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  • 201. Tokuno, Craig D
    et al.
    Cresswell, Andrew G
    Thorstensson, Alf
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Carpenter, Mark G
    Age-related changes in postural responses revealed by support-surface translations with a long acceleration-deceleration interval.2010In: Clinical Neurophysiology, ISSN 1388-2457, E-ISSN 1872-8952, Vol. 121, no 1, p. 109-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Translations with longer acceleration-deceleration intervals reveal more age-related differences in postural control, which are otherwise masked by the deceleration effects inherent to shorter translations.

  • 202.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Fernström, Maria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Walsh, Brandon
    Ji, Li Li
    Rooyackers, Olav
    Hammarqvist, Folke
    Wernerman, Jan
    Sahlin, Kent
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Research group for Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Reduced oxidative power but unchanged antioxidative capacity in skeletal muscle from aged humans.2003In: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology, ISSN 0031-6768, E-ISSN 1432-2013, Vol. 446, no 2, p. 261-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The hypothesis that the aging process is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress has been investigated in human skeletal muscle. Muscle biopsy samples were taken from seven old male subjects [OS; 75 (range 61-86) years] and eight young male subjects [YS; 25 (22-31) years]. Oxidative function was measured both in permeabilised muscle fibres and isolated mitochondria. Despite matching the degree of physical activity, OS had a lower training status than YS as judged from pulmonary maximal O(2) consumption ( Vdot;O(2)max, -36%) and handgrip strength (-20%). Both maximal respiration and creatine-stimulated respiration were reduced in muscle fibres from OS (-32 and -34%, respectively). In contrast, respiration in isolated mitochondria was similar in OS and YS. The discrepancy might be explained by a biased harvest of "healthy" mitochondria and/or disruption of structural components during the process of isolation. Cytochrome C oxidase was reduced (-40%, P<0.01), whereas UCP3 protein tended to be elevated in OS ( P=0.09). Generation of reactive oxygen species by isolated mitochondria and measures of antioxidative defence (muscle content of glutathione, glutathione redox status, antioxidative enzymes activity) were not significantly different between OS and YS. It is concluded that aging is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, which appears to be unrelated to reduced physical activity. The hypothesis of increased oxidative stress in aged muscle could not be confirmed in this study.

  • 203.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Harris, B
    Sahlin, Kent
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Research group for Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Mitochondrial oxidative function in human saponin-skinned muscle fibres: effects of prolonged exercise.1998In: Journal of Physiology, ISSN 0022-3751, E-ISSN 1469-7793, Vol. 510 ( Pt 1), p. 279-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. The influence of prolonged exhaustive exercise on mitochondrial oxidative function was investigated in ten men. 2. Muscle biopsies were taken before and after exercise and mitochondrial respiration investigated in fibre bundles made permeable by pretreatment with saponin. 3. After exercise, respiration in the absence of ADP increased by 18 % (P < 0.01), but respiration at suboptimal ADP concentration (0.1 mM) and maximal ADP-stimulated respiration (1 mM ADP) remained unchanged. 4. In the presence of creatine (20 mM), mitochondrial affinity for ADP increased markedly and respiration at suboptimal ADP concentration (0.1 mM) was similar (pre-exercise) or higher (post-exercise; P < 0.05) than with 1 mM ADP alone. The increase in respiratory rate with creatine was correlated to the relative type I fibre area (r = 0.84). Creatine-stimulated respiration increased after prolonged exercise (P < 0.01). 5. The respiratory control index (6.8 +/- 0.4, mean +/- s.e.m.) and the ratio between respiration at 0.1 and 1 mM ADP (ADP sensitivity index, 0.63 +/- 0.03) were not changed after exercise. The sensitivity index was negatively correlated to the relative type I fibre area (r = -0.86). 6. The influence of exercise on muscle oxidative function has for the first time been investigated with the skinned-fibre technique. It is concluded that maximal mitochondrial oxidative power is intact or improved after prolonged exercise, while uncoupled respiration is increased. The latter finding may contribute to the elevated post-exercise oxygen consumption. The finding that the sensitivity of mitochondrial respiration for ADP and creatine are related to fibre-type composition indicates intrinsic differences in the control of mitochondrial respiration between fibres.

  • 204.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Sahlin, Kent
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Research group for Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Physical exercise and mitochondrial function in human skeletal muscle.2002In: Exercise and sport sciences reviews, ISSN 0091-6331, E-ISSN 1538-3008, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 129-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Muscle adaptation to endurance training involves qualitative changes in intrinsic properties of mitochondria. After training, the ADP sensitivity of miitochondrion is decreased whereas the effect of creatine on respiration is increased. This results in an improved control of aerobic energy production. Acute exercise does not adversely affect mitochondrial function.

  • 205.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Walsh, Brandon
    Tiivel, T
    Saks, V
    Sahlin, Kent
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Research group for Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Mitochondrial function in human skeletal muscle is not impaired by high intensity exercise.1999In: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology, ISSN 0031-6768, E-ISSN 1432-2013, Vol. 437, no 4, p. 562-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The hypothesis that high-intensity (HI) intermittent exercise impairs mitochondrial function was investigated with different microtechniques in human muscle samples. Ten male students performed three bouts of cycling at 130% of peak O2 consumption (V.O2,peak). Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis muscle at rest, at fatigue and after 110 min recovery. Mitochondrial function was measured both in isolated mitochondria and in muscle fibre bundles made permeable with saponin (skinned fibres). In isolated mitochondria there was no change in maximal respiration, rate of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) production (measured with bioluminescence) and respiratory control index after exercise or after recovery. The ATP production per consumed oxygen (P/O ratio) also remained unchanged at fatigue but decreased by 4% (P<0.05) after recovery. In skinned fibres, maximal adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP)-stimulated respiration increased by 23% from rest to exhaustion (P<0.05) and remained elevated after recovery, whereas the respiratory rates in the absence of ADP and at 0.1 mM ADP (submaximal respiration) were unchanged. The ratio between respiration at 0.1 and 1 mM ADP (ADP sensitivity index) decreased at fatigue (P<0.05) but after the recovery period was not significantly different from that at rest. It is concluded that mitochondrial oxidative potential is maintained or improved during exhaustive HI exercise. The finding that the sensitivity of mitochondrial respiration to ADP is reversibly decreased after strenuous exercise may indicate that the control of mitochondrial respiration is altered.

  • 206.
    Wallberg, Linnea
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Mattsson, C. Mikael
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Enqvist, Jonas K.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Plasma IL-6 concentration during ultra-endurance exercise2011In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 111, no 6, p. 1081-1088Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interleukin 6 (IL-6) response was studied during two ultra endurance events – one laboratory 24 h protocol (9 men) with exercise intensity set to 60 % of VO2max and one Adventure Race over 6 days (12 men/6 women) with a self-selected race pace, including rests, of about 38 % of VO2max. In the 24 h protocol IL-6 level was elevated from 0.76 ± 0.48 pg mL-1 at rest to 7.16 ± 2.70 pg mL-1 at 6 h, and increased further to 10.58 ± 1.04 pg mL-1 at 12 h, but remained thereafter unchanged at 24 h, (10.89±0.36 pg mL-1). All participants had nearly identical values at 12 and 24 h, supporting intensity as main determinant in the IL-6 response since exercise duration did not increase IL-6 level after 12 h. Possible confounding factors do not seem to influence the IL-6 concentration during the longer races (>12h), but might very well do so during shorter exercise bouts. In the 6-day race IL-6 increased from rest to 24 h, but thereafter there was no change in plasma IL-6 value until the end of the race (140 h). There was no elevation of TNF-α in any of the protocols, suggesting that the competitors were free from systemic inflammation. During endurance exercise lasting >12 h intensity and not duration is the main determinant of the IL-6 response, while during shorter exercise bouts both intensity and duration contribute to the accumulation of IL-6 in plasma.

  • 207.
    Wang, Li
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Research group for Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Psilander, Niklas
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Research group for Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Ding, Shuzhe
    Sahlin, Kent
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Research group for Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Similar expression of oxidative genes after interval and continuous exercise.2009In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 41, no 12, p. 2136-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: There is a debate whether interval or traditional endurance training is the most effective stimulus of mitochondrial biogenesis. Here, we compared the effects of acute interval exercise (IE) or continuous exercise (CE) on the muscle messenger RNA (mRNA) content for several genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and lipid metabolism. METHODS: Nine sedentary subjects cycled for 90 min with two protocols: CE (at 67% VO2max) and IE (12 s at 120% and 18 s at 20% of VO2max). The duration of exercise and work performed with CE and IE was identical. Muscle biopsies were taken before and 3 h after exercise. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the two exercise protocols in the increases in VO2 and HR, the reduction in muscle glycogen (35%-40% with both protocols) or the changes in blood metabolites (lactate, glucose, and fatty acids). The mRNA content for major regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis [peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma coactivator 1alpha (PGC-1alpha), PGC-1-related coactivator, PPARbeta/delta] and of lipid metabolism [pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isozyme 4 (PDK4)] increased after exercise, but there was no significant difference between IE and CE. However, the mRNA content for several downstream targets of PGC-1alpha increased significantly only after CE, and mRNA content for nuclear respiratory factor 2 was significantly higher after CE (P < 0.025 vs IE). CONCLUSIONS: The present findings demonstrate that, when the duration of exercise and work performed is the same, IE and CE influence the transcription of genes involved in oxidative metabolism in a similar manner.

  • 208.
    Wang, Li
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Research group for Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Sahlin, Kent
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Research group for Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    The effect of continuous and interval exercise on PGC-1α and PDK4 mRNA in type I and type II fibres of human skeletal muscle.2012In: Acta Physiologica, ISSN 1748-1708, E-ISSN 1748-1716, Vol. 204, no 4, p. 525-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: Differences in fibre-type recruitment during exercise may induce a heterogenic response in fibre-type gene expression. We have investigated the effect of two different exercise protocols on the fibre-type-specific expression of master genes involved in oxidative metabolism [proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) and Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4)].

    METHODS: Untrained subjects (n = 7) completed 90-min cycling either at a constant intensity [continuous exercise (CE): approximately 60% of VO(2max) ] or as interval exercise (IE: approximately 120/20% VO(2max) , duty cycle 12/18s). Muscle samples were taken before (pre) and 3 h after (post) exercise. Single fibres were isolated from freeze-dried muscle and characterized as type I or type II. The cDNA from two fibres of the same type was pooled and mRNA analysed with reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR.

    RESULTS: Continuous exercise and IE elicited a small increase in blood lactate (<2.5 mM) and moderate glycogen depletion (<40%) without difference between exercise modes. The mRNA of PGC-1α and PDK4 increased 5- to 8-fold in both fibre types after exercise, and the relative increase was negatively correlated with the basal level. However, the mRNA of PGC-1α and PDK4 was not different between type I and II fibres neither pre nor post, and there was no difference in the exercise-induced response between fibre types or exercise modes.

    CONCLUSION: We conclude that the mRNA of PGC-1α and PDK4 increases markedly in both fibre types after prolonged exercise without difference between CE and IE. The similar response between fibre types may relate to that subjects were sedentary and that the metabolic stress was low.

  • 209. Westing, Stephen
    et al.
    Seger, Jan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Eccentric and Concentric Torque-Velocity Characteristics, Torque Output Comparisons, and Gravity Effect Torque Corrections for the Quadriceps and Hamstring Muscles in Females1989In: International Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0172-4622, E-ISSN 1439-3964, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 175-180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to assess and compare eccentric (ECC) and concentric (CONC) torque output of the quadriceps and hamstring muscles and to analyze the effect of gravity effect torque (GET) correction on the calculation of the hamstring/quadriceps peak torque quotient (H/Q quotient). Twenty female subjects performed maximal voluntary CONC and ECC contractions of the quadriceps and hamstring muscles at five isokinetic lever arm velocities from 60 degrees/s to 360 degrees/s. Peak torque was measured and corrected for GET. Mean ECC torque did not significantly change with increasing ECC velocity for either the quadriceps or hamstring muscles (P greater than 0.05). Mean CONC torques were significantly lower than the corresponding ECC torques (P less than 0.05) and decreased with increasing CONC velocity. At each test velocity, the CONC H/Q quotient was significantly lower than the corresponding ECC H/Q quotient (P less than 0.05). Mean H/Q quotients did not significantly change with increasing velocity for either the CONC or ECC tests (means: 0.46 and 0.57; P greater than 0.05). Mean H/Q quotients not corrected for GET significantly increased with increasing velocity for the CONC (0.61 to 0.78; P less than 0.05), but not ECC tests (0.66 to 0.71; P greater than 0.05). The results indicate that the ECC torque-velocity curve is essentially level for both quadriceps and hamstring muscles. The present findings point strongly toward the necessity of correcting for GET when calculating both CONC and ECC H/Q quotients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  • 210. Westing, Stephen
    et al.
    Seger, Jan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Karlson, Eddy
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Eccentric and concentric torque-velocity characteristics of the quadriceps femoris in man1988In: European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, ISSN 0301-5548, E-ISSN 1432-1025, Vol. 58, p. 100-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary purpose of this investigation was to study the eccentric and concentric torque-velocity characteristics of the quadriceps femoris in man using a recently developed combined isometric, concentric and eccentric controlled velocity dynamometer (the SPARK System). A secondary purpose was to compare the method error associated with maximal voluntary concentric and eccentric torque output over a range of testing velocities. 21 males (21-32 years) performed on two separate days maximal voluntary isometric, concentric and eccentric contractions of the quadriceps femoris at 4 isokinetic lever arm velocities of 0 degree.s-1 (isometric), 30 degrees.s-1, 120 degrees.s-1 and 270 degrees.s-1. Eccentric peak torque and angle-specific torques (measured every 10 degrees from 30 degrees to 70 degrees) did not significantly change from 0 degrees.s-1 to 270 degrees.s-1 (p greater than 0.005) with the exception of angle-specific 40 degrees torque, which significantly increased; p less than 0.05). The mean method error was significantly higher for the eccentric tests (10.6% +/- 1.6%) than for the concentric tests (8.1% +/- 1.7%) (p less than 0.05). The mean method error decreased slightly with increasing concentric velocity (p greater than 0.05), and increased slightly with increasing eccentric velocity (p greater than 0.05). A tension restricting neural mechanism, if active during maximal eccentric contractions, could possibly account for the large difference seen between the present eccentric torque-velocity results and the classic results obtained from isolated animal muscle.

  • 211. Westing, Stephen
    et al.
    Seger, Jan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Thorstensson, Alf
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Effects of electrical stimulation on eccentric and concentric torque-velocity relationships during knee extension in man1990In: Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6772, E-ISSN 1365-201X, Vol. 140, p. 17-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of electrical stimulation on torque output during knee extension. Nine well-trained males (19-43 years) performed maximal voluntary, electrically evoked and superimposed eccentric and concentric knee extensions at velocities of 60, 180 and 360 degrees s-1, plus an isometric test (torque was always recorded at a 60 degree knee angle). Fifty-hertz stimulation was applied percutaneously at the maximum tolerated voltage (140-200 V). By superimposing electrical stimulation, eccentric torque could be increased by an average of 21-24% above the voluntary level (P less than 0.05). No corresponding differences were observed between superimposed and voluntary torques under isometric or concentric conditions. Electrically evoked torque also exceeded voluntary torque under eccentric conditions (11-12%, P less than 0.05), but was less under isometric and concentric conditions (-10 to -52%, P less than 0.05). Within the limitations of the study, it was concluded that eccentric knee extension torque under maximal voluntary conditions does not represent the maximal torque-producing capacity. The action of a neural inhibitory mechanism was proposed as an explanation for this finding. If active, this mechanism may protect against the extreme muscle tension that could otherwise develop under truly maximal eccentric conditions.

  • 212. Westing, Stephen
    et al.
    Seger, Jan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Thorstensson, Alf
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Isoacceleration: a new concept of resistive exercise1991In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 631-635Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents the concept of constant (iso-) accelerative and decelerative exercise and compares concentric and eccentric torque output during isoaccelerative and isodecelerative movements with that during comparable constant velocity (isokinetic) conditions. Twelve men (19-42 yr) performed maximal voluntary concentric and eccentric knee extensions at velocities of 120 and 240 degrees.s-1 (isokinetic) and at accelerations of 180 and 720 degrees.s-2 (both isoaccelerative and isodecelerative) between 10 degrees and 90 degrees knee angles. At 50 degrees, the 180 and 720 degrees.s-2 tests had velocities of 120 and 240 degrees.s-1, respectively, and thus torque comparisons could be made at a corresponding position and velocity. No difference was seen among the isoaccelerative, isodecelerative, or isokinetic angle- and velocity-specific torques for either the concentric or eccentric tests (P greater than 0.05). The results demonstrated that, under conditions of maximal voluntary effort, movement speed as such (within the range studied) was the essential determinant of muscle force--not whether this speed was attained during accelerative, decelerative, or constant velocity movements. As a testing and training modality, the controlled acceleration technique, particularly eccentric deceleration and concentric accleration, appears to offer advantages as compared with existing methods, since it more faithfully reflects the contraction conditions during natural strength-requiring movements.

  • 213.
    Wichardt, Emma
    et al.
    Idrottsmedicin, Umeå universitet.
    Mattsson, C. Mikael
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Henriksson-Larsén, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH.
    Rhabdomyolysis/myoglobinemia and NSAID during 48-hours ultra-endurance exercise (adventure racing)2011In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 111, no 7, p. 1541-1544Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To determine if rhabdomyolysis with myoglobinemia exists during a 48+ hour adventure race and if there is a correlation with NSAID use, race time and perceived pain or exertion. Method: Blood samples for analyses of myoglobin (Mb) were collected, and perception of exertion and pain registered on the Borg-RPE and CR scales, from 20 subjects (3 female, 17 male) Pre, Mid and Post race. Subjects were asked about NSAID use at each sampling and within 12 hours pre race. Result: A significant rise in Mb was observed throughout the race, with the NSAID group (n=6) having significantly lower Mb-Post than the no-NSAID group (n=14). High Mb-Pre and Post correlated to shorter race time and high Mb-Pre to lower Pain-Post. Race time also correlated to NSAID use, with the NSAID group having significantly longer race time than the no-NSAID group. Conclusion: Rhabdomyolysis with myoglobinemia, which might be reduced with NSAID use, exists during a 48+ hour adventure race. Indications that high Mb-levels correlate with shorter race time and less pain, and the reasons for the NSAID groups longer race time, need further investigation.

  • 214. Yu, M
    et al.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Chibalin, A V
    Krook, A
    Zierath, J R
    Marathon running increases ERK1/2 and p38 MAP kinase signalling to downstream targets in human skeletal muscle.2001In: Journal of Physiology, ISSN 0022-3751, E-ISSN 1469-7793, Vol. 536, no Pt 1, p. 273-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. We tested the hypothesis that long-distance running activates parallel mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades that involve extracellular signal regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) and p38 MAPK and their downstream substrates. 2. Eleven men completed a 42.2 km marathon (mean race time 4 h 1 min; range 2 h 56 min to 4 h 33 min). Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were obtained before and after the race. Glycogen content was measured spectrophotometrically. ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK phosphorylation was determined by immunoblot analysis using phosphospecific antibodies. Activation of the downstream targets of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK, MAPK-activated protein kinase-1 (MAPKAP-K1; also called p90 ribosomal S6 kinase, p90rsk), MAPK-activated protein kinase-2 (MAPKAP-K2), mitogen- and stress-activated kinase 1 (MSK1) and mitogen- and stress-activated kinase 2 (MSK2) was determined using immune complex assays. 3. Muscle glycogen content was reduced by 40 +/- 6 % after the marathon. ERK1/2 phosphorylation increased 7.8-fold and p38 MAPK phosphorylation increased 4.4-fold post-exercise. Prolonged running did not alter ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK protein expression. The activity of p90rsk, a downstream target of ERK1/2, increased 2.8-fold after the marathon. The activity of MAPKAPK-K2, a downstream target of p38 MAPK, increased 3.1-fold post-exercise. MSK1 and MSK2 are downstream of both ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK. MSK1 activity increased 2.4-fold post-exercise. MSK2 activity was low, relative to MSK1, with little activation post-exercise. 4. In conclusion, prolonged distance running activates MAPK signalling cascades in skeletal muscle, including increased activity of downstream targets: p90rsk, MAPKAP-K2 and MSK. Activation of these downstream targets provides a potential mechanism by which exercise induces gene transcription in skeletal muscle.

  • 215.
    Åstrand, Per-Olof
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH. Department of Physiology, Kungliga Gymnastiska Centralinstitutet, Stockholm.
    Experimental studies of physical working capacity in relation to sex and age1952Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 216.
    Åstrand, PO
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Bergh, U
    Kilbom, A
    A 33-yr follow-up of peak oxygen uptake and related variables of former physical education students.1997In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 82, no 6, p. 1844-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 1949, 27 female and 26 male physical education students were studied at a mean age of 22 and 25 yr, respectively. They were restudied in 1970 and 1982. Measurements included oxygen uptake, heart rate, and pulmonary ventilation during submaximal and maximal exercise on a cycle ergometer and treadmill. After 21 yr, peak aerobic power was significantly reduced, from 2.90 to 2.18 l/min and from 4.09 to 3.28 l/min for women and men, respectively. After another 12 yr, the 1970 maxima were not reduced further. From 1949 to 1982 there was a decrease in peak heart rate from 196 to 177 beats/min in women and from 190 to 175 beats/min in men (P < 0.05). Highest pulmonary ventilation did not change significantly. At an oxygen uptake of 1.5 l/min, the heart rate was the same in 1949 as in 1982. In conclusion, the physical fitness level of the subjects was well above average for these ages. From 1970 to 1982 there was no decline in the average peak aerobic power, a finding possibly related to increased habitual physical activity.

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