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  • 201.
    Ekblom-Bak, Elin
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Björkman, Frida
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Hellenius, Maj-Lis
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    A new submaximal cycle ergometer test for prediction of VO(2max).2014Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 24, nr 2, s. 319-326Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max) ) is an important, independent predictor of cardiovascular health and mortality. Despite this, it is rarely measured in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to create and evaluate a submaximal cycle ergometry test based on change in heart rate (HR) between a lower standard work rate and an individually chosen higher work rate. In a mixed population (n = 143) with regard to sex (55% women), age (21-65 years), and activity status (inactive to highly active), a model included change in HR per unit change in power, sex, and age for the best estimate of VO(2max) . The association between estimated and observed VO(2max) for the mixed sample was r = 0.91, standard error of estimate = 0.302 L/min, and mean measured VO(2max)  = 3.23 L/min. The corresponding coefficient of variation was 9.3%, a significantly improved precision compared with one of the most commonly used submaximal exercise tests, the Åstrand test, which in the present study was estimated to be 18.1%. Test-retest reliability analysis over 1 week revealed no mean difference in the estimated VO(2max) (-0.02 L/min, 95% confidence interval: -0.07-0.03). The new test is low-risk, easily administered, and valid for a wide capacity range, and is therefore suitable in situations as health evaluations in the general population.

  • 202.
    Ekblom-Bak, Elin
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Hellénius, Mai-Lis
    Minskat stillasittande lika viktigt som ökad fysisk aktivitet: [Less sitting as important as increased physical activity]2010Ingår i: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 107, nr 9, s. 587-8Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ny forskning visar att stilla­sittande, definierat som mus­kulär inaktivitet, obero­ende av övrig fysisk aktivitet ökar risken för flertalet av våra stora folksjukdomarna och förtida död. Detta talar för att vi bör upp­märksamma fysisk aktivitet och stillasittande som två skilda beteenden. Hittills har stillasittande använts som en synonym till fysisk inaktivitet (det vill säga otillräckliga nivåer av fysisk aktivitet). I framtida rekommendationer om fysisk aktivitet och hälsa bör även undvikande av stillasittande framhållas. En viktig uppgift för hälso- och sjukvården blir att sprida och implementera den nya kunskapen i klinisk vardag.

  • 203.
    Ekblom-Bak, Elin
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp. Karolinska institutet.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Vikström, M
    de Faire, U
    Hellénius, Mai-Lis
    Karolinska institutet.
    The importance of non-exercise physical activity for cardiovascular health and longevity.2014Ingår i: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 48, s. 233-238Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Sedentary time is increasing in all societies and results in limited non-exercise physical activity (NEPA) of daily life. The importance of low NEPA for cardiovascular health and longevity is limited, especially in elderly.                                

    Aim To examine the association between NEPA and cardiovascular health at baseline as well as the risk of a first cardiovascular disease (CVD) event and total mortality after 12.5 years.

    Study design Cohort study.                                

    Material and methods Every third 60-year-old man and woman in Stockholm County was invited to a health screening study; 4232 individuals participated (78% response rate). At baseline, NEPA and exercise habits were assessed from a self-administrated questionnaire and cardiovascular health was established through physical examinations and laboratory tests. The participants were followed for an average of 12.5 years for the assessment of CVD events and mortality.                                

    Results At baseline, high NEPA was, regardless of regular exercise and compared with low NEPA, associated with more preferable waist circumference, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides in both sexes and with lower insulin, glucose and fibrinogen levels in men. Moreover, the occurrence of the metabolic syndrome was significantly lower in those with higher NEPA levels in non-exercising and regularly exercising individuals. Furthermore, reporting a high NEPA level, compared with low, was associated with a lower risk of a first CVD event (HR=0.73; 95% CI 0.57 to 0.94) and lower all-cause mortality (0.70; 0.53 to 0.98).                                

    Conclusions A generally active daily life was, regardless of exercising regularly or not, associated with cardiovascular health and longevity in older adults.                                

  • 204.
    Ekblom-Bak, Elin
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Bergström, Göran
    Börjesson, Mats
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Isotemporal substitution of sedentary time by physical activity of different intensities and bout lengths, and its associations with metabolic risk.2016Ingår i: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, ISSN 2047-4873, E-ISSN 2047-4881, Vol. 23, nr 9, s. 967-974Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Time spent being sedentary, regardless of time in exercise, has been associated with metabolic risk using regression modelling. By using isotemporal substitution modelling, the effect of replacing sedentary time with an equal amount of time in physical activity (PA) of different intensities can be considered. The present study aims to investigate the effect of replacing sedentary time with time in light, moderate and vigorous PA to the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Also, replacement of sedentary time by PA of different bout lengths was studied.

    METHODS: In total, 836 participants (52% women), aged 50-64 years, from the SCAPIS pilot study were included. Daily time spent sedentary and in PA of different intensities was assessed using hip-worn accelerometers.

    RESULTS: In this cross-sectional study, replacing 10 minutes of sedentary time with the same amount of light PA was associated with significant lower MetS prevalence, odds ratio (OR) 0.96 (95% confidence interval 0.93-0.98). Replacement with moderate PA resulted in even lower OR, 0.89 (0.82-0.97), with the lowest OR for vigorous PA, 0.41 (0.26-0.66). Participants with high energy intake and high daily sedentary time benefitted more from the replacement of sedentary time with light PA. Significant associations were seen for all bout lengths of light, moderate and vigorous PA in a stepwise-like fashion from one minute to up to 120 minute bouts.

    CONCLUSION: Theoretical substitutions of sedentary time with PA of any intensity and of as little as one minute were associated with significantly lower ORs for MetS. This may be an easily communicable message in clinical practice and for public health purposes.

  • 205.
    Ekblom-Bak, Elin
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Bolam, Kate
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Bergström, Göran
    Börjesson, Mats
    SCAPIS Pilot Study: Sitness, Fitness and Fatness - Is Sedentary Time Substitution by Physical Activity Equally Important for Everyone's Markers of Glucose Regulation?2016Ingår i: Journal of Physical Activity and Health, ISSN 1543-3080, E-ISSN 1543-5474, Vol. 13, nr 7, s. 697-703Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Although moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is mainly recommended for glucose control, light physical activity (LIPA) may also have the potential to induce favorable changes. We investigated sedentary time (SED) substitution with equal time in LIPA and MVPA, and the association with markers of glucose regulation and insulin sensitivity after stratification by waist circumference, fitness and fasting glucose levels.

    METHODS: A total of 654 men and women, 50-64 years, from the SCAPIS pilot study were included. Daily SED, LIPA and MVPA were assessed using hip-worn accelerometers. Fasting plasma glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR were determined.

    RESULTS: Substituting 30 min of SED with LIPA was significantly associated with 3.0% lower fasting insulin values and 3.1% lower HOMA-IR values, with even lower levels when substituting SED with MVPA. Participants with lower fitness and participants with high fasting glucose levels benefited significantly more from substituting 30 min of SED with LIPA compared to participants with normal to high fitness levels and participants with normal glucose levels, respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: LIPA, and not only MVPA, may have beneficial associations with glucose regulation. This is of great clinical and public health importance, not least because it may confer a higher compliance rate to regular PA.

  • 206.
    Ekblom-Bak, Elin
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Fagman, Erika
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Angerås, Oskar
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Schmidt, Caroline
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Rosengren, Annika
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Börjesson, Mats
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Bergström, Göran
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Fitness attenuates the prevalence of increased coronary artery calcium in individuals with metabolic syndrome.2018Ingår i: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, ISSN 2047-4873, E-ISSN 2047-4881, Vol. 25, nr 3, s. 309-316, artikel-id 2047487317745177Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background The association between cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity and coronary artery calcium (CAC) is unclear, and whether higher levels of fitness attenuate CAC prevalence in subjects with metabolic syndrome is not fully elucidated. The present study aims to: a) investigate the independent association of fitness on the prevalence of CAC, after adjustment for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary time, and b) study the possible attenuation of increased CAC by higher fitness, in participants with metabolic syndrome. Design Cross-sectional. Methods In total 678 participants (52% women), 50-65 years old, from the SCAPIS pilot study were included. Fitness (VO2max) was estimated by submaximal cycle ergometer test and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary time were assessed using hip-worn accelerometers. CAC score (CACS) was quantified using the Agatston score. Results The odds of having a significant CACS (≥100) was half in participants with moderate/high fitness compared with their low fitness counterparts. Further consideration of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, sedentary time and number of components of the metabolic syndrome did only slightly alter the effect size. Those with metabolic syndrome had 47% higher odds for significant CAC compared with those without metabolic syndrome. However, moderate/high fitness seems to partially attenuate this risk, as further joint analysis indicated an increased odds for having significant CAC only in the unfit metabolic syndrome participants. Conclusions Being fit is associated with a reduced risk of having significant CAC in individuals with metabolic syndrome. While still very much underutilized, fitness should be taken into consideration in everyday clinical risk prediction in addition to the traditional risk factors of the metabolic syndrome.

  • 207.
    Ekblom-Bak, Elin
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Björn Ekbloms och Mats Börjessons forskningsgrupp.
    Engström, Lars-Magnus
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Björn Ekbloms och Mats Börjessons forskningsgrupp.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Björn Ekbloms och Mats Börjessons forskningsgrupp.
    LIV 2000: Motionsvanor, fysisk prestationsförmåga och levnadsvanor bland svenska kvinnor och män i åldrarna 20-65 år2011Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    LIV 2000; syfte och frågeställningar

    LIV 90-studien avspeglade för första gången motionsvanor, fysisk status och övergripande hälsostatus i en väl definierad grupp av hela svenska befolkningen. Följaktligen ledde de resultat som LIV 90-studien redovisade till en rad direkta, centrala och övergripande frågor rörande vilka förändringar av det i många avseenden turbulenta 1990-talet som kunde iakttas i den svenska befolkningen vad gäller fysisk aktivitet, levnadsvanor, fysisk kapacitet och hälsotillstånd. Dessutom finns ett intressant perspektiv att jämföra hur den fysiska aktivitetsgraden, prestationsförmågan och hälsorelaterade variabler ser ut i samma ålderskohort med 10 års mellanrum.

    I stort sett sammanfaller undersökta variabler i LIV 2000 av naturliga skäl med den tidigare LIV 90-studiens, men vissa enkätfrågor har med erfarenheter från denna och andra studier, och den forskning som därefter bedrivits, ytterligare preciserats. Det gäller framförallt frågor om den totala fysiska aktiviteten samt frågor som rör inställning till den egna kroppen, den fysiska förmågan liksom frågor om hinder och förutsättningar att ägna sig åt motion. För att säkerställa möjligheterna att studera trender och eventuella förändringar i befolkningen under 1990-talet var designen och genomförandet av LIV 2000 studien i stort sett identisk med LIV 90. Förutom ett samlat tabellverk över de ingående undersökningsvariablerna i LIV 2000-studien (Bilaga B.1)belyser denna rapport mer specifikt följande  områden och frågeställningar:

    I. Omfattning och inriktning av den vuxna befolkningens motionsvanor samt totala fysiska aktivitet. Hur många är motionärer? Hur många är tillräckligt fysiskt aktiva? Motionär och fysiskt aktiv – är det samma  sak?

    II. Fysisk prestationsförmåga; kondition, balans, ben- och bukmuskelstyrka. Hur skiljer det mellan könen och olika åldrar? Hur många har en låg fysisk prestationsförmåga?

    III. Psykisk och fysisk hälsa. Hur är den upplevda hälsan? Och hur är den metabola hälsan? Hur många har en samlad metabol riskbild?

    IV. Förändringar och trender av motionsvanor, total fysisk aktivitet, fysisk prestationsförmåga, livsstil och hälsotillstånd mellan LIV 90 och LIV 2000. Vad hände mellan 1990 och början av 2000-talet? Vilka hälsomässiga riskgrupper finns i befolkningen?

    Innehåll

    1. Bakgrund

    2. Metod och genomförande

    3. Deltagare

    4. Motionsvanor och fysisk aktivitet

    5. Fysisk prestationsförmåga

    6. Hälsa

    7. LIV 90 och LIV 2000 - Vad har hänt över 10 år?

    8. Sammanfattning

    B. 1 Tabellverk

    B. 2 Enkät och testprotokoll

  • 208.
    Ekblom-Bak, Elin
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Hellenius, Maj-Lis
    Karolinska institutet.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Engström, Lars-Magnus
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Fitness and abdominal obesity are independently associated with cardiovascular risk.2009Ingår i: Journal of internal medicine, ISSN 1365-2796, nr 21 MayArtikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. To examine the relationship between cardiovascular fitness (VO(2)max) and abdominal obesity (waist circumference) and individual cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, as well as a clustered risk factor profile, and to study the impact of gender, age and smoking on these relationships. Design. Cross-sectional. Setting. Astrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden. Subjects. Men (n = 781) and women (n = 890) from two random population-based samples of Swedish women and men aged 20 to 65 years. Main outcomes. Odds ratios. Results. Each unit of higher fitness was associated with a decrease in all individual risk factors ranging from 2% to 4% independent of waist circumference, each unit of higher waist circumference was associated with an increased risk ranging from 2% to 5% independent of fitness. For clustering of three or more of the risk factors, each unit of fitness was associated with a 5% decrease in risk and each unit of waist circumference with a 5% increase in risk. The clustered risk was higher in unfit participants who were older or smoked daily, regardless of waist circumference. Obese participants were at higher risk if they were men or older, regardless of fitness level. However, neither a higher fitness level nor lean status reduced the risk associated with smoking. Conclusions. Higher fitness and lower waist circumference are each independently associated to a similar extent with a lower CVD risk. Simultaneous evaluation of both fitness and abdominal obesity status in clinical practice is important.

  • 209.
    Ekblom-Bak, Elin
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Hellénius, Mai-Lis
    Ekblom, Björn
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Are we facing a new paradigm of inactivity physiology?2010Ingår i: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 44, nr 12, s. 834-5Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Evidence for the benefits of regular physical activity for several major health diseases is clear and unanimous. Current public health guidelines are promoting at least 150 minutes per week of moderate to vigorousintensity leisure-time physical activity.

    Recent, observational studies have suggested that prolonged bouts of sitting time and lack of whole-body muscular movement are strongly associated with obesity, abnormal glucose metabolism, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and cancer, as well as total mortality independent of moderate to vigorous-intensity physical activity.1,–,5 Accordingly, a possible new paradigm of inactivity physiology is suggested, separate from the established exercise physiology, that is, molecular and physiological responses to exercise.6 This new way of thinking emphasises the distinction between the health consequences of sedentary behaviour, that is, limiting everyday life non-exercise activity and that of not exercising. Until now, the expression “sedentary behaviour” has misleadingly been used as a synonym for not exercising. Sedentary time should be defined as the muscular inactivity rather than the absence of exercise.

  • 210.
    Ekblom-Bak, Elin
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Hellénius, Mai-Lis
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Engström, Lars-Magnus
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Independent associations of physical activity and cardiovascular fitness with cardiovascular risk in adults.2010Ingår i: European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention & Rehabilitation, ISSN 1741-8267, E-ISSN 1741-8275, Vol. 17, nr 2, s. 175-80Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Uncertainty still exists whether physical activity (PA) and cardiovascular fitness (CF) contribute separately to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. This study examined the associations of PA and CF on individual as well as clustered CVD risk factors. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. METHODS: Seven hundred and eighty-one men and 890 women, aged 20-65 years, from two random population-based samples of Swedish women and men were included. PA was assessed by questionnaire and CF was predicted by a submaximal cycle ergometry test. Waist circumference, blood pressure, and fasting levels of blood lipids were assessed and dichotomized by conventional cut-off points. RESULTS: Participants reporting high PA level benefited from lower triglycerides and atherogenic cholesterol levels, regardless of CF. Higher CF level was, regardless of PA, associated with lower risk for all risk factors. With regard to clustering of risk factors, each higher CF level was associated with a gradually reduced risk by half or more, independent of PA. Furthermore, being unfit but reporting high PA was associated with a 50% lower risk compared with being unfit and inactive. Furthermore, high reported PA was associated with an additional reduced risk among fit participants. In addition, an excess risk of interaction was found for waist circumference, triglycerides, and the clustered CVD risk between neither being sufficiently active nor being fit. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that both PA and CF are independently associated with lower cardiovascular risk, and that both variables should be taken into account when CVD risk is estimated.

  • 211.
    Ekblom-Bak, Elin
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Olsson, Gustav
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Bergström, Göran
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Börjesson, Mats
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    The Daily Movement Pattern and Fulfilment of Physical Activity Recommendations in Swedish Middle-Aged Adults: The SCAPIS Pilot Study.2015Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, nr 5, artikel-id e0126336Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Different aspects of the daily movement pattern-sitting, light intensity physical activity, and moderate- and vigorous intensity physical activity-have each independently been associated with health and longevity. Previous knowledge of the amount and distribution of these aspects in the general Swedish population, as well as the fulfilment rate of physical activity recommendations, mainly relies on self-reported data. More detailed data assessed with objective methods is needed. The aim of the study was to present descriptive data on the daily movement pattern in a middle-aged Swedish population assessed by hip-worn accelerometers. The cohort consisted of 948 participants (51% women), aged 50 to 64 years, from the Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImage pilot Study. In the total sample, 60.5% of accelerometer wear time was spent sitting, 35.2% in light physical activity and 3.9% in moderate- and vigorous physical activity. Men and participants with high educational level spent a larger proportion of time sitting, compared to women and participants with low educational level. Men and participants with a high educational level spent more time, and the oldest age-group spent less time, in moderate- and vigorous physical activity. Only 7.1% of the study population met the current national physical activity recommendations, with no gender, age or education level differences. Assessment of all three components of the daily movement pattern is of high clinical relevance and should be included in future research. As the fulfilment of national physical activity recommendations is very low and sitting time is very high in our middle-aged population, the great challenge remains to enhance the implementation of methods to increase the level of physical activity in this population.

  • 212.
    Ekstedt, Mirjam
    et al.
    KTH.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Ingre, Mikael
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Marcus, Claude
    Karolinska Insitutete.
    Sleep, physical activity and BMI in six to ten-year-old children measured by accelerometry: a cross-sectional study.2013Ingår i: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, ISSN 1479-5868, E-ISSN 1479-5868, Vol. 22, nr 10, s. 82-89Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    The aim of this study is to describe the relationship between objective measures of sleep, physical activity and BMI in Swedish pre-adolescents. The day-to-day association between physical activity and sleep quality as well as week-day and weekend pattern of sleep is also described.

    METHOD:

    We conducted a cross sectional study consisted of a cohort of 1.231 children aged six to ten years within the Stockholm county area. Sleep and physical activity were measured by accelerometry during seven consecutive days. Outcome measures are total sleep time, sleep efficiency, sleep start and sleep end; physical activity intensity divided into: sedentary (<1.5 METS), light (1.5 to 3 METS) and moderate-to-vigorous (> 3 METS); and Body Mass Index standard deviations score, BMIsds.

    RESULTS:

    Total sleep time decreased with increasing age, and was shorter in boys than girls on both weekdays and weekends. Late bedtime but consistent wake-up time during weekends made total sleep time shorter on weekends than on weekdays. Day-to-day within-subject analysis revealed that moderate-to-vigorous intense physical activity promoted an increased sleep efficiency the following night (CI < 0.001 to 0.047), while total sleep time was not affected (CI -0.003 to 0.043). Neither sleep duration (CI -0.024 to 0.022) nor sleep efficiency (CI -0.019 to 0.028) affected mean physical activity level the subsequent day. The between-subject analysis indicates that the sleep of children characterized by high moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during the day was frequently interrupted (SE = -.23, P < .01). A negative association between BMIsds and sleep duration was found (-.10, p < .01).

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Short sleep duration was associated with high BMI in six to ten year old children. This study underscores the importance of consistent bedtimes throughout the week for promoting sleep duration in preadolescents. Furthermore, this study suggests that a large proportion of intensive physical activity during the day might promote good sleep quality.

  • 213.
    Eliasson, Jörgen
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Eva Blomstrands forskningsgrupp.
    Elfegoun, Thibault
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Nilsson, Johnny
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Köhnke, Rickard
    Ekblom, Björn
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Eva Blomstrands forskningsgrupp.
    Maximal lengthening contractions increase p70 S6 kinase phosphorylation in human skeletal muscle in the absence of nutritional supply.2006Ingår i: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0193-1849, E-ISSN 1522-1555, Vol. 291, nr 6, s. 1197-1205Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to compare the training stimuli of eccentric (lengthening) and concentric (shortening) contractions regarding the effect on signaling enzymes involved in protein synthesis. Ten male subjects performed 4 x 6 maximal eccentric contractions on one leg followed by 4 x 6 maximal concentric contractions on the other. Six additional subjects performed the same protocol, but with maximal concentric and submaximal eccentric exercise of equal force to that of the maximal concentric contractions. Muscle biopsy samples were taken from the vastus lateralis before, immediately after, and 1 and 2 h after exercise in both legs. The average peak force produced during the maximal eccentric exercise was 31% higher than during the maximal concentric exercise, 2,490 (+/-100) vs. 1,894 (+/-108) N (P < 0.05). The maximal eccentric contractions led to two- to eightfold increases in the phosphorylation of p70 S6 kinase (p70(S6k)) and the ribosomal protein S6 that persisted for 2 h into recovery but no significant changes in phosphorylation of Akt or mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Maximal concentric and submaximal eccentric contractions did not induce any significant changes in Akt, mTOR, p70(S6k), or S6 phosphorylation up to 2 h after the exercise. The results indicate that one session of maximal eccentric contractions activates p70(S6k) in human muscle via an Akt-independent pathway and suggest that maximal eccentric contractions are more effective than maximal concentric contractions in stimulating protein synthesis in the absence of a nutritional intake, an effect that may be mediated through a combination of greater tension and stretching of the muscle.

  • 214. Elm, Klas
    et al.
    Brynell Johansson, Gunilla
    Strömgren, Lars
    Larsson, Lovisa
    Schantz, Peter
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, FoU-gruppen för rörelse, hälsa och miljö.
    Marjanovic, Arijana
    Oretorp, Henrik
    Forsberg, Bertil
    En ny nollvision som både räddar och förlänger liv2017Ingår i: Dagens Samhälle, ISSN 2002-5548, nr 24 novemberArtikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Nollvisionen för trafiksäkerheten är cynisk. Infrastrukturminister Tomas Eneroth måste ta fram ett nytt mål bortom nollvisionen som inte bara förhindrar dödsolyckor i trafiken, utan som också räddar, förbättrar och förlänger liv i hela samhället. Ett transportsystem där folkhälsan går plus är möjligt nu när elcykelförsäljningen ökar dramatiskt, skriver forskare och initiativtagare till Moving Beyond Zero.

     

    Varje person som väljer att cykla istället för att ta bilen räddar liv. Minskad biltrafik leder till mindre avgasutsläpp och vägslitage. Det förbättrar livskvaliteten hos personer med andningsbesvär och gör att de globala klimatförändringarna som påverkar allas hälsa negativt minskar. Dessutom vet vi sedan länge att motion förbättrar hälsan.

    Sedan 20 år tillbaka styrs det svenska trafiksäkerhetsarbetet av målet att ingen ska dödas eller skadas allvarligt i trafiken. Inledningsvis var arbetet framgångsrikt och antalet omkomna i trafikolyckor minskade från omkring 540 per år till fjolårets 270. Varje dödsfall är ett för mycket, men i dag framstår nollvisionen som cynisk.

    Bilarnas trafiksäkerhet har under dessa år ökat på cyklisternas bekostnad. Nya vajerräcken är den vägåtgärd som i störst utsträckning bidragit till att minska olyckorna för bilister. Men det har gjort det omöjligt att cykla på vägen. Det är en förklaring till att cyklandet har minskat på landsbygden. Trafikverket slår sig för bröstet för att antalet dödade och skadade har minskat i en del av samhället när det samtidigt har inneburit att personer dör i en annan del.

    Trafikverkets översyn av Nollvisionen från 2016 beskriver hur olyckor för bilister ska förhindras. För cyklisterna ses olyckorna som “oundvikliga” och att skadorna ska lindras genom att cyklisterna ska sänka hastigheten samt bära fluorescerande kläder och skyddsutrustning. Krav på att cyklister ska skydda sig själva från farliga vägar och bilar riskerar att minska cyklandet.

    Detta är cyniskt, då det finns flera åtgärder som Trafikverket kan göra för att också förhindra cykelolyckor. Trafikverkets egna beräkningar visar att säkrare cykelinfrastruktur skulle leda till 78 färre allvarligt skadade cyklister per år.  Sänkt hastighet i tätbebyggt område och bättre vinterväghållning för cyklister skulle leda till 48 respektive 38 färre allvarligt skadade per år.

    Men istället för att satsa på det som skulle öka cyklingen och göra den säkrare har de senaste tjugo åren inneburit motsatsen. Nu gör elcykelpremien att försäljningen av elcyklar ökar dramatiskt och nyligen utsågs elcykeln till årets julklapp. Nu finns det möjligheter att tänka nytt i trafikpolitiken.

    Nyttorna med ökad aktiv mobilitet, såsom gång och cykling, är så mycket större än trafiksäkerhet. I jämförelse med olycksriskerna är hälsoeffekterna 20 gånger större. I Sverige dör varje år 1 500 personer på grund av luftföroreningar och vägdamm från trafiken, och flera 1000-tals personer dör varje år i förtid på grund av fysiskt inaktiv livsstil.

    Därför behöver Sverige en ny nollvision som räddar, förbättrar och förlänger liv istället för att så få som möjligt ska dödas eller skadas. Ett sådant mål kan bara nås genom att främja aktiv mobilitet. 

    Klas Elm

    Svensk Cykling

     

    Gunilla Brynell Johansson

    VD, Vätternrundan

     

    Lars Strömgren

    European Cyclists’ Federation

     

    Lovisa Larsson

    Trafiksäkerhetsrådet

     

    Peter Schantz

    Professor, Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan (GIH)

     

    Arijana Marjanovic

    Cykelfrämjandet

     

    Henrik Oretorp

    Svenska Cykelstäder

     

    Bertil Forsberg

    Professor, Umeå Universitet

  • 215.
    Engström, Lars-Magnus
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap. Högskolan för lärarutbildning.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Forsberg, Artur
    Riksidrottsförbundet.
    von Koch, Maria
    Seger, Jan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Liv 90. Rapport 1, Livsstil, prestation, hälsa: motionsvanor, fysisk prestationsförmåga och hälsotillstånd bland svenska kvinnor och män i åldrarna 20-65 år1993Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    LIV-projektet är en brett upplagd studie av vuxnas livsstil, fysiska prestationsförmåga och hälsotillstånd. Nära 2000 slumpmässigt utvalda kvinnor och män i åldrarna 20 till 65 år i åtta län har undersökts.

    I denna första rapport besvaras bl a följande frågor:

    • Hur många ägnar sig åt motion och vad kännetecknar dessa personer i övrigt? Hur många är fysiskt inaktiva?
    • Hur uppfattar man sin egen fysiska och idrottsliga förmåga?
    • Vilken kapacitet har människor i allmänhet när det gäller kondition, styrka, rörlighet och koordination? Hur stora är skillnaderna mellan olika åldersgrupper och mellan kvinnor och män?
    • Hur upplever man sitt hälsotillstånd och hur är denna upplevelse kopplad till livsstil?
    • Hur många är överviktiga och hur många har för höga blodfettvärden?
    • Hur många har regelbunden värk och smärta i ryggen, i axlarna, i nacken, i knäna eller i andra kroppsdelar?
    • Finns det något samband mellan fysisk aktivitet, fysisk prestationsförmåga och hälsotillstånd?
  • 216.
    Enqvist, Jonas K
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Mattsson, C Mikael
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Johansson, Patrik H
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Brink-Elfegoun, Thibault
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Bakkman, Linda
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Energy turnover during 24 hours and 6 days of adventure racing.2010Ingår i: Journal of Sports Sciences, ISSN 0264-0414, E-ISSN 1466-447X, Vol. 28, nr 9, s. 947-955Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy turnover was assessed in two conditions of mixed ultra-endurance exercise. In Study 1, energy expenditure and intake were measured in nine males in a laboratory over 24 h. In Study 2, energy expenditure was assessed in six males during an 800-km Adventure race (mean race time 152.5 h). Individual correlations between heart rate and oxygen uptake ([Vdot]O(2)) were established during pre-tests when kayaking, cycling, and running. During exercise, energy expenditure was estimated from continuous heart rate recordings. Heart rate and [Vdot]O(2) were measured regularly during fixed cycling work rates to correct energy expenditure for drift in oxygen pulse. Mean energy expenditure was 18,050 +/- 2,390 kcal (750 +/- 100 kcal . h(-1)) and 80,000 +/- 18,000 kcal (500 +/- 100 kcal . h(-1)) in Study 1 and Study 2 respectively, which is higher than previously reported. Energy intake in Study 1 was 8,450 +/- 1,160 kcal, resulting in an energy deficit of 9,590 +/- 770 kcal. Body mass decreased in Study 1 (-2.3 +/- 0.8 kg) but was unchanged in Study 2. Fat mass decreased in Study 2 (-2.3 +/- 1.5 kg). In Study 1, muscle glycogen content decreased by only 60%. Adventure racing requires a high energy expenditure, with large inter-individual variation. A large energy deficit is caused by inadequate energy intake, possibly due to suppressed appetite and gastrointestinal problems. The oxygen pulse, comparing start to 12 h of exercise and beyond, increased by 10% and 5% in Study 1 and Study 2 respectively. Hence, estimations of energy expenditure from heart rate recordings should be corrected according to this drift.

  • 217.
    Esbjörnsson, M
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Rundqvist, H C
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Mascher, H
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Österlund, T
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Rooyackers, O
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Eva Blomstrands forskningsgrupp.
    Jansson, E
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Sprint exercise enhances skeletal muscle p70S6k phosphorylation and more so in women than in men.2012Ingår i: Acta Physiologica, ISSN 1748-1708, E-ISSN 1748-1716, Vol. 205, nr 3, s. 411-22Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: Sprint exercise is characterized by repeated sessions of brief intermittent exercise at a high relative workload. However, little is known about the effect on mTOR pathway, an important link in the regulation of muscle protein synthesis. An earlier training study showed a greater increase in muscle fibre cross-sectional area in women than men. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that the activation of mTOR signalling is more pronounced in women than in men. Healthy men (n=9) and women (n=8) performed three bouts of 30-s sprint exercise with 20-min rest in between.

    METHODS: Multiple blood samples were collected over time, and muscle biopsy specimens were obtained at rest and 140 min after the last sprint.

    RESULTS: Serum insulin increased by sprint exercise and more so in women than in men [gender (g) × time (t)]: P=0.04. In skeletal muscle, phosphorylation of Akt increased by 50% (t, P=0.001) and mTOR by 120% (t, P=0.002) independent of gender. The elevation in p70S6k phosphorylation was larger in women (g × t, P=0.03) and averaged 230% (P=0.006) as compared to 60% in men (P=0.04). Phosphorylation rpS6 increased by 660% over time independent of gender (t, P=0.003). Increase in the phosphorylation of p70S6k was directly related to increase in serum insulin (r=0.68, P=0.004).

    CONCLUSION: It is concluded that repeated 30-s all-out bouts of sprint exercise separated by 20 min of rest increases Akt/mTOR signalling in skeletal muscle. Secondly, signalling downstream of mTOR was stronger in women than in men after sprint exercise indicated by the increased phosphorylation of p70S6k.

  • 218. Essén-Gustavsson, Birgitta
    et al.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Eva Blomstrands forskningsgrupp.
    Effect of exercise on concentrations of free amino acids in pools of type I and type II fibres in human muscle with reduced glycogen stores.2002Ingår i: Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6772, E-ISSN 1365-201X, Vol. 174, nr 3, s. 275-81Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A few animal studies have shown that some amino acid concentrations vary between different muscle fibre types. In the present study, amino acid concentrations were measured in separate pools of different fibre types in human skeletal muscle, with reduced glycogen stores, before and after sustained exercise. Five subjects exercised at a submaximal work rate for 60 min and then at a maximal rate for 20 min. Biopsy samples were taken from the vastus lateralis muscle before and after exercise; they were freeze-dried and individual fibres were dissected out. Fragments of these fibres were stained for myosin-adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) and identified as type I or type II fibres. The concentrations of free amino acids were measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in perchloric acid (PCA) extracts containing pools of either type of fibre. After exercise, glycogen was decreased in type I fibres (53%) and in four subjects also in type II fibres. The concentrations of most amino acids were similar in the two fibre types before exercise, but the glutamate, aspartate and arginine levels were 10% higher in type II than in type I fibres. After exercise, the glutamate concentration was decreased by 45% in both fibre types and the branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) were decreased in type II fibres (14%). Exercise caused an increase by 25-30% in tyrosine concentration in both type I and type II fibres. The results show that amino acids can be measured in pools of fibre fragments and suggest that amino acid metabolism play an important role in both type I and type II fibres during exercise.

  • 219.
    Faager, Gun
    et al.
    Medicin/Thoraxsektionen, sjukgymnastikkliniken Karolinska universitetssjukhuset Solna.
    Söderlund, Karin
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Sköld, Carl Magnus
    Rundgren, Siw
    Tollbäck, Anna
    Jakobsson, Per
    Creatine supplementation and physical training in patients with COPD: a double blind, placebo-controlled study.2006Ingår i: International journal of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ISSN 1176-9106, Vol. 1, nr 4, s. 445-53Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have low exercise capacity and low content of high energetic phosphates in their skeletal muscles. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether creatine supplementation together with exercise training may increase physical performance compared with exercise training in patients with COPD. DESIGN: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 23 patients with COPD (forced expiratory volume in one second [FEV1] < 70% of predicted) were randomized to oral creatine (n = 13) or placebo (n = 10) supplementation during an 8-week rehabilitation programme including exercise training. Physical performance was assessed by Endurance Shuttle Walking Test (ESWT), dyspnea and leg fatigue with Borg CR- 10, quality of life with St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ). In addition, lung function test, artery blood gases, grip strength test, muscle strength and fatigue in knee extensors were measured. RESULTS: COPD patients receiving creatine supplementation increased their average walking time by 61% (ESWT) (p < 0.05) after the training period compared with 48% (p = 0.07) in the placebo group. Rated dyspnea directly after the ESWT decreased significantly from 7 to 5 (p < 0.05) in the creatine group. However, the difference between the groups was not statistically significant neither in walking time nor in rated dyspnea. Creatine supplementation did not increase the health related quality of life, lung function, artery blood gases, grip strength and knee extensor strength/fatigue. CONCLUSIONS: Oral creatine supplementation in combination with exercise training showed no significant improvement in physical performance, measured as ESWT, in patients with COPD compared with exercise training alone.

  • 220.
    Fainstein, Nina
    et al.
    Hadassah - Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel.
    Tyk, Reuven
    Ariel University, Ariel, Israel.
    Touloumi, Olga
    AHEPA University Hospital of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece..
    Lagoudaki, Roza
    AHEPA University Hospital of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece..
    Goldberg, Yehuda
    Ariel University, Ariel, Israel.
    Agranyoni, Oryan
    Ariel University, Ariel, Israel.
    Navon-Venezia, Shiri
    Ariel University, Ariel, Israel.
    Katz, Abram
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Grigoriadis, Nikolaos
    AHEPA University Hospital of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece..
    Ben-Hur, Tamir
    Hadassah - Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel.
    Einstein, Ofira
    Ariel University, Ariel, Israel..
    Exercise intensity-dependent immunomodulatory effects on encephalomyelitis.2019Ingår i: Annals of Clinical & Translational Neurology, ISSN 2328-9503, Vol. 6, nr 9, s. 1647-1658Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Exercise training (ET) has beneficial effects on multiple sclerosis and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). However, the intensity-dependent effects of ET on the systemic immune system in EAE remain undefined.

    OBJECTIVE: (1) To compare the systemic immune modulatory effects of moderate versus high-intensity ET protocols in protecting against development of EAE; (2) To investigate whether ET affects autoimmunity selectively, or causes general immunosuppression.

    METHODS: Healthy mice performed moderate or high-intensity treadmill running programs. Proteolipid protein (PLP)-induced transfer EAE was utilized to examine ET effects specifically on the systemic immune system. Lymph node (LN)-T cells from trained versus sedentary donor mice were transferred to naïve recipients and EAE severity was assessed, by clinical assessment and histopathological analysis. LN-T cells derived from donor trained versus sedentary PLP-immunized mice were analyzed in vitro for proliferation assays by flow cytometry analysis and cytokine and chemokine receptor gene expression using real-time PCR. T cell-dependent immune responses of trained versus sedentary mice to the nonautoantigen ovalbumin and susceptibility to Escherichia coli-induced acute peritonitis were examined.

    RESULTS: High-intensity training in healthy donor mice induced significantly greater inhibition than moderate-intensity training on proliferation and generation of encephalitogenic T cells in response to PLP-immunization, and on EAE severity upon their transfer into recipient mice. High-intensity training also inhibited LN-T cell proliferation in response to ovalbumin immunization. E. coli bacterial counts and dissemination were not affected by training.

    INTERPRETATION: High-intensity training induces superior effects in preventing autoimmunity in EAE, but does not alter immune responses to E. coli infection.

  • 221. Farahmand, B Y
    et al.
    Ahlbom, A
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Hållmarker, U
    Aronson, D
    Brobert, G Persson
    Mortality amongst participants in Vasaloppet: a classical long-distance ski race in Sweden.2003Ingår i: Journal of Internal Medicine, ISSN 0954-6820, E-ISSN 1365-2796, Vol. 253, nr 3, s. 276-83Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess mortality amongst participants in long-distance ski races during the Vasaloppet week. We considered the 90 km races for men and 90 or 30 km for women. The vast majority of the participants in these races are not competing on the elite level. It is assumed, however, that they have to undergo regular physical training during a long period of time in order to successfully finish the race. DESIGN: The cohort study consisted of 49 219 men and 24 403 women, who participated in any of the races during 1989-1998. All subjects were followed up in the National-Cause-of-Death-Register until 31 December 1999. We computed the standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) adjusting for age and calendar year. RESULTS: Overall, 410 deaths occurred, compared with 850.6 expected, yielding an SMR of 0.48 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.44-0.53]. Low SMRs were found in all age groups in both men and women and in all groups after categorization by finishing time and number of races. The lowest SMRs were found amongst older participants and in those who participated in several races. A decreased mortality was observed in all major diagnostic groups, namely cancers (SMR = 0.61; 95% CI 0.52-0.71), diseases of the circulatory system (SMR = 0.43; 95% CI 0.35-0.51), and injuries and poisoning (SMR = 0.73; 95% CI 0.60-0.89). For lung cancer the SMR was 0.22, but even after exclusion of lung cancer the all-cancer mortality was low (SMR = 0.72; 95% CI 0.59-0.86). CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that participants in long-distance skiing races, which demand prolonged regular physical training, have low mortality. The extent to which this is due to physical activity, related lifestyle factors, genetics or selection bias is yet to be assessed.

  • 222.
    Fernberg, Ulrika
    et al.
    Örebro University.
    Fernström, Maria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet. Örebro University.
    Hurtig-Wennlöf, Anita
    Örebro University.
    Arterial stiffness is associated to cardiorespiratory fitness and body mass index in young Swedish adults: The Lifestyle, Biomarkers, and Atherosclerosis study.2017Ingår i: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, ISSN 2047-4873, E-ISSN 2047-4881, Vol. 24, nr 17, s. 1809-1818, artikel-id 2047487317720796Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Early changes in the large muscular arteries are already associated with risk factors as hypertension and obesity in adolescence and young adulthood. The present study examines the association between arterial stiffness measurements, pulse wave velocity and augmentation index and lifestyle-related factors, body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness, in young, healthy, Swedish adults. Design This study used a population-based cross-sectional sample. Methods The 834 participants in the study were self-reported healthy, non-smoking, age 18-25 years. Augmentation index and pulse wave velocity were measured with applanation tonometry. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured by ergometer bike test to estimate maximal oxygen uptake. Body mass index (kg/m(2)) was calculated and categorised according to classification by the World Health Organisation. Results Young Swedish adults with obesity and low cardiorespiratory fitness have significantly higher pulse wave velocity and augmentation index than non-obese young adults with medium or high cardiorespiratory fitness. The observed U-shaped association between pulse wave velocity and body mass index categories in women indicates that it might be more beneficial to be normal weight than underweight when assessing the arterial stiffness with pulse wave velocity. The highest mean pulse wave velocity was found in overweight/obese individuals with low cardiorespiratory fitness. The lowest mean pulse wave velocity was found in normal weight individuals with high cardiorespiratory fitness. Cardiorespiratory fitness had a stronger effect than body mass index on arterial stiffness in multiple regression analyses. Conclusions The inverse association between cardiorespiratory fitness and arterial stiffness is observed already in young adults. The study result highlights the importance of high cardiorespiratory fitness, but also that underweight individuals may be a possible risk group that needs to be further studied.

  • 223.
    Fernberg, Ulrika
    et al.
    Örebro universitet.
    Fernström, Maria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet. Örebro universitet.
    Hurtig-Wennlöf, Anita
    Örebro universitet.
    Central and peripheral blood pressure and the association with BMI in young adults – the Lifestyle, Biomarkers, and Atherosclerosis Study2018Ingår i: Book of abstracts, Nobel Day’s Festivities 2018, School of Medical Sciences and School of Health Sciences, Örebro University , 2018, s. 10-Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 224.
    Fernberg, Ulrika
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Op 't Roodt, Jos
    Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, The Netherlands..
    Fernström, Maria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Hurtig-Wennlöf, Anita
    Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Body composition is a strong predictor of local carotid stiffness in Swedish, young adults - the cross sectional Lifestyle, biomarkers, and atherosclerosis study.2019Ingår i: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders, ISSN 1471-2261, E-ISSN 1471-2261, Vol. 19, nr 1, artikel-id 205Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Obesity has nearly tripled worldwide during the last four decades, especially in young adults, and is of growing concern since it is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). We explored how different body composition measurements are associated with intima media thickness (cIMT) and local stiffness in the common carotid artery, in a subsample of healthy, young women and men, from the Swedish Lifestyle, Biomarkers, and Atherosclerosis (LBA) Study.

    METHODS: From the LBA study, a subsample of 220 randomly selected, self-reported healthy individuals, 18-25 years old, were collected for the automatized local stiffness measurements; arterial distensibility, Young's elastic modulus, and β stiffness index. Blood pressure and mean arterial pressure (MAP) was measured using automatic blood pressure equipment. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated, waist circumference was measured, and percentage of body fat assessed using an impedance body composition analyzer. The carotid artery was scanned by ultrasound and analyzed using B-mode edge wall tracking. cIMT was measured and local stiffness measurements were calculated with carotid blood pressure, measured with applanation tonometry.

    RESULTS: No association was found between cIMT and body composition. Local carotid stiffness was associated with body composition, and women had less stiff arteries than men (p < 0.001). Of the local stiffness measurements, arterial distensibility had the strongest associations with body composition measurements in both women and men (p < 0.05). Multiple regression analyses showed that BMI in women and BMI and percentage of body fat in men had the highest impact on arterial distensibility (p < 0.01 in both women and men).

    CONCLUSIONS: Arterial distensibility was the local stiffness measurement with the strongest associations to different body composition measurements, in both women and men. In this age group, body composition measurements seem to be stronger predictors of common carotid arterial stiffness than MAP, and is a convenient way of detecting young adults who need cardiovascular risk follow-up and lifestyle counseling.

  • 225. Fernström, Erik
    Henriks, Anders
    Linder, Sven-Gunnar
    Pettersson, Gunnar
    Schantz, Peter
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, FoU-gruppen för rörelse, hälsa och miljö.
    Fjällmarsch Trantre1979Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Under vintern 1978 genomfördes Fjällmarsch TranTre på skidor av de sex unga män som har skrivit denna dokumentation av skidturen. Den startade den 1 mars i Transtrand och fortsatte längs den svenska fjällkedjan upp till Treriksröset. Därefter färdades de söderut till tågstationen Torne träsk, som de kom till den 27 april. De hade då tillryggalagt en sträcka på 1500 km under 50 dagar.

    Texterna handlar om deltagarna, deras förberedelser, färdvägen, dagsetapperna, utrustningen, packningen, maten, lägerplatserna, fotvården, skidorna, vädret, solen, kylan, sömnen, samt djuren och naturen.  

    Det fysiska arbetet studerades vetenskapligt och gav upphov till fyra publikationer som anges nedan som olika poster i DiVA:

    • Schantz, Peter et al. 1982. Training-induced increase in myofibrillar ATPase intermediate fibers in human skeletal muscle. Muscle & Nerve 5:628-636.

    • Schantz, Peter et al. 1983. Adaptation of human skeletal muscle to endurance training of long duration. Clin. Physiol 3:141-151.

    • Schantz, Peter. 1986. Plasticity of human skeletal muscle - with special reference to effectsof physical training on enzyme levels of the NADH shuttles and phenotypicexpression of slow and fast isoforms of myofibrillar proteins, Acta Physiol Scand, vol 128, Suppl.558, pp 1-64. 

    • Schantz, Peter. 1980. Långtur - om 150 turåkning längs den svenska fjällkedjan. Stockholm: Trygg-Hansa.
  • 226. Fernström, Erik
    et al.
    Forsell, Claes
    Henriks, Anders
    Linder, Sven-Gunnar
    Petersson, Gunnar
    Schantz, Peter
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, FoU-gruppen för rörelse, hälsa och miljö.
    Die Gebirgsexpedition Trantre1979Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [de]

    Im Winter 1978 wurde die Gebirgsexpedition „Fjällmarsch TranTre“ von sechs jungen Männern auf Skiern durchgeführt. Er begann am 1. März in Transtrand und ging entlang der schwedischen Bergkette bis nach Treriksröset. Dann reisten sie nach Süden zum Torne Träsk bahnhof, den sie am 27. April erreichten.

    Sie wanderten 50 Tage lang und legten eine Strecke von 1500 km zurück. Die jungen Männer dokumentierten ihre Skireise und die verfassten Texte handeln von ihren Vorbereitungen, der Reiseroute, den Etappen, der Ausrüstung, dem Gepäck, dem Essen, den Campingplätzen, der Fußpflege, den Skiern, dem Wetter, der Sonne, der Kälte, dem Schlaf sowie den Tieren und der Natur.

    Die körperliche Anstrengung wurde wissenschaftlich untersucht und führte zu vier Veröffentlichungen, die nachfolgend als verschiedene Einträge in digitales wissenschaftliches Archiv (DiVA) aufgeführt sind:

    • Schantz, Peter et al. 1982. Training-induced increase in myofibrillar ATPase intermediate fibers in human skeletal muscle. Muscle & Nerve 5:628-636.

    • Schantz, Peter et al. 1983. Adaptation of human skeletal muscle to endurance training of long duration. Clin. Physiol 3:141-151.

    • Schantz, Peter. 1986. Plasticity of human skeletal muscle - with special reference to effectsof physical training on enzyme levels of the NADH shuttles and phenotypicexpression of slow and fast isoforms of myofibrillar proteins, Acta Physiol Scand, vol 128, Suppl.558, pp 1-64. 

    • Schantz, Peter. 1980. Långtur - om 150 turåkning längs den svenska fjällkedjan. Stockholm: Trygg-Hansa.
  • 227.
    Fernström, Maria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Hög aerob uthållighet förenat med låg risk för hjärt-kärlsjukdom hos svenska unga vuxna2018Ingår i: BestPractice, nr SeptArtikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 228.
    Fernström, Maria
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Bakkman, Linda
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Forskningsgruppen Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Forskningsgruppen Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Shabalina, Irina
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Forskningsgruppen Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Rozhdestvenskaya, Z
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Forskningsgruppen Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Mattsson, C. Mikael
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Enqvist, Jonas K
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Sahlin, Kent
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Forskningsgruppen Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Reduced efficiency, but increased fat oxidation, in mitochondria from human skeletal muscle after 24-h ultraendurance exercise.2007Ingår i: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 102, nr 5, s. 1844-1849Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The hypothesis that ultraendurance exercise influences muscle mitochondrial function has been investigated. Athletes in ultraendurance performance performed running, kayaking, and cycling at 60% of their peak O(2) consumption for 24 h. Muscle biopsies were taken preexercise (Pre-Ex), postexercise (Post-Ex), and after 28 h of recovery (Rec). Respiration was analyzed in isolated mitochondria during state 3 (coupled to ATP synthesis) and state 4 (noncoupled respiration), with fatty acids alone [palmitoyl carnitine (PC)] or together with pyruvate (Pyr). Electron transport chain activity was measured with NADH in permeabilized mitochondria. State 3 respiration with PC increased Post-Ex by 39 and 41% (P < 0.05) when related to mitochondrial protein and to electron transport chain activity, respectively. State 3 respiration with Pyr was not changed (P > 0.05). State 4 respiration with PC increased Post-Ex but was lower than Pre-Ex at Rec (P < 0.05 vs. Pre-Ex). Mitochondrial efficiency [amount of added ADP divided by oxygen consumed during state 3 (P/O ratio)] decreased Post-Ex by 9 and 6% (P < 0.05) with PC and PC + Pyr, respectively. P/O ratio remained reduced at Rec. Muscle uncoupling protein 3, measured with Western blotting, was not changed Post-Ex but tended to decrease at Rec (P = 0.07 vs. Pre-Ex). In conclusion, extreme endurance exercise decreases mitochondrial efficiency. This will increase oxygen demand and may partly explain the observed elevation in whole body oxygen consumption during standardized exercise (+13%). The increased mitochondrial capacity for PC oxidation indicates plasticity in substrate oxidation at the mitochondrial level, which may be of advantage during prolonged exercise.

  • 229.
    Fernström, Maria
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Fernberg, Ulrika
    Örebro University.
    Hurtig-Wennlöf, Anita
    Örebro University.
    Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and body fat (%) are associated to low intake of fruit and vegetables in Swedish, young adults: the cross-sectional lifestyle, biomarkers and atherosclerosis study2019Ingår i: BMC Nutrition, ISSN 2055-0928, Vol. 5, nr 15Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    In the cross-sectional Lifestyle, Biomarkers, and Atherosclerosis study (LBA study) we have previously reported a high prevalence (15%) of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in Swedish, young adults. The aim of the present study was to report the dietary habits of subjects 18.0–25.9 years, and to associate dietary habits to body composition measures; body mass index (BMI), body fat (%), waist circumference and to HOMA-IR, a risk marker for diabetes.

    Method

    The subjects (577 women and 257 men) filled in a validated computerized food frequency questionnaire. The questionnaire was based on recommendations from the Swedish national food administration. To associate the dietary habits to BMI, body fat (%), waist circumference and to HOMA-IR the subjects were divided in two groups. Subjects "eating as recommended" and subjects "eating less/more than recommended".

    Results

    Recommended intake of fish and seafood (P < 0.05), fruit and vegetables (P < 0.001), and sweets (P < 0.05) were associated to lower HOMA-IR values compared to subjects not eating as recommended. When split by sex no difference in HOMA-IR was detected with recommended intake of fish and seafood, but women eating fish and seafood as recommended had less body fat (%) (P < 0.05) compared to women not eating fish and seafood as recommended. Recommended intake of fruit and vegetables was associated to lower HOMA-IR in women (P < 0.01), and in women and men to less body fat (%) (P < 0.05) compared to subjects not eating the recommended 500 g of fruit and vegetables per day. Both women and men with higher consumption of sweets than recommended had higher HOMA-IR (P < 0.05), but no difference in the body composition measures BMI, body fat (%) or waist circumference compared to subjects eating sweets as recommended.

    Conclusion

    The results highlight the importance of reducing a high intake of sweets and to increase the intake of fish, fruit and vegetables, in young adults, to reduce the risk of future diabetes.

  • 230.
    Fernström, Maria
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Sahlin, Kent
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Forskningsgruppen Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Mogensen, M
    Bagger, M
    Pedersen, PK
    The potential for mitochondrial fat oxidation in human skeletal muscle influences whole body fat oxidation during low-intensity exercise2007Ingår i: American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism, ISSN 0193-1849, Vol. 292, nr 1, s. E223-30Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate fatty acid (FA) oxidation in isolated mitochondrial vesicles (mit) and its relation to training status, fiber type composition, and whole body FA oxidation. Trained (Vo(2 peak) 60.7 +/- 1.6, n = 8) and untrained subjects (39.5 +/- 2.0 ml.min(-1).kg(-1), n = 5) cycled at 40, 80, and 120 W, and whole body relative FA oxidation was assessed from respiratory exchange ratio (RER). Mit were isolated from muscle biopsies, and maximal ADP stimulated respiration was measured with carbohydrate-derived substrate [pyruvate + malate (Pyr)] and FA-derived substrate [palmitoyl-l-carnitine + malate (PC)]. Fiber type composition was determined from analysis of myosin heavy-chain (MHC) composition. The rate of mit oxidation was lower with PC than with Pyr, and the ratio between PC and Pyr oxidation (MFO) varied greatly between subjects (49-93%). MFO was significantly correlated to muscle fiber type distribution, i.e., %MHC I (r = 0.62, P = 0.03), but was not different between trained (62 +/- 5%) and untrained subjects (72 +/- 2%). MFO was correlated to RER during submaximal exercise at 80 (r = -0.62, P = 0.02) and 120 W (r = -0.71, P = 0.007) and interpolated 35% Vo(2 peak) (r = -0.74, P = 0.004). ADP sensitivity of mit respiration was significantly higher with PC than with Pyr. It is concluded that MFO is influenced by fiber type composition but not by training status. The inverse correlation between RER and MFO implies that intrinsic mit characteristics are of importance for whole body FA oxidation during low-intensity exercise. The higher ADP sensitivity with PC than that with Pyr may influence fuel utilization at low rate of respiration.

  • 231.
    Fernström, Maria
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Shabalina, Irina
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Forskningsgruppen Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Bakkman, Linda
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Forskningsgruppen Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Forskningsgruppen Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Mattsson, C. Mikael
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH.
    Enqvist, Jonas
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Sahlin, Kent
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Forskningsgruppen Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Skeletal muscle mitochondrial function and ROS production in response to extreme endurance exercise in athletes.2006Ingår i: 14 European bioenergetic conference, Moscow, Russia, 22-27 July, 2006, 2006Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Although it is well known that endurance exercise induces oxidative stress (1) there is no evidence of deteriorated mitochondrial function after 1-2 hours intensive exercise (2). However, the effects of extreme endurance exercise on mitochondrial function and mitochondrial ROS production have not been investigated previously. Nine healthy well-trained men (age 27.1 ± 0.87 (mean ± SE), BMI 24.2 ± 0.64 and VO2 peak 62.5 ± 1.78 ml/kg. min) performed 24 hours exercise, consisting of equal parts running, cycling and paddling. Muscle biopsies were taken from vastus lateralis pre-exercise (PreEx), immediately post-exercise (PostEx) and after 28 hours of recovery (PostEx-28). Mitochondria were isolated and mitochondrial respiration was analyzed with palmitoyl-carnitine (PC) and pyruvate (Pyr). Mitochondrial H2O2 release was measured with the Amplex Red-horseradish peroxide method. The reaction was initiated by addition of succinate with following addition of antimycin A (reversed electron flow). UCP3 protein expression, evaluated with western blot technique, was not changed by exercise. Both state 3 (Pyr and PC) and state 4 (PC) rates of oxygen consumption (estimated per maximal ETC-activity) were increased PostEx (+29%, +11% and +18%). State 3 remained elevated PostEx-28, whereas state 4 (Pyr) decreased below that at PreEx (-18%). Mitochondrial efficiency (P/O) decreased PostEx (Pyr -8.9%, PC -6.1%) and remained reduced PostEx-28. The relative substrate oxidation (state 3 PC/Pyr) increased after exercise PreEx: (0.71 ± 0.06 vs. PostEx (0.90 ±0.04) and (0.77 ±0.06) PostEx-28. Mitochondrial H2O2 release (succinate) increased dramatically after exercise (+189 ± 64%). Treatment with Antimycin A resulted in a twofold-increased rate of mitochondrial H2O2 release PreEx but a decreased rate in PostEx samples. The exercise-induced changes in mitochondrial ROS production was totally abolished PostEx-28. In conclusion extreme endurance exercise decreases mitochondrial efficiency and increases mitochondrial ROS production. Both of these changes would increase the oxygen demand during exercise. Relative fatty acid oxidation as measured in isolated mitochondria increased after exercise indicating that the capacity to oxidize fat is improved during prolonged exercise.

    1. Mastaloudis, A., S.W. Leonard, and M.G. Traber, Oxidative stress in athletes during extreme endurance exercise. Free Radic Biol Med, 2001. 31(7): p. 911-22.

    2. Tonkonogi, M., et al., Mitochondrial function and antioxidative defence in human muscle: effects of endurance training and oxidative stress. J Physiol, 2000. 528 Pt 2: p. 379-88.

  • 232.
    Fernström, Maria
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Forskningsgruppen Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Sahlin, Kent
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Forskningsgruppen Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Effects of acute and chronic endurance exercise on mitochondrial uncoupling in human skeletal muscle.2004Ingår i: Journal of Physiology, ISSN 0022-3751, E-ISSN 1469-7793, Vol. 554, s. 755-763Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mitochondrial proteins such as uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) and adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) may mediate back-leakage of protons and serve as uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation. We hypothesized that UCP3 and ANT increase after prolonged exercise and/or endurance training, resulting in increased uncoupled respiration (UCR). Subjects were investigated with muscle biopsies before and after acute exercise (75 min of cycling at 70% of .VO2peak) or 6 weeks endurance training. Mitochondria were isolated and respiration measured in the absence (UCR or state 4) and presence of ADP (coupled respiration or state 3). Protein expression of UCP3 and ANT was measured with Western blotting. After endurance training, .VO2peak, citrate synthase activity (CS), state 3 respiration and ANT increased by 24, 47, 40 and 95%, respectively (all P < 0.05), whereas UCP3 remained unchanged. When expressed per unit of CS (a marker of mitochondrial volume) UCP3 and UCR decreased by 54% and 18%(P < 0.05). CS increased by 43% after acute exercise and remained elevated after 3 h of recovery (P < 0.05), whereas the other muscle parameters remained unchanged. An intriguing finding was that acute exercise reversibly enhanced the capacity of mitochondria to accumulate Ca2+(P < 0.05) before opening of permeability transition pores. In conclusion, UCP3 protein and UCR decrease after endurance training when related to mitochondrial volume. These changes may prevent excessive basal thermogenesis. Acute exercise enhances mitochondrial resistance to Ca2+ overload but does not influence UCR or protein expression of UCP3 and ANT. The increased Ca2+ resistance may prevent mitochondrial degradation and the mechanism needs to be further explored.

  • 233.
    Flockhart, Mikael
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Mattsson, C. Mikael
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Validation of modified D-max method for calculating individual anaerobic threshold in well trained male cyclists2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    To predict endurance performance and evaluate adaption to training in endurance athletes a laboratory test for retrieving the anaerobic lactate threshold is often used. The maximal rate of oxidative metabolism that can be sustained during prolonged exercise indicates preserved homeostasis and thereby sets the upper limit for long term endurance. Exercise intensities above the anaerobic threshold require an additional input from anaerobic energy sources resulting in blood lactate accumulation and reduced time to fatigue. The threshold is therefore a reliable and powerful predictor of performance in aerobic exercise lasting approximately 40-60 min. The work rate that elicits a blood lactate of 4 mmol/l (e.g. LT4) is widely used to determine the threshold, but by using a fixed lactate concentration, flexibility to account for inter- and intra-individual differences in aerobic and anaerobic metabolism is lost. Our hypothesis was that our modified D-max method (D-maxmod) would provide a more accurate performance related value by calculating the individual anaerobic threshold (IAT).

    Methods

    20 males cyclists age 36 ± 5 years, weight 79.7 ± 5.8 kg, VO2max 4.4 ± 0.4 l/min performed an incremental test on a cycle ergometer for calculation of LT (D-maxmod, and LT4) at two occasions separated by 8 weeks. The test consisted of 5 minutes long stages separated by 1 min of rest were lactate was sampled. The increase in work rate was 30 W/stage starting at 100 W and ended above LT4. Short after, an incremental test to fatigue (start at LT4 power, increase 20 W/min) was performed for assessment of VO2max, calculation of maximal aerobic power (MAP) and maximal power achieved in the test (Wmax). On a separate day a 40 minutes time-trial (TT40) was performed for assessment of aerobic endurance performance. IAT D-maxmod was defined as the derivate to the exponential curve created from exponentially lactate increase, including maximal lactate concentration plotted at MAP. The increase in lactate relative to power was defined as the increase in blood lactate from the point where the exponential curve crossed the lactate baseline (See also Cheng et al. 1992 and Zhou & Weston 1997).

    Results

    IAT D-maxmod was calculated to 5.0 ± 0.8 mmol/l. Both D-maxmod and LT4 were highly significantly correlated with both TT40 and Wmax. Coefficients of determination were higher for D-maxmod compared to LT4 for both TT40 (r2 = 0.78 vs 0.69) and Wmax (r2 = 0.89 vs 0.64).

    Conclusion

    The calculated D-maxmod correlated better with performance than LT4 for parameters highly linked to performance in road- and mountain bike competitions.

    References

    Cheng B, Kuipers H, Snyder AC, et al. (1992). Int. J Sports Med. 13:518-22

    Zhou S, Weston SB (1997). Physiol. Meas. 18: 145

  • 234.
    Flockhart, Mikael
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp. Militärmedicinska forskningsgruppen, Åstrand laboratoriet.
    Mattsson, C. Mikael
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap. Militärmedicinska forskningsgruppen, Åstrand laboratoriet.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet. Militärmedicinska forskningsgruppen, Åstrand laboratoriet.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp. Militärmedicinska forskningsgruppen, Åstrand laboratoriet.
    Slutövning GMU: ”Aldrig ge upp”, Amf1, Berga örlogsbas.: Rapport 4.2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Energistatus och förändring i fysiskt stridsvärde studerades i samband med en nästan 8 dygn långa grundmilitär slutövning (GMU) vid AMF-1 Berga Örlogsskolor i månadsskiftet oktober november 2013.

    Totalt deltog 105 soldater i övningen, fördelat på 3 plutoner om vardera 35 soldater. En subgrupp på 24 soldater (8 kvinnor) bestående av 8 soldater från vardera pluton studerades mer ingående.

    Medelhjärtfrekvensen för de 6 soldater (2 kvinnor) som hade i stort sett kompletta mätningar från den 187 timmar långa övningen, inklusive viloperioder, var 88 ± 7 slag/minut. Utifrån hjärtfrekvensdata beräknades den totala energiomsättningen till i genomsnitt 44 000 ± 6 600 kcal, vilket motsvarar 5 600 ± 840 kcal per dygn och 235 ± 35 kcal/tim. Total energiförbrukning var i genomsnitt 39 000 kcal för kvinnorna och 46 500 kcal för männen. I övrigt noterades inte några betydande skillnader mellan kvinnor och män. Däremot var det stora individuella variationer i energiutgift, vilka till ca hälften berodde på skillnader i kroppsvikt. Med hänsyn till kroppsvikt och buren vikt var energiförbrukningen ca 3,1 ± 0,23 kcal per timme per kg totalvikt. Den individuella variationen beror på skillnad i buren vikt, på olika uppgifter och på individuella fysiologiska skillnader.

    Utifrån beräknat energiintag blev det totala energiunderskottet under övningen 12 000-15 000 kcal, vilket är ca 1 500-2 000 kcal per dygn. Viktminskningen under övningen var 2,9 kg för kvinnor och 3,7 kg för män. Denna viktminskning på >4 % leder troligen till försämrad uthållighetsförmåga.

    Den maximala muskelstyrkan i armar och ben var i stort sett oförändrade efter övningen, liksom den beräknade maximala syreupptagningsförmågan. Däremot upplevdes ett lågintensivt cykelarbete som betydligt tyngre efter övningen. Muskeluthållighet mättes inte i denna studie.

    Ett skjutprov om 5 skott i liggande på 100 m mot en tredjedelsfigur visade 64 deltagande soldater på en försämrad träffprocent från 90,5% före till 79,4 % efter övningen. Alla soldater hade minst en träff före medan 6 soldater hade alla bom efter övningen.

    Slutsatsen från studien är att GMU-övningen resulterade i ett stort energiunderskott. Stridsvärdet, bedömt från skjutprovet var klart försämrat. Maximala fysiologiska parametrar var i stort sett oförändrade, medan skattad ansträngning och därmed uthållighetsförmåga, försämrades.

  • 235.
    Flockhart, Mikael
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Mattsson, Mikael
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Björn Ekbloms och Mats Börjessons forskningsgrupp.
    Fysiologisk analys av utbildningsmomentet "Markstrid grundkurs (GK) 1, Fjällmarsch"2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna observationsstudie av militär grundutbildning för kadetter visar mycket tydligt att förflyttning i fjällmiljö leder till stort energiunderskott, till viss del beroende på ökade energiutgifter i och med bärande av utrustning, men framför beroende på otillräckligt energiintag.

    Den genomsnittliga energiförbrukningen över övningens 100 timmarna och ca 78 km förflyttning var ca 260 kcal/h, medan energiintaget endast 135 kcal/h. Även om en typ av rations (mjukkonserv) gav i genomsnitt högre energiintag än två rations av frystorkat blev det genomsnittliga energiunderskottet för samtliga rations nästan 50 %.

    Mätningarna visade stora variationer mellan olika deltagare vilket dock endast delvis kan förklaras med tekniken av att bära tungt.

    Skjutprov (precision) visade att stridsvärdet påverkats negativt, genom en klart försämrad träffbild efter övningen. De fysiologiska testerna visar ökad hjärtfrekvens och upplevd ansträngning på submaximala belastningar, medan de maximala nivåerna av de fysiologiska kapaciteterna kondition, muskelstyrka i hand och ben i stort sett var oförändrade.

    Kommande undersökningar på motsvarande övningar bör inriktas på interventionsstudier på fördelning av utrustningsvikter, samt hur kostintaget bör förbättras för att nå ökat energiintag.

    På längre sikt bör träningsmodeller för att förbättra förmågan att bära tung utrustning utvärderas.

  • 236.
    Flockhart, Mikael
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Nilsson, Lina
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Forskningsgruppen Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Apro, William
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Larsen, Filip J
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Forskningsgruppen Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Dose-response relationship between exercise load and mitochondrial function2019Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Dose-response relationship between exercise load and mitochondrial function

    Flockhart M, Nilsson L, Bergman K, Apro W, Ekblom B, Larsen FJ

    A dose-dependent relationship exists between exercise load and muscular adaptation. Mitochondria adapt to the increased ATP-demand by alterations in mass and/or quality. How mitochondrial mass and quality changes as a function of exercise load is not well investigated and we have previously found mitochondrial dysfunction after short-term intensive exercise. We therefore aimed to study mitochondrial function by altering exercise load during a three week interval training regimen to understand the dose-response relationship between exercise load and mitochondrial function. We took four muscle biopsies throughout the study, and as expected, mitochondrial function was positively affected during the first two weeks. After the third week, a dramatic mitochondrial dysfunction was evident as mitochondrial intrinsic respiration was reduced by 26% despite a 32% increase in mitochondrial yield. We hereby present evidence of a striking exercise-induced reduction in mitochondrial function after a period of very intense interval training.

  • 237.
    Flygare Wallén, Eva
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Müllersdorf, Maria
    Mälardalens universitet.
    Christensson, K
    Mälardalens universitet.
    Malm, Gunilla
    Mälardalens universitet.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Marcus, Claude
    Karolinska Insitutet.
    High prevalence of cardio-metabolic risk factors among adolescents with intellectual disability.2009Ingår i: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 98, nr 5, s. 853-859Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Adults with intellectual disabilities (IDs) have poor lifestyle-related health compared with the general population. Our aim was to study whether such differences are present already in adolescents.

    AIM:

    To compare the prevalence and severity of cardio-metabolic risk factors and cardio-vascular fitness in adolescents with and without IDs.

    METHODS:

    Intellectual disability (ID) students (n = 66) and non-intellectual disability (non-ID) students from practical (non-ID-p) (n = 34) and theoretical (non-ID-t) (n = 56) programmes were recruited from three upper secondary schools. Anthropometric data, blood pressure, body composition, fasting-insulin, fasting-glucose, fasting-lipids and cardio-vascular fitness were measured.

    RESULTS:

    Participants with and without ID differed significantly in the prevalence of cardio-metabolic risk factors with participants with ID having a higher percentage of total fat mass, wider waist circumferences (WCs), lower levels of fat-free mass (FFM), lower bone mineral density (BMD) and higher insulin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA) levels and poorer cardio-vascular fitness. The healthiest levels were found in the non-ID-t group compared to the group with ID and the group with non-ID-p in between.

    CONCLUSION:

    The prevalence of cardio-metabolic risk factors and poor cardio-vascular fitness was found to be high in this young population with intellectual disabilities. Measures should be taken to improve the health messages directed towards children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities.

  • 238. Flygare Wallén, Eva
    et al.
    Müllersdorf, Maria
    Christensson, Kyllike
    Malm, Gunilla
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Marcus, Claude
    High prevalence of cardio-metabolic risk factors among adolescents with intellectual disability.2009Ingår i: Acta paediatrica (Oslo, Norway : 1992), ISSN 1651-2227Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Adults with intellectual disabilities (IDs) have poor lifestyle-related health compared with the general population. Our aim was to study whether such differences are present already in adolescents. Aim: To compare the prevalence and severity of cardio-metabolic risk factors and cardio-vascular fitness in adolescents with and without IDs. Methods: Intellectual disability (ID) students (n = 66) and non-intellectual disability (non-ID) students from practical (non-ID-p) (n = 34) and theoretical (non-ID-t) (n = 56) programmes were recruited from three upper secondary schools. Anthropometric data, blood pressure, body composition, fasting-insulin, fasting-glucose, fasting-lipids and cardio-vascular fitness were measured. Results: Participants with and without ID differed significantly in the prevalence of cardio-metabolic risk factors with participants with ID having a higher percentage of total fat mass, wider waist circumferences (WCs), lower levels of fat-free mass (FFM), lower bone mineral density (BMD) and higher insulin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA) levels and poorer cardio-vascular fitness. The healthiest levels were found in the non-ID-t group compared to the group with ID and the group with non-ID-p in between. Conclusion: The prevalence of cardio-metabolic risk factors and poor cardio-vascular fitness was found to be high in this young population with intellectual disabilities. Measures should be taken to improve the health messages directed towards children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities.

  • 239. Forsell, Yvonne
    et al.
    Hallgren, Mats
    Mattson, Maria
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Björn Ekbloms och Mats Börjessons forskningsgrupp.
    Lavebratt, Catharina
    FitForLife: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.2015Ingår i: Trials, ISSN 1745-6215, E-ISSN 1745-6215, Vol. 16, nr 1, artikel-id 553Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Psychosis is a serious mental illness that typically emerges during early adulthood. The disorder is characterized by inactivity, cognitive deficits and the need for ongoing support. Regular exercise has mood enhancing and anxiolytic effects that could benefit this patient group. To date, few studies have examined the effects of prescribed exercise on autonomy, health and cognitive functioning in psychosis.

    METHODS/DESIGN: This is a single-center, randomized controlled trial (RCT) with a 3-month follow-up. Usual care plus a 12-week supervised exercise program will be compared to usual outpatient care alone. The primary outcome will be patient autonomy measured by the Camberwell Assessment of Need (CAN) schedule - clinician rated. Secondary outcomes include cardiovascular risk factors, cognitive functioning, substance abuse, body awareness, depression and mood state. Changes in inflammatory markers and microbiotica will be explored. The feasibility of using patients as exercise trainers will also be assessed.

    DISCUSSION: The treatment potential for exercise in psychosis is large because most individuals with the disorder are young and inactive. The study is one of the first to comprehensively assess the effects of regular exercise in young adults with psychosis. Sessions will be closely supervised and adjusted to meet patient needs. Both the feasibility and treatment effects of exercise interventions in psychosis will be discussed.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00008991 7 August 2015.

  • 240.
    Frank, Per
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Forskningsgruppen Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll. Karolinska institutet, Inst för fysiologi och farmakologi.
    Exercise strategies to improve aerobic capacity, insulin sensitivity and mitochondrial biogenesis2014Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Regular exercise plays a key role in the maintenance of health and physical capabilities. Extensive research shows that exercise is an efficient method to prevent diabetes. Both resistance and aerobic exercise training are well known countermeasures for insulin resistance. However, depending on factors like purpose, capability and accessibility, different exercise modes need to be evaluated on both applied and molecular levels. In addition, exercise is the means to improve performance. New training strategies have emerged, like training with low glycogen stores or combining strength with endurance training, and guidelines based on empirical data are needed. Although knowledge of exercise physiology has advanced, much more needs to be learned before we can exploit the full potential of exercise with regard to health and performance. Therefore, the overall aim of this thesis is to provide knowledge of how different exercise strategies improve performance and insulin sensitivity. The mitochondria represent a central part of this thesis considering their key role in both health and performance. Study I was an acute crossover investigation of the effect of exercise with low glycogen levels on markers of mitochondrial biogenesis. Study II investigated the effect of concurrent resistance and endurance training on mitochondrial density and endurance performance. Study III investigated the acute effect of exercise on starvation-induced insulin resistance. In Study IV, the effect of resistance exercise training on health and performance in the elderly was investigated. The main findings were:

    • Training with low glycogen levels enhanced the response in markers of mitochondrial biogenesis.
    • Adding resistance training to endurance training did not improve mitochondrial density or endurance performance in trained individuals. 
    • Resistance training for only eight weeks is an efficient strategy to improve strength, heart rate (HR) during submaximal cycling and glucose tolerance in elderly. It also improves muscular quality by increasing mitochondrial and hypertrophy signaling proteins. 
    • Starvation-induced insulin resistance is attenuated by exercise. Mitochondrial respiration and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is reduced during starvation. Exercise during starvation reduced glycogen stores and resulted in the activation of enzymes involved in glucose metabolism.
    • When exercise was performed during starvation there was an increase in markers for mitochondrial lipid oxidation.

    
In conclusion, training with low glycogen stores seems to be a promising strategy to increase mitochondrial density. In contrast to our previous acute findings, concurrent training had no effect on mitochondrial biogenesis or endurance performance. Exercise can reverse yet another mode of insulin resistance (starvation) which strengthens its role in the treatment for other states of insulin resistance, e.g. Type 2 diabetes (T2D). Resistance exercise training is an efficient and safe strategy for the elderly to improve health and performance.

  • 241.
    Frank, Per
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Forskningsgruppen Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Andersson, Eva
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Forskningsgruppen Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Pontén, Marjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Björn Ekbloms och Mats Börjessons forskningsgrupp.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Sahlin, Kent
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Forskningsgruppen Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Strength training improves muscle aerobic capacity and glucose tolerance in elderly2016Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 26, nr 7, s. 764-773Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effect of short-term resistance training (RET) on mitochondrial protein content and glucose tolerance in elderly. Elderly women and men (age 71 ± 1, mean ± SEM) were assigned to a group performing 8 weeks of resistance training (RET, n = 12) or no training (CON, n = 9). The RET group increased in (i) knee extensor strength (concentric +11 ± 3%, eccentric +8 ± 3% and static +12 ± 3%), (ii) initial (0-30 ms) rate of force development (+52 ± 26%) and (iii) contents of proteins related to signaling of muscle protein synthesis (Akt +69 ± 20 and mammalian target of rapamycin +69 ± 32%). Muscle fiber type composition changed to a more oxidative profile in RET with increased amount of type IIa fibers (+26.9 ± 6.8%) and a trend for decreased amount of type IIx fibers (-16.4 ± 18.2%, P = 0.068). Mitochondrial proteins (OXPHOS complex II, IV, and citrate synthase) increased in RET by +30 ± 11%, +99 ± 31% and +29 ± 8%, respectively. RET resulted in improved oral glucose tolerance measured as reduced area under curve for glucose (-21 ± 26%) and reduced plasma glucose 2 h post-glucose intake (-14 ± 5%). In CON parameters were unchanged or impaired. In conclusion, short-term resistance training in elderly not only improves muscular strength, but results in robust increases in several parameters related to muscle aerobic capacity.

  • 242.
    Frank, Per
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Katz, Abram
    Institutionen för Fysiologi och Farmakologi, Karolinska Institutet.
    Andersson, Eva
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH.
    Sahlin, Kent
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Acute exercise during starvation improves insulin sensitivity and increases mitochondrial FA oxidation2012Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To investigate if exercise can reverse starvation-induced insulin resistance and to elucidate the mechanism. Methods: Nine subjects underwent 87 h of starvation with (EX) or without (NE) one exercise session at the end. Before and after starvation (3 h post-exercise) subjects underwent an intravenous glucose tolerance test and muscle biopsy. Results: Insulin sensitivity decreased after starvation (NE) but increased after exercise (EX). Glycogen stores were reduced and plasma FA and β-Hydroxybutyrate increased in both conditions. Mitochondrial respiration with FA substrate increased in EX but was unchanged in NE. RCR and mitochondrial ROS production decreased in both conditions. Phosphorylation of Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and Akt substrate of 160 kDA (AS160) proteins increased in EX. Conclusion: Exercise improves starvation induced insulin resistance, probably by increased mitochondrial FA oxidation, reduced glycogen stores and alterations in signaling proteins involved in glucose uptake and FA metabolism.

  • 243.
    Frank, Per
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Katz, Abram
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Andersson, Eva
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Sahlin, Kent
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Acute exercise reverses starvation-mediated insulin resistance in humans.2013Ingår i: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0193-1849, E-ISSN 1522-1555, Vol. 304, nr 4, s. E436-43Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Within 2-3 days of starvation, pronounced insulin resistance develops, possibly mediated by increased lipid load. Here, we show that one exercise bout increases mitochondrial fatty acid (FA) oxidation and reverses starvation-induced insulin resistance. Nine healthy subjects underwent 75-h starvation on two occasions: with no exercise (NE) or with one exercise session at the end of the starvation period (EX). Muscle biopsies were analyzed for mitochondrial function, contents of glycogen, and phosphorylation of regulatory proteins. Glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, measured with an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT), were impaired after starvation, but in EX the response was attenuated or abolished. Glycogen stores were reduced, and plasma FA was increased in both conditions, with a more pronounced effect in EX. After starvation, mitochondrial respiration decreased with complex I substrate (NE and EX), but in EX there was an increased respiration with complex I + II substrate. EX altered regulatory proteins associated with increases in glucose disposal (decreased phosphorylation of glycogen synthase), glucose transport (increased phosphorylation of Akt substrate of 160 kDa), and FA oxidation (increased phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase). In conclusion, exercise reversed starvation-induced insulin resistance and was accompanied by reduced glycogen stores, increased lipid oxidation capacity, and activation of signaling proteins involved in glucose transport and FA metabolism.

  • 244.
    Fridolfsson, Jonatan
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Börjesson, Mats
    University of Gothenburg.
    Buck, Christoph
    Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and epidemiology (BIPS), Bremen, Germany.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Hunsberger, Monica
    University of Gothenburg.
    Lissner, Lauren
    University of Gothenburg.
    Arvidsson, Daniel
    University of Gothenburg.
    Effects of Frequency Filtering on Intensity and Noise in Accelerometer-Based Physical Activity Measurements.2019Ingår i: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 19, nr 9, artikel-id E2186Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In objective physical activity (PA) measurements, applying wider frequency filters than the most commonly used ActiGraph (AG) filter may be beneficial when processing accelerometry data. However, the vulnerability of wider filters to noise has not been investigated previously. This study explored the effect of wider frequency filters on measurements of PA, sedentary behavior (SED), and capturing of noise. Apart from the standard AG band-pass filter (0.29-1.63 Hz), modified filters with low-pass component cutoffs at 4 Hz, 10 Hz, or removed were analyzed. Calibrations against energy expenditure were performed with lab data from children and adults to generate filter-specific intensity cut-points. Free-living accelerometer data from children and adults were processed using the different filters and intensity cut-points. There was a contribution of acceleration related to PA at frequencies up to 10 Hz. The contribution was more pronounced at moderate and vigorous PA levels, although additional acceleration also occurred at SED. The classification discrepancy between AG and the wider filters was small at SED (1-2%) but very large at the highest intensities (>90%). The present study suggests an optimal low-pass frequency filter with a cutoff at 10 Hz to include all acceleration relevant to PA with minimal effect of noise.

  • 245. Fridén, Jan
    et al.
    Seger, Jan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Implementation of periodic acid-thiosemicarbazide-silver proteinate staining for ultrastructural assessment of muscle glycogen utilization during exercise1985Ingår i: Cell and Tissue Research, ISSN 0302-766X, E-ISSN 1432-0878, nr 242, s. 229-232Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Distribution of glycogen particles in semithin and ultrathin sections of biopsy samples from human muscles subjected to either short- or long-term running were investigated using PAS and Periodic Acid-ThioSemiCarbazide-Silver Proteinate (PA-TSC-SP) staining methods. Glycogen particles were predominantly found immediately under the sarcolemma or aligned along the myofibrillar I-band. After long-term exhaustive exercise type-1 fibers with a few or no glycogen particles in the core of the fibers were frequently observed. The subsarcolemmal glycogen stores of these "depleted" type-1 fibers were about three times as large as after exhaustive short-time exercise. Another indication of utilization of subsarcolemmal glycogen stores during anaerobic exercise was that many particles displayed a pale, rudimentary shape. This observation suggests fragmental metabolization of glycogen. Thus, depending on type of exercise and type of fiber differential and sequential glycogen utilization patterns can be observed

  • 246. Fridén, Jan
    et al.
    Seger, Jan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Sublethal muscle fibre injuries after high-tension anaerobic exercise1988Ingår i: European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, ISSN 0301-5548, E-ISSN 1432-1025, nr 57, s. 360-368Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The vastus lateralis muscles of eleven male elite sprinters (17-28 years) were investigated in order to examine the impact of high tension anaerobic muscular work on muscle fibre fine structure. In an attempt to reproduce the training regimen six subjects ran 20 repetitions of 25 s on a treadmill with 2 min 35 s in between, at a speed corresponding to 86% of their personal best 200 m time. PAS-stained sections of biopsies taken approximately 2 h after training generally indicated glycogen depletion in type 1 and type 2B fibres. At the light microscopic level, no signs of inflammation or fibre rupture were observed. However, at the ultrastructural level, frequent abnormalities of the contractile material and the cytoplasmic organelles were detected. Z-band streaming, autophagic vacuoles and abnormal mitochondria were the most conspicuous observations. Control specimens from sprinters who did not perform the acute exercise routine also displayed structural deviations, although to a lesser degree. It is hypothesized that during sprint training the leg musculature is put under great mechanical and metabolic stress which causes the degenerative response reported here.

  • 247. Fridén, Jan
    et al.
    Seger, Jan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Topographical localization of muscle glycogen: an ultrahistochemical study in the human vastus lateralis1989Ingår i: Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6772, E-ISSN 1365-201X, Vol. 135, s. 381-391Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The fine structural pattern of glycogen storage in resting and sprint-exercised human vastus lateralis muscle fibres of different types was analysed using ultrahistochemical methods. Three male subjects (31-36 years) performed 60 consecutive, supramaximal bouts of bicycle exercise, each starting every 1 min and having a duration of 8 s (including approximately 3 s of acceleration). The load was estimated to correspond to 200% of VO2-max. Five other subjects (22-27 years) constituted controls. Ultrathin sections stained with periodic acid-thiosemicarbazide-silver proteinate (PA-TSC-SP) clearly revealed a compartmental distribution of glycogen. Glycogen is stored at five topographically, and probably also functionally, different locations. They are the subsarcolemmal, intermyofibrillar, para-Z-disc, N2-line, and H-zone spaces. During the exercise, glycogen from the N2-line and para-Z-disc locations is preferentially utilized. Serial sections stained with uranyl acetate and lead citrate demonstrated that glycogen stores of the type 2 fibres were more depleted than those of type 1 fibres. The implications of the differential intracellular glycogen storage are discussed

  • 248. Fridén, Jan
    et al.
    Seger, Jan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Sjöström, Michael
    Ekblom, Björn
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Adaptive Response in Human Skeletal Muscle Subjected to Prolonged Eccentric Training1983Ingår i: International Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0172-4622, E-ISSN 1439-3964, nr 4, s. 177-183Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The peripheral adaptation process associated with repeating eccentric training over a longer period of time was studied in m. vastus lateralis of eleven healthy males aged 24 +/- 4 years. The maximal dynamic concentric muscle strength was only slightly improved after 8 weeks of training. However, eccentric work capacity was dramatically increased (375%). A maximal eccentric stint immediately after fulfilled 8 weeks of training caused a selective glycogen depletion from the type 28 fibers. An increased number of type 2C fibers was observed. The ultrastructure analysis showed an essentially well-preserved fine structure. Volume density of mitochondria was somewhat higher in all fiber types after training. Z-band widths were not affected by eccentric training. It is concluded that skeletal musculature adapts itself in a functional manner to the extreme tension demands put on them. Improved coordination and reorganization of the contractile apparatus of muscle fibers are the determining mechanisms of this adaptation.

  • 249.
    Gejl, Kasper Degn
    et al.
    University of Southern Denmark.
    Thams, Line
    University of Southern Denmark.
    Hansen, Mette
    Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Rokkedal-Lausch, Torben
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Plomgaard, Peter
    Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Nybo, Lars
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen Denmark.
    Larsen, Filip J
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Forskningsgruppen Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll. Karolinska Institute.
    Cardinale, Daniele A
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Forskningsgruppen Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Jensen, Kurt
    University of Southern Denmark.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Vissing, Kristian
    Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Ørtenblad, Niels
    University of Southern Denmark.
    No Superior Adaptations to Carbohydrate Periodization in Elite Endurance Athletes.2017Ingår i: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 49, nr 12, s. 2486-2497Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: The present study investigated the effects of periodic CHO restriction on endurance performance and metabolic markers in elite endurance athletes.

    METHODS: Twenty-six male elite endurance athletes (VO2max: 65.0 ml O2[BULLET OPERATOR]kg[BULLET OPERATOR]min) completed 4 weeks of regular endurance training, while matched and randomized into two groups training with (Low) or without (High) carbohydrate (CHO) manipulation three days a week. The CHO manipulation days consisted of a 1-hr high intensity bike session in the morning, recovery for 7 hrs while consuming isocaloric diets containing either high CHO (414±2.4 g) or low CHO (79.5±1.0 g), and a 2-hr moderate bike session in the afternoon with or without CHO. VO2max, maximal fat oxidation and power output during a 30-min time trial (TT) were determined before and after the training period. The TT was undertaken after 90 mins of intermittent exercise with CHO provision before the training period and both CHO and placebo after the training period. Muscle biopsies were analyzed for glycogen, citrate synthase (CS) and β-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (HAD) activity, carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT1b) and phosphorylated acetyl-CoA carboxylase (pACC).

    RESULTS: The training effects were similar in both groups for all parameters. On average, VO2max and power output during the 30-min TT increased by 5 ± 1% (P<0.05) and TT performance was similar after CHO and placebo during the preload phase. Training promoted overall increases in glycogen content (18 ± 5%), CS activity (11 ± 5%) and pACC (38 ± 19%) (P<0.05) with no differences between groups. HAD activity and CPT1b protein content remained unchanged.

    CONCLUSION: Superimposing periodic CHO restriction to 4 weeks of regular endurance training had no superior effects on performance and muscle adaptations in elite endurance athletes.

  • 250. Gejl, Kasper
    et al.
    Hvid, Lars G
    Frandsen, Ulrik
    Jensen, Kurt
    Sahlin, Kent
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Forskningsgruppen Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Ortenblad, Niels
    Muscle Glycogen Content Modifies SR Ca2 + Release Rate in Elite Endurance Athletes.2014Ingår i: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 46, nr 3, s. 496-505Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of muscle glycogen content on sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) function and peak power output (Wpeak) in elite endurance athletes.

    METHODS: Fourteen highly trained male triathletes (VO2max 66.5 ± 1.3 ml O2 kg min), performed 4h of glycogen depleting cycling exercise (HRmean 73 ± 1% of maximum). During the first 4h recovery, athletes received either water (H2O) or carbohydrate (CHO), separating alterations in muscle glycogen content from acute changes affecting SR function and performance. Thereafter, all subjects received CHO enriched food for the remaining 20h recovery.

    RESULTS: Immediately following exercise, muscle glycogen content and SR Ca release rate was reduced to 32 ± 4% (225 ± 28 mmol kg dw) and 86 ± 2% of initial levels, respectively (P < 0.01). Glycogen markedly recovered after 4h recovery with CHO (61 ± 2% of pre) and SR Ca release rate returned to pre-exercise level. However, in the absence of CHO during the first 4h recovery, glycogen and SR Ca release rate remained depressed, with normalization of both parameters at the end of the 24h recovery after receiving a CHO enriched diet. Linear regression demonstrated a significant correlation between SR Ca release rate and muscle glycogen content (P < 0.01, r = 0.30). The 4h cycling exercise reduced Wpeak by 5.5-8.9% at different cadences (P < 0.05) and Wpeak was normalized after 4h recovery with CHO whereas Wpeak remained depressed (P < 0.05) following water provision. Wpeak was fully recovered after 24h in both the H2O and the CHO group.

    CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the present results suggest that low muscle glycogen depresses muscle SR Ca release rate, which may contribute to fatigue and delayed recovery of Wpeak 4 hours post exercise.

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