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  • 201.
    Atler, Linda
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    ”De som kan simma ska få fördjupning”  : en studie om utvalda skolors simundervisning  2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to describe and compare education in swimming in grade six in two different schools. Another purpose was to investigate students’ perception of their swimming skills and their attitudes to education in swimming. The more précised questions were: (1) How is the education in swimming organized in each school? (2) How do the teachers control that the students reach the goals to attain in swimming in the 5: th grade? (3) How do the students judge their own swimming knowledge? And (4) What attitudes towards the education in swimming do the students have?

    Method: A quantitative method, a questionnaire, was used to answer the purpose and questions of the study. 88 students in grade six in two selected schools participated in the survey. The questionnaire consisted of both open and closed questions. The schools were selected through a purposeful sample. All four physical education teachers at the selected schools were interviewed. A curriculum-theoretical framework has been used to deepen the understanding of the study’s results.

    Results: All four physical education teachers believe that it is important to be able to swim. However the education in swimming is organized very differently in the two schools. One of the schools has swimming lessons 12 weeks per year, once a week (grade 1-6). The other school only offers classes in swimming in the second grade: one semester, in grade 3-6 the school let students show their skills once per school year. The students at both schools are satisfied with the swimming lessons however; they have suggestions of how to improve it. 50% of the students learned to swim in the swimming school outside of school, and could therefore swim before they started school. 13% of the students claim that they are not able to swim 200 meters. The teachers however indicated that all students reach the goals. All four physical education teachers think it is important to be able to swim but that it is the parent’s responsibility

    Conclusion: Swimming education differs a lot in the two schools, despite the fact that all four physical education teachers consider it important. The teachers’ focused on the formulation stage and the achievement of the objectives of the curriculum, rather than problematizing the transformation and realization of objectives. Students are aware of their swimming ability and limitations of this. They also want to learn more in the context swimming education.

     

  • 202.
    Atler, Linda
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Westman, Lisa
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Hur ser elitgolfspelare i Sverige på sin träning?: en nulägesanalys utifrån fyra utvalda hörnstenar2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Utveckling sker inom golfen i Sverige och kunskapen om golfens olika delkapaciteter ökar, men hur ser ”helheten” ut? Detta är en är nulägesanalys på SAS Masters Tour utifrån fyra utvalda hörnstenar samt deras delkapaciteter som vi finner relevanta för elitgolfare i Sverige. Hörnstenarna är fysiskträning, psykiskträning, golfträning samt sociala aspekter.

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet är att ta fram en nulägesanalys utifrån hur elitgolfspelarna tränar idag samt deras egna uppfattningar om vilka behov en elitspelare bör kunna tillfredställa utifrån fyra utvalda hörnstenar.

    Frågeställningar:

    1. Vilka delkapaciteter prioriterar elitspelarna?

    2. Vad önskar elitgolfarna att de kunde lägga ner mer tid på?

    3. Hur tränar golfarna de olika delkapaciteterna, vilka tester ingår?

    Metod

    För att få djupare kunskap om de olika delkapaciteterna granskades först artiklar i databaserna PubMed, Sportdiscus, Eric samt sökning i GIH:s kataloger. Vi har valt att använda en kvantitativ metod där en enkätundersökning ligger som grund för studiens resultat. Enkäten bestod av 79 frågor uppdelade på sex olika delar. Respondenterna var rankade topp 30 på SAS Masters Tour 2008, 20 damer och 20 herrars svar bearbetades sedan i statistikprogrammet SPSS.

    Resultat

    Majoriteten av elitspelarna prioriterar golfträning under tävlingssäsongen under vintersäsongen varierar prioriteringarna. Den delkapaciteten som spelarna lägger ner minst tid på är den psykiska och det är även den som de flesta elitspelarna önskar de kunde prioritera mer. Mindre än hälften av elitspelarna gör kontinuerliga tester för att utvärdera och planera sin träning.

    Slutsats

    Elitspelarna lägger ner tid på de olika hörnstenarna men ser oftast inte sammankopplingen mellan dessa. En lösning på problemet kan vara mer samarbete med nätverk, kommunikation mellan mentaltränare, fystränare och tekniktränare och alltid med spelaren i fokus. Med bättre kommunikation kan vi lära av varandra!

     

  • 203.
    Audell, Charlott
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Är lärare i idrott och hälsa rätt rustade för IUP?: en kvalitativ studie om individuella utvecklingsplaner2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka om lärarna i idrott och hälsa känner behov av fortbildning för att lyckas bättre i arbetet med hur de individuella utvecklingsplanerna ska formuleras i dagens skola. För att uppfylla syftet kommer följande frågeställningar att vara i fokus:

    - Hur lyckas lärarna i idrott och hälsa med arbetet med de individuella utvecklingsplanerna?

    - Vilka fördelar lyfter lärarna i idrott och hälsa fram då det gäller arbetet med IUP?

    - Vari ligger svårigheterna i arbetet med IUP för lärarna i idrott och hälsa?

    Metod

    Denna studie är en kvalitativ intervjustudie av fyra lärare i idrott och hälsa. Målgruppen var lärare i idrott och hälsa som arbetar i år 1-6. De valdes för att flera av dem kanske inte har någon tidigare erfarenhet av bedömningar (betyg) mm, då det i år 1-6 inte finns betyg. Urvalsgruppen gjordes av bekvämlighetsskäl, jag har tagit kontakt med ett antal kollegor och frågat om de kunde tänka sig att bli intervjuade angående IUP.

    Resultat

    Resultatet på studien visar att de intervjuade lärarna i idrott och hälsa upplever tiden som det som saknas mest för att lyckas bättre med IUP.

    Det finns många fördelar med IUP och lärarna i studien lyfte fram att de ger en tydlig bild till elev och föräldrar. Även det att föräldrar och elever blir mer delaktiga i skolarbetet, är positivt. IUP är även till fördel vid lärarbyten.

    De svårigheter som lärarna i studien tar upp är bristen av ett gemensamt språk, svårigheter i hur de ska formulera sig när de skriver IUP . Tid för pedagogiska diskussioner mellan lärare, är en annan bit som efterlyses av lärarna.

    Slutsats

    Det är tydligt att lärare i idrott och hälsa upplever ett behov av fortbildning, för att lyckas bättre med hur de ska formulera sig i de IUP. Fortbildningen kan vara i form av pedagogiska diskussioner, men det är viktigt att tid ges till detta.

  • 204.
    Aujla, I. J.
    et al.
    University of Bedfordshire.
    Nordin-Bates, Sanna M
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Redding, E.
    Trinity Laban Conservatoire of Music and Dance.
    Jobbins, V.
    Trinity Laban Conservatoire of Music and Dance.
    Developing talent among young dancers: Findings from the UK Centres for Advanced Training2014In: Theatre, dance and performance training, ISSN 1944-3927, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 15-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The identification and development of talent is a key concern for many dance educators, yet little research has been conducted in the area. In order to understand better how to optimise dance talent development among young people, systematic and rigorous research is needed. This paper summarises and discusses the key findings of a ground-breaking longitudinal interdisciplinary research project into dance talent development. Over two years, almost 800 young dancers enrolled at one of the eight nationwide Centres for Advanced Training (CATs) participated in the project. Physical factors, psychological characteristics, and injury data were collected quantitatively while the students' thoughts and perspectives on commitment, creativity and cultural variables were captured using qualitative methods. The largest study of its kind, the project yielded a wide range of findings with a number of practical implications. The main focus of this paper is on how the project findings apply to important pedagogic topics such as audition criteria, passion and commitment, and teaching behaviour. The area of talent identification and development is complex, yet this research has begun to shed new light on the notion of talent and has provided novel insights to support its development.

  • 205. Aujla, Imogen J
    et al.
    Nordin-Bates, Sanna M
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Redding, Emma
    Commitment, adherence and dropout among young talented dancers: Findings from the UK Centres for Advanced Training2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 206. Aujla, Imogen J
    et al.
    Nordin-Bates, Sanna M
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Redding, Emma
    Multidisciplinary predictors of adherence to contemporary dance training: findings from the UK Centres for Advanced Training.2015In: Journal of Sports Sciences, ISSN 0264-0414, E-ISSN 1466-447X, Vol. 33, no 15, p. 1564-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Little is known about the predictors of adherence in a dance context. The aim of this study was to investigate adherence to a dance talent programme using a multidisciplinary set of variables representing psychological correlates of adherence, maturation and physical factors relating to dance talent. Psychological (passion, motivational climate perceptions, eating attitudes), physical competence (vertical jump height, handgrip strength, hamstring flexibility, external hip rotation, aerobic fitness), and maturation-related (age of menarche) variables were gathered from female students enrolled on a dance talent programme. Participation behaviour (adherence/dropout) was collected from the talent programme's records approximately two years later. Logistic regression analysis of 287 participants revealed that greater levels of harmonious passion predicted greater likelihood of adherence to the programme, and greater ego-involving motivational climate perceptions predicted less likelihood of adherence. Neither measures of physical competence nor maturation distinguished adhering from dropout participants. Overall, the results of this study indicate that psychological factors are more important than physical competence and maturation in the participation behaviour of young talented dancers.

  • 207. Aujla, Imogen Jane
    et al.
    Nordin-Bates, Sanna
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Redding, Emma
    A qualitative investigation of commitment to dance: findings from the UK Centres for Advanced Training.2014In: Research in Dance Education, ISSN 1464-7893, E-ISSN 1470-1111, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 138-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Commitment to an activity forms an essential part of the talent development process, yet little is known about the reasons why young people commit to dance training. The aim of this study was to investigate the factors that affect young dancers’ commitment to a selective dance talent scheme. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 19 committed dancers and transcripts were content analysed. Enjoyment was the most important factor relating to commitment, and stemmed from several sources such as self-expression, movement sensations and feelings associated with performing. Relationships with dance peers and teachers, parental support and the opportunities available on the scheme also enhanced commitment. While some potential barriers to participation were identified, such as concerns about injury, these seemed insufficient to affect the participants’ commitment. The results of the study may help educators to develop young dancers’ talents optimally by enhancing their commitment to training. [ABSTRACT FROM PUBLISHER]

  • 208. Aujla, Imogen
    et al.
    Nordin-Bates, Sanna M
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Redding, Emma
    Perceptions of teacher behaviour predict students’ passion for dance.2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 209. Aujla, Imogen
    et al.
    Redding, Emma
    Nordin-Bates, Sanna M
    Successful talent development environments in dance: Findings from the UK Centres for Advanced Training2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 210.
    Avenbrand, Thomas
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    A comparison of maximal knee flexor and extensor strength for assessing bilateral imbalance in Swedish elite hockey players.2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of this study was to determine knee extensor (Q) and flexor (H) muscle strength characteristics in a group of professional Swedish hockey players, including maximal isokinetic torque and any asymmetries seen in these. 

     

    Method

    This study was designed to measure strength and power performance during unilateral movement involving the lower extremities in open chain.  The contribution of each leg were discerned for subsequent comparison of left to right quadriceps (Q) and hamstrings (H), mean and peak value of hamstrings to quadriceps (H/Q ratio) and dominant to non-dominant legs for the purpose of examining imbalances between the legs.  The dominant leg (D) was defined as the strongest leg (either right or left) from the collected torque data for each player and then calculated as one value for the whole group. Subjects had a defined warm-up session and any static stretching that subjects feel necessary to assist them in performing the tests was also permitted. Maximal concentric (con) and eccentric (ecc) quadriceps and hamstring muscle strength was obtained by measuring maximal force moments (torque) during isokinetic knee extension and flexion movements both in 90°·s-1and 300°·s-1. An Isomed2000 (D&R Ferstl GmbH, Germany) was used for the measurements.

     

    Results

    In a comparison of D to ND, significant differences were obtained in peak torque for Q (p=0,0005) and H at con 90°·s-1(p=0,027) and H at ecc 90°·s-1(p=0,014). When comparing mean torque between D and ND significant differences were obtained for Q for con 90°·s-1(p=0,026) and H at ecc 90°·s-1(p=0,007). When looking at H/Q ratio between right and left sides a significant difference was seen for peak torque at con 90°·s-1and moderate relationship was seen at mean values at con 90°·s-1and ecc 90°·s-1

     

    Conclusions

    The result shows that the elite hockey players in the tested group seem to have one significant stronger leg and a week hamstrings compared to quadriceps. This means that they tend to be asymmetrical which might affect performance but may also increase the incidence of injury.   This has to be evaluated with further research.

  • 211.
    Avered, Chris
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Varför krypa när man kan gå?: - en studie om motorik i ämnet idrott och hälsa2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Motoriken präglar ämnet idrott och hälsas alla vrår. Från skeppsbrott till dans, allt präglas av motorik. Min studie har som syfte att undersöka hur den motoriska träningen ser ut i skolan och hur metoder används genom två frågeställningar; vad använder sig lärare i idrott och hälsa av för innehåll vid träning i att utveckla elevers motorik och hur förklarar lärare i idrott och hälsa syftet med innehållet.

    Två metoder användes vid datainsamlingen; observationer och intervjuer. Observationerna gjordes med årskurs 2, årskurs 5 och årskurs 6 vid fyra tillfällen per årskurs. Intervjuerna gjordes på årskursernas lärare efter varje avslutad lektion eller dag med frågor som berörde de just observerade lektionerna. Detta skedde under totalt tio dagar.

    De resultat som jag genom observationer kom fram till i min studie var att praktiken lek och rekreation är den mest frekventa innehållet när motorik tränas följt av färdighetsinlärning och tävling och rangordning. Intervjuernas resulterade i svar där lärarens syfte återspeglade innehållet som iakttogs under observationerna, det vill säga att lek och rekreation framhålls som en stor del vid motorisk träning. 

    Slutsatsen är att den motoriska träningen i skolan präglades av praktiken lek och rekreation när denna studie genomfördes.

  • 212.
    Axelsson , Oscar
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Webrink, Ludvig
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Frisk med friskvård?: en kvantitativ och kvalitativ undersökning med lärare och ledning på två gymnasieskolor2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet är att undersöka två skolors friskvårdsarbete, samt om det är möjligt att jämföra personalens upplevda hälsa med ledningens syn på personalens hälsa.

    För att ta reda på detta syfte har vi formulerat följande frågeställningar:

    • På vilket sätt jobbar skolorna med friskvård?
    • Vad har skolorna för mål med friskvårdsarbetet?
    • Hur ser ledningen på personalens upplevda hälsa?
    • Hur ofta deltar personalen i friskvårdsarbetet?
    • Hur upplever personalen sin hälsa?
    • Hur upplever personalen skolans friskvårdsarbete?

    Metod

    Vi har valt att använda oss av både en kvalitativ och en kvantitativ undersökning i vårt examensarbete. Anledningen till att vi valt att använda oss av både intervjuer och enkäter är att vi dels vill få en djupare förståelse för ledningens syn på friskvården, samt en bredare syn på personalens upplevda hälsa och deras inställning till skolans friskvård. Vi intervjuade två biträdande rektorer och delade totalt ut 143 enkäter på de båda skolorna och vi fick en svarsfrekvens på 48.9 procent dvs. 70 stycken enkäter.

    Resultat

    Det resultatet visade var att skolorna erbjuder friskvårdsaktiviteter och en friskvårdstimme varje vecka men det är endast ett fåtal som utnyttjar respektive deltar i dessa möjligheter.

    Personalens upplevda hälsa var generellt god, förutom att det var höga siffror som visade att många hade långvarig värk i såväl axlar som nacke/rygg. Merparten av personalen på skolan tyckte inte att ledningen gjorde tillräckligt för att främja personalens hälsa. 

    Slutsats

    Efter att ha studerat både ledningens och personalens syn samt förkovrat oss i olika studier och litteratur så har vi förstått att friskvårdsarbetet är komplicerat. För skolorna gäller det inte bara att satsa på friskvård, man måste också göra rätt satsningar som tilltalar personalen. Det är möjligt att vår undersökning skulle te sig annorlunda om vi gjorde den ett år framåt i tiden då den ena skolan nyligen hade startat sin satsning på friskvårdsarbetet.

  • 213.
    Axelsson, Gustaf
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Jonsson, Tina
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Idrottslärares friluftsliv: en kvantitativ studie om idrottslärares uppfattning och utförande av friluftsliv i skolan2008Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet var att undersöka idrottslärares uppfattning av friluftslivsbegreppet och eventuella samband med det friluftsliv som genomförs i grundskolan år 6-9.

    1.      Vad är idrottslärarnas uppfattning av begreppet friluftsliv i förhållande till Friluftsgruppens definition av friluftsliv?  

    2.      Vilken typ av friluftsliv genomförs av idrottslärarna under lektionstid och på friluftsdagarna i år 6-9?

    3.      Hur ser de eventuella sambanden ut mellan vilken typ av friluftsliv som bedrivs och inställning hos läraren samt andra förutsättningar i arbetssituationen?

    Metod

    Vi har konstruerat en internetbaserad enkät som skickats ut via e-post till 194 slumpmässigt utvalda idrottslärare, åtta till tio lärare per län. Vi tog fram beskrivande statistik samt undersökte korrelationen mellan enkätsvaren i statistikprogrammet SPSS.

    Resultat

    I snitt överensstämde idrottslärarnas uppfattning till 80 procent med Friluftsgruppens definition av friluftsliv och ingen hade en överensstämmelse lägre än 60 procent. Friluftslivet i skolan domineras av moment som dans, lagbollspel, löpning, orientering och simning. Det som förekom minst var klättring, långfärdsskridskor, paddling, ridning samt övernattning i tält/vindskydd. De mer friluftsinriktade momenten stod för 36 procent av den totala mängden friluftsliv i skolan. De faktorer som hade samband med vilket typ av friluftsliv som genomfördes i skolan var vilja hos skolledningen och vilja hos läraren.

    Slutsats

    Många idrottslärare har en hel del idrottsmoment inom sin friluftslivsundervisning, men det hindrar inte att lärarna har en uppfattning om friluftsliv som i ganska hög grad överensstämmer med Friluftsgruppens definition av friluftsliv. Det finns alltså inget samband mellan uppfattning och genomförande, vad som däremot verkar ha betydelse för vilket friluftsliv som genomförs är viljan hos läraren och skolledningen.

     

  • 214.
    Axelsson, Tobias
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Johansson, Daniel
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Svenska elitishockeyföreningarnas ungdomstränare: följer de Riksidrottsförbundets och Svenska Ishockeyförbundets riktlinjer?2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of the study is to determine if the youth coaches of Swedish elite hockey teams follow the guidelines for youth training, drawn up by the Swedish Sports Confederation and the Swedish Ice Hockey Association. The survey was supposed to answer if the youth coaches have any knowledge about the documents Idrotten vill and Ishockeyn vill, if the coaches work according to the Swedish Ice Hockey Association’s guidelines for youth ice hockey training and if the coaches/clubs have their own guidelines to prevent possible marginalization taking place in their club?

    Method

    A questionnaire survey was made on 33 youth coaches, working in an elite ice hockey club in the season of 2004/2005. The examined coaches that were responsible for youths in the ages of 11 up to 16 years. The coaches were found through a notification of interest to all of the clubs in Elitserien and Allsvenskan. Finally 5 teams from Allsvenskan and 6 teams from Elitserien participated in the survey, with a good geographical range. The total reduction of the questionnaire survey was 43%.

    Result

    24 % of the coaches answered that they didn’t have any knowledge about the document Idrotten vill. A few less, 18 % didn’t have any knowledge about Ishockeyn vill. All of the coaches answered that their club had their own guidelines for youth training. 52 % of the coaches answered that they always used the club’s own document in their regular work as a coach. 44 % used it sometimes.

    Conclusion

    On the first question at issue that was supposed to answer if the youth coaches have any knowledge about the documents “Idrotten vill” and “Ishockeyn vill”, we can establish that a majority of the coaches did that. If the club’s own guidelines is based on Idrotten vill and Ishockeyn vill they follow the guidelines made up by the Swedish Sports Confederation and the Swedish Ice Hockey Association. On the question that was supposed to answer if the coaches always or sometimes work according to the Swedish Ice Hockey Association’s guidelines for youth ice hockey training we recived a result that could mean that 96 % always or sometimes do so. The answers in the questionnaire survey can be interpreted as if all of the coaches work according to the guidelines in Idrotten vill and Ishockeyn vill.

  • 215.
    Axén, Bengt
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Facilitatorer och barriärer till träning hos personer med lång erfarenhet av att vara ryggmärgsskadad2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The purpose of this study is to examine the factors that encourage (facilitators) and inhibits (barriers) exercise for persons who have had a spinal cord injury for more than 10 years. The questions included in the study are: What facilitators and barriers have the greatest impact on whether you exercise or not? Is sex, age, level of injury, number of years after the injury and the work situation associated with if you exercise or not? Is exercise frequency prior to the injury associated with the level of exercise after the injury? What are the optimal conditions for people with spinal cord injuries to engage in physical exercise?

    Method

    A survey was sent to 47 people who had had a spinal cord injury for more than 10 years and had participated in any of the RG Active Rehabilitation "Retro Camps". The survey included statements of facilitators and barriers to exercise. The statements in the survey were based on results from previous studies and pilot tested on six subjects with a spinal cord injury. In total, the survey contained 49 statements; 24 facilitators and 25 barriers to exercise. Depending on the amount of training in the last 6 months participants were classified as "trainers" (regular exercise at least 1 time/week) or "non-trainers" (never or irregular/infrequent exercise). Those who were "trainers" were asked to answer statements on facilitators and those who were "non-trainers" were asked to answer statements on barriers to training. The importance of each item statement was estimated from 0-10 on a numerical rating scale.

    Results

    Forty-four out of 47 subjects (94 %) answered the survey, 33 of these were classified as "trainers" and 11 as "non-trainers". The reasons (facilitators) to exercise that ranked highest, with a median between 9-10/10 were, “the value of transport to and from exercise”, to exercise “to feel better mentally”, “increase strength and fitness” and to “minimize or avoid future complications”. The main obstacles to exercise (barriers), with a median between 4-5/10 were “other priorities than training”, “poor accessibility to and in training facilities”, “lack of time and motivation” and “tiredness”. There were no significant differences between the “trainer” and “non-trainers” regarding demographic data and other personal data. There was also no significant difference in training frequency before and after the spinal cord injury.

    Conclusions

    Despite a small study material the survey provides information that could be used in interventions aimed at motivating people with spinal cord injuries to exercise. The study shows that it is not necessary to take special account of sex, age, injury level, time since injury, previous training or current employment, when creating interventions. One should therefore focus on the positive mental and physical health impact physical training provides to motivate people with spinal cord injury to exercise. In addition to working with the facilitators, it is important to understand the often few, but strong barriers to exercise among those who do not exercise. By understanding these barriers, they are easier to influence and minimize.

  • 216.
    Azad, Herzal
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Kättström, Jon
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Formativ bedömning i ämnet idrott och hälsa: hur påverkar den formativa bedömningen grundskoleelevers prestation i idrott och hälsa?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Inledning: Formativ bedömning beskrivs av Skolverket som att den kännetecknas av att målet för undervisningen tydliggörs, att man söker information om var eleven befinner sig i förhållande till målet och att återkoppling sedan ges som beskriver hur eleven ska komma vidare mot målet (Skolverket, 2010). Det betyder till skillnad från summativ bedömning, där syftet är att ta reda på vad eleven redan lärt sig, och den formativa bedömningen ska vara framåtsträvande och hjälpa eleven att nå så långt som möjligt och hela tiden utvecklas. Formativ bedömning är enligt Skolverket en bedömning som används för att stödja elevens lärande och utveckla lärarens undervisning. Arbetet har använt sig utav ett sociokulturellt perspektiv som utgångspunkt och i analysen av materialet relateras det även till detta perspektiv.

     

    Cooper test är ett test som går ut på att springa så långt som möjligt på tolv minuter (aktivtraning.se/coopertest). Med hjälp av tabeller kan eleverna jämföra sig själva med genomsnittet då det finns olika nivåer beroende på hur tränad man är.

     

    Studiens syfte: Syftet med den här studien är att undersöka om formativ bedömning visar sig i elevernas resultat vid mätning av konditionstest. Följande två forskningsfrågor är i fokus; gör formativ bedömning att resultatet i Coopertestet förbättras? och hur ser lärare och elever på formativ bedömning?

     

    Metod: Undersökningen som gjorts är både kvalitativ och kvantitativ, genom att både använda två tester och jämföra dessa med varandra, samt att intervjua både elever och lärare.

     

    Resultat: Våra resultat från Coopertestet visar att eleverna som fick formativ bedömning fick bättre resultat vid det andra testtillfället. Vidare visar intervjuerna med både lärare och elever att formativ bedömning är positivt. Vissa elever tyckte dock att det kunde bli lite för mycket information att ta till sig, och det kunde bli lite rörigt, men i övrigt var både lärare och elever alltså positiva till denna bedömningsform i kombination med summativ bedömning.

  • 217.
    Backman, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Content knowledge or pedagogical content knowledge?: Exploring learning outcomes for Australian trainee teachers in physical education2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the context of physical education teacher education (PETE), content knowledge (CK) and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) are constructions of different forms of teacher knowledge that have been used to address knowledge of a subject and knowledge of teaching a subject to young people (Herold & Waring 2009, Siedentop 2009, Tinning 2010). This paper addresses how these two forms of teacher knowledge are valued through a study of learning outcomes (LOs) in syllabus documents at a sample of PETE universities in New South Wales, Australia. The US educationalist Lee Shulman (1987) originally defined CK as “the accumulation of literature and studies in content areas, and the historical and philosophical scholarship on the nature of knowledge in those fields of study” (p. 8-9). In the PETE context, CK is constructed by various sub-disciplines (Tinning 2010). According to Siedentop (2009), one of the most fundamental as well as the most marginalized of these sub-disciplines, is PE teacher students’ knowledge of movement. In this study, specific interest is devoted to how CK and PCK are expressed in documents regulating sport and movement courses within PETE. Regarding PCK, Shulman (1987) suggests it to be “that special amalgam of content and pedagogy that is uniquely the province of teachers, their own special form of professional understanding” (p. 8. Globally, there seems to be an agreement for the importance of future PE teachers to experience movement and sport practices during their education. However, there also seems to be different ideas about whether CK or PCK should by prioritized in the teaching and assessment of movement and sport practices during PETE (Backman & Pearson 2016, Capel, et al 2011, Herold & Waring 2009, Johnson 2013, Tinning 2010). The study of how LOs are expressed in an educational context can inform us not only of what forms of knowledge are most valued. It might also say something about PE teacher educators’ abilities to formulate his/her expectations of the student’s performance. For this instance, the discussion of learning objectives as formulated in university courses has lately been intensified. In Europe, this discussion has been strongly related to the intentions in the Bologna-declaration (Adam 2008, Brooks et al 2014, Hussey & Smith 2008). Some of the issues raised in the literature have concerned ways of formulating verbs in learning outcomes, student activity built into learning outcomes, and level of difficulty in learning outcomes (Adam 2008, Biggs & Tang 2007). Therefore, the aim of this paper is to analyse LOs formulated in syllabus document for sport courses at a sample of Australian PETE institutions. Further, the aim is to discuss these LOs through a framework regarding teacher knowledge originating from Lee Shulman (1987). Although PETE, like university programs in other subjects, are historical and cultural constructions, research from European countries such as UK, France, Sweden (Backman &Pearson 2016, Capel, et al 2011, Loquet & Ranganathan 2010) display similarities with the Australian PETE context. One characteristic feature of PETE in all these countries is the relative emphasis on constructivist epistemology and critical pedagogy, although this feature appears to be somewhat stronger in Australia compared to Europe and US. In times where the content in PETE is crowded and the time for teaching is short, a study of what forms of PE teacher knowledge are valued in some Australian PETE institutions, a context where the production of PETE research has been significant during the last decades (see e.g. Forrest 2015, Garrett & Wrench 2012, MacDonald et al 2002, Tinning 2010), can therefore serve as a valuable contrast for the discussion of knowledge forms in European PETE contexts.    

    Methods/methodology (up to 400 words) 

    By the end of 2014, there were 24 universities across Australia offering PETE, eight in New South Wales (NSW). These eight universities in NSW makes the total sample (N=8) in the study reported in this paper. To the collection of the empirical material in form of written documents, five PETE-universities (n=5) of the total sample have contributed. Each university was asked to contribute with two unit outlines for courses in sport and movement for PETE students. A unit outline is a written document intended to give the student more specific information compared to what a curriculum document for a course will provide (e.g. regarding examination, schedule, expectations, etc). Further, a unit is generally only a part of a whole course. The collected unit outlines contained a the total number of 73 LOs. The sample of unit outlines can be described as a strategic and purposeful sample (Patton, 2002). The empirical collection from the participating universities was carried out during November and December 2014. After information about the study through e-mail and phone, a total number of 10 unit outlines were sent to the author by e-mail. In the analysis Alvesson and Sköldberg (1994) description of analytical induction or abduction has served as an inspiration. This means trying to let, on one hand, the empirical material inform the choice of theoretical perspective while on the other hand, acknowledging that some specific theoretical perspectives, in this case Shulman’s (1987) forms of teacher knowledge, have been viewed as more relevant than others before conducting the study. The primary analysis has been divided into two steps. In the first step, when reading through the collected and transcribed material questions such as: ‘What movement and sport practices do students meet during PETE in NSW?’ and ‘How are movement and sport practices expressed through the LOs in the unit outlines?’ has been asked. Asking these questions to the material has involved a process of clustering described by Patton (2002) as convergence which has been followed up by a process of divergence, that is, an exclusion of formulations and quotes that do not fit into the identified pattern. In the second stage of the analysis, the choice of Shulman’s (1987) concepts for forms of teacher knowledge was confirmed and strengthened as we discovered that the different views of assessment of movement and sport practices were clearly related to our chosen definitions of CK and PCK.

    Expected outcomes/results (up to 300 words) 

    The preliminary analysis of the LOs shows that the knowledge in sport and movement courses at the investigated PETE institutions is sometimes formulated as CK and sometimes as PCK (Shulman 1987). Within these two main categories there were also sub-categories related to abilities expressed through different verbs. With regards to PCK one such main sub-category addressed the students’ ability to “plan, arrange, carry out and assess different forms of teaching situations”. Further, another ability expressed within the PCK category was the ability to “observe, analyse and critically reflect over educational practices”. These two PCK sub-categories clearly reflect research emphasizing critical pedagogy in Australian PETE (Garrett & Wrench 2012, MacDonald et al 2002, Tinning 2010). Further, two other forms of sub-categories, expressed both as CK and as PCK, was firstly, the ability to “perform movements” and secondly, the ability to “demonstrate an understanding” of different forms of movement and sport practices. Findings will be discussed in relation to research criticizing the decrease of sport performances in PETE (Herold & Waring 2009, Siedentop 2009) as well as work emphasizing the importance to teach and assess movement practices to PETE students in contextualized situations (Backman & Pearson 2016). The concept of “understanding” was found to be very commonly used in LOs both when expressed as CK and as PCK. Generally, students were encouraged to “demonstrate an understanding” of different forms of knowledge. In literature of how to formulate knowledge in higher education, the concept of understanding has been discussed, sometimes criticized as lacking precision (Adam 2008, Biggs & Tang 2007), sometimes claimed to be under-contextualised (Hussey & Smith 2008). Part of the discussion will focus on various meanings of understanding in sport courses at some Australian PETE-institutions and how these meanings can differ depending on whether CK or PCK is addressed.

    Intent of publication:  

    References (400 words)

    Adam, S. (2008). Learning Outcomes Current Developments in Europe: Update on the Issues and Applications of Learning Outcomes Associated with the Bologna Process. Retrieved 12 May 2015, from http://www.ond.vlaanderen.be/hogeronderwijs/bologna/BolognaSeminars/documents/Edinburgh/Edinburgh_Feb08_Adams.pdf

    Alvesson, M. & Sköldberg, K. (1994). Tolkning och Reflektion. Vetenskapsfilosofi och Kvalitativ Metod. Lund: Studentlitteratur.

    Backman, E. & Pearson, P. (2016) ‘We should assess the students in more authentic situations’: Swedish PE teacher educators’ views of the meaning of movement skills for future PE teachers. European Physical Education Review, 22, 47–64.

    Biggs, J., & Tang, C. (2007). Teaching for Quality Learning at University. Third edition. Maidenhead: Open University Press.

    Brooks, S., Dobbins, K., Scott, J. J., Rawlinson, M., & Norman, R. I. (2014). Learning about Learning Outcomes: The Student Perspective. Teaching in Higher Education, 19, 721-733.

    Capel, S., Hayes, S., Katene, W. and Velija, P. (2011). The interaction of factors which influence secondary student physical education teachers’ knowledge and development as teachers. European Physical Education Review, 17, 183–201.

    Forrest, G. (2015). Systematic assessment of game-centred approach practices – the game-centred approach Assessment Scaffold. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 20, 144-158.

    Garrett, R. & Wrench, A. (2012). ‘Society has taught us to judge’: cultures of the body in teacher education. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 40, 111–126.

    Herold, F. & Waring, M. (2009). Pre-service physical education teachers’ perceptions of subject knowledge: Augmenting learning to teach. European Physical Education Review, 15, 337–364.

    Hussey, T., & Smith, P. (2008). Learning Outcomes: A Conceptual Analysis. Teaching in Higher Education, 13 (1), 107-115.

    Johnson, T.G. (2013). The value of performance in Physical Education teacher education. Quest, 65, 485-497.

    Loquet, M. & Ranganathan, M. (2010). Content knowledge in teaching, an investigation into an adequate ‘milieu’ for teaching dance: The case of Indian dance in France. European Physical Education Review, 16, 65–79.

    MacDonald, D., Hunter, L., Carlson, T. & Penney, D. (2002). Teacher Knowledge and the Disjunction between School Curricula and Teacher Education. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 30, 259-275.

    Patton, M.Q. (2002). Qualitative Research and Evaluation Methods. London: Sage Publications.

    Shulman, L.S. (1987). Knowledge and Teaching: Foundations of the New Reform. Harvard Educational Review, 57(1), 1-21.

    Siedentop, D. (2009). Content Knowledge for Physical Education. In R. Bailey & D. Kirk (Eds.), The Routledge Physical Education Reader (pp. 243-253). Abingdon: Routledge.

    Tinning, R. (2010). Pedagogy and human movement: theory, practice, research. Abingdon: Routledge.

  • 218.
    Backman, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    En teorispäckad sociologisk analys av fritid och sport – ett ambitiöst projekt: recension av boken Leisure, Sports & Society av Karl Spracklen2014In: Idrottsforum.org/Nordic sport science forum, ISSN 1652-7224, no 14 novemberArticle, book review (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I september 2014 bytte Leeds Metropolitan University, trots studentprotester, namn till Leeds Beckett University; universitetets första colleges låg i Beckett Park, vilken i sin tur fått namn efter bankiren och konservative parlamentsledamoten Ernest Beckett, 2nd Baron Grimthorpe (1856–1917), vars alma mater faktiskt var Trinity College, Cambridge. Leeds-studenternas motstånd hade sin grund i att namnändringen beräknades kosta en kvarts miljon pund, alltmedan inte minst universitetets idrottsanläggningar tillåtits förfalla. Vi vet inte hur universitetets personal ställde sig till namnförändringen, och särskilt nyfikna är vi ju på vad professorn i Leisure Studies (fritidsforskning, fritidsvetenskap) vid Leeds Beckett University, Karl Spracklen, tyckte om förändringen. Detta är dock blott "idle curiosity"; Spracklen är aktuell av ett helt annat, och viktigare, skäl, nämligen för sin bok Leisure, Sports & Society (Palgrave Macmillan). Spracklen, som är sociolog och vars forskningsintresse också inkluderar "metal music" (som sekreterare för International Society for Metal Music Studies och redaktör för Metal Music Studies) och "whiskey tourism" (som drivande i British Sociological Associations Alcohol Study Group) är en centralfigur inom det brittiska fritidsforskningsetablissemanget – han har bland annat varit ordförande i viktiga LSA, Leisure Studies Association från 2009 till 2013. Han har därtill en lång rad publikationer bakom sig, böcker, antologibidrag och vetenskapliga artiklar inom idrotts- och fritidsforskning i vid mening. Den nya boken ges här en grundlig recension av Erik Backman, som ju vet ett och annat om fritidsforskning, Spracklen bottnar teoretiskt i Habermas, i sig ovanligt bland brittiska forskare, men också i Marx, Weber och Bourdieu, bland andra, i sin utforskning av sambandet mellan fritid, fysisk aktivitet och sport ur ett tvärvetenskapligt perspektiv som innefattar idrottsvetenskap, sociologi, cultural studies, historia, filosofi och psykologi. Och vår recensent är imponerad över bredden, djupet och ambitionsnivån – även om det kan bli lite tjatigt från och till.

  • 219.
    Backman, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Friluftsliv: a contribution to equity and democracy in Swedish PE? : An analysis of codes in Swedish PE curricula2011In: Journal of Curriculum Studies, ISSN 0022-0272, E-ISSN 1366-5839, Vol. 43, no 2, p. 269-288Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decade, expanding research investigating school subject Physical Education (PE), indicates a promotion of inequalities regarding which children benefit from PE teaching. Outdoor education and its Scandinavian equivalent friluftsliv, is a part of the PE curriculum in many countries and these practices have been claimed to have the potential to contribute to more equity in PE teaching. Through an investigation of how stipulations regarding friluftsliv in the national Swedish PE curriculum are transformed and interpreted into 31 local PE syllabus documents, this paper investigates the possibilities for friluftsliv to fulfil this potential. In an analysis inspired by educational sociologist Basil Bernstein, I claim that Swedish PE teachers’ marginalised interpretation of friluftsliv indicates its weak classification when a part of PE. When friluftsliv is addressed in PE, the strong dominance of a performance code transforms it into mere sport activities. The results of this study highlight questions regarding PE teachers’ interpretation of learning aims and their work with text documents. It also discusses alternatives to implementing friluftsliv through PE and the role of teachers in curriculum reforms. 

  • 220.
    Backman, Erik
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap med inriktning mot tekniska, estetiska och praktiska kunskapstraditioner. PIF gruppen.
    Friluftsliv i ämnet idrott och hälsa: Ett bidrag till mer integrering i skolan?2008In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, no 4, p. 1-5Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 221.
    Backman, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Friluftsliv, idrott och skola i förändring.2011In: Presentation av paper vid SVEBI konferens i Karlstad, Sverige., 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion

    Samtida och senmoderna processer i form av globalisering, individualisering kommersialisering och medialisering påverkar samhället och därigenom även människors utövande av idrott och friluftsliv. Många friluftsaktiviteter tenderar att bli alltmer sportifierade och äventyrsinriktade. Denna utveckling påverkar möjligheterna att implementera friluftsundervisning med utgångspunkt i den nya läroplansreformens starka positionering av friluftsliv och utevistelse inom ämnet idrott och hälsa.

     

    Syfte & teoretisk ram

    Syftet med denna studie är att analyera och diskutera idrottslärares syn på hur friluftsundervisningen i grundskolans ämne idrott och hälsa påverkas av läroplansförändringar, idrottslärares friluftsutbildning samt nutida sportifierade och äventyrliga uttryck inom friluftsliv.   

     

    Metod

    Mot bakgrund av ett empiriskt material bestående av 12 intervjuer med idrottslärare i grundskolans senare år, utvalda ur det landsomfattande projektet Skola-Idrott-Hälsa, diskuteras hur ungdomars intresse för friluftsliv kan stimuleras genom skolans undervisning.

     

    Resultat

    Resultaten från studien bekräftar problemen i att förverkliga friluftslivets framskrivna position i styrdokument för idrott och hälsa och även friluftslivets svaga position som fritidssysselsättning bland ungdomar. Ett äventyrligt friluftsliv bestående av längre utomhusvistelser inkluderande övernattningar, matlagning och utmaningar framhålls som framtidens friluftsundervisning och ett sätt att möta ungdomars behov av stimulans. Resultaten bekräftar även tidigare studier av friluftsutbildning inom lärarutbildningen som svagt anpassad till idrottslärarstudenters kommande yrkeskontext.

     

    Diskussion

    I strävan att realisera en friluftsundervisning som engagerar ungdomar och samtidigt verkar inkluderande diskuteras olika perspektiv på äventyr, formuleringar inom kursplanen för idrott och hälsa, friluftsutbildningen för blivande idrottslärare samt gränsöverskridanden inom skolans kunskapsområden.

  • 222.
    Backman, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Friluftsliv, idrott och skola i förändring2011In: Friluftssport och äventyrsidrott - utmaningar för lärare, ledare och miljö i en föränderlig värld / [ed] Sandell, Arnegård, Backman, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2011, p. 65-88Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 223.
    Backman, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur. Stockholms universitet.
    Friluftsliv in Swedish Physical Education – a Struggle of Values: Educational and Sociological Perspectives2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to examine some of the educational and sociological conditions underlying the production of teaching in friluftsliv within the Physical Education (PE) subject in Swedish compulsory school. Despite the value awarded to the Scandinavian outdoor practice friluftsliv, in both the national PE curriculum document and in Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE) in Sweden, it does not seem to be thoroughly implemented in compulsory school teaching. Through analyses of interviews with PE teachers and PE teacher educators, as well as of curriculum documents, using the perspectives of Basil Bernstein and Pierre Bourdieu, I explore conditions underlying the expressions of friluftsliv teaching in Swedish PE.

    The pedagogic discourse for friluftsliv in Swedish PE is described as a teaching that should take place in a natural setting remote from civilisation, involve risks, and require time, technical equipment, financial resources, and cooperation. This discourse for friluftsliv is shown to be similar to the values emphasised in friluftsliv education in PETE. Although proven to be difficult to implement in school, this discourse appear to form the conception of friluftsliv teaching for PE teachers in Sweden. Under the influence of the performance code, friluftsliv is transformed into outdoor activities with which the PE teachers are familiar, or is totally left out of PE teaching.

    A turn towards options that are seen as unthinkable in relation to the current pedagogic discourse may benefit the achievement of the aims set out in the national PE curriculum. Values such as environmental awareness, sustainable development and cultural perspectives on the landscape could strengthen the classification of friluftsliv and PE in compulsory school. Further, an increase of socially critical and constructivist perspectives during PETE could make unthinkable options in friluftsliv thinkable and contribute to a break with the reproduction of teaching practices in PE.

  • 224.
    Backman, Erik
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap med inriktning mot tekniska, estetiska och praktiska kunskapstraditioner. Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskulturer.
    Friluftsliv in Swedish Physical Education - a Struggle of Values: Educational and Sociological Perspectives2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to examine some of the educational and sociological conditions underlying the production of teaching in friluftsliv within the Physical Education (PE) subject in Swedish compulsory school. Despite the value awarded to the Scandinavian outdoor practice friluftsliv, in both the national PE curriculum document and in Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE) in Sweden, it does not seem to be thoroughly implemented in compulsory school teaching. Through analyses of interviews with PE teachers and PE teacher educators, as well as of curriculum documents, using the perspectives of Basil Bernstein and Pierre Bourdieu, I explore conditions underlying the expressions of friluftsliv teaching in Swedish PE.

    The pedagogic discourse for friluftsliv in Swedish PE is described as a teaching that should take place in a natural setting remote from civilisation, involve risks, and require time, technical equipment, financial resources, and cooperation. This discourse for friluftsliv is shown to be similar to the values emphasised in friluftsliv education in PETE. Although proven to be difficult to implement in school, this discourse appear to form the conception of friluftsliv teaching for PE teachers in Sweden. Under the influence of the performance code, friluftsliv is transformed into outdoor activities with which the PE teachers are familiar, or is totally left out of PE teaching.

    A turn towards options that are seen as unthinkable in relation to the current pedagogic discourse may benefit the achievement of the aims set out in the national PE curriculum. Values such as environmental awareness, sustainable development and cultural perspectives on the landscape could strengthen the classification of friluftsliv and PE in compulsory school. Further, an increase of socially critical and constructivist perspectives during PETE could make unthinkable options in friluftsliv thinkable and contribute to a break with the reproduction of teaching practices in PE.

  • 225.
    Backman, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Friluftsorganisationernas roll och villkor2016In: Friluftslivet och politiken: Svenskt Friluftslivs friluftspolitiska program 2016 / [ed] Ulf Silvander, Bromma: Svenskt Friluftsliv , 2016, p. 78-87Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 226.
    Backman, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Idrottens gränstrakter. En explorativ studie om äventyrsidrott och friluftssport.2011In: Presentation av poster vid SVEBI konferens i Karlstad, Sverige., 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion

    Idrotten har alltid förändrats i förhållande till samhället i övrigt. Inte minst har det funnits ett dynamiskt samspel i dess ”gränstrakter” till delvis överlappande samhällsfenomen som sport, friluftsliv och naturturism. Två dagsaktuella och sammanlänkade tendenser i dessa gränstrakter som denna studie vill uppmärksamma handlar om friluftslivets sportifiering (traditionella friluftsaktiviteters transformering till tävling) och friluftslivets landskapsdekontextualisering (aktiviteternas frigörelse från landskapet).

     

    Syfte & teoretisk ram

    Studiens syfte är att öka kunskaperna om äventyrsidrott och friluftssport med särskild fokusering på frågor om sportifiering och landskapsdekontextualisering. Utifrån ett moderniseringsperspektiv har följande mer specifika frågor har studerats:

     

    1. Hur ser det svenska och internationella forskningsläget ut      avseende ovan beskrivna fenomen?
    2. Hur ser svenska och internationella exempel ut avseende aktiviteter,      platser och perspektiv inom friluftssport och äventyrsidrott?

     

    Metod

    Studiens syfte och frågor har besvarats genom en bred, konventionell litteratursökning bland internationella forskningstidskrifter (fråga 1) och genom explorativa litteraturstudier där text, foton och reklam är ger underlag för frågor om aktivitetstyp och typ av landskap/miljö (fråga 2).

     

    Resultat

    Resultatet visar att tendenser till sportifiering och friställning från landskapet är mycket påtagliga. En bred gråzon håller på att etableras i den konventionella idrottens gränstrakter till friluftslivet som innehåller en mängd nya aktiviteter och mycket dynamik. En i studien uppmärksammad tendens är att inom mer upplevelsebaserad kroppsövning med äventyrlig prägel är människans medvetenhet om den ”inre kroppen” lika stor, eller större, i jämförelse med den fysiska ”yttre kroppen”. En annan central tendens är skärningen mellan klimatdebatten och tidigare starkt naturanknutna aktiviteter som idag kan byggas upp inomhus. Ytterligare ett av studiens resultat är att frågor rörande tillgänglighet, inte minst för ungdomar i såväl formaliserade som icke-formaliserade lärandesammanhang, bör beaktas i relation till den ökade specialisering, certifiering och professionalisering som följer av friluftssporters utveckling. 

     

    Diskussion

    Den omförhandling som nu pågår om ideal, aktiviteter, platser och miljöer knutna till friluftstraditionen respektive sporttraditionen diskuteras, bland annat avseende:  

    a)      konstruerade anläggningar och miljöer för aktiviteter som tidigare bedrivits i naturpräglade landskap.

    b)      tillgänglighet till friluftsliv för ungdomar.

    c)      traditionellt resp sportifierat friluftsliv och dess relation till livslång hälsa

    d)      inkludering resp exkludering inom sportifierat friluftsliv

    e)      fysisk planering och hållbar utveckling i relation till sportifierat friluftsliv

    tävling och naturmöten i relation till sportifierat friluftsliv.

  • 227.
    Backman, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    “Instantaneous or continuous examination”– exploring dilemmas about when to examine movement in Swedish PETE.2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been claimed that issues of assessment in school and education is of particular interest in contemporary society with many conflicting demands, theories and practices (McDowell 2010). In the field of Physical Education (PE), assessment issues, grading and examination practices has received attention on the school level during the last decade (MacPhail & Halbert 2010, Penney 2009, Lopez-Pastor et.al 2013, Redelius & Hay 2009). However, on the level of PE teacher education (PETE), the knowledge base of these issues is not as significant. Based on the relative reduction of movement practices in PETE following the academisation of teacher education in general (Kirk 2010), there are reasons to investigate the what- and the how-question regarding examination in movement practices in PETE.

     

    The aim with this paper is to analyse and discuss what is assigned value in the formulation of tasks for examination of movement in subject courses on seven Swedish PETE departments. Inspired by Bourdieu’s concept of symbolic capital (Bourdieu & Wacquant 1992) and its use in PE research (Backman 2008, Brown 2005, Redelius et.al. 2009), a preliminary analysis of formulations in curricula documents has showed that the examination of movement practices is a silent, constant and ongoing process, rather than out-spoken and performed at specific occasions during a course. The analysis has also shown that the ability to perform movements is, within examination tasks, formulated separate from the ability to teach, rather than integrated with one another. Illuminating these issues, not only on the level of school PE but also on the PETE level, might develop and strengthen assessment practices not only in PE but also in PETE.

  • 228.
    Backman, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Recension av Andkjær, Søren, Bentsen, Peter & Ejbye-Ernst, Niels (2009) ”Friluftsliv: Natur, samfund og pædagogik”: Ambitiöst om friluftsliv i Danmark – kanske alltför ambitiöst...2011In: www.idrottsforum.org, ISSN 1652–7224, no 12 oktArticle, book review (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Friluftsliv uppvisar ett uppsving som för många säkert är oväntat men som nog till stor del är i samklang med den skandinaviska tidsandan. Visserligen är det ett i huvudsak urbant fenomen, de senaste årens fokus på fysisk aktivitet, konditionsträning och fitness, aktiviteter som dessutom ofta äger rum inomhus i speciella kommersiellt drivna träningshallar – där är luften inte fri! – men trenden tar sig också uttryck i löpning eller joggning i urbana parkområden eller i lagom tuktad natur i anslutning till städer. Man kan tänka att steget inte skulle vara långt till verkliga naturupplevelser, och, som sagt, det finns ett uppsving. Det nymornade intresset för autentiska naturupplevelser kan säkert också bottna i en civilisationskritisk trend i det tidiga tredje millenniet, vars beståndsdelar spretar på ett sätt som gör det omöjligt att närmare skärskåda företeelsen i detta sammanhang. Istället konstaterar vi att forskningen varit kvick att fånga upp friluftsintresset, vilket inte minst märks i recensionsfloran på den här webbplatsen, som denna gång utvidgas med en recension av Friluftsliv: Natur, samfund og pædagogik av Peter Bentsen, Søren Andkjær och Niels Ejbye-Ernst (Munksgaard Danmark). Erik Backman, som disputerat i ämnet, har läst och recenserar, och han bjuder redaktörerna på många tips till förbättringar inför nästa upplaga av boken.

  • 229.
    Backman, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Recension av Sandell, Klas & Sörlin, Sverker (2008) (red) ”Friluftshistoria: Från «härdande friluftslif» till ekoturism och miljöpedagogik”: Genomarbetad antologi2011In: www.idrottsforum.org, ISSN 1652–7224, no 26 janArticle, book review (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I samband med att idrott och sport kommit att ta allt större utrymme på olika plan i samhällslivet så har friluftsliv, med dess tydliga samhörighet till många av idrottslivets kärnvärden, också fått förnyad aktualitet. Forumet har varit lite sen att uppmärksamma denna förändring, även om det inte är det enda skälet till att vi först nu recenserar en av nyckelböckerna i området (det handlat också om att friluftsforskarna i Norden står varandra ganska nära). Men som är det är med selektiv perception, när vi väl hade noterat en eller två nya böcker om friluftsliv så hittade vi bara fler och fler, avhandlingar och antologier. Snart kommer en ny temasida om friluftsliv i forumets mer om-sektion. Boken som nu blivit föremål för kritisk granskning är Klas Sandells och Sverker Sörlins antologi Friluftshistoria: Från «härdande friluftslif» till ekoturism och miljöpedagogik (Carlssons) i dess andra upplaga från 2008 – den första kom 2000. Den recenseras av en relativt nybakad doktor i friluftsliv, Erik Backman, vars avhandling recenseras i dessa spalter under våren. Som sagt, detta är en grundsten i den svenska friluftsforskningen, men vår recensent dristar sig att föra fram flera förslag till förbättringar inför kommande nya utgåvor.

  • 230.
    Backman, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Teaching trainee teachers about outdoor education2015In: Routledge International Handbook of Outdoor Studies / [ed] Humberstone, Barbara; Prince, Heather; Henderson, Karla A, London: Routledge, 2015, p. 121-130Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 231.
    Backman, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    ”Tell us what to do and how to assess!”: Swedish PE teachers’ experiences of the implementation of Support For Assessment in outdoor education.2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, as in many European countries, Outdoor Education (OE, or its Scandinavian equivalent as friluftsliv) is in the formal school setting positioned within the subject Health and Physical Education (HPE). In the curriculum for compulsory school, implemented in 2011, OE is organized as one of three areas of knowledge along with Health and Lifestyle, and Movement. In order to meet the increasing call for a more equal assessment and grading in Swedish Schools, the Swedish National Agency of Education (SNAE) completed the curriculum in HPE with a material (text and film) named Support For Assessment (SFA) in 2012. As responsible for the construction of OE in SFA the author followed up the implementation of the SFA with several presentations and workshops for teachers in HPE during 2013 and 2014. The purpose of this presentation is to describe how OE was constructed in the SFA in Swedish HPE for compulsory school and further to analyse and discuss reactions from Swedish HPE teachers expressed in evaluations after the mentioned presentations and workshops. The results suggest that while a part of the HPE teachers found the SFA useful and effective, another part called for more concrete advices on what to assess in OE and how to assess it. Drawing on Basil Bernstein’s theories of how pedagogical messages are communicated and evaluated in school systems, the results will be discussed in relation to the classification of OE within Swedish HPE.

  • 232.
    Backman, Erik
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap med inriktning mot tekniska, estetiska och praktiska kunskapstraditioner. Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskulturer.
    To acquire a taste for friluftsliv - a part of becoming a PE teacher?: Swedish Physical Education teacher educators' thoughts about their students' preferences for friluftsliv2009In: Moving Bodies, ISSN 1503-6065, Vol. 7, p. 9-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Teacher students’ own biographies and early experiences of teaching have proven to have a major significance for their future teaching, compared to perspectives and content in teacher education. This is also the case for Physical Education (PE) teacher students, whose preferences for physical activity are often constituted by their experiences of sport. Based on the values assigned to friluftsliv (or its anglicised equivalents, “outdoor recreation” or “outdoor education”) in Swedish Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE), the disparity between the taste of Swedish PE teacher educators’ and that of their students’ for friluftsliv is analysed. The lack of teaching in friluftsliv in Swedish schools seems to be an example of that PE teaching is mainly based on PE teachers’ taste for physical practices, rather than on the PE curriculum. In this article the potential to change this condition by developing the teaching in friluftsliv at Swedish PETE is discussed.  

  • 233.
    Backman, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Utövar ungdomar friluftsliv?2004In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, no 4, p. 47-53Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vad är egentligen friluftsliv? Vilka förändringar kan man iaktta på friluftsarenan i det nutida samhället? Vilka ungdomar är det som utövar friluftsaktiviteter och i vilken utsträckning gör de det? Förekommer friluftsliv i grundskolans undervisning?

  • 234.
    Backman, Erik
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap med inriktning mot tekniska, estetiska och praktiska kunskapstraditioner. PIF gruppen.
    Vad följer av friluftsundervisningen på idrottslärarutbildningen?: Ett bidrag till diskussionen om villkoren för undervisning i friluftsliv på grundskola och gymnasium2008In: Idrott & hälsa, ISSN 0281-5338, no 1, p. 16-19Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 235.
    Backman, Erik
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap med inriktning mot tekniska, estetiska och praktiska kunskapstraditioner. PIF gruppen.
    Vad har idrottslärare för bild av "riktigt" friluftsliv?: Ett bidrag till diskussionen om friluftsundervisning och tolkningen av kursplanens mål.2009In: Idrott & hälsa, ISSN 0281-5338, no 4, p. 14-18Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 236.
    Backman, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Vad ska en idrottslärare kunna?2013In: I takt med tiden?: perspektiv på idrottslärarutbildning i Skandinavien / [ed] Erik Backman, Lena Larsson, Studentlitteratur, 2013, p. 143-160Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 237.
    Backman, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Vad ska en idrottslärare kunna?Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 238.
    Backman, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    What can socially critical perspectives offer to PESP and PETE? Examples from a sport-university in Stockholm, Sweden2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This seminar takes its departure in PETE-programmes and PESP-research at The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences in Stockholm, Sweden. After a brief description of the activity at this university with regards to history, culture, structure, content and extent, the main focus of the seminar will be devoted to a discussion of the challenges following partly from acting within a multidisciplinary academic (sport) context and partly from insights after comparing Swedish PETE-programmes and PESP-research to its similarities in other countries. Issues with regards to equity, equality and power, and the educational impact of these perspectives, will be acknowledged during this seminar. 

  • 239.
    Backman, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    What controls teaching of friluftsliv? Analysing a pedagogic discourse in Swedish PE2011In: Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Learning, ISSN 1472-9679, E-ISSN 1754-0402, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 51-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research indicates that outdoor teaching practices within a physical education (PE) context are controlled by several factors with the potential to weaken or strengthen PE teachers' communication of pedagogic messages. Drawing on 12 qualitative interviews with PE teachers in compulsory schools in Sweden, the findings in this study suggest that factors claimed to control teachers' pedagogic communication of friluftsliv (the Scandinavian equivalent to outdoor education) are based on the construction of a dominating pedagogic discourse for outdoor teaching in Swedish schools. Inspired by Basil Bernstein's theoretical concepts of the pedagogic device, the analysis of this discourse indicates that Swedish PE teachers and PE teacher education appear to reproduce friluftsliv as a teaching practice carried out in a remote wilderness setting involving specific equipment, financial resources and a certain amount of risk. In relation to these results, alternative ways to think of outdoor teaching in relation to the achievement of the national aims in Swedish PE are discussed.

  • 240.
    Backman, Erik
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap med inriktning mot tekniska, estetiska och praktiska kunskapstraditioner. Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskulturer.
    What frames teaching of friluftsliv?: Analysing a pedagogic discourse within Swedish PE through framing and the pedagogic device2011In: Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Learning, ISSN 1472-9679, E-ISSN 1754-0402Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research indicates that outdoor teaching practices within a Physical Education (PE) context are framed by several factors with the potential to weaken or strengthen PE teachers’ control of pedagogic messages. Drawing on 12 qualitative interviews with PE teachers in compulsory schools in Sweden, the findings in this study suggest that factors claimed to control teachers’ pedagogic communication of friluftsliv (Scandinavian equivalent to outdoor education) is based on the construction of a dominating pedagogic discourse for outdoor teaching in Swedish schools. Analysing the constitution of this discourse through Bernstein’s theoretical concepts of framing and the pedagogic device, Swedish PE teachers and PE teacher education appear to reproduce friluftsliv as a teaching practice carried out in a remote wilderness setting involving specific equipment, financial resources and a certain amount of risk. In relation to these results, alternative ways to think of outdoor teaching in relation to the achievement of the national aims in Swedish PE are discussed.

  • 241.
    Backman, Erik
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap med inriktning mot tekniska, estetiska och praktiska kunskapstraditioner. Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskulturer.
    What is valued in friluftsliv within PE teacher education?: Swedish PE teacher educators' thoughts about friluftsliv analysed through the perspective of Pierre Bourdieu2008In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243, Vol. 13, p. 61-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The value assigned to friluftsliv (activities similar to outdoor education) in Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE) and in the PE syllabus in Sweden does not seem to result in the implementation of friluftsliv in the practice of teaching in Swedish schools. This study investigates how the identified values of friluftsliv, expressed in interviews with 17 PE teacher educators in Sweden, reflect struggles for legitimate and privileged knowledge in PETE. The exploration of friluftsliv within PETE reveals positions that appear to be an effect of the dominating logic of sport within Swedish PETE and the limited influence of the academic field. The educational consequences of the identified values are analysed and discussed from a socio-cultural perspective.

  • 242.
    Backman, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    What is valued when moving in (Swedish) PETE? PE teacher educators’ views of the meaning of movement skills for future PE teachers2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been claimed that issues of assessment in school and higher education is of particularinterest in contemporary society with many conflicting demands, theories andpractices. In the field of Physical Education (PE), assessment issues, gradingand examination practices has received attention on the school level during thelast decade. However, on the level of PE teacher education (PETE), theknowledge base of these issues is not as significant. Based on the relativereduction of movement practices in PETE following the academisation of teachereducation in general, there are reasons to investigate the what- and thehow-questions regarding examination in movement practices in PETE. In thisstudy, expressions of examination regarding movements in PETE departments in Swedenand in Australia have been investigated and compared. Building on analysis ofsyllabi documents from PETE departments in Sweden and Australia, and oninterviews with PE teacher educators from these departments, the specific aimof the study is to analyse and discuss what is assigned value in theexamination of movements on a sample of PETE departments in Sweden andAustralia. Inspired by the sociological and educational theories of PierreBourdieu and Basil Bernstein, and particularly the concepts of social field andsymbolic capital (Bourdieu) as well as classification, performance code andcompetence code (Bernstein), the preliminary analysis  of the investigated syllabi documents hasshowed that there is a tension regarding whenthe examination of movements is taking place. There are expressions of instantaneousexamination, i.e. examinations that take place at one or a few occasions withspecific and outspoken tasks, as well as of continuous examination, i.e.examination as a silent, constant and ongoing process often combined withdemands of participation. The preliminary analysis of the interviews with thePE teacher educators has revealed a tension between viewing the importance ofmovement as subject matter knowledge, i.e. as an ability to perform movements,or as didactic knowledge, i.e. as a means for the ability to teach. Thesetensions will be further analysed with regards to similarities and differencesbetween PETE departments in Sweden and Australia. Illuminating these issues mightdevelop and strengthen examination practices not only in PETE but also in PE.

  • 243.
    Backman, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Är det inne att vara ute?: en studie av friluftsaktiviteter bland ungdomar2004Report (Other academic)
  • 244.
    Backman, Erik
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Arnegård, JohanSwedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH.Sandell, KlasKarlstad Universitet.
    Friluftssport och äventyrsidrott - utmaningar för lärare, ledare och miljö i en föränderlig värld2011Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vandra, klättra eller paddla i naturpräglade landskap blir tävlingar i multisport. Samtidigt blir sådant som kiting och brädsporter upplevelseorienterade och tävlingskritiska.

    Aktiviteter friställs också alltmer från landskapet genom äventyrsbad och klätterväggar, skidåkning inomhus och forspaddlingsbanor med vattenpumpar.

    Håller friluftslivet och naturen – som i skidåkning på natursnö, skogsvandringar och paddling på forsens och havets villkor – att helt tappa sin betydelse?

    Eller är det i stället en nytändning för friluftslivets lekfullhet och en väg till nya naturmöten som vi ser i trendiga aktiviteter och uppbyggda miljöer?

    Boken vänder sig till blivande och verksamma idrottslärare, entreprenörer och ledare i idrott, friluftsliv, fritid och turism. Den kan dessutom med fördel rekommenderas som inspirerande läsning för den breda allmänheten med intresse för friluftslivets varierande möjligheter.

     

  • 245.
    Backman, Erik
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Arnegård, Johan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Sandell, Klas
    Karlstad universitet.
    Outdoor adventure and lifestyle sports2012In: The 6th International Conferenceon Monitoring and Management of Visitorsin Recreational and Protected Areas: Outdoor Recreation in Change – Current Knowledge and Future Challenges. Stockholm, Sweden, August 21–24, 2012. Proceedings / [ed] Edited by Peter Fredman, Marie Stenseke, Hanna Liljendahl, Anders Mossing and Daniel Laven, 2012, p. 370-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent decades there has been an increasing dynamic interplay in the “borderlands” of sport between closely related phenomena like outdoor recreation and nature tourism (see e.g. Bale 2006, Fredman et al. 2008a and Wheaton 2007). Two trends within these “borderlands” are explored in this study: the sportification of traditional outdoor activities and the liberation of outdoor activities from the landscapes in which they were originally performed. From a perspective of modernization, the following questions are addressed:

     

    1.          What is the state of knowledge regarding trends within outdoor adventure- and lifestyle sports?

    2.          How are examples of activities, places and perspectives within outdoor adventure- and lifestyle sports expressed?

     

    To answer these questions, conventional literature studies of, firstly, academic journals and, secondly; magazines, photographs and commercials, have been conducted. The result shows that tendencies towards the sportification of outdoor adventure- and lifestyle sports (see e.g. Breivik 2010 and Wheaton 2004) and the liberation of these activities from their “original” landscape (see e.g. Daniel 2007 and Bottenburg & Salome 2010) are significant. Of importance from a practitioner perspective is that a “grey-zone” containing several new activities and dynamics is being established in the “borderlands” between sport and outdoor recreation (Sandell, Arnegård & Backman 2011). From an academic perspective, the identified intersection between the climate debate and the nature-related activities that can now be performed indoors is important (see e.g. Sandell 2011 and Sandell & Öhman 2010). Another result that indicates a need for further research is that issues of accessibility, especially for young people, should be considered in relation to the increasing certification and specialization that characterizes the development of outdoor activities (see e.g. Bäckström 2011, Fredman et al. 2008b, Lundvall 2011 and Odden 2008). The current renegotiation of ideals, activities, places and environments related to the traditions of outdoor recreation and sport is discussed, most notably regarding:

     

    a)         Constructions and environments for activities previously performed in “natural” landscapes.

    b)         Accessibility to outdoor adventure- and lifestyle sports for young people.

    c)          The health aspect of traditional and sportified outdoor activities.

    d)         Inclusion and exclusion in relation to outdoor adventure- and lifestyle sports.

    e)         Physical planning and sustainable development in relation to outdoor adventure- and lifestyle sports.

  • 246.
    Backman, Erik
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Arnegård, Johan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH.
    Sandell, Klas
    Karlstads universitet.
    Slutsatser och framåtblick2011In: Friluftssport och äventyrsidrott - utmaningar för lärare, ledare och miljö i en föränderlig värld. / [ed] Sandell, Arnegård, Backman, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2011, p. 203-218Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 247.
    Backman, Erik
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Engström, Lars-Magnus
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Encounters with nature, outdoor recreation and physical exercise2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the past few decades, research into the social stratification in physical activity and sport has indicated that these practices are undisputedly correlated to possession of socioeconomic and cultural capital. Although sometimes claimed as socially equal, the practice of outdoor recreation appears to display the same pattern. However, recent studies of outdoor recreation-participants with low socioeconomic and cultural capital, indicate that the proportion also engaged in general physical activity is disproportionately high. Drawing on this finding, experiences of nature appears to be particularly important when striving for a life-long physically active lifestyle. The aim of this study is to further investigate the relation between the interest for outdoor recreation and the interest for physical activity.

    This study is part of a longitudinal Swedish study of habits regarding physical activity and sport during adolescence and adulthood. The individuals included in this study were first contacted in 1968 when they were 15 years old. The sample originally consisted of 2144 individuals, divided into 91 randomly selected school classes in Year 8 in four counties in Sweden. Since then, follow-up contact and information gathering have been conducted on six additional occasions, primarily via questionnaries sent by post. At the last collection, in 2007, a total of 1518 responses were recieved. By comparing groups in the mentioned empirical material, with various interests for outdoor recreation and/or physical activity, regarding variables such as: gender; social position; leisure habits; and previous experiences of sport and outdoor recreation; the relation between the interest for outdoor recreation and the interest for physical activity will be further explored.

    Through a multipel logistic regression analysis, preliminary results indicate that practice of physical activity and practice of outdoor recreation are related. Among outdoor recreation-participants with low socioeconomic and cultural capital, the proportion also engaged in physical activity appears to be disproportionally high. This finding motivates a further analysis of factors explaining the relation between the interest for physical activity and the interest for outdoor recreation. The results will be discussed in relation to the French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu’s concepts of habitus and taste.

  • 248.
    Backman, Erik
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Frölander, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet.
    Är det centrala innehållet tydligt nog? Idrottslärares upplevelser av konkretionen i Lgr112011In: Idrott & Hälsa, ISSN 1653-1124, Vol. 138, no 6, p. 20-23Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 249.
    Backman, Erik
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Humberstone, Barbara
    Loynes, Chris
    Urban nature2014In: Urban nature: inclusive learning through youth work and school work / [ed] Erik Backman, Barbara Huberstone and Chris Lynes, Norsborg: Recito , 2014, p. 11-24Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 250.
    Backman, Erik
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Humberstone, BarbaraBucks New University, UK.Loynes, Chris
    Urban nature: inclusive learning through youth work and school work2014Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Baksidestext:

    An increased globalization and growth of cities also highlights the boundaries between nature and civilization from educational and experiential perspectives, especially with regards to issues of democracy and inclusion. From this perspective, much of modern outdoor education can be understood as 'urban' wherever the people come from or wherever the activity takes place. This book, building upon papers presented on the EOE Seminar 2013, takes its departure within how our notions of nature are related to the urbanization of people.

    The following authors have contributed to this book: Erik Backman, Barbara Humberstone, Chris Loynes, Klas Sandell, Sue Waite, Rowena Passy, Martin Gilchrist, Maija Venäläinen, Laura Kuusinen, David Brown, Katharina Seyfferth, Jakob F. Þorsteinsson, Diane Collins, Elizabeth Nasimbwa, Steve Bowles, Fiona Nicholls, Mark Leather and Peter Becker.

    The EOE Seminar 2013 - «Urban nature: inclusive learning through youth work and school work», hosted by The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences (GIH) in partnership with Friluftsfrämjandet, The European Institute for Outdoor Adventure Education and Experiential Learning (EOE) and the European Union (Youth in Action Programme), took place at GIH in Stockholm over four days from 5th to 9th June 2013.  Collaborating partners were also Svenska Turistföreningen (STF) and National Centre of Outdoor Education (NCU).

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