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  • 151.
    Schantz, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Henriksson, Jan
    Jansson, Eva
    Adaptation of human skeletal muscle to endurance training of long duration1983In: Clinical Physiology, ISSN 0144-5979, E-ISSN 1365-2281, Vol. 3, p. 141-151Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 152.
    Schantz, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Källman, Mi
    Levels of the NADH shuttle enzymes and cytochrome b5 reductase in human skeletal muscle: effect of strength training1989In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 67, no 1, p. 123-127Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 153.
    Schantz, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Changing Perspectives on Physical Education in Sweden: Implementing Dimensions of Public Health and Sustainable Development2014In: Physical Education and Health: Global Perspectives and Best Practice / [ed] Christopher Edginton, Ming-Kai Chin, Urbana, Illinois, USA: Sagamore Publishing, 2014, 1, p. 463-475Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Health was introduced as part of physical education (PE) in Sweden in 1994. This chapter focuses on both transformational processes and the lack thereof in PE and in physical education teacher education (PETE) in Sweden with the introduction of "health." Prior to that PE focused entirely on different bodily movements for about 170 years, and the demanded changeover has been markedly lagging. At the same time, scientific development within the field of physical activity and health has been strong during the past two decades. Presently, the PETE at The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH in Stockholm, Sweden, is undergoing changes with the aim of creating a merger of perspectives from old, mainly sports-oriented, traditions in PE with newer individual and population health-related perspectives to a wider perspective of physical activity. These new perspectives are framed within diverse dimensions of the environment: for example, how the physical environment affects levels of physical activity and well-being and the need for sustainable development. The rationale for the latter perspective is that the contexts of bodily movement can affect the environment both positively and negatively and are thereby closely linked to both individual and public health. The transformational process described is still in an early state, and clearly future developmental steps are needed, some of which are described in the final section.

  • 154.
    Schantz, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Moritani, Toshio
    Karlson, Eddy
    Johansson, Eva
    Lundh, Anna
    Maximal voluntary force of bilateral and unilateral leg extension1989In: Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6772, E-ISSN 1365-201X, Vol. 136, p. 185-192Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 155.
    Schantz, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Nilsson, Johnny
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Exempel på integrering av idrott och biologi1986In: Tidskrift i gymnastik och idrott : officiellt organ för Svenska g, ISSN 0281-5338, no 4, p. 29-35Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 156.
    Schantz, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Nilsson, Johnny
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Skolans kroppsövningar i obalans: tillför en konstnärlig dimension1990In: Tidskrift i gymnastik och idrott : officiellt organ för Svenska g, ISSN 0281-5338, no 6, p. 10-17Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    År 1989 inledde artikelförfattarna en målsättningsdiskussion med lärarkollegerna på Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan i Stockholm (GIH). Vad skulle lärarutbildningen innehålla för moment, ämnen och rörelsepraktiker. En analys av lärarutbildningen sedan 1813 visualiserades i en modell av kroppsövningsfältet. Författarna värderar skolans kroppsövningsämne och bedömer att det behöver utvecklas. 

  • 157.
    Schantz, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Randall Fox, Emily
    Norgren, Peter
    Tydén, Anders
    The relationship between the mean muscle fibre area and the muscle cross-sectional area of the thigh in subjects with large differences in thigh girth1981In: Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6772, E-ISSN 1365-201X, Vol. 113, p. 537-539Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 158.
    Schantz, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Randall-Fox, Emily
    Hutchison, Wallace
    Tydén, Anders
    Åstrand, Per-Olof
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Muscle fibre type distribution, muscle cross-sectional area and maximal voluntary strength in humans1983In: Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6772, E-ISSN 1365-201X, Vol. 117, p. 219-226Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 159.
    Schantz, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Salier Eriksson, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Rosdahl, Hans
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Laboratory of Applied Sports Science (LTIV).
    An Overview, Description and Synthesis of Methodological Issues in Studying Oxygen Consumption during Walking and Cycling Commuting using a Portable Metabolic System (Oxycon Mobile).2018Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    From the time of the independent discoveries of oxygen by Carl Wilhelm Scheele in Sweden and Joseph Priestly in England in the 1770s, there has been an ongoing chain of methodological developments, from the pioneering ones by Antoine Lavoisier until today, with the aim of measuring oxygen uptake and metabolic processes of man in motion (Mitchell and Saltin 2003). This historical development, has, not least during the last decades, also included both automated stationary and portable open-circuit metabolic measurement systems, which have been thoroughly reviewed recently (Macfarlane 2017; Ward 2018; Taylor et al. 2018).  

    When two of the present authors (PS and HR) were trained as exercise physiologists, the golden standard method in this respect, the Douglas bag method (DBM), was the only, or the predominantly used method at our laboratory. In the 1990s, automated stationary open-circuit metabolic measurement systems started to be used, and HR evaluated some of them using DBM. He noted that it was not apparent that one could rely on the data produced in these “black box” systems. Still they have been used in many laboratories, and possibly there are a number of scientific articles based on them which might hold invalid data. One comment along that line was sent in 2001 as an e-mail from our teacher, professor emeritus Per-Olof Åstrand to an American colleague (Appendix 1). It ended with: “I have observed many odd data in the literature which can be explained as a consequence of uncritical use of modern, fancy electronic equipments without serious and competent evaluation of their accuracy”.

    For HR, these kind of experiences during the 1990s became an important impetus to develop a refined system for the Douglas bag method at the Laboratory for Applied Sport Sciences at the Swedish School for Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, in Stockholm, Sweden. That process was undertaken in close collaboration with Lennart Gullstrand at the Elite Sports Centre, The Swedish Sports Confederation, Bosön, Lidingö, Sweden. This text builds on that system, and many other developmental steps that have been taken since then. They have been applied to study a number of issues related to walking and cycle commuting, as part of the multidisciplinary research project on Physically Active Commuting in Greater Stockholm (PACS) at GIH. For its overall aims, see: www.gih.se/pacs

    One of the aims is to characterize the physiological demands of walking and cycle commuting in relation to absolute and relative demands of oxygen uptake (VO2). This is of interest in itself for understanding the nature of the physical activity during active commuting. Combined with other kinds of data one aim was also to better understand the potential health effects of active commuting. An important issue in this respect was to scrutinize whether the heart rate method for estimating VO2 (Berggren & Hohwü Christensen 1950) would be a reliable and valid method during cycle or walking commuting.

    To reach these goals we needed to use an automated mobile metabolic system. However, we had to work for a much longer time than expected due to a surprising number of diverse methodological challenges in measurements of both VO2 and heart rate (HR). They had to be considered and evaluated through a series of validity studies and checks. Some of the issues could be foreseen and were rather straight forward to handle, whereas others were unexpected, and the strategies to handle them had to be developed step by step as they appeared during the research process. Here this process will be first introduced, then described in more or less detail, and in cases of less details, we instead refer to issues in more depth in original articles. Finally, a synthesis of all studies and their consequences is elaborated on at the end of this appendix.

  • 160.
    Schantz, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Salier Eriksson, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Rosdahl, Hans
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Can heart rate be used as an indicator of energy demands during commuter walking in a metropolitan area?2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Measuring the energetic demands of habitual commuter walking is essential to objectively relate to the impact that walking commuting can have on health. Hence, evaluating methods for such purpose is of great importance. Heart rate (HR) can possibly be used as long as the relationship between oxygen uptake (VO2) and HR is established in laboratory conditions and proven to be valid under field conditions. However, e.g. traffic, noise and exhaust fumes may introduce effects of e.g. stress that change the relationship in the field. Thus, the validity of the HR method needs to be scrutinized.

    Methods

    VO2 and HR measurements during three submaximal exercise intensities on cycle ergometer were performed in the laboratory, as well as during normal commuting walking in the individuals´ normal field setting in Greater Stockholm, Sweden. 20 habitual commuter pedestrians (10 males and 10 females) aged 45 ± 7 yrs (mean ± SD) participated and validated stationary and portable metabolic systems (Rosdahl et al. 2010; 2016; Salier-Eriksson et al. 2012), and HR monitors were used. A comparison of the VO2 – HR relationship was made between the laboratory and field conditions.

    Results and Discussion 

    Interpreting the heart rate levels during walking commuting from the VO2 – HR relationship in the laboratory resulted in oxygen uptakes that were 13.0 ± 10.6 % lower in males and 10.5 ± 11.5 % lower in females than the correct VO2 values. Thus, the study indicates that systematic differences between the laboratory and field conditions with respect to the VO2 – HR relationship are present in metropolitan conditions. The reason for these differences remains to be elucidated.

    References

    Rosdahl, H., Gullstrand, L., Salier Eriksson, J., Johansson, P. & Schantz, P. 2010. Evaluation of the Oxycon Mobile metabolic system against the Douglas bag method. Eur J Appl Physiol 109 (2):159-71.

    Rosdahl, H., Salier Eriksson, J. & Schantz, P. 2016. Validation of data collected with mobile metabolic measurement systems over time during active commuting. Proceedings of the 21st Annual Congress of The European College of Sport Sciences, Vienna, Austria, 6-8 July (Abstract).

    Salier Eriksson, J., Rosdahl, H. & Schantz, P. 2012. Validity of the Oxycon Mobile metabolic system under field measuring conditions. Eur J Appl Physiol, 112 (1): 345-355.

  • 161.
    Schantz, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Salier Eriksson, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Rosdahl, Hans
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Perspectives on exercise physiology and behaviours of commuter cycling in relation to health outcomes2020In: Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Knowledge about physiology of cycle commuting combined with trip frequency and durations is necessary for understanding its character and potential influencing capacity. It needs to be investigated with validated methods. This is the first purpose of the study. On basis of the outcomes, the second purpose is to illuminate conceivable effects on health related outcomes.

     

    Methods. Ten male and ten female habitual commuter cyclists in their middle ages were studied at rest and with maximal exercise tests on a cycle ergometer and a treadmill in the laboratory. During their normal commute in the Stockholm County, Sweden, their oxygen uptake, heart rate, energy expenditure, ventilation, blood lactate, rated perceived exertion, number of stops, durations, route distances and cycling velocities were monitored with validated methods. The frequency of trips was self-reported.

     

    Results. The relative exercise intensity was 65 % of maximal oxygen uptake, and the energy consumption was 0.46 kcal per km and kg body weight for both sexes. Sex differences in MET-values (males, 8.7; females 7.4) mirrored higher levels of cycling speed (20 %), body weight (29 %), oxygen uptake (54 %) and ventilation (51 %) in males compared to females. The number of METhours per week during peak cycling season averaged 40 for the males and 28 for the females. It corresponded to a total energy expenditure of about 3500 and 1880 kcal for males and females, respectively. The  number of trips per year was about 370, and the annual distance cycled was on the average 3500 km for males and 2300 for females.

     

    Conclusion. Cycle commuting is characterized by equal relative aerobic intensity levels and energy requirements for a given distance cycled for males and females. Based on an overall evaluation, it represents a lower range within the vigorous intensity category. The combined levels of oxygen uptake, durations and trip frequencies leads to high levels of METhours and energy expenditure in both males and females during both peak cycling season as well as over the year. Overall the study presents a novel basis for interpreting cycle commuting in relation to various health outcomes.

  • 162.
    Schantz, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Salier Eriksson, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Rosdahl, Hans
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    The heart rate method for estimating oxygen uptake: Analyses of reproducibility with heart rates from commuter walkingManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 163.
    Schantz, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Salier Eriksson, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Rosdahl, Hans
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    The Heart Rate Method for Estimating Oxygen Uptake: Analyses of Reproducibility Using a Range of Heart Rates from Cycle Commuting2019In: PLoS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 7, article id e0219741Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Monitoring aerobic exercise intensities of free-living physical activities is valuable for purposes such as education and research. The heart rate (HR) method, based on the linear relation between HR and oxygen uptake (VO2), is potentially valuable for this purpose. Three prerequisites are that the method is reproducible, and valid for the specific form of physical activity executed as well as under field conditions. The aim of this study is to evaluate reproducibility of the heart rate method in the laboratory.

     

    Methods. VO2 and HR measurements were made on two different occasions during three submaximal (model 1) plus a maximal exercise intensity (model 2) on a cycle ergometer in the laboratory. 19 habitual commuter cyclists (9 males and 10 females), aged 44 ± 3 years, were measured. The reproducibility of the estimated VO2, based on three levels of HR from commuting cycling and the regression equations from test and retest were analyzed. Differences between the two models were also studied. 

     

    Results. For both models, there were no significant differences between test and retest in the constituents of the regression equations (y-intercept, slope and r-value). Neither were there any systematic differences in estimated absolute levels of VO2 between test and retest. The relative differences between test and retest, based on estimations from three different levels of HR, were 0.99 ± 11.0 (n.s.), 2.67 ± 6.48 (n.s.) and 3.57 ± 6.24% (p<0.05) for model 1, and 1.09 ± 10.6, 1.75 ± 6.43 and 2.12 ± 5.92% (all n.s.) for model 2. However, some large individual differences were seen in both models. There were no significant differences between the two models in the slopes, intercepts or r-values of the regression equations or in the estimated levels of VO2.

     

    Conclusion. The heart rate method shows good reproducibility on the group level in estimating oxygen consumption from HR-VO2 relations in the laboratory, and based on three levels of HR which are representative for cycle commuting. However, on the individual level, some large variations were seen.

  • 164.
    Schantz, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Salier Eriksson, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Rosdahl, Hans
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    The physical work during cycling needs to be measured more accurately in studies of health effects: An explorative methodological study2020In: Konferensrapporten Transportforum 2020, 2020Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 165.
    Schantz, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Salier Eriksson, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Rosdahl, Hans
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    The heart rate method for estimating oxygen uptake: analyses of reproducibility using a range of heart rates from commuter walking2019In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 119, no 11-12, p. 2655-2671Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. The heart rate method, based on the linear relation between heart rate and oxygen uptake, is potentially valuable to monitor intensity levels of physical activities. However, this depends not least on its reproducibility under standard conditions. This study aims therefore to evaluate the reproducibility of the heart rate method in the laboratory using a range of heart rates associated with walking commuting.

     

    Methods. On two different days, heart rate and oxygen uptake measurements were made during three submaximal (model 1) and a maximal exercise intensity (model 2) on a cycle ergometer in the laboratory. 14 habitual walking commuters participated. The reproducibility, based on the regression equations from test and retest and using three levels of heart rate from the walking commuting was analyzed. Differences between the two models were also analyzed. 

     

    Results. For both models, there were no significant differences between test and retest in the constituents of the regression equations (y-intercept, slope and r-value). Neither were there any systematic differences in estimated absolute levels of VO2 between test and retest for either model. However, some rather large individual differences were seen in both models. Furthermore, no significant differences were seen between the two models in slopes, intercepts and r-values of the regression equations or in the estimated VO2.

     

    Conclusion. The heart rate method shows good reproducibility on the group level in estimating oxygen consumption from heart rate – oxygen uptake relations in the laboratory, and based on three levels of heart rate which are representative for walking commuting. However, on the individual level, some large variations were seen.

  • 166.
    Schantz, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Silvander, Ulf
    Forskning och utbildning inom friluftsliv.: Utredning och förslag.2004Report (Other academic)
  • 167.
    Schantz, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Sjöberg, Berit
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Svedenhag, Jan
    Malate-aspartate and alpha-glycerophophate shuttle enzyme levels in human skeletal muscle: methodological considerations and effect of endurance training1986In: Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6772, E-ISSN 1365-201X, Vol. 128, p. 397-407Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 168.
    Schantz, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Sjöberg, Berit
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Widebeck, Ann-Marie
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Human skeletal muscle of trained and untrained paraplegics and tetraplegics1997In: Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6772, E-ISSN 1365-201X, no 161, p. 31-39Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 169.
    Schantz, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Stigell, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    A criterion method for measuring route distance in physically active commuting.2009In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 472-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: There is a need for accurate, reliable, and feasible methods for determining route distances in physically active transportation. The aim of this study, therefore, was to scrutinize if distances of commuting routes drawn by physically active commuters and measured with a digital curvimetric distance measurement device could serve such a purpose. METHODS: Participants were recruited when walking or bicycling in the inner urban area of Stockholm, Sweden. Questionnaires and individually adjusted maps were sent twice to the participants (n = 133). Commuting routes from home to work were drawn on the maps. These were measured using a digital curvimetric distance measurer that was carefully controlled for validity and reproducibility. Marked points of origin and destination were checked for validity and reproducibility using stated addresses and address geocoding systems. Nineteen participants were followed with a global positioning system (GPS) to control for validity of drawn routes. An analysis of the effect on distance measurements of any deviations between GPS route tracings and drawn routes was undertaken. RESULTS: No order effects were noted on distance measurements, and the test-retest intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.999 (P

  • 170.
    Schantz, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Stigell, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Dang, Phung
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Salier-Eriksson, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Rosdahl, Hans
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Kan fysiskt aktiv arbetspendling bli en "folkrörelse"?2006In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, no 3, p. 8-13Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 171.
    Schantz, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Wahlgren, Lina
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Salier Eriksson, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Nilsson Sommar, Johan
    Umeå Universitet.
    Rosdahl, Hans
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Estimating duration-distance relations in cycle commuting in the general population2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 11, article id e0207573Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is important to estimate the duration-distance relation in cycle commuting in the general  population since this enables analyses of the potential for various public health outcomes. Therefore, the aim is to estimate this relation in the Swedish adult population of 2015. For that purpose, the first step was to establish it for adult male and female cycle commuters in Greater Stockholm, Sweden. Whether or not the slopes of these relations needed to be altered in order to make them representative of the general population was evaluated by comparing the levels of maximal oxygen uptake in samples of commuter cyclists and the population. The measure used was the maximal oxygen uptake divided by both the body weight and a cycle weight of 18.5 kg. The body weights in the population samples were adjusted to mirror relevant levels in 2015. Age adjustments for the duration–distance relations were calculated on the basis of the maximal oxygen uptake in the population samples aged 20–65 years. The duration-distance relations of the cycle commuters were downscaled by about 24–28% to mirror levels in the general population. The empirical formula for the distance (D, km) was based on duration (T, minutes)  x  speed (km/min)  x  a correction factor from cycle commuter to the general population  x  age adjustment (A, years). For the males in the general population the formula was: D = T  x  20.76 km/h  x  0.719  x  (1.676 – 0.0147  x  A). For females, the  formula was: D = T  x  16.14 km/h  x  0.763  x  (1.604 – 0.0129  x  A). These formulas, combined with distributions of route distances between home and work in the population, enable realistic evaluations of the potential for different public health outcomes through cycle commuting.

  • 172.
    Schantz, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Wahlgren, Lina
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Salier Eriksson, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Rosdahl, Hans
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Vilka folkhälsovinster kan erhållas vid olika scenarier av ökad cykling i en storstadsregion?: Empiri och fysisk arbetskapacitet som grund för beräkning av potentiell cykelpendling.2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vilka folkhälsovinster kan erhållas vid olika scenarier av ökad cykling i en storstadsregion?

    Syfte: Ur såväl transport- och miljö- som folkhälsoperspektiv är det värdefullt att utveckla kunskap om potentialen att överföra bilresor för arbetspendling till cykelresor. Det är också angeläget att belysa hur detta kan leda till ökade nivåer av fysisk aktivitet och förbättrad luftkvalité, samt att analysera vilka hälsokonsekvenser en förbättrad luftkvalité det kan medföra inom hela befolkningen inom en storstadsregion.  

    För detta krävs att vitt skilda kompetenser samverkar. Man behöver till exempel kombinera kunskap om resmönster och färdvägsavstånd för olika kön och ålder, med kunskap om arbetsfysiologisk kapacitet och cyklisters beteende samt hur luftkvaliteten ter sig, hur den kan ändras, och vilka konsekvenser det får.

    Genom ett unikt samarbete mellan Umeå Universitet, Stockholms Universitet, Stockholms miljöförvaltning, Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan samt konsultföretaget WSP har vitt skilda kompetenser sammanförts för att belysa dessa frågeställningar i ett integrativt forskningsprojekt med Stor-Stockholm som studieområde.  Projektet utvecklar dessutom även ny metodologisk kunskap som är av ett brett intresse för samhälls- och trafikplanering inom storstadsområden.

  • 173.
    Schantz, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Wahlgren, Lina
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Salier-Eriksson, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Stigell, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Rosdahl, Hans
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Is Active Commuting the answer to Population Health?:  Lessons from the Stockholm Studies (PACS) – A Prologue.2010In: Proceedings from The 3rd International Congress on Physical Activity and Public Health, Toronto, Canada, 2010,, 2010, p. 35-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 174.
    Schantz, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Åstrand, Per-Olof
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Physiological characteristics of classical ballet1984In: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 472-476Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 175.
    Schantz, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Åstrand, Per-Olof
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH.
    Gyllensten, Lars
    Unika parkområden hotade: Ge Brunnsvikenområdet skydd som nationell kulturpark manar debattörer1991Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 176.
    Stigell, Erik
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Active commuting behaviours in a metropolitan setting – distance, duration, velocity and frequency in relation to mode choice and gender2011Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Knowledge concerning active commuting behaviours is meagre. Therefore, we have previously developed a criterion method for measuring commuting distance. Here we study the reliability of selfreported duration, red-light stops, velocity and weekly trip frequency per month over the year. We also assess all these variables in men and women, walking or cycling the whole way from home to work or school in a metropolitan setting.

    Methods

    Test-retest reproducibility was studied in a street-recruited sample of adult commuters in Greater Stockholm, Sweden (n = 70). Another group of adult commuters was recruited via advertisements in two newspapers (n = 1872). They all received a questionnaire and individually adjusted maps to draw their normal commuting route.

    Results

    The reproducibility of the different variables varied from moderate to almost perfect. Three different modality groups were identified in both men and women. The median durations of single mode commutes varied between 25 and 30 minutes. Single mode pedestrians had a high weekly trip frequency over the year, 7 to 8 trips, and a median distance of 2.3 km. The median single mode bicyclist did not cycle during the winter, but had a high weekly trip frequency, 6 to 9 trips, during the summer period, with a distance of 9 km for men and 6.7 for women. The distances of dual mode commuters, who alternately walk and cycle, were about 2.8 km. Their weekly cycle trip frequency mimicked the single mode cyclists‘. Primarily during the winter they substituted cycling with walking. Through the active commuting per se, the median single mode pedestrians and dual mode commuters met or were close to the recommended weekly physical activity levels of 150 minutes per week most of the year, whereas the single mode cyclists did so only during the summer half of the year. Some gender differences were observed in distances and velocities.

    Conclusions

    Distinctly different types of active commuting behaviours exist in a metropolitan setting and depend on mode choice and gender. Future studies on active transport are recommended to assess both walking and cycling over the whole year.

  • 177.
    Stigell, Erik
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment. Unit for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University.
    Active Commuting Behaviours in a Nordic Metropolitan Setting in Relation to Modality, Gender, and Health Recommendations2015In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 12, no 15008, p. 15626-15648Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Active commuting between home and place of work or study is often cited as an interesting source of physical activity in a public health perspective. However, knowledge about these behaviors is meager. This was therefore studied in adult active commuters (n = 1872) in Greater Stockholm, Sweden, a Nordic metropolitan setting. They received questionnaires and individually adjusted maps to draw their normal commuting route. Three different modality groups were identified in men and women: single-mode cyclists and pedestrians (those who only cycle or walk, respectively) and dual-mode commuters (those who alternately walk or cycle). Some gender differences were observed in trip distances, frequencies, and velocities. A large majority of the commuting trip durations met the minimum health recommendation of at least 10-minute-long activity bouts. The median single-mode pedestrians and dual-mode commuters met or were close to the recommended weekly physical activity levels of at least 150 minutes most of the year,whereas the single-mode cyclists did so only during spring–mid-fall. A high total number of trips per year (range of medians: 231–389) adds to the value in a health perspective. To fully grasp active commuting behaviors in future studies, both walking and cycling should be assessed over different seasons and ideally over the whole year.

  • 178.
    Stigell, Erik
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Active Commuting Distances: Validity and Reproducibility of Methods for Measuring Them2010In: Proceedings from The 3rd International Congress on Physical Activity and Public Health, Toronto, May, 5-8, 2010, 2010, p. 37-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 179.
    Stigell, Erik
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Methods for Determining Route Distances in Active Commuting: Their Validity and Reproducibility2011In: Journal of Transport Geography, ISSN 0966-6923, E-ISSN 1873-1236, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 563-574Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Distance is a variable of pivotal importance in transport studies. Therefore, after checking the validity of a potential criterion method for measuring active commuting route distances, this method was used to assess the validity and reproducibility of four methods of approximating the commuting route distances covered by pedestrians and bicyclists. The methods assessed were: self-estimated distance, straight-line distance, GIS shortest-route distance, and GPS-measured distance. For this purpose, participants were recruited when walking or bicycling in Stockholm, Sweden. Questionnaires and individually-adjusted maps were sent twice to 133 participants. The distances of map-drawn commuting routes functioned as criterion distances. The participants were also asked to estimate their distances. The straight-line distance between origin and destination was measured using map-drawn routes. The shortest route between home addresses and workplace addresses was calculated with three GIS algorithms. Eighty-six trips were measured with GPS. The main results were that test–retest intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) exceeded 0.99 for all methods, except for self-estimated distance (ICC = 0.76). No ordereffects existed between test and retest. Significant differences were, however, noted between criterion distance and self-estimated distance (114 ± 63%), straight-line distance (79.1 ± 10.5%), GIS shortest route (112 ± 18 to 121 ± 22%) and GPS distance (105 ± 4%). We conclude that commonly-used distance estimation methods produce systematic errors of differing magnitudes when used in a context of active commuting in suburban and urban environments. These errors can at average level be corrected for, whereas individual relative errors will remain.

  • 180. Svensson Smith, Karin
    et al.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Bilfria zoner kring skolor bör vara mer regel än undantag: debattinlägg2017In: Helsingborgs dagblad, ISSN 1103-9388, , p. 1article id 2 aprilArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    "Bilfria zoner kring skolor bör vara mer regel än undantag."

    Den fysiska aktiviteten inom skolans verksamhet behöver ses över, men också skolans möjlighet att stötta barns fysiska aktivitet utanför skoltid. Det skriver Karin Svensson Smith (MP), ordförande i riksdagens trafikutskott, och Peter Schantz, professor vid Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH.

    Helsingborgs kommun har sedan länge höga ambitioner för att minska den klimatpåverkan som invånarnas resor ger upphov till. Att allt fler barn skjutsas till skolan istället för att cykla dit gör kommunens mål svårare att nå.

    En treårig cykelsatsning i Odense gav en ansenlig samhällsvinst tack vare att människor inte var borta från jobbet på grund av sjukdom lika ofta som tidigare, samt lägre kostnader för hälso- och sjukvårdsbehandling. Bilfria zoner runt skolor, kraftfulla satsningar på cykling för barn och föräldrar samt en stadsplanering med fokus på möjlighet att cykla förklarar framgången. Kanske kan det inspirera Helsingborg.Barns skolresor är en strategisk fråga för att minska trafikens påverkan på klimat, luftföroreningar och buller liksom för att förbättra folkhälsan genom att främja vardaglig motion.Att föräldrar väljer att skjutsa sina barn till skolor spär på en stillasittande livsstil. Att istället ge barnen en vana att cykla till skolan bidrar till motsatsen. Det skapar en grund för framtida vardaglig fysisk aktivitet.

    En rapport från Trafikanalys visar att skolresor med cykel har blivit 48 procent färre sedan 1994. Samtidigt är det vanligare än någonsin att föräldrar skjutsar sina barn till skolan. Studier vid GIH, Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, ger samma bild.Med tanke på att en cykelresa om 15 minuter enkel väg, två gånger per dag, ger tillräcklig fysisk aktivitet för att hålla hälsan på en acceptabel nivå, bör hälsofrämjande insatser mot barn fokusera på att vända utvecklingen.

    Bilskjutsning till skolor bidrar också till osäkra miljöer kring skolor. ”På morgonen lyder djungelns lag utanför många skolor” – så inleds SKL:s skrift om varför föräldrar skjutsar sina barn till skolan. Sorgligt nog är det en korrekt beskrivning av verkligheten. Dessutom leder den rådande situationen till att allt fler föräldrar väljer att skjutsa sina barn, eftersom de tycker att det är farligt för barnen att gå till skolan när det är så mycket trafik kring skolan.Bilfria zoner kring skolor bör vara mer regel än undantag. Den förälder som trots en bilfri zon kring skolan väljer att skjutsa sitt barn får då helt enkelt parkera ett hundratal meter därifrån och promenera sista biten. På så vis kan miljön kring skolorna bli trygga och vardaglig fysisk aktivitet främjas.Att människor väljer att ta bil framför cykel är en bidragande orsak till att flera folksjukdomar drabbar allt längre ner i åldrarna.

    Bland forskare finns en stor enighet om att det behövs minst 30 minuter av pulshöjande fysisk aktivitet om dagen för att främja god hälsa, minska risken för kroniska sjukdomar och förebygga för tidig död. Mer fysisk aktivitet ökar de positiva effekterna. Mellan 60 och 90 minuters daglig fysisk aktivitet är optimalt.Den fysiska aktiviteten inom skolans verksamhet behöver ses över, men också skolans möjlighet att stötta barns fysiska aktivitet utanför skoltid. Förutom bättre hälsa kan det bidra till att eleverna får ett livslångt intresse för att röra sig och en fördjupad förståelse av sambanden mellan fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.

    För mer än tjugo år sedan, 1994, beslutade riksdagen att skolans rörelseämne skulle ha ”hälsa” som ett tillägg i dess namn. Men beslutet har aldrig följts upp av åtgärder som inneburit en förändring i namnbytets riktning.Skolinspektionen har i två rapporter visat att hälsodelen inom rörelseämnet har varit styvmoderligt behandlad. Det finns alltså goda skäl att på olika sätta stötta rörelseämnets utveckling, se över ämnets läroplaner, och genom lärandemål och bedömningskriterier sätta tydliga mål för vad eleverna ska lära sig när det gäller vardagsmotion och hälsa.

    Sedan 2010 har sjukskrivningarna i Sverige ökat med 80 procent och de verkar dessvärre fortsätta att öka. Sjukfrånvaron minskar riksdagens möjligheter att avsätta pengar till angelägna reformer och hämmar tillväxten inom sektorer där det är brist på arbetskraft. En rimlig slutsats är att varje sten måste vändas och vridas på för att vända utvecklingen.Skolan har en viktig roll att bidra till goda levnadsvanor. Därför måste skolan också få ett breddat och fördjupat utbildningsuppdrag kring vardagsmotion inom ämnet idrott och hälsa.

    I princip alla skulle må bra av att cykla till jobb, studier och andra aktiviteter. En ny studie genomförd vid bland annat GIH visar att svenska sjukkostnader kan minska kraftigt genom att fler cyklar mellan bostad och arbete eller skola. Enbart i Stockholms län kan, enligt studien, hälsoekonomiska vinster på flera miljarder kronor göras årligen. Det mesta talar för att det även i Helsingborg finns många korta bilresor som med fördel skulle kunna ersättas med cykelturer.

    Karin Svensson Smith

    Peter Schantz

    Karin Svensson Smith (MP) är ordförande i riksdagens trafikutskott.

    Peter Schantz är professor i humanbiologi vid Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH.

  • 181. Tesch, Per
    et al.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Bodybuilding: Effekter och skaderisker1982In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 79, no 24, p. 2355-2357Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 182.
    Wahlgren, Lina
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Bikeability and methodological issues using the active commuting route environment scale (ACRES) in a metropolitan setting2011In: BMC Medical Research Methodology, ISSN 1471-2288, E-ISSN 1471-2288, Vol. 11, no 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Route environments can positively influence people’s active commuting and thereby contribute to public health. The Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES) was developed to study active commuters’ perceptions of their route environments. However, bicycle commuters represent a small portion of the population in many cities and thus are difficult to study using population-based material. Therefore, the aim of this study is to expand the state of knowledge concerning the criterion-related validity of the ACRES and the representativity using an advertisement-recruited sample. Furthermore, by comparing commuting route environment profiles of inner urban and suburban areas, we provide a novel basis for understanding the relationship between environment and bikeability.

    Methods Bicycle commuters from Greater Stockholm, Sweden, advertisement- (n = 1379) and street-recruited (n = 93), responded to the ACRES. Traffic planning and environmental experts from the Municipality of Stockholm (n = 24) responded to a modified version of the ACRES. The criterion-related validity assessments were based on whether or not differences between the inner urban and the suburban route environments, as indicated by the experts and by four existing objective measurements were reflected by differences in perceptions of these environments. Comparisons of ratings between advertisement- and street-recruited participants were used for the assessments of representativity. Finally, ratings of inner urban and suburban route environments were used to evaluate commuting route environment profiles.

    Results Differences in ratings of the inner urban and suburban route environments by the advertisement-recruited participants were in accord with the existing objective measurements and corresponded reasonably well with those of the experts. Overall, there was a reasonably good correspondence between the advertisement- and street-recruited participants’ ratings. Distinct differences in commuting route environment profiles were noted between the inner urban and suburban areas. Suburban route environments were rated as safer and more stimulating for bicycle-commuting than the inner urban ones. In general, the findings applied to both men and women.

    Conclusions The overall results show: considerable criterion-related validity of the ACRES; ratings of advertisement-recruited participants mirroring those of street-recruited participants; and a higher degree of bikeability in the suburban commuting route environments than in the inner urban ones.

  • 183.
    Wahlgren, Lina
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Exploring bikeability in a metropolitan setting: stimulating and hindering factors in commuting route environments2012In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 12, no 168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Route environments may influence people’s active commuting positively and thereby contribute to public health. Assessments of route environments are, however, needed in order to better understand the possible relationship between active commuting and the route environment. The aim of this study was, therefore, to assess the potential associations between perceptions of whether the route environment on the whole hinders or stimulates bicycle commuting and perceptions of environmental factors.

    Methods

    The Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES) was used for the assessment of bicycle commuters’ perceptions of their route environments in the inner urban parts of Greater Stockholm, Sweden. Bicycle commuters (n = 827) were recruited by advertisements in newspapers. Simultaneous multiple regression analyses were used to assess the relation between predictor variables (such as levels of exhaust fumes, noise, traffic speed, traffic congestion and greenery) and the outcome variable (hindering – stimulating route environments). Two models were run, (Model 1) without and (Model 2) with the item traffic: unsafe or safe included as a predictor.

    Results

    Overall, about 40% of the variance of hindering – stimulating route environments was explained by the environmental predictors in our models (Model 1, = 0.415, and Model 2, = 0.435). The regression equation for Model 1 was: y = 8.53 + 0.33 ugly or beautiful + 0.14 greenery + (−0.14) course of the route + (−0.13) exhaust fumes + (−0.09) congestion: all types of vehicles (p ≤ 0.019). The regression equation for Model 2 was y = 6.55 + 0.31 ugly or beautiful + 0.16 traffic: unsafe or safe + (−0.13) exhaust fumes + 0.12 greenery + (−0.12) course of the route (p ≤ 0.001).

    Conclusions

    The main results indicate that beautiful, green and safe route environments seem to be, independently of each other, stimulating factors for bicycle commuting in inner urban areas. On the other hand, exhaust fumes, traffic congestion and low ‘directness’ of the route seem to be hindering factors. Furthermore, the overall results illustrate the complexity of a research area at the beginning of exploration.

  • 184.
    Wahlgren, Lina
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Exploring Bikeability in a Suburban Metropolitan Area Using the Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES)2014In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 11, no 8, p. 8276-8300Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Aim: Commuting by bicycle could contribute to public health, and route environments may influence this behaviour. Therefore, the aim of this study is to assess the potential associations between appraisals of the overall route environment as hindering or stimulating for bicycle commuting, with both perceptions of commuting route environmental factors in a suburban area and background factors. Methods: The Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES) was used for the assessment of bicycle commuters’ perceptions and appraisals of their route environments in the suburban parts of Greater Stockholm, Sweden. A simultaneous multiple regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between the outcome variable whether the overall route environment hinders or stimulates bicycle commuting and environmental factors (e.g., exhaust fumes, speeds of motor vehicles, greenery), as well as background factors (sex, age, education, income) as predictor variables. Results and Conclusions: The results indicate that in suburban areas, the factors aesthetics, greenery and bicycle paths seem to be, independently of each other, stimulating factors for bicycle commuting. On the other hand, flows of motor vehicles, noise, and low “directness” of the route seem to be hindering factors. A comparison of these results with those obtained from an inner urban area points to the importance of studying different types of built-up areas separately.

  • 185.
    Wahlgren, Lina
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Grönska och skönhet ökar cyklisters upplevelse av trygghet i trafikmiljön2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund

    Regelbunden fysisk aktivitet har positiva hälsoeffekter, och många vill vara fysiskt aktiva, men uppfattar olika hinder för det. Aktiv arbetspendling är en intressant möjlighet i detta sammanhang, då den är tidseffektiv, och avstånden mellan bostad och arbete ofta är lämpliga. Därför är det mycket angeläget att färdvägsmiljöer underlättar cykling, och studier av dem är viktiga för att förstå hur olika miljöfaktorer verkar. Upplevelser av otrygghet i trafikmiljön hindrar cykling. Syftet med denna studie var därför att mäta sambandet mellan upplevelser av trafikmiljön som otrygg eller trygg för cykelpendling, och upplevelser av olika miljöfaktorer i samma färdvägsmiljöer.

    Metod

    797 arbetspendlande cyklister (47 ± 11 år, 40 % män) rekryterades via annonser, och data från deras upplevelser av sina självvalda färdvägsmiljöer i Stor-Stockholms innerstad har nyttjats. För att mäta det användes The Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES), som har utvecklats vid GIH. ACRES innehåller utfallsvariabeln ”otrygga eller trygga trafikmiljöer” och ett antal miljöprediktorer, såsom avgaser, hastigheter hos motorfordon, trängsel bland cyklister, grönska och antal rödljus. ACRES har visat god kriterierelaterad validitet och rimlig reproducerbarhet. För att analysera sambanden mellan utfallsvariabeln otrygg eller trygg trafikmiljö och olika miljöprediktorer samt bakgrundsfaktorerna kön, ålder, utbildnings- och inkomstnivå, användes regressionsanalyser. I utfallsvariabeln otrygg eller trygg trafikmiljö (y) står skattningen 1 för mycket otrygg och 15 för mycket trygg. Miljövariablerna (x) skattades på motsvarande sätt med 15-gradiga skalor, utom variabeln ”andel cykelbana/cykelfält/cykelväg”, som har en 11-gradig skala.

    Resultat

    Resultaten visar att cirka 40 procent av skillnaden hos utfallsvariabeln otrygg eller trygg trafikmiljö (y) förklaras av de olika prediktorerna (x). Regressionsekvationen var: y = 12,05 - (0,25 x trängsel i blandtrafik) - (0,18 x färdvägens dragning) + (0,14 x grönska) - (0,14 x hastigheter hos motorfordon) - (0,13 x konflikter) + (0,11 x andel cykelbana/cykelfält/cykelväg) + (0,10 x fulhet eller skönhet) + (0,07 x backighet)(alla p-värden ≤ 0,017).

    Slutsatser

    Oberoende av varandra verkar således gröna och vackra färdvägsmiljöer med en hög andel cykelbanor/cykelfält/cykelvägar vara faktorer som påverkar tryggheten i trafiken positivt för cykelpendlare i innerstadsmiljöer. Även backighet verkar ha en positiv verkan på trygghetsupplevelsen, vilket är något förvånande och behöver studeras vidare. Å andra sidan verkar trängsel i blandtrafik, högre hastigheter hos motorfordon, konflikter mellan trafikanter och färdvägar som kräver många riktningsändringar vara faktorer som ökar känslan av otrygghet. Studier som denna utgör ett underlag för arbetet med att skapa goda färdvägsmiljöer för cyklister.

  • 186.
    Wahlgren, Lina
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Stigell, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES) : Validity and Reliability2010In: Proceedings from The 3rd International Congress on Physical Activity and Public Health, Toronto, May, 5-8, 2010, 2010, p. 38-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 187.
    Wahlgren, Lina
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Stigell, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    The Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES): Development and Evaluation2010In: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, Vol. 7, no 58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Route environments can be a potentially important factor in influencing people’s behaviours in relation to active commuting. To better understand these possiblerelationships, assessments of route environments are needed. We therefore developed a scale; the Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES), for the assessment of bicyclists’ and pedestrians’ perceptions of their commuting route environments. Here we will report on the development and the results of validity and reliability assessments thereof.

    Methods

    Active commuters (n = 54) were recruited when they bicycled in Stockholm, Sweden. Traffic planning and environmental experts from the Municipality of Stockholm were assembled to form an expert panel (n = 24). The active commuters responded to the scale on two occasions, and the expert panel responded to it once. To test criterion-related validity, differences in ratings of the inner urban and suburban environments of Greater Stockholm were compared between the experts and the commuters. Furthermore, four items were compared with existing objective measures. Test-retest reproducibility was assessed with three types of analysis: order effect, typical error and intraclass correlation.

    Results

    There was a concordance in sizes and directions of differences in ratings of inner urban and suburban environments between the experts and the commuters. Furthermore, both groups’ ratings were in line with existing objectively measured differences between the two environmental settings. Order effects between test and retest were observed in 6 of 36 items. The typical errors ranged from 0.93 to 2.54, and the intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from ‘moderate’ (0.42) to ‘almost perfect’ (0.87).

    Conclusions

    The ACRES was characterized by considerable criterion-related validity and reasonable test-retest reproducibility.

  • 188.
    Wallmann-Sperlich, Birgit
    et al.
    Institute of Sport Science, Julius-Maximilians University Würzburg, D-97082 Würzburg, Germany.
    Froboese, Ingo
    Institute of Health Promotion and Clinical Movement Science, German Sport University, D-50933 Cologne, Germany.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Physical Activity and the Perceived Neighbourhood Environment: Looking at the Association the Other Way Around2014In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 11, no 8, p. 8093-8111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     The associationbetween physical activity (PA) and variables of the perceived environmentmainly originate from cross-sectional studies that introduced the idea that theenvironment influences the PA level of residents. However, the direction ofcause and effect has not been solved with finality. The aim of this study wasto investigate whether residents’ perception of their proximate environmentdiffers depending on their level of PA in transport and recreation. Weconducted a cross-sectional survey with residents of six different parts of thecity of Cologne, Germany. The sample of 470 adults (52.8% females; mean age =35.5 ± 13.8 years) filled in the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ),as well as the European Environmental Questionnaire ALPHA. To distinguishbetween residents with ‘low’ and ‘high’ PA, we split the samples into two on the basisof the specific median in transport- and recreation-related PA. In the ‘high’ vs. ‘low’ PA group of the overall sample,we noted 4–16% more ‘PA favourable’ environmental perceptions in seven of the15 environmental variables. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to investigateassociations of socio-demographic correlates and transport- andrecreation-related PA on the dependent variables of the environmentalperception. In this case,levels of PA were significant predictors for eight of the 15 items concerningenvironmental perceptions. Thus, the present study introduces the idea that residents withhigher levels of transport and recreational PA may perceive their environmentin a more ‘PA-favourable’ way than residents with lower levels.

  • 189.
    Wallman-Sperlich, Birgit
    et al.
    Institute of Health Promotion and Clinical Movement Science, German Sports University Cologne, Germany.
    Buksch, Jens
    WHO Collaborating Centre for Child and Adolescent Health Promotion, School of Public Health, Bielefeld University, Germany.
    Hansen, Sylvia
    Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, Maastricht University, The Netherlands.
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Froboese, Ingo
    Institute of Health Promotion and Clinical Movement Science, German Sports University Cologne, Germany.
    Sitting Time in Germany: An Analysis of Socio-demographic and Environmental Correlates2013In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 196, no 13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Sedentary behaviour in general and sitting time in particular is an emerging global health concern. The aim of this study was to provide data on the prevalence of sitting time in German adults and to examine socio-demographic and environmental correlates of sitting time.

    Methods: A representative sample of German adjults (n = 2000; 967 men, 1033 women; 49.3 ±17.6 years of age) filled in the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire, including one question on overall sitting time and answered questions about the neighbourhood environment, as well as concerning demographics. Daily sitting time was stratified by gender, age group, BMI, educational and income level, as well as physical activity (PA). To identify socio-demographic and environmental correlates of sitting time, we used a series of linear regressions.

    Results: The overall median was 5 hours (299 minutes) of sitting time/day and men sat longer than women (5 vs. 4 hours/day; p < 0.05). In both genders age and PA were negatively and the educational level positively associated with sitting time. The level of income was not a correlate of sitting time in multivariate analyses. Sitting time was significantly positively associated with higher neighbourhood safety for women. The variance ranged from 16.5% for men to 8.9% for women.

    Conclusions: The overall sitting time was unequally distributed in the German adult population. Our findings suggest implementing specific interventions to reduce sitting time for subgroups such as men, younger aged adults and adults with a higher education and lower PA. Future studies should enhance our understanding of the specific correlates of different types and domains of sitting in order to guide the development of effective public health strategies.

     

     

  • 190. Wibom, Rolf
    et al.
    Hultman, Erik
    Johansson, Mats
    Matherei, Kaj
    Constantin-Teodosiu, Dimitri
    Schantz, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Adaptation of mitochondrial ATP-production in human skeletal muscle to endurance training and detraining1992In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, no 73, p. 2004-2010Article in journal (Refereed)
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