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  • 301.
    Thorstensson, Alf
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Karlsson, J
    Fatiguability and fibre composition of human skeletal muscle.1976Inngår i: Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6772, E-ISSN 1365-201X, Vol. 98, nr 3, s. 318-22Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The fatiguability of the quadriceps muscle was investigated in 10 male subjects (25-40 yrs), with inter-individual differences in fibre composition of their vastus lateralis muscles (range 25-65% fast twitch, FT, muscle fibres). Fatiguability was assessed as the decline in maximal force (in % of initial values) with 50 repeated isokinetic knee-extensions at fast angular velocity (3.14 rad/s). Each contraction lasted 0.5 s and the rest periods were about 0.7 s. Every subject was tested on two occasions and the standard deviation for a single determination of fatiguability was 1.4%. The decline in force after 50 contractions was on the average about 45%. The individual values varied, however, and a linear correlation was present between fatiguability and % FT fibres (r = 0.86, p less than 0.01). It was concluded that development of fatigue in human skeletal muscle performing repeated fast dynamic contractions with maximal effort was most marked in muscles with a high proportion FT fibres. This finding was in conformity with earlier results from animal skeletal muscle preparations.

  • 302.
    Thorstensson, Alf
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Karlsson, J
    Viitasalo, J H
    Luhtanen, P
    Komi, P V
    Effect of strength training on EMG of human skeletal muscle.1976Inngår i: Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6772, E-ISSN 1365-201X, Vol. 98, nr 2, s. 232-6Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of an 8 weeks period of systematic progressive strength training on the EMG activity of the leg extensor muscles (vastus lateralis and rectus femoris) were investigated in 8 healthy male subjects (22-31 yrs). After training there were indications (n.s.) of a decline in integrated EMG (IEMG) during maximal isometric knee extension as well as in the IEMG vs isometric force relationship. The averaged motor unit potential (AMUP) did not demonstrate any significant changes due to the strength training regimen. In conformity with earlier findings no or only minor alterations were observed in anthropometrics, muscle enzyme activities and fibre composition. The fibre area ratio indicated a specific effect of the training stimuli on the fast twitch muscle fibres. Thus, EMG-analyses, as employed in the present study, did not provide any conclusive additional explanation as to the mechanisms behind the well established gains in muscle strength performance induced by the applied strength training program.

  • 303.
    Thorstensson, Alf
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Larsson, L
    Tesch, P
    Karlsson, J
    Muscle strength and fiber composition in athletes and sedentary men.1977Inngår i: Medicine and science in sports, ISSN 0025-7990, Vol. 9, nr 1, s. 26-30Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Members of Swedish national teams in track and field events (sprinting and jumping), downhill skiing, race walking, orienteering, and a group of sedentary men were studied to examine the relationship between muslce fiber characteristics in needle biopsy samples form m. vastus lateralis and muscle strength measured as peak torque during isokinectic knee extensions. In comparison with the sedentary group the following differences were found: a) percentage fast twitch fibers was lower in the endurance athetes, b) fast to slow twitch muscle fiber area ratio was higher in the track athletes, c)track athletes and downhill skier attained higher peak torque values at all angular velocities examined. The track athletes had, however, higher torque values at the fastest angular velocity as compared to the downhill skiers, whereas there was no differnce under isometric conditions. The proportion of fast twitch fibers was related to torque produced, especially at high motion velocity. The training also appeared to affect the force-velocity relationship.

  • 304.
    Thorstensson, Alf
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Nilsson, J
    Carlson, H
    Zomlefer, M R
    Trunk movements in human locomotion.1984Inngår i: Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6772, E-ISSN 1365-201X, Vol. 121, nr 1, s. 9-22Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Trunk movements in the frontal and sagittal planes were studied in 10 healthy males (18-35 yrs) during normal walking (1.0-2.5 m/s) and running (2.0-6.0 m/s) on a treadmill. Movements were recorded with a Selspot optoelectronic system. Directions, amplitudes and phase relationships to the stride cycle (defined by the leg movements) were analyzed for both linear and angular displacements. During one stride cycle the trunk displayed two oscillations in the vertical (mean net amplitude 2.5-9.5 cm) and horizontal, forward-backward directions (mean net amplitude 0.5-3 cm) and one oscillation in the lateral, side to side direction (mean net amplitude 2-6 cm). The magnitude and timing of the various oscillations varied in a different way with speed and mode of progression. Differences in amplitudes and timing of the movements at separate levels along the spine gave rise to angular oscillations with a similar periodicity as the linear displacements in both planes studied. The net angular trunk tilting in the frontal plane increased with speed from 3-10 degrees. The net forward-backward trunk inclination showed a small increase with speed up to 5 degrees in fast running. The mean forward inclination of the trunk increased from 6 degrees to about 13 degrees with speed. Peak inclination to one side occurred during the support phase of the leg on the same side. Peak forward inclination was reached at the initiation of the support phase in walking, whereas in running the peak inclination was in the opposite direction at this point. The adaptations of trunk movements to speed and mode of progression could be related to changing mechanical conditions and different demands on equilibrium control due to e.g. changes in support phase duration and leg movements.

  • 305.
    Thorstensson, Alf
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Nilsson, Johnny
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Trunk muscle strength during constant velocity movements.1982Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 0036-5505, E-ISSN 1940-2228, Vol. 14, nr 2, s. 61-8Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A new apparatus has been designed for standardized measurements of the strength of human trunk muscles utilizing the isokinetic (constant movement velocity) technique (Cybex). It is possible to measure the produced torque during maximal voluntary isometric and isokinetic contractions in the whole range of motion during flexion, extension and lateral flexion of the trunk. Effects of gravity are eliminated since the movements are performed in the horizontal plane. Torque can be measured around different centres of rotation of the body. With this experimental set-up the strength of the trunk muscles has been characterized in a group of 14 normal male subjects (18-31 yrs). The torque produced by the trunk muscles varied with movement velocity and trunk position in the arc of motion. Peak torque occurred in a position where the muscles involved were stretched. The strength of the trunk extensors exceeded that of the flexors, but the degree (ratio) varied with trunk position. The relative contribution of the hip muscles to the total torque produced with the centre of rotation at the hip joint was larger for flexors than for extensors and varied with velocity and position. It is concluded that the present technique is useful to characterize the human trunk muscles.

  • 306.
    Thorstensson, Alf
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Oddsson, L
    Carlson, H
    Motor control of voluntary trunk movements in standing.1985Inngår i: Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6772, E-ISSN 1365-201X, Vol. 125, nr 2, s. 309-21Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The pattern of activity in different trunk muscles during voluntary trunk movements was studied in the standing position in man. The electromyographic activity from ventral and dorsal trunk muscles on the left and right sides were recorded together with the movements in the sagittal and frontal planes (Selspot optoelectronic system). Movement direction, amplitude, velocity and initial posture were varied. In all movements there was a basic pattern of alternation between antagonist muscle groups. Fast movements were initiated by a sharp burst of activity, whereas slow flexions and side bendings resulted from a decrease in antigravity muscle activity. Movement amplitude was related to the magnitude of the initiating burst, and also to the time of onset of antagonist muscle activity with a braking effect. The contribution of passive internal forces in the braking of a movement was indicated by the myoelectrical pattern of activity, particularly in slow large side bendings, where ipsilateral activity was present at the end of the movement. Sagittal movements starting at different initial trunk inclinations resulted in shifts in onset time and duration between antagonist muscles. The observed modifications are specific adaptations of the motor program to balance changes in mechanical conditions, such as angular acceleration, moment arm for the gravitational force, and intrinsic forces of active and passive structures surrounding the spine and pelvis. In conclusion, the present results demonstrate that trunk movements are generated and controlled by specific patterns of muscle coordination.

  • 307.
    Thorstensson, Alf
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Oddsson, Lars
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Andersson, Eva
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Arvidsson, Åke
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Balance in muscle strength between agonist and antagonist muscles of the trunk.1985Inngår i: Biomechanics IX: proceedings of the ninth International Congress of Biomechanics held in 1983 at Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. B / [ed] David A. Winter, 1985, s. 15-20Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 308.
    Thorstensson, Alf
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Roberthson, H
    Adaptations to changing speed in human locomotion: speed of transition between walking and running.1987Inngår i: Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6772, E-ISSN 1365-201X, Vol. 131, nr 2, s. 211-4Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The transition speed between walking and running was determined in 18 healthy males (23-38 years) of various statures (range of leg length 0.86-1.09 m) during acceleration and deceleration of different magnitudes (0.05-0.11 ms-2) on a motor-driven treadmill. The speed of the treadmill belt and the duration of the stance phases of each foot were recorded. A transition step was identified and the speed of transition was taken as the average speed value of the stance phase of that step. The overall mean value for the transition speed was 1.88 m s-1 (range 1.30-2.55). Deceleration resulted in a somewhat lower speed of transition than acceleration. There was a tendency towards increasing values for transition speed with increasing leg length. This could partly be explained by differences in natural frequency. The reasons for the switch between walking and running at a speed which is not extreme for either mode of progression are unclear. The subjective feeling that a transition will lead to a more comfortable situation might be based on previous experience combined with information from peripheral receptors and activity in central networks controlling locomotion.

  • 309.
    Thorstensson, Alf
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Sjödin, B
    Karlsson, J
    Enzyme activities and muscle strength after "sprint training" in man.1975Inngår i: Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6772, E-ISSN 1365-201X, Vol. 94, nr 3, s. 313-8Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sprint type strength training was performed 3-4 times a week for 8 weeks by 4 healthy male students (16-18 yrs). The training was carried out on a treadmill at high speed and with high inclination. Muscle biopsies were obtained from vastus lateralis before and after the training period for histochemical classification of slow and fast twitch muscle fibres and for biochemical determination of metabolites and enzyme activities. Muscle fibre type distribution was unchanged, whereas fibre area indicated an increase for both fibre types in 3 subjects after training. The muscle enzyme activities of Mg2+ stimulated ATPase, myokinase and creatine phosphokinase increased 30, 20, and 36 percent, respectively. Muscle concentration of ATP and creatine phosphate (CP) did not change with training. Sargent's jump increased with on average 4 cm (from 47 to 51 cm), maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) with 19 kp (from 165 to 184 kp), and endurance at 50 percent of MVC with 9 s (from 47 to 56 s), respectively. After training all subjects showed a gain in body weight (mean 1.4 kg) and in thigh circumference (mean 1.5 cm) indicating a larger leg muscle volume and consequently also an increase in total ATP and CP.

  • 310.
    Thorstensson, Alf
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Sjödin, B
    Tesch, P
    Karlsson, J
    Actomyosin ATPase, myokinase, CPK and LDH in human fast and slow twitch muscle fibres.1977Inngår i: Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6772, E-ISSN 1365-201X, Vol. 99, nr 2, s. 225-9Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The enzyme activities of Mg2+ stimulated ATPase, creatine phosphokinase (CPK), myokinase (MK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were determined in pooled fast twitch (FT) and slow twitch (ST) human skeletal muscle fibers, dissected out from freeze-dried muscle biopsy material. All enzymes investigated demonstrated higher activities in FT fibres. The ratio in enzyme activity between fibre types was greatest for Mg2+ stimulated ATPase (3:1) and smallest for CPK (1.3:1). In addition, the isozyme patterns of CPK, MK and LDH were studied by means of isoelectric focusing (CPK and MK) and discelectrophoresis (LDH). A difference was observed between fibre types with respect to the isozyme distribution of MK and LDH, whereas the CPK isozyme pattern was similar in both fibre types. These results on separated human FT and ST fibres were essentially in conformity with what has earlier been indicated from experiments on mixed muscle homogenates.

  • 311.
    Tinmark, Fredrik
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC). Karolinska institutet, Inst för klinisk vetenskap, intervention och teknik / Dept of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology.
    Bimanual movement control: insights from golf ball striking2014Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis was to gain insight into the control of complex bimanual movements that are both fast and accurate. For this, skilled golf ball striking was used as a model in two experimental studies (I and III). The thesis also includes two methodological studies (II and IV), intended to assist in present and future investigation on bimanual movement control. Study I shows a common kinematic proximal-to-distal sequencing (PDS) pattern and speed-summation effect in skilled golf players of both genders. Using a common PDS movement strategy in golf ball striking at various endpoint speeds appears beneficial from mechanical and control points of view and could serve the purpose of providing both high speed and accuracy. In Study II a general expression for mobility was derived, which can be applied for extending the theory of mobility to double-handed grasping and manipulation. Study III found that kinematic contributions to endpoint velocity at slow, medium and fast test conditions were provided by the same subset of possible joint rotations. However, the specific subset differed between levels of expertise. The inertial behavior of the linkage arms-hands-club promoted movement parallel to and resisted movement orthogonal to the club path close to ball impact, at all endpoint speeds investigated. These findings extend previous knowledge regarding endpoint control in single-limb movements. Moreover, results regarding movement organization in Study I together with results in Study III regarding inertial behavior suggest the existence of limb configurations able to simultaneously exploit intersegmental dynamics and endpoint mobility in a proficient manner. To make the control of intersegmental dynamics in bimanual striking transparent, however, torques originating from segmental in teractions should be determined. However, when hands are placed next to each other or are overlapping it becomes challenging to find placements for standard force sensors which allow separation of right and left hand forces without altering normal behavior. As partially explored in Study IV, pressure mapping of the right hand together with inverse dynamics calculations for the golf club can potentially provide an adequate solution.

  • 312.
    Tinmark, Fredrik
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Ardt, Toni
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Ekblom, Maria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Hellström, John
    Örebro universitet.
    Halvorsen, Kjartan
    Endpoint control in a bimanual striking task: application to the golfswing2014Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 313.
    Tinmark, Fredrik
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Arndt, Anton
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Ekblom, Maria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Hellström, John
    Halvorsen, Kjartan
    Endpoint mobility in bimanual manipulation: insights from golf ball striking2015Inngår i: XXV Congress of the International Society of Biomechanics: Abstract book, 2015, s. 1283-1284Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 314.
    Tinmark, Fredrik
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Arndt, Toni
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Halvorsen, Kjartan
    Using Motion Analysis and Pressure sensitive sensors for determining normal forces when gripping a cylinderManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 315.
    Tinmark, Fredrik
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Hellström, John
    Arndt, Anton
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Halvorsen, Kjartan
    Contributions to club velocity in golf swings to submaximal and maximal shot distances2012Inngår i: eProceedings of the 30th Conference of the International Society of Biomechanics in Sports, 2012: Volume 3 / [ed] Bradshaw, E.J., Burnett, A., Hume, P.A., 2012, s. 81-83Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The contribution of joint rotations to endpoint velocity was investigated in golf shots to submaximal and maximal shot distances using a 41degrees of freedom (DOF) kinematic model. A subset of 16 DOFs was found to explain 97%-99% of endpoint velocity regulation at club–ball contact. The largest contributors, for both groups at every shot condition, were pelvis and torso twist rotation among the most proximal DOFs, elbow pronation/supination and wrist flexion/extension among DOFs in the left arm, and shoulder internal/external rotation and wrist flexion/extension among DOFs in the right arm. The contributions from pelvis obliquity, left wrist flexion/extension, left wrist ulnar/radial deviation and right shoulder flexion/extension differed significantly between the advanced and intermediate group.

  • 316.
    Tinmark, Fredrik
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Hellström, John
    Örebro universitet.
    Halvorsen, Kjartan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Thorstensson, Alf
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Elite golfers' kinematic sequence in full-swing and partial-swing shots2010Inngår i: Sports Biomechanics, ISSN 1476-3141, Vol. 9, nr 4, s. 236-244Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether kinematic proximal-to-distal sequencing (PDS) and speed-summation are common characteristics of both partial and full-swing shots in golf players of different skill levels and genders. A total of 45 golfers participated, 11 male tournament professionals, 21 male and 13 female elite amateurs. They performed partial shots with a wedge to targets at three submaximal distances, 40, 55 and 70 m, and full-swing shots with a 5 iron and a driver for maximal distance. Pelvis, upper torso and hand movements were recorded in 3D with an electromagnetic tracking system (Polhemus Liberty) at 240 Hz and the magnitude of the resultant angular velocity vector of each segment was computed. The results showed a significant proximal-to-distal temporal relationship and a concomitant successive increase in maximum (peak) segment angular speed in every shot condition for both genders and levels of expertise. A proximal-to-distal utilization of interaction torques is indicated. Using a common PDS movement strategy in partial and full-swing golf shots appears beneficial from mechanical and control points of view and could serve the purpose of providing both high speed and accuracy.

  • 317. Tokuno, C D
    et al.
    Cresswell, A G
    Thorstensson, Alf
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Carpenter, M G
    Recruitment order of the abdominal muscles varies with postural task.2013Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 23, nr 3, s. 349-54Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Abdominal muscle recruitment strategies in response to a postural perturbation contradict the theory that the deeper abdominal muscles are always recruited in advance of the more superficial muscles. The purpose of this study was to determine whether such contrasting muscle recruitment patterns are due to the postural task or the predictability of a postural task. Participants performed an arm raise task as well as an unpredictable and a predictable balance perturbation task (i.e. support-surface translation) while intramuscular electromyographic (EMG) recordings were obtained from the deep [transversus abdominis (TrA)] and superficial [obliquus externus (OE)] abdominal muscles. The abdominal muscle recruitment order was dependent on the postural task but not on the predictability of a postural perturbation. Whereas arm raises elicited similar EMG onset latencies in TrA and OE, the OE onset latency was 48 ms earlier than the TrA following an unpredictable translation (P = 0.003). The early OE activation persisted when the translation was made predictable to the participant (P = 0.024). These results provide evidence that the abdominal muscle recruitment order varies with the trunk stability requirements specific to each task. Rehabilitation strategies focusing on an early TrA activation to improve postural stability may not be appropriate for all everyday tasks.

  • 318.
    Tokuno, Craig
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Neural control of standing posture2007Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    When humans are asked to stand normally, they are not completely motionless. Rather, small amounts of body movement, termed postural sway, can be observed. Although the postural sway of standing has been well described, the manner in which this sway is neurally controlled and its influence in tasks involving postural re-stabilization are not known. Therefore, the aim of this thesis was to investigate the neural control of human standing posture, with a special emphasis on 1) whether the neuromuscular responses to an unexpected perturbation are influenced by the postural sway, 2) whether spinallymediated changes occur as a function of postural sway position and/or direction, and 3) whether the excitability of the cortical and corticospinal pathways are altered with respect to postural sway. In each study, subjects stood quietly on a force platform. For Studies I-III, the anteroposterior center of pressure (COP) signal from the force platform was monitored online such that when the position and/or velocity of the COP was of the desired magnitude and direction, a perturbation was administered to the subject. The perturbation consisted of either a sudden support surface translation (Study I) or a percutaneous electrical stimulation to the posterior tibial nerve (Studies II-IV). In Study IV, a perturbation, in the form of either a transcranial magnetic (TMS) or electric (TES) stimulation to the left motor cortex, was triggered at a random time, regardless of the COP signal. The neuromuscular responses to the mechanical, electrical or magnetic perturbations were assessed by measuring the body kinematics from a motion capture system or electromyographic (EMG) recordings from surface electrodes placed over various lower limb muscles. Specific dependent measures included the number of stepping responses, the latencies and amplitudes of the EMG recordings, the peak-to-peak amplitudes of the Hoffmann reflex (Hreflex) and M-wave from tibial nerve stimulation, as well as the peak-to-peak amplitudes of the motor evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by TMS and TES. Study I indicated that when subjects were standing normally, the position of postural sway influenced the postural responses to an unexpected surface translation. EMG activity of various lower limb and trunk muscles were generally delayed in time and larger in amplitude when subjects were swaying in the direction opposite to the upcoming perturbation. The altered postural responses may be related to the ongoing modulation of the synaptic efficacy, as reflected by the size of the H-reflex, to the triceps surae Ia pathways. In Studies II-IV, it was found that when subjects were swaying in the forward as compared to the backward direction or position, depolarization of the soleus and medial gastrocnemius motoneurone pools, via synaptic transmission of the Ia afferents, was easier to achieve. However, this sway direction- and sway position-dependent modulation of neural excitability was limited to the spinal and corticospinal levels. Study IV revealed that TMS- and TES-evoked MEPs were similarly modulated during the naturally occurring sway of normal standing, suggesting that the excitability of the motor cortex was not dependent on postural sway. A facilitation in cortical excitability, as shown by the differential MEP response between TMS and TES, was however found during normal as compared supported (i.e. no postural sway) standing. This thesis demonstrates that human standing posture is controlled via an overall enhancement of cortical excitability, concurrently with an ongoing sway-dependent modulation of spinal and corticospinal processes. The constantly changing neural inputs to the motoneurone pool may give insight into the influence of postural sway to the neuromuscular responses to an unexpected perturbation. 

  • 319.
    Tokuno, Craig D
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Carpenter, M G
    Thorstensson, Alf
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Garland, S J
    Cresswell, Andrew G
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Control of the triceps surae during the postural sway of quiet standing.2007Inngår i: Acta Physiologica, ISSN 1748-1708, E-ISSN 1748-1716, Vol. 191, nr 3, s. 229-36Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: The present study investigated how the triceps surae are controlled at the spinal level during the naturally occurring postural sway of quiet standing. METHODS: Subjects stood on a force platform as electrical stimuli were applied to the posterior tibial nerve when the center of pressure (COP) was either 1.6 standard deviations anterior (COP(ant)) or posterior (COP(post)) to the mean baseline COP signal. Peak-to-peak amplitudes of the H-reflex and M-wave from the soleus (SOL) and medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscles were recorded to assess the efficacy of the Ia pathway. RESULTS: A significant increase in the H(max) : M(max) ratio for both the SOL (12 +/- 6%) and MG (23 +/- 6%) was observed during the COP(ant) as compared to the COP(post) condition. The source of the modulation between COP conditions cannot be determined from this study. However, the observed changes in the synaptic efficacy of the Ia pathway are unlikely to be simply a result of an altered level of background electromyographic activity in the triceps surae. This was indicated by the lack of differences observed in the H(max) : M(max) ratio when subjects stood without postural sway (via the use of a tilt table) at two levels of background activity. CONCLUSIONS: It is suggested that the phase-dependent modulation of the triceps surae H-reflexes during the postural sway of quiet standing functions to maintain upright stance and may explain the results from previous studies, which, until now, had not taken the influence of postural sway on the H-reflex into consideration.

  • 320.
    Tokuno, Craig D
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Carpenter, Mark G
    Thorstensson, Alf
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Cresswell, Andrew G
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    The influence of natural body sway on neuromuscular responses to an unpredictable surface translation.2006Inngår i: Experimental Brain Research, ISSN 0014-4819, E-ISSN 1432-1106, Vol. 174, nr 1, s. 19-28Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown that the postural configuration adopted by a subject, such as active leaning, influences the postural response to an unpredictable support surface translation. While those studies have examined large differences in postural conditions, it is of additional interest to examine the effects of naturally occurring changes in standing posture. Thus, it was hypothesized that the normal postural sway observed during quiet standing would affect the responses to an unpredictable support surface translation. Seventeen young adults stood quietly on a moveable platform and were perturbed in either the forward or backward direction when the location of the center of pressure (COP) was either 1.5 standard deviations anterior or posterior to the mean baseline COP signal. Postural responses, in the form of electromyographic (EMG) latencies and amplitudes, were recorded from lower limb and trunk muscles. When the location of the COP at the time of the translation was in the opposite, as compared to the same, direction as the upcoming translation, there was a significantly earlier onset of the antagonists (10-23%, i.e. 15-45 ms) and a greater EMG amplitude (14-39%) in four of the six recorded muscles. Stepping responses were most frequently observed during trials where the position of the COP was opposite to the direction of the translation. The results support the hypothesis that postural responses to unpredictable support surface translations are influenced by the normal movements of postural sway. The results may help to explain the large variability of postural responses found between past studies.

  • 321. Tokuno, Craig D
    et al.
    Cresswell, Andrew G
    Thorstensson, Alf
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Carpenter, Mark G
    Age-related changes in postural responses revealed by support-surface translations with a long acceleration-deceleration interval.2010Inngår i: Clinical Neurophysiology, ISSN 1388-2457, E-ISSN 1872-8952, Vol. 121, nr 1, s. 109-17Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Translations with longer acceleration-deceleration intervals reveal more age-related differences in postural control, which are otherwise masked by the deceleration effects inherent to shorter translations.

  • 322.
    Tokuno, Craig D
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Garland, S Jayne
    Carpenter, Mark G
    Thorstensson, Alf
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Cresswell, Andrew G
    Sway-dependent modulation of the triceps surae H-reflex during standing.2008Inngår i: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 104, nr 5, s. 1359-65Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown that changes in spinal excitability occur during the postural sway of quiet standing. In the present study, it was of interest to examine the independent effects of sway position and sway direction on the efficacy of the triceps surae Ia pathway, as reflected by the Hoffman (H)-reflex amplitude, during standing. Eighteen participants, tested under two different experimental protocols, stood quietly on a force platform. Percutaneous electrical stimulation was applied to the posterior tibial nerve when the position and direction of anteroposterior (A-P) center of pressure (COP) signal satisfied the criteria for the various experimental conditions. It was found that, regardless of sway position, a larger amplitude of the triceps surae H-reflex (difference of 9-14%; P = 0.005) occurred when subjects were swaying in the forward compared with the backward direction. The effects of sway position, independent of the sway direction, on spinal excitability exhibited a trend (P = 0.075), with an 8.9 +/- 3.7% increase in the H-reflex amplitude occurring when subjects were in a more forward position. The observed changes to the efficacy of the Ia pathway cannot be attributed to changes in stimulus intensity, as indicated by a constant M-wave amplitude, or to the small changes in the level of background electromyographic activity. One explanation for the changes in reflex excitability with respect to the postural sway of standing is that the neural modulation may be related to the small lengthening and shortening contractions occurring in the muscles of the triceps surae.

  • 323.
    Tokuno, Craig
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Taube, W
    Cresswell, Andrew G
    Changes in cortical and corticospinal excitability during standing2007Inngår i: Journal of Physiology, ISSN 0022-3751, E-ISSN 1469-7793Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 324. Tveit, P
    et al.
    Daggfeldt, Karl
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Hetland, S
    Thorstensson, Alf
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Erector spinae lever arm length variations with changes in spinal curvature.1994Inngår i: Spine, ISSN 0362-2436, E-ISSN 1528-1159, Vol. 19, nr 2, s. 199-204Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Magnetic resonance imaging was used to study the effect of different curvatures in the lumbar spine on lever arm lengths of the erector spinae musculature. Eleven subjects were instructed to simulate static lifts while lying supine in a magnetic resonance camera with the lumbar spine either in kyphosis or lordosis. A sagittal image of the spine was obtained to analyze the lumbosacral angle and to guide the imaging of transverse sections through each disc (L1/L2 to L5/S1). Images were analyzed for lever arm lengths of the erector spinae muscle (ES) and the erector spinae aponeurosis (ESA), the latter functioning as a tendon for superiorly positioned ES muscle portions. The lumbosacral angle (between superior surfaces of S1 and L4) averaged 44 degrees in the lordosed, 26 degrees in the kyphosed and 41 degrees in a neutral supine position. In lordosis, the lever arm lengths were significantly longer than in kyphosis for all levels, averaging 60-63 mm (ES) and 82-86 mm (ESA). The corresponding values for kyphosis were 49-57 mm (ES) and 67-77 mm (ESA), respectively. Thus, there was a considerable effect (10-24%) of lumbar curvature on lever arm lengths for the back extensor muscles. The change in leverage will affect the need for extensor muscle force and thus the magnitude of compression in the lumbar spine in loading situations such as lifting.

  • 325.
    Väisänen, Daniel
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Andersson, Eva
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Validity in Ekblom-Bak Test and its Ability to Track Changes in an Elderly Population2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) has a high prognostic value for CVD and all cause mortality, however the test is hard to administer and requires a maximal effort, which can be arduous for an elderly population. The submaximal Ekblom-Bak cycle ergometer test (EB test) has shown to be valid in adults, but its applicability in an elderly population is unknown. Aim: The purpose of this study was to validate the submaximal EB test and to examine its ability to detect changes in VO2max in an elderly population. Methods: The sample consisted of 108 elderly participants; aged 65-75 years (54 women, 54 men) with a measured VO2max of 1.42-3.69 L/min. 34 women and 40 men performed a retest (VO2max 1.45-3.59 L/min) after an intervention period. During the intervention, participants performed 30 training sessions over 12 weeks where they cycled for 30 min at 65-75 % of maximal heart rate. On pre- and retests participants completed a submaximal Ekblom-Bak test. Directly after participants completed an individually adjusted VO2max test on a treadmill where VO2 max was measured using indirect calorimetry. Results: For the validation of the EB-test on an elderly population there was a correlation (R) between measured and estimated VO2max of 0.64 for women and 0.47 for men, mean (95% CI) difference was 0.01 (-0.45 - 0.07) for women and -0.05 (-0.11 - 0.07) for men. Standard error of the estimate was 0.17 for women and 0.31 for men. Coefficient of variation was 10 % for women and 11 % for men. When analyzing the ability of the EB test to track change in VO2max after a 12 week training intervention there was a significant (P<0.001) average increase in estimated VO2max of 0.11 L/min for both genders (CI for women 0.06 - 0.16 and for men 0.08 - 0.15), with no change in the measured values. Changes in the estimated values were linked to a decrease of the submaximal HR on both work rates (3.0 bpm and 3.2 bpm on the standard work rate and 5.4 bpm and 6.4 bpm on the higher work rate, for women and men, respectively) Conclusion: Validity of the EB-test in a population between 65-75 years was fairly good but we found larger standard error of the estimate for the men. The higher error for men in contrast to women could be derived from a difference in change of physiological variables that affect VO2max with increasing age. Since there was no change in measured VO2max while there was an improvement in estimated VO2max after the intervention, the EB-test appears to respond to changes in fitness that are not reflected in a VO2max. Grant funding: European Research Council.

  • 326. Westing, S H
    et al.
    Cresswell, A G
    Thorstensson, Alf
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Muscle activation during maximal voluntary eccentric and concentric knee extension.1991Inngår i: European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, ISSN 0301-5548, E-ISSN 1432-1025, Vol. 62, nr 2, s. 104-8Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this investigation was to study the relationships among movement velocity, torque output and electromyographic (EMG) activity of the knee extensor muscles under eccentric and concentric loading. Fourteen male subjects performed maximal voluntary eccentric and concentric constant-velocity knee extensions at 45, 90, 180 and 360 degrees.s-1. Myoelectric signals were recorded, using surface electrodes, from the vastus medialis, vastus lateralis and rectus femoris muscles. For comparison, torque and full-wave rectified EMG signals were amplitude-averaged through the central half (30 degrees-70 degrees) of the range of motion. For each test velocity, eccentric torque was greater than concentric torque (range of mean differences: 20%-146%, P less than 0.05). In contrast, EMG activity for all muscles was lower under eccentric loading than velocity-matched concentric loading (7%-31%, P less than 0.05). Neither torque output nor EMG activity for the three muscles changed across eccentric test velocities (P greater than 0.05). While concentric torque increased with decreasing velocity, EMG activity for all muscles decreased with decreasing velocity (P less than 0.05). These data suggest that under certain high-tension loading conditions (especially during eccentric muscle actions), the neural drive to the agonist muscles was reduced, despite maximal voluntary effort. This may protect the musculoskeletal system from an injury that could result if the muscle was to become fully activated under these conditions.

  • 327. Westing, Stephen
    et al.
    Seger, Jan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Thorstensson, Alf
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Effects of electrical stimulation on eccentric and concentric torque-velocity relationships during knee extension in man1990Inngår i: Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6772, E-ISSN 1365-201X, Vol. 140, s. 17-22Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of electrical stimulation on torque output during knee extension. Nine well-trained males (19-43 years) performed maximal voluntary, electrically evoked and superimposed eccentric and concentric knee extensions at velocities of 60, 180 and 360 degrees s-1, plus an isometric test (torque was always recorded at a 60 degree knee angle). Fifty-hertz stimulation was applied percutaneously at the maximum tolerated voltage (140-200 V). By superimposing electrical stimulation, eccentric torque could be increased by an average of 21-24% above the voluntary level (P less than 0.05). No corresponding differences were observed between superimposed and voluntary torques under isometric or concentric conditions. Electrically evoked torque also exceeded voluntary torque under eccentric conditions (11-12%, P less than 0.05), but was less under isometric and concentric conditions (-10 to -52%, P less than 0.05). Within the limitations of the study, it was concluded that eccentric knee extension torque under maximal voluntary conditions does not represent the maximal torque-producing capacity. The action of a neural inhibitory mechanism was proposed as an explanation for this finding. If active, this mechanism may protect against the extreme muscle tension that could otherwise develop under truly maximal eccentric conditions.

  • 328. Westing, Stephen
    et al.
    Seger, Jan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Thorstensson, Alf
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Isoacceleration: a new concept of resistive exercise1991Inngår i: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 23, nr 5, s. 631-635Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents the concept of constant (iso-) accelerative and decelerative exercise and compares concentric and eccentric torque output during isoaccelerative and isodecelerative movements with that during comparable constant velocity (isokinetic) conditions. Twelve men (19-42 yr) performed maximal voluntary concentric and eccentric knee extensions at velocities of 120 and 240 degrees.s-1 (isokinetic) and at accelerations of 180 and 720 degrees.s-2 (both isoaccelerative and isodecelerative) between 10 degrees and 90 degrees knee angles. At 50 degrees, the 180 and 720 degrees.s-2 tests had velocities of 120 and 240 degrees.s-1, respectively, and thus torque comparisons could be made at a corresponding position and velocity. No difference was seen among the isoaccelerative, isodecelerative, or isokinetic angle- and velocity-specific torques for either the concentric or eccentric tests (P greater than 0.05). The results demonstrated that, under conditions of maximal voluntary effort, movement speed as such (within the range studied) was the essential determinant of muscle force--not whether this speed was attained during accelerative, decelerative, or constant velocity movements. As a testing and training modality, the controlled acceleration technique, particularly eccentric deceleration and concentric accleration, appears to offer advantages as compared with existing methods, since it more faithfully reflects the contraction conditions during natural strength-requiring movements.

  • 329.
    Wolf, Peter
    et al.
    ETH Zürich, Switzerland.
    Arndt, Anton
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Nester, Christopher
    Liu, Anmin
    Jones, Richard
    Lundgren, Paul
    Lundberg, Arne
    In vivo Bewegungen der Fussknochen im Gehen und langsamen Joggen2012Inngår i: Orthopädieschuhtechnik, ISSN 0344-6026, nr 2, s. 24-27Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 330.
    Yan, S
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Schlippe, M
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tarassova, Olga
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Pennati, G V
    Karolinska institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Arndt, Anton
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Yang, L
    Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.
    Shi, B
    Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.
    Wang, R
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    P 158 - A method to estimate passive mechanical properties of the soleus and gastrocnemius aspects of Achilles tendon.2018Inngår i: ESMAC 2018 abstracts: special issue of Gait & Posture, 2018, Vol. 65 Suppl 1, s. 501-502, artikkel-id S0966-6362(18)31146-9Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 331.
    Zhou, Guang-Quan
    et al.
    Southeast University, Nanjing, China.
    Zhang, Yi
    Southeast University, Nanjing, China.
    Wang, Ruo-Li
    Karolinska Institute & Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Zhou, Ping
    Southeast University, Nanjing, China.
    Zheng, Yong-Ping
    The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Hong Kong.
    Tarassova, Olga
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Arndt, Anton
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC). Karolinska Institute.
    Chen, Qiang
    Southeast University, Nanjing, China.
    Automatic Myotendinous Junction Tracking in Ultrasound Images with Phase-Based Segmentation.2018Inngår i: BioMed Research International, ISSN 2314-6133, E-ISSN 2314-6141, artikkel-id 3697835Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Displacement of the myotendinous junction (MTJ) obtained by ultrasound imaging is crucial to quantify the interactive length changes of muscles and tendons for understanding the mechanics and pathological conditions of the muscle-tendon unit during motion. However, the lack of a reliable automatic measurement method restricts its application in human motion analysis. This paper presents an automated measurement of MTJ displacement using prior knowledge on tendinous tissues and MTJ, precluding the influence of nontendinous components on the estimation of MTJ displacement. It is based on the perception of tendinous features from musculoskeletal ultrasound images using Radon transform and thresholding methods, with information about the symmetric measures obtained from phase congruency. The displacement of MTJ is achieved by tracking manually marked points on tendinous tissues with the Lucas-Kanade optical flow algorithm applied over the segmented MTJ region. The performance of this method was evaluated on ultrasound images of the gastrocnemius obtained from 10 healthy subjects (26.0±2.9 years of age). Waveform similarity between the manual and automatic measurements was assessed by calculating the overall similarity with the coefficient of multiple correlation (CMC).<italic> In vivo</italic> experiments demonstrated that MTJ tracking with the proposed method (CMC = 0.97±0.02) was more consistent with the manual measurements than existing optical flow tracking methods (CMC = 0.79±0.11). This study demonstrated that the proposed method was robust to the interference of nontendinous components, resulting in a more reliable measurement of MTJ displacement, which may facilitate further research and applications related to the architectural change of muscles and tendons. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

  • 332.
    Åberg, Anna Cristina
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Frykberg, Gunilla Elmgren
    Halvorsen, Kjartan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Medio-lateral stability of sit-to-walk performance in older individuals with and without fear of falling.2010Inngår i: Gait & Posture, ISSN 0966-6362, E-ISSN 1879-2219, Vol. 31, nr 4, s. 438-43Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Most falls in older people are due to loss of balance during everyday locomotion, e.g., when initiating walking from sitting; sit-to-walk (STW). It has been considered that the broader stride width in walking that is seen in many people with fear of falling (FoF) does not increase stability, but could be predictive of future falls because of increased medio-lateral (ML) velocity of the body centre of mass (CoM). This study was aimed to examine step-, velocity- and stability-related parameters, focusing on ML stability, in STW performance of people with and without FoF. Ten subjects with FoF and 10 matched controls, aged > or = 70 years, were included. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected in a laboratory. Stability parameters were calculated from a formula implying that the vertical projection of the CoM extrapolated by adding its velocity times a factor radicall/g (height of inverted pendulum divided by gravity) should fall within the base of support (BoS). A related spatial margin of stability (SMoS), defined as the minimum distance from the extrapolated CoM (XCoM) to the boundaries of the BoS, was also calculated. In the phase 'seat-off-second-toe-off', the FoF group had significantly (p<0.05) shorter and broader steps, lower forward but similar ML CoM velocity, and broader CoM and XCoM widths. The FoF group therefore exhibited a disproportionately large sideways velocity compared to the controls. This indicates that STW may be a hazardous transfer for older people with FoF, which should be relevant in assessment and training aimed at preventing falls.

  • 333.
    Åberg, Anna Cristina
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Lundin-Olsson, Lillemor
    Rosendahl, Erik
    Implementation of evidence-based prevention of falls in rehabilitation units: a staff's interactive approach.2009Inngår i: Journal of rehabilitation medicine : official journal of the UEMS European Board of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 1651-2081, Vol. 41, nr 13, s. 1034-40Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A well-developed patient safety culture focusing on prevention of falls will, when successfully achieved, be seen by staff, patients and their significant others as being characteristic of the organization, and will be evident in attitudes, routines and actions. Moreover, it provides potential for positive side-effects concerning organizational and clinical improvements in additional areas.

  • 334.
    Åberg, Anna Cristina
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Thorstensson, Alf
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Tarassova, Olga
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Halvorsen, Kjartan
    School of Technology and Health, KTH-Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Calculations of mechanisms for balance control during narrow and single-leg standing in fit older adults: A reliability study.2011Inngår i: Gait & Posture, ISSN 0966-6362, E-ISSN 1879-2219, Vol. 34, nr 3, s. 352-7Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    For older people balance control in standing is critical for performance of activities of daily living without falling. The aims were to investigate reliability of quantification of the usage of the two balance mechanisms M1 ‘moving the centre of pressure’ and M2 ‘segment acceleration’ and also to compare calculation methods based on a combination of kinetic (K) and kinematic (Km) data, (K–Km), or Km data only concerning M2. For this purpose nine physically fit persons aged 70–78 years were tested in narrow and single-leg standing. Data were collected by a 7-camera motion capture system and two force plates. Repeated measure ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc tests were used to detect differences between the standing tasks. Reliability was estimated by ICCs, standard error of measurement including its 95% CI, and minimal detectable change, whereas Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to investigate agreement between the two calculation methods. The results indicated that for the tasks investigated, M1 and M2 can be measured with acceptable inter- and intrasession reliability, and that both Km and K–Km based calculations may be useful for M2, although Km data may give slightly lower values. The proportional M1:M2 usage was approximately 9:1, in both anterio-posterior (AP) and medio-lateral (ML) directions for narrow standing, and about 2:1 in the AP and of 1:2 in the ML direction in single-leg standing, respectively. In conclusion, the tested measurements and calculations appear to constitute a reliable way of quantifying one important aspect of balance capacity in fit older people.

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