the teachers perceive dance as something positive and fun in teaching. One of the teachers feel that it is the hardest moment in teaching physical education. The results also show that students should be taught in dance because it is in our curriculum. The result also showed that the dance developed children's motor skills, cooperation, coordination, rhythm and more. Ramfaktorerna represented no particular limitation for the teachers.

     

    Conclusion

    In my study, it appears that dance education is affected by the teachers' background and their past experiences. The different ramfaktorerna constituted some difficulties for some of the teachers. The frameworks that affect teaching are fixed - and variable framework, the organizational and the potential repertoire. The study also indicates that teachers believe that dancing develops children's motor skills positively.

  • 352.
    Bermon, Stephane
    et al.
    Monaco Inst Sports Med & Surg, Monaco.
    Castell, Lindy M
    Univ Oxford, Green Templeton Coll, Oxford, England.
    Calder, Philip C
    Bishop, Nicolette C
    Univ Southampton, Fac Med, Human Dev & Hlth Acad Unit, Southampton, Hants, England.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Mooren, Frank C
    Justus Liebig Univ, Dept Sports Med, Giessen, Germany.
    Krüger, Karsten
    Justus Liebig Univ, Dept Sports Med, Giessen, Germany.
    Kavazis, Andreas N
    Auburn Univ, Sch Kinesiol, Auburn, AL 36849 USA.
    Quindry, John C
    Univ Montana, Hlth & Human Performance, Missoula, MT 59812 USA.
    Senchina, David S
    Drake Univ, Dept Biol, Kinesiol Program, Des Moines, IA 50311 USA.
    Nieman, David C
    Appalachian State Univ, Human Performance Lab, North Carolina Res Campus, Kannapolis, NC USA.
    Gleeson, Michael
    Univ Loughborough, Sch Sport Exercise & Hlth Sci, Loughborough, Leics, England.
    Pyne, David B
    Australian Inst Sport, Bruce, Australia.
    Kitic, Cecilia M
    Univ Tasmania, Sch Hlth Sci, Sport Performance Optimisat Res Team, Launceston, Tas, Australia.
    Close, Graeme L
    Liverpool John Moores Univ, Res Inst Sport & Exercise Sci, Liverpool, Merseyside, England.
    Larson-Meyer, D Enette
    Univ Wyoming, Dept Family & Consumer Sci, Nutr & Exercise Lab, Laramie, WY 82071 USA.
    Marcos, Ascension
    CSIC, Spanish Natl Res Council, Inst Food Sci Technol & Nutr ICTAN, Madrid, Spain.
    Meydani, Simin N
    Tufts Univ, Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutr Res Ctr Aging, Boston, MA 02111 USA.
    Wu, Dayong
    Tufts Univ, Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutr Res Ctr Aging, Boston, MA 02111 USA.
    Walsh, Neil P
    Bangor Univ, Sch Sport Hlth & Exercise Sci, Bangor, Gwynedd, Wales.
    Nagatomi, Ryochi
    Tohoku Univ, Grad Sch Biomed Engn, Lab Hlth & Sports Sci, Sendai, Miyagi, Japan.
    Consensus Statement Immunonutrition and Exercise.2017In: Exercise immunology review, ISSN 1077-5552, Vol. 23, p. 8-50Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this consensus statement on immunonutrition and exercise, a panel of knowledgeable contributors from across the globe provides a consensus of updated science, including the background, the aspects for which a consensus actually exists, the controversies and, when possible, suggested directions for future research.

  • 353.
    Bernström, Malin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Durchman, Cecilia
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Akta dig för skador!: En kvalitativ studie om idrottslärares skadeförebyggande arbete med elever i årskurs 7-92016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med vår uppsats är att studera idrottslärares syn på skador och skadeförebyggnad i ämnet idrott och hälsa och hur de uppger att de undervisar det inom detta område. Studien skall besvara följande frågeställningar: Hur planerar och genomför idrottsläraren en skadeförebyggande undervisning av funktionella idrottsskador? Hur förmedlar idrottsläraren sin kunskap och medvetenhet om förebyggandet av skador till sina elever? Vilka är de allvarligaste och vanligaste förekommande skadorna under en idrottslektion? Vilken kunskap och fortbildning anser idrottslärare att de behöver avseende skador och skadeförebyggnad?

    Metod

    Som forskningsmetod har intervjuer med fem idrottslärare som arbetar eller har arbetat med årskurs 7-9 genomförts. Studien utgick från semistrukturerade intervjufrågor. Det urval av lärare som vi använde oss av till intervjuerna utgick från ett strategiskt bekvämlighetsurval. Kategorisering av empiri skedde utifrån Haddons (1980) strategier.

    Resultat

    Enligt resultatet arbetar alla informanter skadeförebyggande. Informanterna upplever det som betydelsefullt att göra en noggrann planering för att undvika skador i idrottsundervisningen. Dessutom ska det skadeförebyggande arbetet förmedlas till eleverna under idrottsundervisningen. Det skadeförebyggande arbetet förmedlas genom att framhäva uppvärmningen, ergonomin och styrketräningen i undervisningen. Tydliga instruktioner och genomgång av regler samt reflektioner som skall resultera till att eleverna uppfattar syftet med den skadeförebyggande undervisningen, har även en avgörande roll i det skadeförebyggande arbetet.

    Slutsats

    Idrottslärarna var relativt insatta i det skadeförebyggande ämnet och resonerade i stora drag lika. Vissa lärare prioriterade det skadeförebyggande arbetet i en högre grad än andra och tillämpade det mer i undervisningen. Alla informanter anser att det skadeförebyggande arbetet bör inkluderas i idrottsundervisningen. Detta bidrar till livslång kunskap hos eleverna i vardagliga situationer och i andra fysiska fritidsaktiviteter.

  • 354.
    Berthelson, Per
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Research group for Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Katz, Abram
    Institutionen för Fysiologi och Farmakologi, Karolinska Instititutet.
    Andersson, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH.
    Sahlin, Kent
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Research group for Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Acute exercise and starvation induced insulin resistance2012In: Medicine & Science In Sports & Exercise, 2012, S498 Vol. 44 No. 5 Supplement. 2661., 2012, p. 2661-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known that starvation causes insulin resistance. The mechanism is unclear but may relate disturbances in lipid metabolism i.e. incomplete mitochondrial FA oxidation and/or accumulation of lipid intermediates. Exercise results in increased substrate oxidation and may thus remove interfering lipid metabolites and reverse starvation-induced insulin resistance. However, the effect of acute exercise and starvation on insulin sensitivity is not known.

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise on starvation-induced insulin resistance and to elucidate potential mechanisms.

    Methods: Nine healthy lean subjects underwent 84h starvation on two occasions separated by at least 2 weeks. The starvation period was followed by either exercise (EX; 5x10 min intervals with 2-4 min rest, starting at 70 %VO2 max) or an equal period of rest (NE). Before and after the starvation period (3h after exercise/rest) subjects were investigated with muscle biopsies, bloo samples and an intravenous glucose tolerance test. Muscle samples were used for measurement of mitochondrial respiration in permeabilized muscle fibers (Oroboros oxygraph), glycogen content and activation of signaling proteins.

    Results: Insulin sensitivity was significantly higher in the EX group compared to the NE group (p<0.05). After starvation mitochondrial respiration was lower in both groups with complex I substrates whereas respiration with complex I+II substrates was higher in EX (p<0.05 vs. basal and NE). Muscle glycogen was decreased to 73% (NE) and 31% (EX) of the basal values. The EX group had a significant increased activation of AS160. Plasma FA increased 3-4 fold to 1.39±0.32(NE) and 1.80±0.49 (EX) (mmol/l) after starvation and plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate increased about 50-fold to 6.43±2.01(NE) and 7.12±1.59 (EX)(mmol/l).

    Conclusion: Acute exercise reverses starvation-induced insulin resistance. Plasma FA and BOH were increased to similar extent after NE and EX and cannot explain the changes in insulin sensitivity. However, an increased substrate oxidation together with the observed increased capacity for mitochondrial FA oxidation after EX may be involved in the activation of AS160 and the reversal of starvation-induced insulin resistance.

  • 355.
    Bertills, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    School, learning and mental health: a systematic review of aspects of school climate affecting mental health and positive academic outcomes2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    This study of a systematic review of systematic reviews on school, learning and mental health investigates the relation between school climate, mental health and positive school outcomes. The aim is to analyze the quality and content of previous reviews and to identify aspects in the school climate that positively affect learning and mental health. Research questions are: What is the quality and content of previous systematic reviews on school, learning and mental health? What is the current state of knowledge concerning causal relationships between school climate, learning and mental health according to systematic reviews? What factors in the school climate can be identified as vital for positive outcomes and good mental health?

    Method

    Systematic review of longitudinal or cross-sectional studies. 792 references were identified through literature searches in various databases, with search words considering mental health in combination with search words considering school and learning. Data extraction was performed in three steps; abstract, full text and in-depth data extraction. Criteria for inclusion were: systematic review, published 1999-2009, ages 2-19 years, published in English in peer reviewed journals. The number of reviews that met the criteria set for quality was 37, which were quality rated as of high 27% (10/37), medium 46% (17/37) or low quality 27% (10/37).

    Results

    Three categories of content emerge, where much research has been executed: the relation between positive aspects of mental health and learning, between mental health problems and learning and indirect relations between school factors and mental health and learning. The quality is relatively low, only 8% (3/37) meet all the quality criteria. At school level, where the teacher plays an important role, there is a positive relation between school climate and outcome and mental health, as well as on an individual level, where self-efficacy, i.e. will and skill to perform, can be identified as a factor of major importance to school outcome.

    Conclusions

    Due to the low quality of research on the relation between school, learning and mental health causal relation cannot be established. There are apparent connections between school outcome, self-efficacy and a positive school climate. Teachers are important in and for school climate and are of vital importance for outcome and mental health. Students’ possibility to influence and control their learning promote school outcome and mental health. Policy aimed at improving achievement and school outcome need to consider perceived self-efficacy.

  • 356.
    Bertilsson, Charlotte
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Golf som friskfaktor för äldre kvinnor: bidrar golf till bättre hälsa?2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet var att undersöka om golf är en fysisk aktivitet som kan bidra till bättre hälsa hos äldre och kunna ordineras av läkare som fysisk aktivitet på recept vid åldersrelaterade välfärdssjukdomar. De frågeställningar som besvarades var om det förelåg någon skillnad i upplevd hälsa, levnadsvanor och faktisk hälsa mellan äldre kvinnor som spelar golf och äldre icke golfande kvinnor.

    Metod

    I studien deltog 36 kvinnliga golfare och 17 icke golfande kvinnor som var 65 år och äldre.

    Golfarna togs fram genom slumpmässigt urval bland medlemmar i golfklubbar i Stockholms län. Försökspersonerna rekryterade en anhörig vilken ingick i en kontrollgrupp. Ett frågeformulär med frågor om subjektiv hälsa och levnadsvanor besvarades av deltagarna. Därefter genomfördes ett styrketest, blodtrycksmätning, registrering av vikt och längd på undersökningsdeltagarna.

    Resultat

    Det framkom ingen skillnad mellan de båda grupperna i deras upplevda totala hälsa. Vid undersök-ning av specifika fysiska kapaciteter och mentala förmågor upplevde golfarna sig starkare i fysiska kapaciteter som ben- och arnstyrka samt kondition. De upplevde också oftare hopp/optimism och känsla av kontroll. Golfarna åt grönsaker, frukt och bär oftare än icke golfare och ägnade sig oftare åt fysisk aktivitet på låg intensitet. Genomsnittliga BMI-värdet var lika för båda grupperna och mätning av blodtryck och handstyrka visade inte heller på någon skillnad.

    Slutsats

    Det går inte med denna studie påvisa att golf leder till bättre hälsa hos äldre även om vissa paramet-rar antyder detta. Lågintensiv träning, intag av frukt, bär och grönsaker är bra för att förebygga och behandla välfärdssjukdomar. Dessa parametrar var signifikant vanligare bland golfare och därför förefaller det som om golf är en aktivitet som leder till bättre hälsa. För att fastställa att det var just golfen som gjorde att golfarna ägnade sig mer åt lågintensiv träning och åt mer frukt, bär och grön-saker krävs dock noggrannare forskning inom området.

  • 357.
    Bestic, Milos
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Eriksson Petersson, Adam
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    E-sport – ”Jag ser den som vilken idrott som helst”: En kvalitativ studie om utbildning med E-sportprofil i svensk gymnasieskola2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose and questions

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the new phenomenon of E-sport in Swedish upper secondary school. We intend to look more closely at how the education is shaped and which courses it includes. It is our intention to find out which learning takes place in this education and how teachers talk about it. This is in relation to the qualities that pupils can take with them from the education in their future life. The last thing we intend to investigate is whether and, if so, how gaming problems are highlighted and taught for preventive purposes.

    • What means and contains the phenomenon E-sport in the Swedish upper secondary school?

    • How do teachers talk about what learning and learning processes take place in E-sports education?

    • In what way do teachers involve gaming problems in their teaching?

    Method

    This study has been carried out with a qualitative approach where semi-structured interviews were conducted with 6 teachers who work at E-sport profiled schools in Sweden. The interviews were conducted on the basis of an interview guide where follow-up questions were added to get as close as possible to the subject in question. A theoretical framework in the form of the sociocultural perspective on learning has been used as an analysis tool.

    Results

    All schools work to varying degrees with gaming problems, which includes a preventive perspective. The education differs between the schools as the profile goes under different courses or completely without course. One contributing factor to this is that the National Agency for Education has no designed curriculum for an E-sport profile. All schools had a definite and limited selection of games to make the teaching more efficient. The teachers talked about many things that are taught in the education. What was common to all was the communicative and social gains that students receive through E-sports for their future lives.

    Conclusion

    The differences between the schools are due to the lack of a curriculum with an E-sport profile. As the E-sport involves more than just gaming, there are lessons that concern social interaction, communication and collaboration, which will benefit the students' future. Gaming problems are dealt with by all teachers but with different content, which gives different types of knowledge to the students.

  • 358.
    Bestic, Milos
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Gustavsson, Tobias
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Betydelsen av plyometrisk- och change of direction träning: Ett försök att utveckla unga fotbollsspelares förmåga för sprint och riktningsförändringar2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med denna studie var att genomföra två olika träningsinterventioner, en innehållande plyometrisk och en change of direction – träning (COD) för att se dess effekter på unga fotbollsspelares change of direction och 10-, 20-, 30 meters sprintförmåga. Studiens frågeställning var: Vilken inverkan kan två olika typer av träningsprogram ha på unga fotbollsspelares COD- samt sprintförmåga på 10-, 20-, 30 meter?

    Metod

    28 stycken fotbollsspelare både pojkar och flickor i åldrarna 13-15 år deltog i en träningsintervention under fem veckor där träningen bedrevs två gånger i veckan. Deltagarna delades in i tre olika grupper, kontrollgrupp (KON-G), plyometrisk grupp (PT-G) och change of direction grupp (COD-G). För- och eftertester genomfördes för att kunna se interventionens effekt. Testerna som utfördes var Illinois COD-test och sprint 10-, 20-, 30-meter.

    Resultat

    KON-G visade inga skillnader mellan före och efter- testerna. PT-G visade inte på några signifikanta förbättringar, det var endast en numerisk skillnad i 10-, 20- och 30-meterssprint med 2 % samt 1 % i Illinois COD-test. COD-G visade inte heller på några signifikanta förbättringar. Endast en numerisk ökning med 2 % i Illinois COD-test samt 1 % förbättring i 10-, 20- och 30-meterssprint. I en korrelation mellan Illinois COD-test och 10-, 20- och 30-meterssprint framgick en stark korrelation mellan dessa. r-värde = 0,92- 0,93 och p-värde = <0.01.

    Slutsats

    Då studiens resultat inte visade några signifikanta förbättringar på varken Illinois COD-test eller sprint kan inga slutsatser dras för vilken träningsmetod som har störst inverkan på dessa förmågor. Däremot kan man se små tendenser att de två träningsprogrammens utveckling av egenskaper skiljer sig. Vilket eventuellt tyder på att tränarens uppgift blir att prioritera vilken förmåga som är viktigast att utveckla eftersom båda är viktiga egenskaper för en fotbollsspelare.

  • 359.
    Bida, Eva
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Korpinen, Petra
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Musikens roll i idrottsundervisningen: En studie av idrottslärarnas musikanvändning och syftestillämpning2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med uppsatsen var att undersöka musikens roll i idrottsundervisningen ur ett lärarperspektiv. Frågeställningarna vi använde oss av var: I vilken utsträckning och vid vilka tillfällen använder idrottslärarna musik i idrottsundervisningen? Har idrottslärarna något syfte med musikanvändandet i idrottsundervisningen och i så fall vilket? Vad påverkar idrottslärarna att använda musik i idrottsundervisningen?

    Metod

    Vi valde att göra en tvåstegsanalys där vi först genomförde en enkätundersökning och sedan en uppföljande intervjuundersökning. Enkäten skickades per post till 65 stycken vfu- handledare på Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan som är verksamma idrottslärare inom Stor Stockholmsområdet. Enkätundersökningen hade ett externt bortfall på 40 %. På basis av enkätmaterialet gjorde vi ett extremgruppsurval inför intervjuundersökningen. I extremgrupp 1 ingick lärare som använde sig av musik i stor utsträckning samt hade ett genomtänkt syfte med musikanvändandet. I extremgrupp 2 återfanns de idrottslärare som hade ett litet användande samt färre genomtänkta syften med sitt musikanvändande. Vi valde att genomföra fyra intervjuer vilka innefattade två respondenter från respektive extremgrupp.

    Resultat

    Vi kunde se att 77 % av de undersökta idrottslärarna använde sig av musik i stor utsträckning i sin undervisning. Samtliga idrottslärare valde att använda musik inom disciplinerna dans och styrka/kondition, en stor andel använde sig även av musiken inom gymnastik (90 %) samt inom lekar (74 %). Vad gällde syftestillämpningen kunde vi konstatera att 69 % av lärarna hade ett genomtänkt syfte med sitt musikanvändande. Med avseende på de generella syftena fann vi en relativt jämn fördelning mellan de pedagogiska, organisatoriska samt de motivatoriska syftena. Då vi såg till det specifika syfte lärarna hade med sin användning av musik kunde vi urskilja en relativt jämn fördelning med en svag övervikt för syftena start- och stoppsignal, förbättra takt/rytm samt med syfte att motivera eleverna. De största påverkansfaktorerna till idrottslärarens musikanvändning och syftesbruk var ramfaktorer, elevpåverkan samt idrottslärarens försocialisation.

    Slutsats

    Musiken förekommer i idrottsundervisningen främst som start- stoppsignal, för att förbättra takt/rytm samt med syfte att motivera eleverna i idrottsundervisningen. Undersökningen visar på att musiken används i stor utsträckning av idrottslärarna och framför allt inom disciplinerna dans, styrka/kondition och gymnastik. Det finns inget generellt syfte som dominerar gällande idrottslärarens musikanvändande.

  • 360.
    Billing, Jessica
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Lidandet bakom leendet: En kartläggning av de vanligaste skadorna inom svensk konståkning.2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Konståkning har blivit en alltmer fysiskt krävande idrott där utövarna tvingas träna både hårdare och längre pass. På grund av detta är de utsatta för skaderisk.

     

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med uppsatsen är att kartlägga de vanligaste skadorna inom konståkningen i Sverige samt dess möjliga orsaker.

     

    1. Vilka är de vanligast förekommande skadorna bland 9-20 åringar inom svensk konståkning?

    2. Vilka möjliga bakomliggande orsaker kan bidra till dessa skador?

    3. Får åkarna specifik skadeförebyggande träning?

     

     

    Metod

    Enkäter skickades ut via e-post till alla konståkningsklubbar i Sverige med frågor om deras åkares tävlingsstatus, träningsvanor, skador de senaste två säsongerna samt detaljer om dess skador och konsekvenser för träningen. 72 åkare svarade på enkäten, varav 52 hade varit skadade och 20 inte hade haft skadebekymmer. 62 av samtliga respondenter är flickor och 10 pojkar.

     

    Resultat

    De vanligaste skadetyperna visade sig vara sträckningar hos flickor och pojkar och dessutom utgjutningar hos pojkar. De flesta skadorna förekom i fot/fotled, knä och rygg. Enligt enkätsammanställningen ökade risken för skador med ökad ålder, träningsmängd på is, antal år de har varit aktiva, samt låg uppvärmningsfrekvens (i enkäten besvarat som ”sällan” eller ”ibland” till skillnad från ”ofta” eller ”alltid”) och tidslängd inför träningspassen.

     

    Slutsats

    Min slutsats är att ju högre belastning desto större är risken för skador. Kvantiteten gör att belastningen ökar eftersom hoppträning sker väldigt ofta. Det finns dessutom för lite kunskap om skadeförebyggande träning.

     

  • 361.
    Birch, Cai Owain
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    How does mental and physical fatigue affect a rugby player’s force production during scrummaging?2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: This study investigates the effects of physical fatigue, mental fatigue and their combinations on the ability of rugby players to produce force during rugby scrummaging.

    Method: 10 male subjects (Mean age = 27.4 ± 3.92, Weight =102.9kg ± 10.96) were recruited from local rugby union football clubs in the Stockholm area. Scrummaging force measurements were collected following and before treatments (control), after a 30-min mental task and after a physical fatigue protocol. The mean peak force was calculated by averaging the force data 1 second around the highest peak of force during a 5 second sustained push.

    Results: Mean force decreased significantly after the physical fatigue (PF) protocol compared to the control (CON) (PF = 1740 ± 342 N vs. CON = 2007.5 ± 359 N. P= 0.0009) and combinations of physical and mental fatigue (PMF) or mental and physical fatigue (MPF) were also found to significantly decrease compared to the control (PMF = 1750 ± 348N vs. CON = 2007.5 ± 359N. P=0.0014 and MPF = 1818 ± 335N vs. CON = 2007.5 ± 359N. P=0.026). Mental fatigue did not significantly decrease mean peak force during the sustained push of a rugby scrum (MF = 1912 ± 321N vs. CON = 2007.5 ± 359N. P=0.52).

    Conclusion: Physical fatigue reduces the ability of rugby players to produce force during rugby scrummaging, however mental fatigue does not. Furthermore, mental fatigue does not exacerbate the effects of physical fatigue on scrummaging performance.

  • 362.
    Birging, Simon
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Löfberg, Sandra
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Ända in i kaklet: en studie om hur nationella riktlinjer i hälsa implementerats i gymnasieskolan2009Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Skolan är en viktig arena för hälsofrämjande arbete för barn och ungdomar. Syftet med vår studie är att undersöka hur hälsodirektiv framskrivs i skolhälsovårdens nationella riktlinjer och Lpf94 samt hur dessa implementerats i gymnasieskolan. Syftet utmynnar i följande frågeställningar:

    • Vilka direktiv för hälsa finns för skolhälsovården och i Lpf94 och hur formuleras dessa?

    • Hur implementeras dessa hälsodirektiv i de lokala styrdokumenten och vidare till den praktiskaundervisningen i gymnasieskolan?

    • Hur påverkas arbetsformerna för personalen i gymnasieskolan av det tolkningsutrymme som tillåts inomde nationella hälsodirektiven?

    Metod: Studien utfördes på två svenska gymnasieskolor och materialet togs fram med hjälp av en textanalys samt kvalitativa intervjuer. Materialet bestod av nationella riktlinjer i hälsa samt lokala styrdokument för skolhälsovården och lärare. Intervjuerna genomfördes på två idrottslärare och två skolsköterskor. Materialet analyserades utifrån Göran Lindes läroplansteori och med hjälp av denna kunde vi se hur de nationella riktlinjerna i hälsa konkretiserats i de lokala styrdokumenten och tillämpats i verksamheten.

    Resultat: Vi kunde se en skillnad i hur riktlinjerna har konkretiserats i de lokala styrdokumenten för skolsköterskorna och idrottslärarna. Skolsköterskornas riktlinjer var tydligt formulerade och återkom på samtliga arenor med liknande formuleringar. Idrottslärarnas riktlinjer däremot hade ett större tolkningsutrymme och var mer otydliga. Detta syntes klart då konkretiseringen av kursmålen på transformerings‐ och realiseringsarenan ibland kunde vara svåra att greppa. Vissa av kursmålen saknades dessutom på transformeringsarenan vilket gjorde det svårare att se hur hälsa tillämpats iidrottsundervisningen. Arbetsformerna påverkades pga. idrottslärarnas stora tolkningsutrymme.

    Skolsköterskorna kunde, till skillnad från idrottslärarna, lättare peka på vilka arbetsformer och innehåll de har i verksamheten.

    Avslutande reflektion: För att kunna uppnå en god implementering krävs det bl.a. att skolpersonalen vid ett tidigt skede är väl informerade om hur förändringsarbetet ska gå till samt varför det ska göras. När Lpo94 skulle implementeras skedde detta med en bristfällig förhandsinformation till lärarna vilket ledde till att de inte visste hur den nya läroplanen skulle tillämpas. Detta syns än idag om man tittar på idrottslärarnas lokala kursplaner och undervisning.

    Utifrån de nationella riktlinjerna för idrottslärarna och skolsköterskorna finns goda förutsättningar för eleverna att få kunskap och upplysning i hälsa. Vi efterfrågar dock att fler ämnen ska anknyta till hälsa i kursmålen, då detta skulle kunna öka elevernas medvetenhet om hälsa och dess främjande effekter.

  • 363.
    Bischoff, Lisa
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Edlund, Johanna
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Den bortglömda löpskolningen: En kvantitativ interventionsstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka om regelbunden löpskolning har någon effekt på löpekonomin hos löpvana män och kvinnor. Studiens tre frågeställningar var: (1) Finns det skillnader i förändringen av syreupptagning mellan försöksgrupperna på en given löphastighet efter interventionen? (2) Finns det skillnader i förändringen av blodets laktatnivå mellan försöksgrupperna på en given löphastighet efter interventionen? (3) Finns det några skillnader i förändringen av självskattad ansträngning mellan försöksgrupperna på en given löphastighet efter interventionen?

     

    Metod

    En kvantitativ interventionsstudie genomfördes med 13 försökspersoner bestående av åtta män och fem kvinnor. De blev slumpmässigt uppdelade i två grupper där försöksgruppen fick utföra regelbunden löpskolning under sex veckor. Såväl före som efter interventionen fick samtliga försökspersoner genomföra ett ramptest på löpband. Det relativa syreupptaget, laktatnivåerna i blodet samt skattad ansträngning på Borg RPE-20 mättes under dessa två test som skedde under samma förhållanden. Därmed kunde skillnader av förändringar av dessa parametrar mellan de två grupperna undersökas.

     

    Resultat

    Resultatet visade vid sammanvägningen av samtliga ramper ingen signifikant skillnad mellan kontrollgruppen och försöksgruppen. I vidare analys av de enskilda ramperna upptäcktes däremot att försöksgruppen sänkt sin syreförbrukning mer än kontrollgruppen vid ramp 2, 4 och 5. Gällande laktatvärden och skattad ansträngning på Borg RPE-20 sågs inga signifikanta skillnader mellan grupperna över tid.

     

    Slutsats

    Regelbunden löpskolning medförde förbättrad löpekonomi vid ett flertal submaximala belastningar hos löpvana män och kvinnor. Löpskolning bör således ingå i ett långsiktigt träningsprogram för löpare. 

  • 364.
    Bischoff, Mikaela
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Bygård, Kajsa
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Ett fysiskt ansträngande eller stillasittande arbete – finns det några hälsofördelar?: en undersökning av skillnader i hälsa mellan två grupper av olika ansträngningsgrad i arbetet2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar. Syftet med studien var att utifrån en enkätundersökning undersöka upplevda hälsoskillnader hos kvinnor och män i fysiskt ansträngande respektive stillasittande yrken. De frågeställningar som studien utgått från följer här nedan.

    1. Finns det någon skillnad mellan de två grupperna i rapporterad fysisk aktivitet och stillasittande?

    2. Finns det någon skillnad mellan de två grupperna utifrån upplevd hälsa?

    3. Finns det någon skillnad mellan de två grupperna utifrån rapporterad medicinsk status?

    Metod. Studiens syfte och frågeställningar har besvarats genom en kvantitativ tvärsnittsstudie i form av en enkätundersökning. En jämförelse av skillnader har gjorts mellan två grupper, där grupp 1 hade ett fysiskt ansträngande arbete, medan grupp 2 hade ett övervägande stillasittande arbete. Totalt deltog 119 personer i denna undersökning varav 72 deltagare i grupp 1 och 47 deltagare i grupp 2. Den yngsta deltagaren var 21 medan den äldsta var 69 år gammal. Fördelningen mellan könen var 40 % män och 60 % kvinnor då man tittar på hela gruppen. Enkäten som använts i studien omfattar frågor inom områdena fysisk aktivitet och stillasittande, upplevd hälsa och medicinsk status. Denna studies enkät baseras på GIH:s Hälsoenkät.

    Resultat. Efter beräkning av studiens insamlade data kunde flera signifikanta resultat urskiljas. Dels fanns det en skillnad i hur mycket de olika grupperna var fysiskt aktiva, både av måttlig och hög intensitet, samt hur mycket de styrketränade. Grupp 1 var totalt sett, sammanlagd tid för arbetstid och fritid, mer fysiskt aktiv än grupp 2. Förutom skillnaden i hur mycket de två grupperna rörde på sig, fanns det även en skillnad i hur mycket tid de spenderade stillasittande, där grupp 2 satt mer under en arbetsdag, samt satt en större andel av dagen. Ytterligare en signifikant skillnad sågs i upplevd hälsa, där grupp 2 upplevde en större kontroll över sin vardag.

    Slutsats. Tidigare forskning har visat goda hälsoeffekter av fysisk aktivitet och mindre bra effekter av stillasittande. I vår studie var de med ett ansträngande arbete även mer fysiskt aktiva totalt över hela dagen. Med vetskapen om detta skulle man kunna anta att grupp 1 borde ha en bättre hälsa då det var en signifikant skillnad mellan grupperna i mängd fysisk aktivitet och stillasittande. Dock fanns det inga större skillnader mellan grupperna i upplevd hälsa och medicinsk status, vilket talar för att ett sådant påstående i detta fall dementeras. 

  • 365. Bishop, David J
    et al.
    Thomas, Claire
    Moore-Morris, Tom
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Sahlin, Kent
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Research group for Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Mercier, Jacques
    Sodium bicarbonate ingestion prior to training improves mitochondrial adaptations in rats.2010In: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0193-1849, E-ISSN 1522-1555, Vol. 299, no 2, p. E225-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We tested the hypothesis that reducing hydrogen ion accumulation during training would result in greater improvements in muscle oxidative capacity and time to exhaustion (TTE). Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to one of three groups (CON, PLA, and BIC). CON served as a sedentary control, whereas PLA ingested water and BIC ingested sodium bicarbonate 30 min prior to every training session. Training consisted of seven to twelve 2-min intervals performed five times/wk for 5 wk. Following training, TTE was significantly greater in BIC (81.2 +/- 24.7 min) compared with PLA (53.5 +/- 30.4 min), and TTE for both groups was greater than CON (6.5 +/- 2.5 min). Fiber respiration was determined in the soleus (SOL) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL), with either pyruvate (Pyr) or palmitoyl carnitine (PC) as substrates. Compared with CON (14.3 +/- 2.6 nmol O(2).min(-1).mg dry wt(-1)), there was a significantly greater SOL-Pyr state 3 respiration in both PLA (19.6 +/- 3.0 nmol O(2).min(-1).mg dry wt(-1)) and BIC (24.4 +/- 2.8 nmol O(2).min(-1).mg dry wt(-1)), with a significantly greater value in BIC. However, state 3 respiration was significantly lower in the EDL from both trained groups compared with CON. These differences remained significant in the SOL, but not the EDL, when respiration was corrected for citrate synthase activity (an indicator of mitochondrial mass). These novel findings suggest that reducing muscle hydrogen ion accumulation during running training is associated with greater improvements in both mitochondrial mass and mitochondrial respiration in the soleus.

  • 366.
    Bjerkefors, Anna
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Performance and trainability in paraplegics: motor function, shoulder muscle strength and sitting balance before and after kayak ergometer training2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in a complete or partial loss of motor and/or sensory function below the injury level. An SCI causes extensive functional impairment compelling many persons to wheelchair usage. Maintaining an adequate strength and control of trunk and shoulder muscles becomes essential, as the majority of every day tasks will be performed in a sitting position. Moreover, physical exercise is crucial to avoid risks connected with a sedentary life-style. Therefore, it becomes important to find suitable, effective, and attractive physical activities to retain and even improve motor functions achieved during rehabilitation. Ideally, such a training activity should be versatile and have the potential to improve several capacities beneficial to everyday life and thereby increase the independence of persons with SCI. Kayak paddling appears to fulfil several of the criteria for such an activity.

    Objectives

    The overall aims were to see if, and to what extent, a period of training on a modified kayak ergometer could influence functional performance as well as specific qualities, such as, shoulder muscle strength and sitting balance control in a group of postrehabilitated persons with thoracic SCI. An additional aim was to understand more about the availability of the trunk muscles in a person with a clinically complete thoracic SCI and how the trunk muscles are used to maintain upright sitting in response to balance perturbations.

    Methods

    Ten adult post-rehabilitated persons with thoracic SCI performed 30 sessions of kayak ergometer training for a 10-week period, with progressivel increased intensity and balance demand in the medio-lateral direction. Pre- and post-training measurements included performance in functional wheelchair tests, maximal voluntary shoulder muscle strength, and trunk stability in response to support-surface translations. Electromyographic (EMG) recordings from deep and superficial trunk muscles were obtained in a sub-sample of two subjects, one with a high thoracic SCI and one able-bodied person.

    Results

    here were significant improvements with training in functional performance, shoulder muscle strength, and the ability to maintain an upright sitting posture in response to balance perturbations in the group of persons with SCI. The EMG results revealed that the person with a high thoracic SCI, clinically classified as complete, was still able to activate trunk muscles below the injury, both in maximal voluntary efforts and in response to balance perturbations, but the response pattern differed from that of the able-bodied.

    Conclusions

    The improvements in test-performance observed with the kayak ergometer training in the persons with SCI should enhance their capacity to master similar challenges in everyday life, which, in turn, might lead to a greater independence. The pilot data on muscle activation highlight the importance of including examination of trunk muscle function in persons with thoracic SCI in relation to injury classification, prognosis, and training prescription.

  • 367.
    Bjerkefors, Anna
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Positive Effects of Kayak and Kayak Ergometer Training by people with Paraplegia2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in a complete or partial loss of motor and/or sensory function below the injury level. An SCI causes extensive functional impairment compelling many persons to wheelchair usage. Maintaining an adequate strength and control of trunk and shoulder muscles becomes essential, as the majority of every day tasks will be performed in a sitting position. Moreover, physical exercise is crucial to avoid risks connected with a sedentary life-style. Therefore, it becomes important to find suitable, effective, and attractive physical activities to retain and even improve motor functions achieved during rehabilitation. Ideally, such a training activity should be versatile and have the potential to improve several capacities beneficial to everyday life and thereby increase the independence of persons with SCI. Kayak paddling appears to fulfil several of the criteria for such an activity.

    Objectives The overall aims were to see if, and to what extent, a period of training on a modified kayak ergometer could influence functional performance as well as specific qualities, such as, shoulder muscle strength and sitting balance control in a group of post-rehabilitated persons with thoracic SCI.

    Methods Ten adult post-rehabilitated persons with thoracic SCI performed 30 sessions of kayak ergometer training for a 10-week period, with progressively increased intensity and balance demand in the medio-lateral direction. Pre- and post-training measurements included performance in functional wheelchair tests, maximal voluntary shoulder muscle strength, and trunk stability in response to support-surface translations.

    Results There were significant improvements with training in functional performance, shoulder muscle strength, and the ability to maintain an upright sitting posture in response to balance perturbations in the group of persons with SCI.

    Conclusions The improvements in test-performance observed with the kayak ergometer training in the persons with SCI should enhance their capacity to master similar challenges in everyday life, which, in turn, might lead to a greater independence.

  • 368.
    Bjerkefors, Anna
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Stakträning effektivt för ryggmärgsskadade2013In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 36-40Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En ryggmärgsskada leder till ett ökat stillasittande. Risken är då stor att drabbas av till exempel hjärt- och kärlsjukdomar. Många får också överbelastningsbesvär från skuldra och arm av ett liv i rullstol. Med högintensiv intervallträning i den nyutvecklade sittstakergometer går det att minska problemen.

  • 369.
    Bjerkefors, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Carpenter, M G
    Thorstensson, Alf
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Dynamic trunk stability is improved in paraplegics following kayak ergometer training.2007In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 17, no 6, p. 672-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to assess whether postural stability in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) could be affected by training. Ten post-rehabilitated persons with thoracic SCI performed 30 sessions of kayak ergometer training during a 10-week period. The ergometer was modified with a balance module adjustable in the medio-lateral direction. Before and after the training period, horizontal support-surface translations were presented randomly, either in the forward or backward direction, or to the side, while subjects sat in their own wheelchairs. The platform perturbation consisted of an unpredictable initial acceleration, followed by a constant-velocity phase and a predictable deceleration. Markers were applied on the trunk and movement data were recorded in 3D. Four kinematic responses of trunk angular and linear displacement were investigated. In general, postural stability was improved after training with smaller rotational and linear displacements of the trunk observed during both predictable and unpredictable translations in all directions. Thus, the training was able to improve the ability of persons with long-standing SCI to maintain an upright sitting posture in response to externally generated balance perturbations, which should imply an increased capacity to master similar challenges to balance in everyday life.

  • 370.
    Bjerkefors, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Carpenter, Mark G
    Cresswell, Andrew G
    Thorstensson, Alf
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Trunk muscle activation in a person with clinically complete thoracic spinal cord injury.2009In: Journal of rehabilitation medicine : official journal of the UEMS European Board of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 1651-2081, Vol. 41, no 5, p. 390-2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess if, and how, upper body muscles are activated in a person with high thoracic spinal cord injury, clinically classified as complete, during maximal voluntary contractions and in response to balance perturbations. METHODS: Data from one person with spinal cord injury (T3 level) and one able-bodied person were recorded with electromyography from 4 abdominal muscles using indwelling fine-wire electrodes and from erector spinae and 3 upper trunk muscles with surface electrodes. Balance perturbations were carried out as forward or backward support surface translations. RESULTS: The person with spinal cord injury was able to activate all trunk muscles, even those below the injury level, both in voluntary efforts and in reaction to balance perturbations. Trunk movements were qualitatively similar in both participants, but the pattern and timing of muscle responses differed: upper trunk muscle involvement and occurrence of co-activation of ventral and dorsal muscles were more frequent in the person with spinal cord injury. CONCLUSION: These findings prompt further investigation into trunk muscle function in paraplegics, and highlight the importance of including motor tests for trunk muscles in persons with thoracic spinal cord injury, in relation to injury classification, prognosis and rehabilitation.

  • 371.
    Bjerkefors, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH.
    Carpenter, MG
    Cresswell, AG
    Thorstensson, Alf
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Trunk muscle responses to balance perturbations in paraplegicsManuscript (Other academic)
  • 372.
    Bjerkefors, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Jansson, A
    Thorstensson, Alf
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Shoulder muscle strength in paraplegics before and after kayak ergometer training2006In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 97, no 5, p. 613-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose was to investigate if shoulder muscle strength in post-rehabilitated persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) was affected by kayak ergometer training and to compare shoulder strength in persons with SCI and able-bodied persons. Ten persons with SCI (7 males and 3 females, injury levels T3-T12) performed 60 min kayak ergometer training three times a week for 10 weeks with progressively increased intensity. Maximal voluntary concentric contractions were performed during six shoulder movements: flexion and extension (range of motion 65 degrees ), abduction and adduction (65 degrees ), and external and internal rotation (60 degrees ), with an angular velocity of 30 degrees s(-1). Position specific strength was assessed at three shoulder angles (at the beginning, middle and end of the range of motion) in the respective movements. Test-retests were performed for all measurements before the training and the mean intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.941 (95% CI 0.928-0.954). There was a main effect of kayak ergometer training with increased shoulder muscle strength after training in persons with SCI. The improvements were independent of shoulder movement, and occurred in the beginning and middle positions. A tendency towards lower shoulder muscle strength was observed in the SCI group compared to a matched reference group of able-bodied persons. Thus, it appears that post-rehabilitated persons with SCI have not managed to fully regain/maintain their shoulder muscle strength on a similar level as that of able-bodied persons, and are able to improve their shoulder muscle strength after a period of kayak ergometer training.

  • 373.
    Bjerkefors, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Lindberg, Thomas
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Norrbrink, Cecilia
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Karolinska Institutet Danderyd Hospital .
    Wahman, Kerstin
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society (NVS), Division of Neurorehabilitation, Karolinska Institutet.
    Arndt, Anton
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Effects of seated double-poling ergometer training on aerobic and mechanical power in paraplegics2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction In wheelchair-dependent individuals with paraplegia, over 80 % would benefit from health-intervention programmes due to increased risks for cardiovascular diseases. One way to reduce the likelihood of secondary complications and/or to enhance physical capacity is to add structured exercise activities to the regular schedule throughout life. A seated double-poling ergometer (SDPE) has been developed and recently evaluated on a group of people with SCI. The results indicated that the SDPE appeared to be a suitable training tool; the shoulder movement was within a range of motion not conducive to musculoskeletal injury and it provided a large range of controllable intensities enabling both endurance and strength training.

    Purpose To study if regular interval training on a SDPE can increase physical capacity and hence improve performance towards maximal level with safety in individuals with spinal cord injury.

    Methods Thirteen healthy wheelchair users (8 M, 5 F; 47 ± 12 years, 1.75 ± 0.08 m, 67.9 ± 10.2 kg) with SCI levels ranging from T5 to L1, volunteered for the study. Years post injury varied from 3 to 35. All subjects performed 30 sessions of SDPE training during 10 weeks. Each session lasted approximately 55 min, and included a warm-up, interval training (15 s – 3 min work and 15 s – 2 min rest) and a cool-down. The intensity of the intervals was determined to lead up to 70 – 100 % of peak heart rate. Sub-maximal and maximal double-poling ergometer tests were performed before and after this training period. Oxygen uptake was measured using the Douglas Bag system. Three-dimensional kinematics were recorded using an optoelectronic system. 

    Results Significant improvements after training were observed in oxygen uptake (23 %), ventilation (21 %) and blood lactate (22 %) during maximal exertion exercises (Table 1). Mean power per stroke and peak pole force increased with 15 % and 24 %, respectively. At sub-maximal level, significantly lower values were observed in ventilation (-13 %) and blood lactate (-25 %).

    Conclusion Regular interval training on the seated double-poling ergometer (SDPE) increased oxygen uptake and power out-put and can be recommended for people with paraplegia below T5 level due to SCI. Despite the high intensity training in this study, no overload symptoms were reported. On the contrary, certain types of musculoskeletal and neuropathic pain seem to benefit from training on the SDPE.

  • 374.
    Bjerkefors, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Lindberg, Thomas
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Norrbrink, Cecilia
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Karolinska Institutet Danderyd Hospital .
    Wahman, Kerstin
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society (NVS), Division of Neurorehabilitation, Karolinska Institutet.
    Arndt, Anton
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Effects of seated double-poling ergometer training on oxygen uptake, upper-body muscle strength and motor performance in paraplegics2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:  In wheelchair-dependent individuals with paraplegia, over 80 % would benefit from health-intervention programmes due to increased risks for cardiovascular diseases. One way to reduce the likelihood of secondary complications and/or to enhance physical capacity is to add structured exercise activities throughout life.

    Objective:  To study the effects of seated double-poling ergometer (SDPE) training on aerobic capacity, upper-body muscle strength, and cross-over effects on functional performance.   

    Methods: Thirteen individuals with paraplegia performed 30 sessions of SDPE training during 10 weeks. Before and after the training period a) oxygen uptake was measured using the Douglas Bag system during sub-maximal and maximal double-poling ergometer tests, b) trunk, shoulder and elbow muscle strength measurements were performed during maximal voluntary contractions using an isokinetic dynamometer and c) functional tests in wheelchair were performed included; sit-and-reach test, propelling 15 m on a level surface, propelling 50 m up a 3º incline, and propelling 6 min on a 200 m indoor track. Test-retests were performed for all tests before the training began.

    Results: The average intra-class correlation coefficient for test-retest values was 0.91 (SD 0.07). Significant improvements after training were observed in oxygen uptake (22.7 %), ventilation (20.7 %) and blood lactate (22.0 %) during maximal exertion exercises. At sub-maximal level, significantly lower values were observed in ventilation (-12.8 %) and blood lactate (-25.0 %). Maximal isometric trunk muscle strength (17.0 %) and maximal isokinetic shoulder muscle strength (4.4 %) in flexion and extension improved after training. There were significant improvements in sit-and-reach test in forward directions (7.8 %) and in 15 m sprint test (5.2 %).     

    Conclusion: Regular interval training on the SPDE was effective for individuals with paraplegia to improve aerobic capacity and upper-body muscle strength. Some cross-over effects on functional performance were also shown. Furthermore, the training did not cause any overload symptoms.

     

  • 375.
    Bjerkefors, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Nordlund Ekblom, Maria M
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Josefsson, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Thorstensson, Alf
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Deep and superficial abdominal muscle activation during trunk stabilization exercises with and without instruction to hollow.2010In: Manual Therapy, ISSN 1356-689X, E-ISSN 1532-2769, Vol. 15, no 5, p. 502-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The deepest muscle of the human ventro-lateral abdominal wall, the Transversus Abdominis (TrA), has been ascribed a specific role in spine stabilization, which has motivated special core stability exercises and hollowing instruction to specifically involve this muscle. The purpose here was to evaluate the levels of activation of the TrA and the superficial Rectus Abdominis (RA) muscles during five common stabilization exercises performed in supine, bridging and four-point kneeling positions, with and without instruction to hollow, i.e. to continuously pull the lower part of the abdomen towards the spine. Nine habitually active women participated and muscle activity was recorded bilaterally from TrA and RA with intramuscular fine-wire electrodes introduced under the guidance of ultrasound. Results showed that subjects were able to selectively increase the activation of the TrA, isolated from the RA, with the specific instruction to hollow and that side differences in the amplitude of TrA activity, related to the asymmetry of the exercises, remained even after the instruction to hollow. The exercises investigated caused levels of TrA activation from 4 to 43% of that during maximal effort and can thus be used clinically to grade the load on the TrA when designing programs aiming at training that muscle.

  • 376.
    Bjerkefors, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Rosén, Johanna S
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Tarassova, Olga
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Arndt, Anton
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Three-Dimensional Kinematics and Power Output in Elite Para-Kayakers and Elite Able-Bodied Flat-Water Kayakers.2019In: Journal of Applied Biomechanics, ISSN 1065-8483, E-ISSN 1543-2688, p. 93-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Trunk, pelvis and leg movement are important for performance in sprint kayaking. Para-kayaking is a new Paralympic sport in which athletes with trunk and/or leg impairment compete in three classification groups. The purpose of this study was to identify how physical impairments impact on performance by examining: differences in three-dimensional joint range of motion (RoM) between 10 (4 females, 6 males) elite able-bodied kayakers and 41 (13 females, 28 males) elite para-kayakersfrom the three classification groups, and which joint angles were correlated with power output during high intensity kayak ergometer paddling. There were significant differences in RoM between the able-bodied kayakers and the three para-kayak groups for the shoulders (flexion, rotation: able-bodied kayakers<para-kayakers), trunk and pelvis (rotation: able-bodied kayakers>para-kayakers) and legs (hip, knee, ankle flexion: able-bodied kayakers>para-kayakers) during paddling. Furthermore, athletes with greater impairment exhibited lower trunk and leg RoM compared to those with less impairment. Significant positive correlations were observed for both males and females between power output and peak shoulder and trunk flexion, trunk and pelvis rotation RoM and hip, knee and ankle flexion RoM. This information is important for understanding how key kinematic and kinetic variables for para-kayaking performance vary between athletes from different classification groups.

  • 377.
    Bjerkefors, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Squair, J W
    Malik, R
    Lam, T
    Chen, Z
    Carpenter, M G
    Diagnostic accuracy of common clinical tests for assessing abdominal muscle function after motor-complete spinal cord injury above T6.2015In: Spinal Cord, ISSN 1362-4393, E-ISSN 1476-5624, Vol. 53, p. 114-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Study design:Diagnostic study.Objectives:The objective of this study was to compare patterns of electromyography (EMG) recordings of abdominal muscle function in persons with motor-complete spinal cord injury (SCI) above T6 and in able-bodied controls, and to determine whether manual examination or ultrasound measures of muscle activation can be accurate alternatives to EMG.Setting:Research center focused on SCI and University laboratory, Vancouver, Canada.Methods:Thirteen people with SCI (11 with American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale (AIS) A and 2 AIS B; C4-T5), and 13 matched able-bodied participants volunteered for the study. Participants completed trunk tasks during manual examination of the abdominal muscles and then performed maximal voluntary isometric contractions, while EMG activity and muscle thickness changes were recorded. The frequency of muscle responses detected by manual examination and ultrasound were compared with detection by EMG (sensitivity and specificity).Results:All individuals with SCI were able to elicit EMG activity above resting levels in at least one abdominal muscle during one task. In general, the activation pattern was task specific, confirming voluntary control of the muscles. Ultrasound, when compared with EMG, showed low sensitivity but was highly specific in its ability to detect preserved abdominal muscle function in persons with SCI. Conversely, manual examination was more sensitive than ultrasound but showed lower specificity.Conclusion:The results from this study confirm preserved voluntary abdominal muscle function in individuals classified with motor-complete SCI above T6 and highlight the need for further research in developing more accurate clinical measures to diagnose the level of trunk muscle preservation in individuals with SCI.Spinal Cord advance online publication, 25 November 2014; doi:10.1038/sc.2014.202.

  • 378.
    Bjerkefors, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Squair, J W
    Malik, R
    Lam, T
    Chen, Z
    Carpenter, M G
    Response to 'Diagnostic accuracy of common clinical tests for assessing abdominal muscle function after motor-complete spinal cord injury above T6'.2015In: Spinal Cord, ISSN 1362-4393, E-ISSN 1476-5624, Vol. 53, no 12, p. 892-892Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 379.
    Bjerkefors, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Squair, Jordan
    Chen, Zhen
    Lam, Tania
    Carpenter, Mark
    Postural control in individuals with spinal cord injury: Training, functional performance, and mechanisms2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Postural control in sitting is essential for people with spinal cord injury (SCI). Studies indicate that impaired postural control is related to decreased propulsion efficiency, respiratory dysfunction and development of pressure sores. Despite this, there is limited knowledge on the best methods to rehabilitate postural control in people with SCI and if and by what mechanism persons with high-thoracic SCI may improve their postural control. Thus, our aims were to 1) determine the efficacy of targeted rehabilitation towards postural control in people with SCI, and 2) investigate the neural mechanisms behind any observed improvements.

     

    METHODS: Persons with SCI completed 30 sessions over 10 weeks of a) seated double poling ergometer (SDP) training (n=13) or b) kayak ergometer (KE) training (n=10). Before and after functional tests were performed and included: sit-and-reach tests, propelling 15m on a level surface and propelling 50m up a 3º incline. Additionally, subjects sat in their wheelchair while support-surface translations were presented (KE) or performed isometric maximal voluntary contractions in a dynamometer during trunk flexion and extension (SDP). To investigate neural mechanisms of postural control improvement, electromyographic (EMG) responses in the ventral postural muscles to maximal voluntary contractions and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) were assessed in 5 individuals with motor complete SCI above T6.

     

    RESULTS: Postural stability was improved after KE and SDP training demonstrated by smaller rotational and linear displacements of the trunk during support surface translations (KE) and improved postural muscle strength (SDP). There were also significant improvements in propelling tasks and in the sit-and-reach tasks, both in the sagittal plane (SDP) as well as in lateral directions (KE). All persons with motor complete SCI above T6 (n=5) were able to elicit task specific EMG activity in the ventral postural muscles during maximal voluntary contractions despite their clinical classification. Motor evoked potentials were also recorded in each individual´s ventral postural muscles in response to TMS, confirming corticospinal pathway preservation.

     

    CONCLUSIONS: Postural control, upright sitting, and functional performance in daily life activities can be improved in people with high-thoracic SCI during regular exercising, such as kayaking and seated double poling ergometer training. The neural mechanism behind the improvement is in part due to partial preservation of the corticospinal pathways to the postural muscles as confirmed by the use EMG and TMS.

     

  • 380.
    Bjerkefors, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Squair, Jordan W
    Chua, Romeo
    Lam, Tania
    Chen, Zhen
    Carpenter, Mark G
    Assessment of abdominal muscle function in individuals with motor-complete spinal cord injury above T6 in response to transcranial magnetic stimulation.2015In: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 1650-1977, E-ISSN 1651-2081, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 138-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To use transcranial magnetic stimulation and electromyography to assess the potential for preserved function in the abdominal muscles in individuals classified with motor-complete spinal cord injury above T6. Subjects: Five individuals with spinal cord injury (C5-T3) and 5 able-bodied individuals. Methods: Transcranial magnetic stimulation was delivered over the abdominal region of primary motor cortex during resting and sub-maximal (or attempted) contractions. Surface electromyography was used to record motor-evoked potentials as well as maximal voluntary (or attempted) contractions in the abdominal muscles and the diaphragm. Results: Responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation in the abdominal muscles occurred in all spinal cord injury subjects. Latencies of muscle response onsets were similar in both groups; however, peak-to-peak amplitudes were smaller in the spinal cord injury group. During maximal voluntary (or attempted) contractions all spinal cord injury subjects were able to elicit electromyography activity above resting levels in more than one abdominal muscle across tasks. Conclusion: Individuals with motor-complete spinal cord injury above T6 were able to activate abdominal muscles in response to transcranial magnetic stimulation and during maximal voluntary (or attempted) contractions. The activation was induced directly through corticospinal pathways, and not indirectly by stretch reflex activations of the diaphragm. Transcranial magnetic stimulation and electromyography measurements provide a useful method to assess motor preservation of abdominal muscles in persons with spinal cord injury.

  • 381.
    Bjerkefors, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control. Karolinska institutet.
    Tarassova, Olga
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Rosén, Johanna S
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Zakaria, Pascal
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH.
    Arndt, Anton
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control. Karolinska institutet.
    Three-dimensional kinematic analysis and power output of elite flat-water kayakers.2018In: Sports Biomechanics, ISSN 1476-3141, E-ISSN 1752-6116, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 414-427Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose was to examine power output and three-dimensional (3D) kinematic variables in the upper limbs, lower limbs and trunk in elite flat-water kayakers during kayak ergometer paddling. An additional purpose was to analyse possible changes in kinematics with increased intensity and differences between body sides. Six male and four female international level flat-water kayakers participated. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected during three tasks; low (IntL), high (IntH) and maximal (IntM) intensities. No differences were observed in any joint angles between body sides, except for shoulder abduction. Significantly greater range of motion (RoM) values were observed for IntH compared to IntL and for IntM compared to IntL in trunk and pelvis rotation, and in hip, knee and ankle flexion. The mean maximal power output was 610 ± 65 and 359 ± 33 W for the male and female athletes, respectively. The stroke frequencies were significantly different between all intensities (IntL 59.3 ± 6.3; IntH 108.0 ± 6.8; IntM 141.7 ± 18.4 strokes/min). The results showed that after a certain intensity level, the power output must be increased by other factors than increasing the joint angular RoM. This information may assist coaches and athletes to understand the relationship between the movement of the kayaker and the paddling power output.

  • 382.
    Bjerkefors, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Thorstensson, Alf
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Effects of kayak ergometer training on motor performance in paraplegics.2006In: International Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0172-4622, E-ISSN 1439-3964, Vol. 27, no 10, p. 824-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of kayak ergometer training on functional tests performed in wheelchair by persons with spinal cord injury. Ten post-rehabilitated persons with thoracic spinal cord injury volunteered for the study and performed 30 sessions of kayak ergometer training during a 10-week period. The ergometer was modified with an additional balance demand in the medio-lateral direction. Before and after the training period the subjects performed functional tests in the wheelchair: Sit-and-reach tests (distance), mounting a platform, transfer to a bench (height), propelling the wheelchair: 5 m on the rear wheels; in a figure-8; 15 m on a level surface and 50 m on a 3 degrees inclined surface (time). Test-retests were performed for all tests before the training began. A written questionnaire was distributed to evaluate the subjective experiences of the training. The test-retest resulted in coefficient of variation of 1.3 - 4.6 %. There were significant improvements in sit-and-reach (14 %), mounting a platform (7 %), transfer to a bench (10 %), propelling on level (3 %), and inclined surface (6 %). Furthermore, the training, did not cause any shoulder pain or other problems. This, and the positive subjective experience expressed by the subjects after the training indicate that this type of training is a suitable activity for persons with thoracic spinal cord injury.

  • 383.
    Bjerkefors, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Tinmark, Fredrik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Nilsson, Johnny
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Laboratory of Applied Sports Science (LTIV).
    Arndt, Anton
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Seated Double-Poling Ergometer Performance of Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury - A New Ergometer Concept for Standardized Upper Body Exercise2013In: International Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0172-4622, E-ISSN 1439-3964, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 176-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to evaluate biomechanics during seated double-poling exercises in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) and to compare these with those of able-bodied persons (AB). 26 participants volunteered for the study; 13 with SCI (injury levels C7-T12), and 13 AB. A seated double-poling ergometer (SDPE) was developed. 3-dimensional kinematics was measured and piezoelectric force sensors were used to register force in both poles for calculation of power during incremental intensities. Significantly lower power outputs, (143.2 ± 51.1 vs. 198.3 ± 74.9 W) and pole forces (137.1 ± 43.1 vs. 238.2 ± 81.2 N) were observed during maximal effort in SCI compared to AB. Sagittal upper trunk range of motion increased with intensity and ranged from 6.1–34.8 ° for SCI, and 6.9–31.3 ° for AB, with larger peak amplitudes in flexion for AB (31.4 ± 12.9 °) compared to SCI (10.0 ± 8.0 °). All subjects with SCI were able to exercise on the SDPE. Upper body kinematics, power and force outputs increased with intensity in both groups, but were in general, lower in SCI. In conclusion, the SDPE could be successfully used at low to high work intensities enabling both endurance and strength training for individuals with SCI

  • 384. Bjerkefors, Mats-Erik
    et al.
    Bjerkefors, Anna
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Kajak & skridskohandbok: för dig med funktionsnedsättning2013Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Med kajak- och skridskohandboken vill vi dela med oss av våra erfarenheter. Boken kan ses både som en inspirationskälla för nya aktiva och som en handbok för ledare och föreningar som vill starta friluftsverksamhet för personer med funktionsnedsättning.

  • 385.
    Björhn, Jennifer
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Dansas det i gymnasieskolorna?: En kvantitativ studie med lärarperspektiv2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Undersökningens syfte är att utröna om och hur gymnasielärare i 'Idrott och Hälsa' använder dans i undervisningen, samt vilken syn de har på dans, både vad gäller innehåll och som verktyg och metod i undervisningen. Med frågeställningarna:

    −      Använder sig lärare av dans och i så fall på vilket sätt använder de dans i sin undervisning?

    −      Vilken syn har lärare på dans som metod och verktyg i sin undervisning

    −      Finns det något samband mellan hur lärare uppfattar elevers fördomar och/eller åsikter om dans och hur ofta det undervisas i dans?

    −      Hur ser lärare på dans och sin egen förmåga när det kommer till deras yrkesroll?

    Metod

    Studien är en kvantitativ undersökning som är utförd på gymnasielärare som undervisar i ämnet 'Idrott och hälsa'. Urvalet var 55 lärare varav 51 deltog i undersökningen. Lärarna fick svara på enkäter med öppna frågor, ja/nej-frågor och nivåfrågor. Den data som samlats in har analyserats med hjälp av korrelation, andelsberäkning och kategorisering.

    Resultat

    Lärare använder sig av dans i sin undervisning men i olika utsträckning, främst undervisas det i danser som ingår i den kulturella formen (50 av 51 lärare), medan dans som träningsform undervisas av 21 lärare. Endast åtta lärare undervisar dans som tillhör den expressiva/konstnärliga formen. Alla lärare ser dans som ett redskap både för fysiska och sociala/psykiska förmågor. 14 lärare ser att det kan finnas negativa effekter med undervisning i dans. Det finns en stark korrelation mellan lärares syn på elevers inställning till dans och hur ofta läraren undervisar i dans. 64 procent av lärarna anser sig mer osäkra i ämnet än vad de känner sig trygga.

    Slutsats

    Det undervisas relativt lite i dans, trots att lärare ser att dans är ett bra redskap för elever att utvecklas både fysiskt, social och psykiskt. Att det undervisas den mängd det gör beror dels på lärarens brist på trygghet i att undervisa i dans, men även lärares syn på hur elever uppfattar momentet dans. Huruvida de anser att det är roligt och/eller nödvändigt.

  • 386.
    Björk Andersson, Patric
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Ishockeytränares ledarskap och relation till spelare: samband med inre och yttre motivation2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim & Research Objectives

    The main objective of this survey was to investigate how coaches leadership and relation to athletes, influence the athletes motivation. It was suggested that the leadership and the coach-athlete relationship (as part of the leadership), are two factors that influence athletes’ performance. Four questions were to be answered. (1) How are coaches leadership perceived by the players in comparison to their own view of their leadership? (2) How is the coach-athlete relationship described by leaders and team members? (3) Is the coach-athlete relationship influencing athletes’ motivation? (4) Is there a relation between leadership styles and athletes motivation?

    Methodology

    The survey included two ice-hockey teams on A-junior elite level in Sweden (J20). The participants were two head coaches and forty players (n=23, n=17 respectively). The survey was carried out with questionnaires, aimed at both coaches and players. The questionnaires were Leadership Scale of Sports4, Coach Athlete Relationship Test – Questionnaire , and Sport Motivation Scale6. The survey was completed in the end of the season, and did only include the head coach and his players. Subjects in the investigation were required to have played at least six month under their head coach to ensure that coach and players had worked for some time together.

    Results

    The results showed that players preferred a coach to be fairly authoritarian in his leadership, and to often give positive feedback and instructions about game details to the players. The players did not perceive their coach-athlete relationship as perfect. The players’ average result for the coach-athlete relationship showed that they were more pessimistic to the relationship, than were their coach. The level of intrinsic motivation appeared to be higher than the level of external motivation and amotivation, among the players.

    Discussion

    The leadership tends to influence players’ motivation. No results indicated that the coach-athlete relationship had had similar effect on the players’ motivation. The subjects showed higher level of amotivation than previous studies on motivation among Swedish individual elite-athletes have shown. It is therefore proposed that a contributing cause that might have had an affect on the players’ amotivation is the authoritarian elements of the coach leadership and low self-determination among the players. Authoritarian and controlling behaviours tend to diminish the intrinsic motivation and increase the external motivation and amotivation, whereas behaviours that facilitate for players to use self-determination tend to increase the intrinsic motivation. How you initiate to increase the players intrinsic motivation should be a part of coaches’ education programs and similar.

  • 387.
    Björk Andersson, Patric
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Tränarlänken.
    Kravanalys för Specialidrotten2004Student thesis
  • 388.
    Björk, Per
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Fysisk utveckling och träning hos barn och ungdomar inom innebandy: En systematisk litteraturöversikt av träningsbarhet i förhållande till fysisk mognad2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syfte: Finna forskningsbaserade underlag för hur fysisk barn- och ungdomsträning bör bedrivas, från nybörjarnivå som barn (ca sex år) till avancerad nivå som ung senior (ca 18 år) och koppla detta till innebandy.

    Frågeställningar: Finns det perioder under uppväxten då unga idrottare är extra mottagliga för en viss typ av träning? Hur bör träningen utformas under uppväxten uppdelat i delkapaciteterna: aerobt, anaerobt, styrka, rörlighet och koordination/teknik?

    Metod: Systematisk litteraturöversikt av befintlig forskning inom det valda problemområdet. Sökningar i databasen EBSCOhost har utförts. Från sammanlagt i 713 st. artiklar har tolv artiklar sållats fram som gick vidare till dataextraktion. Inklusionskriterierna för artiklarna var: peer reviewed artiklar, publicerade på engelska januari 2003 – oktober 2012, population: 6-18 års ålder av båda könen. Exklusionskriterierna var: någon form utav diagnos, skada eller sjukdom hos populationen. Under tiden tillkom fyra relevanta artiklar från referenslistor hos de redan inkluderade artiklarna.

    Resultat: Utav de 16 st artiklar som ingick i dataextraktionen säger tolv att det finns perioder under uppväxten då idrottare är extra mottagliga för en viss typ av träning och två säger att det generellt inte finns sådana perioder. Två utav artiklarna säger både ja och nej på frågan.

    Inom den aeroba delkapaciteten, styrka/snabbhet och koordination sker utvecklingen kontinuerligt under hela uppväxten samtidigt verkar det också finnas perioder där utvecklingstakten i dessa delkapaciteter accelereras. Inom den anaeroba delkapaciteten finns det en acceleration av förmågan i samband med den ökning i muskelmassa som sker efter tillväxtspurten. Det finns motsägningar och oklarheter i forskningen gällande utvecklingstakten inom de olika delkapaciteterna.

    Slutsats: Den aeroba delkapaciteten, styrka/snabbhet och koordination/teknik är viktiga inom innebandy och i dem sker utvecklingen kontinuerligt under hela uppväxten. Därför bör de också tränas och ibland prioriteras under hela uppväxten. Det verkar även finnas perioder där utvecklingstakten i dessa delkapaciteter accelereras och därför kan en viss fokusering av träningen motiveras under dessa perioder även om övriga delkapaciteter inte skall försummas. En fokusering av träningen mot den anaeroba delkapaciteten innan muskelmassan börjar utvecklas skulle förmodligen ge begränsade resultat. Problemområdet behöver utforskas ytterligare för att kunna ge mer specifika rekommendationer om vilka träningssätt som är mest effektiva för barn och ungdomar. Forskning speciellt riktad mot flickor eftersökes.

    Nyckelord: Träning, utveckling, barn, ungdomar, pubertet, innebandy.

  • 389.
    Björk, Per
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, For Sports Coaches (Tränarlänken).
    Innebandyns kapacitets- och kravprofil: En analys av kapaciteten och kraven på elitinnebandyspelare2011Student paper otherStudent thesis
  • 390.
    Björk, Per
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, For Sports Coaches (Tränarlänken).
    Powerplay: En deskriptiv studie av mål och målgivande passningar i numerärt överläge i innebandyns SSL säsongen 2010/2011.2011Student paper otherStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte:

    Syftet med studien är att analysera hur lagen i SSL spelar i numerärt överläge för att göra mål.

    Frågeställningar:

    Varifrån kommer avsluten som blir mål i numerärt överläge? Varifrån kommer de målgivande passningarna? Hur ofta blir det mål på första retur efter avslut? Hur många utav målen görs via direktskott?

    Metod:

    Försökspersoner: Inspelade powerplay från matcher under säsongen 2010/2011 i SSL med följande slutspel studerades. Lagen som ingick i studien var: AIK IBF, Caperio Täby FC, IBK Dalen, IBF Falun, FC Helsingborg, Hide-a-lite Mullsjö AIS, Pixbo Wallenstam IBK, Storvreta IBK, Umeå City IBK och Warberg IC, matcherna spelades mellan 2010-09-20 och 2011-04-16. Sammanlagt studerades 14 st. matcher och vilka dessa matcher var uppges i bilaga 2. Utrustning: Matchfilmerna kopierades från DVD-skivor i form utav VOB-filer till en extern hårddisk. Filerna spelades sedan upp i Windows Media Player. Upplägg: Filmerna hämtades hos Svenska Innebandyförbundet. När filmerna spelades upp noterades relevant data så noggrant möjligt i anteckningsblock för att senare sammanställas i detta dokument. Statistik hämtades på hemsidanwww.innebandy.seför att ta reda på när i matcherna de numerära överlägen som ledde till mål skedde.

    Resultat:

    Avsluten kommer från kanterna, från slottet eller i straffområdet. Passningarna kommer från pointspelare eller från kanterna. 7 % utav målen kom till på första retur.

    90 % av avsluten som blev mål var direktskott.

    Slutsats:

    En absolut majoritet utav målen görs på direktskott. Avsluten tas ute på en kant, inne i slottet eller i straffområdet. De målgivande passningarna kommer antingen från en kant in till mitten av planen eller från pointspelaren ut till en kant. Det blir sällan mål på krosspassningar, skott från point eller genom förflyttningar inom laget som spelar PP.

  • 391.
    Björkenstig, Veronica
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Hälsobegreppets innebörd ur ett elevperspektiv – i förhållande till idrott & hälsa ämnets kursplan2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka vad elever i årskurs 7 och 8 anser att hälsa är och hur de upplever att de arbetar med hälsa i ämnet idrott och hälsa i skolan. Frågeställningarna som studien bygger på är: Varför och hur vill eleverna arbeta med ämnet, hur upplever de att de arbetar med hälsa i ämnet idrott & hälsa och vilken innebörd har ordet hälsa för eleverna? Studien lägger fokus på elevers personliga tankar om begreppet hälsa samt hur de uppfattar att de arbetar med begreppet och dess innebörd på idrott och hälsa lektionerna i skolan. Datainsamlingsmetoden bestod av enkäter som besvarades av 49 elever på den egna VFU-skolan. Studien är av en kvantitativkaraktär då urvalsgruppen som undersöktes var relativt stor. Resultatet visar att eleverna anser att hälsa är ett viktigt ämne att arbeta med och att de i de flesta fall anser sig arbeta med huvudmålen för ämnet (tagna ur LGR-11) i ämnet idrott och hälsa. Hur upplägget av hälsoarbetet skall vara råder det delade meningar om, vissa elever anser att hälsa är ett område som inte bör tillhöra idrott och hälsa ämnet utan mer hemkunskap och de naturorienterande ämnena medan vissa tycker att större del av ämnet idrott och hälsa bör innefatta hälsa. Flertalet elever är mycket aktiva och har snarlika tolkningar om vilka begrepp som omfattas i området hälsa. Rökning och Alkohol finns med i deras tolkning men ses av de flesta i undersökningen som något negativt och att kost och motion är begrepp som ses som positiva och hälsofrämjande. Slutsatsen av resultatet indikerar hur svårtolkat hälsobegreppet är för eleverna, meningen bland eleverna på skolan delas vad det gäller hälsoarbetet i skolan men att de flesta delar samma uppfattning om vad för begrepp som räknas in i deras hälsodefinition.

  • 392.
    Björkenstig, Veronica
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    ”Jag är inte kurator, psykolog eller pappa till alla barn, jag är inte bilmekaniker heller”: En studie om idrottslärares yrkesetiska dilemman2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The compulsory school attendance in Sweden means that all children are obligated to go to school. This makes great demands on those who work in the school, especially the teachers. Schools are complex units. In school, teachers face all kinds of ethical dilemmas on a daily basis. The aim of the study is to enlighten how different teachers would act differently, if they were facing the same dilemma in the PE-lessons and why this knowledge is important to our profession.

    Method

    The data was collected through interviews to make a qualitative research. The purpose of this study was to follow four PE-teachers reasoning about ethical dilemmas. Through three pre-set dilemmas the teachers were supposed to discuss how they, hypothetical, would act if they were facing them.

    Results

    The result showed that there are no agreements between the teachers in how they think they would have act in the pre-set dilemmas. The choice of act affects on both the school as an organization and of teachers as persons. Accordingly, the choice of act depends on how the school has arranged the teaching, what resources the school has and how far the teachers think their professions reach. This study also shows that there are no certain answers to how teachers should act if they were facing the pre-set dilemmas. Because of this, they teachers’ whishes more concrete guidelines, more education in the subject and in conflict solvation to be prepared to face dilemmas regarding PE-lessons in our schools.

    Conclusion

    This study has enlightened the difficulties regarding ethical dilemmas that teachers faces in school. The study has also pioneered for further research in different areas considering ethical dilemmas in schools.

  • 393.
    Björklund, Christer
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutets Universitetsbibliotek.
    Haglund, Lotta
    Karolinska Institutets Universitetsbibliotek.
    Åstrand, Lotta
    Karolinska Institutets Universitetsbibliotek.
    Creating a vision for a University Library: description of a collaborative process in six steps2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 394.
    Björklund, Ida
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Norlin, Maria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Lagvärdar - ett spel för gallerierna?: En studie om senior- och ungdomslagens syn på lagvärdsarbetet2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med denna uppsats var att undersöka hur berörda fotbollslag i senior- och ungdomsserierna har uppfattat lagvärdsarbetet, genom att problematisera och belysa behovet av lagvärdar och vilka effekter som lagen ser av detta arbete. De frågeställningar som vi använde var: Anser berörda lag att det finns ett fortsatt behov av lagvärdar och hur uppfattar lagen själv idén med lagvärdar? Uppnår lagvärdarna sitt syfte, utifrån Stockholms Fotbollförbunds riktlinjer? Är lagvärdsutbildningen tillräcklig, sett utifrån dagens utformning? Har säkerheten runt matcherna förbättrats, i och med införandet av lagvärdar?

    Metod

    Vi har gjort en totalundersökning omfattande samtliga lag som spelar i Stockholms Fotbollförbunds seriesystem och omfattas av kravet på lagvärd. Datainsamling har skett i form av enkät, utformad i samråd med Stockholms Fotbollförbund.

    Resultat

    Majoriteten av de responderande lagen anser att ett fortsatt behov av lagvärd finns. På frågan om lagvärdarna uppfyller sitt syfte, skiftade svaren. Många anser att de uppfyller sitt syfte, dock visade svaren på att många av respondenterna som svarat ja, trots detta inte vet hela innebörden av lagvärdsarbetet. De som är negativa till lagvärdsarbetet tycker i många fall att det är en extra börda som läggs på laget. Resultatet visade vidare att respondenterna i stor utsträckning anser att utbildningen är tillräcklig, samt att effekten av lagvärdsarbetet har inneburit att det blivit lugnare kring de flesta matcher, samtidigt som det inneburit en större förståelse för domarens utsatta roll under match.

    Slutsats

    Vår uppfattning efter genomförd studie var att syftet med lagvärdsarbetet är bra, men att det i praktiken inte uppnår syftet. Åtgärder och förbättringar måste vidtas för att detta arbete skall kunna fungera i framtiden. Förslag på åtgärder är ett tydligt utformat regelverk för lagvärdar och fadderskap där äldre spelare syftar att fungera som goda förebilder för yngre spelare.

  • 395.
    Björklund, Linnéa
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Flodin, Tuva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Rekommendera mera!: En studie på hur barnmorskor upplever, uppfattar och använder rekommendationerna för fysisk aktivitet under graviditet.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens syfte var att undersöka hur existerande riktlinjer för fysisk aktivitet för kvinnor under graviditet ser ut och hur de tillämpas på mödravårdscentraler. Undersökningen gjordes på de barnmorskor som arbetar på mödravårdscentraler kopplade till Stockholms läns landsting. 

    Frågeställningar:

    1. Hur ser rekommendationerna för fysisk aktivitet ut för kvinnor under graviditet? 
    2. Hur tillämpas dessa på mödravårdscentraler i Stockholms län?

    Metod:

    Studien undersökte och granskade existerande styrdokument för rekommendationer av fysisk aktivitet vid graviditet, dessa användes därefter till ett underlag för ett utformande av en enkät. På hemsidan för Stockholms läns landsting finns 33 mödravårdscentraler angivna, samtliga centraler kontaktades via mail. Därefter skickads en enkät ut, utformad på en tjänst på internet, som skickades per mail via en länk. Samtliga centraler hade möjlighet att delta, dock var deltagandet frivilligt. Enkäten avsåg bland annat att undersöka barnmorskornas erfarenheter av fysisk aktivitet under graviditet, om de ansåg detta som positivt eller negativt, deras egen inställning till fysisk aktivitet samt hur deras råd till patienter var utformade. De redan granskade styrdokumenten med riktlinjer för fysisk aktivitet, författade av de största aktörerna och Stockholms läns landsting analyserades återigen. En sammanfattning togs därefter fram för att sammanställa vilka rekommendationer som var relevanta och användbara för att besvara studiens frågeställningar.

    Resultat:

    17 barnmorskor deltog i studien. Mer än hälften av respondenterna anser att fysisk aktivitet vid graviditet är positivt, men att anpassningar krävs, samt att det är viktigt att lyssna på kroppen och dess signaler. En mer kontrollerad viktuppgång, minskad smärta i rygg/bäcken, mindre komplikationer generellt och även bättre psykiskt välmående var några positiva effekter av fysisk aktivitet som var återkommande i svaren. De nackdelar som nämndes var foglossning, samt smärta i bäckenbotten/rygg kan förvärras vid promenader och gång i trappor. Fler nackdelar som angavs var att fysisk aktivitet kan även medföra högt tryck på anklar/vrister, vilket kan medföra komplikationer då dessa blir sköra under graviditet. Dock använde majoriteten sig av mer generella råd till sina patienter. Dessa kom övervägande från vårdguiden, vilket lyder ca 30 minuters rörelse om dagen.

    Slutsats:

    Det behövs mer utbildning för dessa barnmorskor vad gäller fysisk aktivitet vid graviditet. Utbildningen bör leda till mer kunskap kring personligt anpassad information och individuella råd om fysisk aktivitet till gravida.

  • 396.
    Björklund, Per
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Fahlcrantz, Sussie
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Trettio minuter om dagen!: En undersökning av elevers och lärares skolmiljö och hälsa efter införandet av daglig fysisk aktivitet2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet har varit att undersöka konsekvenserna av den ”dagliga dosen” på elev och lärarnivå. Frågeställningarna var följande: Vilka fördelar märker elever/lärare av den ”dagliga dosen”? Vilka nackdelar märker elever/lärare av den ”dagliga dosen”?

    Metod

    Empiriska data har samlats in genom intervjuer med fyra lärare och sex elever i årskurser 7, 8 och 9. De intervjuade lärarna kommer från två olika skolor medan samtliga elever är från samma skola, alla i Stockholmsområdet. Intervjuerna var ostrukturerade och formulerades efter frågeområden.

    Resultat

    Intervjuerna redovisade både fördelar och nackdelar av fysisk aktivitet. En fördel är hälsoeffekter, både kortsiktigt i samband med utförandet och långsiktigt i samband med förändringar i sin fritid (livslång fysisk aktivitet). Ytterligare positiva konsekvenser som redovisades är bättre koncentrationsförmåga hos eleverna samt lugnare klassrum och övriga allmänna utrymmen. Exempel på redovisade nackdelar är att många elever anser att utbudet av valbara fysiska aktiviteter inte är tillräckliga, även lärarna upplevde detta som en nackdel eftersom många elever var negativt inställda redan från början. Även skolans organisering av ”Den dagliga dosen” – tillgång till lokaler och duschutrymmen samt nödvändigheten av många ombyten redovisades som nackdel.

    Slutsats

    Vår slutsats är att konsekvenserna är gemensamma för både lärare och elever men inte alltid ur samma synvinkel. Exempel på positiva konsekvenser är att koncentrationsförmågan har ökat hos eleverna och hälsan påverkas positivt hos elever som är inaktiva på fritiden. Exempel på negativa konsekvenser är tight schema och uttröttande moment för lärare.

  • 397.
    Björkman, Frida
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Snusets effekter på aeroba processer och energiomsättning under fysiskt arbete2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of a prolonged cessation from tobacco and nicotine on maximal aerobic power and energy metabolism during submaximal exercise in regular snuff users.

     

    Methods

    23 snuff users (18 men, 5 women) were investigated before and after a >6 week snuff cessation period (SCP). Participants performed a submaximal graded exercise test on cycle ergometer, a maximal running test and a prolonged aerobic endurance test consisting of 60 minutes cycling on 50 % of VO2max. Measurements of oxygen uptake (VO2), ventilation (VE), rate of perceived exertion on Borg´s RPE-scale (RPE), heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were obtained. Blood samples were drawn for analysis of cotinine, lactate [HLa], blood glucose, and free fatty acids (FFA) at rest and during exercise.

     

    Results

    Submaximal VO2 and energy expenditure were not affected by >6 weeks of withdrawal from snus. VE, respiratory exchange ratio (RER), blood glucose and RPE during submaximal graded exercise test remained unchanged. However, post-SCP a small change was observed in the [HLa] concentration, due to a significantly lower [HLa] at the final stage in the test (7.61 ± 3.01 and 7.18 ± 2.95 mmol/l, respectively, p<0.05). HR and BP were significantly reduced at all submaximal work rates. Mean time to exhaustion during the maximal running test, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), maximal HR and [HLa] were almost identical before and after SCP. Significantly lower values of FFA, HR and BP, and a tendency towards lower ventilatory drift during prolonged submaximal exercise were observed post-SCP. No changes were observed on any other measurements during the prolonged exercise test. Other physiological changes were weight gain (1.5 kg ± 1.6 kg, p<0.01) and decreased HR (61 ± 9 beats/min pre-SCP, 55 ± 8 beats/min post-SCP, p<0.05) at rest.

     

    Conclusions

    Oxygen uptake in submaximal aerobic exercise with large muscle groups is not affected by a prolonged cessation from regular snuff dipping. VO2max and maximal aerobic performance is unchanged. Exposure to snus may have some influence on the metabolism during exercise, mainly characterized by lower concentrations of FFA post-SCP.

  • 398.
    Björkman, Frida
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Bohman, Tony
    Ekblom-Bak, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    The ability of a submaximal cycle ergometer test to detect changes in VO2maxManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 399.
    Björkman, Frida
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Edin, Fredrik
    University of Gothenburg.
    Mattsson, C Mikael
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Larsen, Filip
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Research group for Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Regular moist snuff dipping does not affect endurance exercise performance.2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 7, article id e0181228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Physiological and medical effects of snuff have previously been obtained either in cross-sectional studies or after snuff administration to non-tobacco users. The effects of snuff cessation after several years of daily use are unknown. 24 participants with >2 years of daily snuff-use were tested before and after >6 weeks snuff cessation (SCG). A control group (CO) of 11 snuff users kept their normal habits. Resting heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were significantly lower in SCG after snuff cessation, and body mass was increased by 1.4 ± 1.7 kg. Total cholesterol increased from 4.12 ± 0.54 (95% CI 3.89-4.35) to 4.46 ± 0.70 (95% CI 4.16-4.75) mM L-1 in SCG, due to increased LDL, and this change was significantly different from CO. Resting values of HDL, C-reactive protein, and free fatty acids (FFA) remained unchanged in both groups. In SCG group, both HR and BP were reduced during a four-stage incremental cycling test (from 50 to 80% of VO2max) and a prolonged cycling test (60 min at 50% of VO2max). Oxygen uptake (VO2), respiratory exchange ratio, blood lactate (bLa) and blood glucose (bGlu) concentration, and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were unchanged. In CO group, all measurements were unchanged. During the prolonged cycling test, FFA was reduced, but with no significant difference between groups. During the maximal treadmill running test peak values of VO2, pulmonary ventilation (VE), time to exhaustion and bLa were unchanged in both groups. In conclusion, endurance exercise performance (VO2max and maximal endurance time) does not seem to be affected by prolonged snuff use, while effects on cardiovascular risk factors are contradictory. HR and BP during rest and submaximal exercise are reduced after cessation of regular use of snuff. Evidently, the long-time adrenergic stress on circulation is reversible.

  • 400.
    Björkman, Frida
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Edin, Fredrik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Mattsson, C. Mikael
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Larsen, Filip
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Regular oral moist snuff dipping does not impair physical performanceArticle in journal (Refereed)
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