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  • 151.
    Arndt, Toni
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Barfota eller rejäl stötdämpning – vilka löparskor är bäst?2016In: Idrottsforskning, ISSN 2002-3944, article id 18 majArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Kraftig dämpning i våra löparskor skulle minska skadorna. Men att stötarna i nedslaget är ett problem har svagt stöd i forskningen. Är det då bättre att springa i minimalistiska skor eller helt barfota? Vad ska motionären välja?

  • 152.
    Arndt, Toni
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Forskning inom rörelselära2014In: Från Kungl. Gymnastiska Centralinstitutet till Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan: en betraktelse av de senaste 25 åren som del av en 200-årig historia / [ed] Suzanne Lundvall, Stockholm: Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH , 2014, p. 245-252Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 153.
    Arnegård, Johan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Bergsguide2011In: Friluftssport och äventyrsidrott: Utmaningar för lärare, ledare och miljö i en föränderlig värld / [ed] Sandell, Klas; Arnegård, Johan & Backman, Erik, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2011, p. 106-Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 154.
    Arnegård, Johan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Friluftssport som spänningsfält och professionsarena2011In: Friluftssport och äventyrsidrott: Utmaningar för lärare, ledare och miljö i en föränderlig värld / [ed] Sandell, Klas; Arnegård, Johan & Backman, Erik, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2011, p. 89-115Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 155.
    Arnegård, Johan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur. Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för samhälle, kultur och lärande (SKL).
    Upplevelser och lärande i äventyrssport och skola2006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The physicality of sports and outdoor life offers great opportunities for intensive experiences – participants ”feel” the happening in their bodies. As well as looking upon physical activity mainly as something instrumental, as for example in competitive sports and exercise culture, other aspects can also be central, for instance the pure joy of movement. The existential or expressive side of physical activity is examined in this doctoral thesis.

    In order to study such experiential quality more thoroughly, the author’s attention turns to adventure sports participants, as they appear to have a capacity for becoming highly involved and seeking very intense experiences. Who is involved in adventure sports? Why are they engaged in a sport that demands such great hardships and risk-taking? What do they get out of it? The overall objective of the thesis is to shed light on adventure sports as a practice and to discuss the educational significance of flow and other experiential qualities in adventure sports and in schools.

    The analyses are based on three empirical sub-studies. The first began with a questionnaire that 161 adventure sports participants responded to. This was followed by an interview study of eleven men and three women, all of whom had extensive experience in adventure sports. The categories of sport were evenly divided between climbing, off-piste skiing and hang gliding.

    In the second sub-study a detailed investigation of climbing was carried out. A notable sportification has brought about a very clear and interesting change in parts of this activity. Six traditional/adventure climbers and six sport climbers were interviewed, of which half were men and half women. All the climbers were experienced and very much involved in their sport.

    The aim of the third sub-study was to seek an answer as to whether pupils have experiences in their daily school life that are similar to those of adventure sports participants. An ESM (Experience Sampling Method) investigation was carried out with 60 pupils in compulsory school year nine (corresponding to UK schools’ year eleven) from four different schools. The pupils’ parents answered a special parent questionnaire including questions about academic and professional backgrounds, living conditions, habits, interests, attitudes and leisure time activities.

    The results were analysed taking into consideration the phenomenological perspective and structuralistic or more correctly expressed the cultural sociological perspective. Mihály Csikszentmihályi’s theoretical argument on optimal experiences, which in turn is based on the flow concept, constitutes the phenomenological foundation. Pierre Bourdieu’s concept apparatus and theories were used to closely examine the participants’ backgrounds, life histories and current living situations.

    The study shows that a preference for adventure sports is clearly linked to the participants’ backgrounds and earlier life experiences. A behavioural pattern is incorporated and developed into an embodied capacity to master a practice, a result of a long learning process. Participants were clearly concordant in these respects. Participants emphasise the abundant opportunities for intensive experiences that arise from adventure sports. It is a matter of something multidimentional: the active body, outdoor life in natural surroundings, exacting and clear goals, total focus, and about exercising control. This approach presents a model for identification of content qualities, which together create the dynamics that form the meaningful rewards that result from participation in adventure sports. The dimensions include flow experiences, but also go beyond them.

    The deep sense of presence, the physical involvement, the fact that they can choose the path and increase the degree of difficulty themselves – and simultaneously counter this new challenge with increased capacity so that they are engaged at the ”right level” – also provide favourable conditions for a stimulating and successful learning experience.

    The observation was made that it was primarily in the practical and aesthetic subjects that school pupils had the same deep feeling of presence together with a meaningful and pleasurable holistic experience as the adventure sports participants had. Here they were actively involved with their hands or with their whole bodies, and they could make their own choices and be in control of the activity, which for most pupils led to a strong feeling of satisfaction.

  • 156.
    Arnegård, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Persson, Christian
    Certifiering och auktorisation2011In: Friluftssport och äventyrsidrott: Utmaningar för lärare, ledare och miljö i en föränderlig värld / [ed] Sandell, Klas; Arnegård, Johan & Backman, Erik, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2011, p. 112-Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 157.
    Arnegård, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Sandell, Klas
    Idrottens gränstrakter – Om äventyrsidrott och friluftssport2011In: Kulturstudier, kropp och idrott: Perspektiv på fenomen i gränslandet mellan natur och kultur / [ed] Tolvhed, Helena & Cardell, David, Malmö: Idrottsforums förlag , 2011, p. 127-145Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 158.
    Arnesson, Carolina
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Måste jag tävla på idrotten i skolan?2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställning

    I hur stor utsträckning används tävlingspraktiken i Idrott och Hälsa, och hur påverkar detta ämnets karaktär?

    Jag ska i min undersökning försöka se hur elever i skolan upplever tävlingar under idrotten i skolan. Jag kommer att använda mig av Lars-Magnus Engströms (2002) teori om idrottens praktiker och logiker, vilka redogörs närmare för under punkten Teoretiskt perspektiv. Jag vill finna de känslor och tankar som uppstår då eleverna försätts i den s.k. tävlingspraktiken, där aktiviteten i sig handlar om jämförande. Jag kommer även kort att försöka undersöka hur en pedagog i ämnet ser på tävlande i skolan och om dennes uppfattning om tävlingar stämmer överens med barnens.

    Metod

    Jag har i denna studie valt at göra en kvalitativ undersökning, dvs. att försöka att på djupet se de kvaliteter och benägenheter som framkommer från studien. Tillvägagångssätt för att samla data har varit intervjuer med 8 elever och 1 pedagog och observationer av 10 lektioner i ämnet Idrott och Hälsa.

    Resultat

    Denna studie är relativt liten, därför går det inte att dra några faktiska slutsatser, men av de elever jag intervjuat och vad jag sett på lektionerna får jag uppfattningen att det nog kan vara så att tävlande ändå är omtyckt hos de flesta elever. Merparten svarade på mina frågor att tävling är engagerande och roligt och att aktiviteterna då får mer poäng. Ett fåtal påpekade negativa aspekter av tävling såsom jämförande, stress och press att göra rätt och den oro detta skapar.

    Slutsats

    Det kan nog vara så att tävling gärna kan användas i skolan, men på ett genomtänkt sätt som inte pekar ut någon. Själva jämförande momentet verkar inte vara gynnsamt på något sätt, varken enligt pedagogen eller barnen, så det kan vara detta man måste få bort.

  • 159.
    Arnkvist, Karolina
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Riksberg, Charlotta
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    "En miljö i glädje, i framtidshopp": En kvalitativ studie om förskollärares upplevda arbetsmiljö2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of the paper is to seek understanding of the factors affecting the work environment for the pre-school teachers. Pre-school teachers are exposed to levels of high noise on a daily basis. Individuals who work in such an environment often experience stress, fatigue and sound fatigue.

     

    Method

    Based on the interviews, four themes were identified describing pre-school teachers experience of the working environment: ergonomics, environment, motivation and requirements. Based on the above themes, codes have been created to clarify the factors that affect the working environment. A qualitative method was used since the aim was to seek understanding of a specific group. The pre-schools that were chosen to participate in this study were located in Stockholm, Sweden. A total of six pre-school teachers in the ages 24-64 years were interviewed. The participants had an average of 14 years working within the pre-school. The interviews were based on a semi-structured interview guide.

     

    Results

    This study indicates that what preschool teachers perceive as good and less good in the work environment is individual and depends, among other things, on previous experiences. The results in this study show that pre-school teachers especially want to prioritize the children but that there are requirements which prevent this. The requirements identified in this study are administration, ergonomics, teacher and resource shortages and large children's groups. These findings contributed to a sense of insufficiency for the pre-school teachers.

     

    Conclusion

    The large children's groups are the main thing that affect pre-school teachers working environment negatively. However, this study also indicates that children's development is a joint motivator for continued work within the pre-school. This is something that creates meaningfulness, which is important for feeling motivated in the everyday work.

  • 160.
    Arnlund, Camilla
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Hederyd, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Vandring och pilgrimsfärd- två resor på samma stig?: en komparativ studie mellan vandrarens och pilgrimens förhållningssätt till och upplevelse av naturen2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudent thesis
  • 161.
    Arnoldsson, Petra
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    En kvalitativ intervjustudie med fokus på förskrivares syn och erfarenheter på fysisk aktivitet på recept (FaR) för personer med depression2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka om vårdpersonal använder fysisk aktivitet på recept(FaR) som behandling till personer med depression.

    Frågeställningar:

    • Ordinerar vårdpersonal FaR som behandling till personer med depression?
    • Arbetar vårdpersonalen utifrån Socialstyrelsens Nationella riktlinjer (2010) gällande patienter med depression?

    Metod

    Studien är gjord utifrån en kvalitativ metod och analyserad utefter en innehållsanalys. Intervjumetoden är av semistrukturerad art med en frågeguide på elva öppna frågor som underlag. Av de fyrtio kontaktade verksamhetschefer som i sin tur gick ut och frågade sina anställda om de var någon som ville ställa upp så intervjuades fyra stycken respondenter. Alla fyra informanterna var utbildade läkare inom allmänmedicin eller psykiatri som antingen arbetade inom primärvården (3) eller som specialist inom psykiatrin (1).

    Resultat

    Resultaten visar att alla intervjupersoner var positivt inställda till fysisk aktivitet som del i behandling till personer med depression. Även om själva FaR metoden ansågs som ett trubbigt och komplicerat verktyg så tyckte informanterna ändå att det gav positiva resultat för deras patienter att komma igång och aktivera sig. Det framkom att enklare budskap till vårdpersonal gällande de nationella riktlinjerna möjligen kan öka användningen av FaR för deprimerade inom hälso- och sjukvården, och på så sätt bidra till att fler patienter uppnår en förbättrad psykisk hälsa. I analysen framkom att de flesta hade många års erfarenhet av att arbeta med deprimerade.

    Slutsats

    Det kan rekommenderas att se över bristande rutiner i uppföljning med FaR för patienter som har depression samt en förenkling av journalinförandet och det digitala receptet. Med grund i denna studies resultat kan man dra slutsatsen att Socialstyrelsens nationella riktlinjer gällande personer med depression behöver lyftas fram och implementeras ytterligare i den svenska hälso- och sjukvården.

     

  • 162.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Blom, Victoria
    Stockholms universitet.
    Work conditions for workers with good long-term health2010In: International Journal of Workplace Health Management, ISSN 1753-8351, E-ISSN 1753-836X, Vol. 3, p. 160-172Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 163. Arvidson, Elin
    et al.
    Börjesson, Mats
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Ahlborg, Gunnar
    Lindegård, Agneta
    Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H
    The level of leisure time physical activity is associated with work ability-a cross sectional and prospective study of health care workers.2013In: BMC public health, ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 13, p. 855-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: With increasing age, physical capacity decreases, while the need and time for recovery increases. At the same time, the demands of work usually do not change with age. In the near future, an aging and physically changing workforce risks reduced work ability. Therefore, the impact of different factors, such as physical activity, on work ability is of interest. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association between physical activity and work ability using both cross sectional and prospective analyses.

    METHODS: This study was based on an extensive questionnaire survey. The number of participants included in the analysis at baseline in 2004 was 2.783, of whom 2.597 were also included in the follow-up in 2006. The primary outcome measure was the Work Ability Index (WAI), and the level of physical activity was measured using a single-item question. In the cross-sectional analysis we calculated the level of physical activity and the prevalence of poor or moderate work ability as reported by the participants. In the prospective analysis we calculated different levels of physical activity and the prevalence of positive changes in WAI-category from baseline to follow-up. In both the cross sectional and the prospective analyses the prevalence ratio was calculated using Generalized Linear Models.

    RESULTS: The cross-sectional analysis showed that with an increased level of physical activity, the reporting of poor or moderate work ability decreased. In the prospective analysis, participants reporting a higher level of physical activity were more likely to have made an improvement in WAI from 2004 to 2006.

    CONCLUSIONS: The level of physical activity seems to be related to work ability. Assessment of physical activity may also be useful as a predictive tool, potentially making it possible to prevent poor work ability and improve future work ability. For employers, the main implications of this study are the importance of promoting and facilitating the employees' engagement in physical activity, and the importance of the employees' maintaining a physically active lifestyle.

  • 164.
    Arvidsson, Elin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Rosenqvist, Andreas
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Alla vill dansa bugg, eller?: En studie om utvecklingen inom barn-, ungdoms- och juniorbugg2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Studiens syfte var att analysera organisatoriska faktorer till deltagarantalets förändringar i barn-, ungdoms- och junioridrott inom dansen bugg. De frågor som studien avsåg att besvara var följande: ”Vilka bidragande organisatoriska faktorer kan ha påverkat den kraftiga reduceringen av antalet unga tävlingsdansare i bugg?” samt ”Finns förslag, och i så fall vilka, på hur utvecklingen inom deltagarantalet i tävlingsklasserna barn, ungdom och junior i bugg ska kunna förändras?”

    Metod

    Metoden som använts i studien är en semistrukturerad kvalitativ intervjumetod med syftet att undersöka organisationens syn kring buggens utveckling under det senaste decenniet. Utifrån ett bekvämlighets- och målinriktat urval har fem kanslister intervjuats från tre olika nivåer inom buggens organisation. Den insamlade empirin har därefter analyserats för att allsidigt utforska och belysa problemområdet.

    Resultat

    Resultatet visar ett flertal olika organisatoriska faktorer som kan ha påverkat den kraftiga reduceringen av unga tävlingsdansare i bugg. Samtliga respondenter lyfter i sina intervjuer att samhället har en inverkan på antalet medlemmar. Även faktorer som föreningarnas intresse och kunskap kan ha haft en inverkan. Det nya tävlingssystemet ansågs av föreningarna som en bidragande faktor. Det finns en osäkerhet gällande vilken del av organisationen som bär ansvaret över barn- och ungdomsutvecklingen. Det kan vara en faktor till reduceringen i sektionen. Ett flertal förslag lyftes för förändring, bland annat samarbete och gemenskap mellan föreningar. Även utbildning, digitalisering, marknadsföring och förändring av distriktens användningsområde lyftes upp som förslag.

    Slutsats

    Vid analysen av den insamlade empirin framgår ett flertal organisatoriska faktorer till deltagarantalets förändring i barn-, ungdoms- och juniorbugg, vilket upplevs ha bidragit till reduceringen inom dansen. Det finns, i dagsläget, ingen färdig plan för att vända den nedåtgående trenden inom barn-, ungdoms- och juniorsektionerna i bugg. Dock finns ett stort intresse att färdigställa ett hållbart koncept för tidigare nämnda sektioner.

  • 165.
    Arvidsson, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Effekt av bålstabiliserande träning hos personer med subakut eller långvarig ländryggssmärta: en systematisk litteraturstudie2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect both short and long term, regarding pain and function at stabilizing exercise compared to other interventions in patients with sub acute or chronic pain, and to examine the quality of the included studies.

    Method: The study is a systematic literature review which is an update of a previous systematic review. The search was made in four databases. Data were extracted from the included studies and presented in text and table. Methodological assessment was conducted with the help of the SBU's review template.

    Results: Nineteen studies were included. The studies had varying methodological quality and none showed an adequate quality. Most of the included studies reported a significant benefit to the intervention of stabilizing exercise compared with general training - regarding pain and function post- intervention and short term (3 months). Comparing stabilizing training versus manual therapy or minimal intervention, a few studies found advantage for stabilizing exercise regarding rated pain and function in the long term.

    Conclusions: The result indicates that stabilizing exercises are effective in the treatment of low back pain in the short term compared to general training regarding rated pain and function. In comparison with manual therapy and minimal intervention, the results are not clear but show a slight advantage for stabilizing exercises, both in terms of pain and function.

  • 166.
    Arvidsson, Linn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Tränarlänken.
    Träningsplanering och bålstabilitet i konståkning2006Student thesis
  • 167.
    Arvidsson, Linn
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Tränarlänken.
    Stenström, Linda
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Tränarlänken.
    Kravanalys för konståkning2005Student thesis
  • 168.
    Arvidsson, Linn
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Stenström, Linda
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Vägen mot stjärnorna?: En utvärdering av ett internationellt talangutvecklingsprojekt i konståkning2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Vårt syfte var att studera ett internationellt talangutvecklingsprojekt i konståkning och dess betydelse för de svenska deltagarna. Vi har i vår studie utgått från följande frågeställningar:

    - Hur uppfattades ISU-projektet av de aktiva och deras tränare?

    - Vilka likheter respektive skillnader finns mellan de aktivas och tränarnas upplevelser av ISU-projektet?

    - Har ISU-projektet bidragit till resultatmässiga förändringar, i så fall på vilket sätt?

    - Har ISU-projektet bidragit till förändringar i de svenska deltagarnas nuvarande träningsupplägg, i så fall på vilket sätt?

    Metod

    Utifrån syftet och frågeställningarna har vi genomfört en enkätundersökning på elva svenska deltagare i ISU-projektet. För att fånga fler nyanser än vad enkäten bringat genomfördes även djupintervjuer med fyra av de elva respondenterna.

    Resultat

    Resultatet tyder på att ISU-projektet har givit svensk konståkning fått inspiration som fört idrotten framåt. Samtliga deltagare ställer sig mycket positiva till den här formen av talangutvecklingsprojekt. Deltagarna vill dock framhålla att det inte är innehållet i sig som varit mest bidragande till åkarnas framgångar. Samtliga deltagare är påfallande överens om att möjligheten att få träna med andra internationellt duktiga åkare och träna för respekterade och kompetenta tränare har varit avgörande för deras fortsatta karriärer. Projektet har bidragit med energi och inspiration.

    Slutsats

    Svensk konståkning trodde sig inte ha tillräcklig kompetens men vår studie tyder på att det finns stort kunnande hos de svenska tränarna och åkarna. De behöver få komma ut och träna och tävla mer, bli bekräftade och få känna att vägen mot stjärnorna inte alls är så lång…

  • 169.
    Arvidsson, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Fridolfsson, Jonatan
    University of Gothenburg.
    Börjesson, Mats
    University of Gothenburg.
    Andersen, Lars Bo
    Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Campus Sogndal, Norway..
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Dencker, Magnus
    Lund University.
    Brønd, Jan Christian
    University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Reexamination of accelerometer data processing and calibration for the assessment of physical activity intensity.2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This review reexamines use of accelerometer and oxygen uptake data for assessment of activity intensity. Accelerometers capture mechanical work, while oxygen uptake captures the energy cost of this work. Frequency filtering needs to be considered when processing acceleration data. A too restrictive filter attenuates the acceleration signal for walking and, to a higher degree, for running. This measurement error affects shorter (children) more than taller (adults) individuals due to their higher movement frequency. Less restrictive filtering includes more movement related signals and provide measures that better capture mechanical work, but may include more noise. An optimal filter cut-point is determined where most relevant acceleration signals are included. Further, accelerometer placement affects what part of mechanical work being captured. While the waist placement captures total mechanical work and therefore contributes to measures of activity intensity equivalent by age and stature, the thigh and wrist placements capture more internal work and do not provide equivalent measures. Value calibration of accelerometer measures is usually performed using measured oxygen uptake with the metabolic equivalent of task (MET) as reference measure of activity intensity. However, the use of MET is not stringent and is not a measure of activity intensity equivalent by age and stature. A candidate measure is the mass-specific net oxygen uptake, VO2 net (VO2 tot - VO2 stand). To improve measurement of physical activity intensity using accelerometers, research developments are suggested concerning processing of accelerometer data, use of energy expenditure as reference for activity intensity, and calibration procedure with absolute versus relative intensity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  • 170.
    Asker, Martin
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Brooke, Hannah L
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Waldén, Markus
    Linköping University.
    Tranaeus, Ulrika
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Skillgate, Eva
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Holm, Lena W
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Risk factors for, and prevention of, shoulder injuries in overhead sports: a systematic review with best-evidence synthesis.2018In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 52, no 20, p. 312-1319, article id bjsports-2017-098254Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the evidence for risk factors and prevention measures for shoulder injuries in overhead sports.

    DESIGN: Systematic review with best-evidence synthesis.

    DATA SOURCES: Medline (Ovid), PubMed (complementary search), Embase (Elsevier), Cochrane (Wiley), SPORTDiscus (Ebsco) and Web of Science Core Collection (Thomson Reuters), from 1 January 1990 to 15 May 2017.

    ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES: Randomised controlled trials, cohort studies and case-control studies on risk factors or prevention measures for shoulder injuries in overhead sports. The eligible studies were quality assessed using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network criteria.

    RESULTS: Of 4778 studies identified, 38 were eligible for quality review and 17 met the quality criteria to be included in the evidence synthesis. One additional quality study presented a shoulder injury prevention programme. Most studies focused on baseball, lacrosse or volleyball (n=13). The risk factors examined included participation level (competition vs training) (n=10), sex (n=4), biomechanics (n=2) and external workload (n=2). The evidence for all risk factors was limited or conflicting. The effect of the prevention programme within the subgroup of uninjured players at baseline was modest and possibly lacked statistical power.

    CONCLUSIONS: All investigated potential risk factors for shoulder injury in overhead sports had limited evidence, and most were non-modifiable (eg, sex). There is also limited evidence for the effect of shoulder injury prevention measures in overhead sports.

    PROSPERO TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42015026850.

  • 171.
    Askling, Carl
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Acute hamstring injurise in sports - types, rehabilitation, prevention2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 172.
    Askling, Carl
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Akut hamstringsskada vanlig inom svensk elitfotboll2013In: Idrottsmedicin, ISSN 2001-3302, no 2, p. 26-27Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 173.
    Askling, Carl
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Akuta hamstringskador2018In: Idrottsskada: från prevention till säker återgång till idrott / [ed] Eva Rasmussen Barr & Anette Heijne, Studentlitteratur AB, 2018, 1, p. 243-246Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    I detta kapitel avhandlas de två huvudtyperna av hamstringskada, hur hamstringmuskulaturen ska tränas, preventivt samt efter skada, och slutligen tester som underlättar beslutet om när återgång i idrott är lämplig.

  • 174.
    Askling, Carl
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Are exercises the best medicine?2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 175.
    Askling, Carl
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Hamstring muscle strain2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Acute hamstring strains are common injuries in different sports. They are often serious, causing long rehabilitation times and a proneness for re-injury. Preliminary observations indicate that the injuries can be of at least two types, one occurring during high-speed running and the other during motions where the hamstring muscles reach extreme lengths.

    Aims: To investigate the possible existence of different types of acute hamstring strains in two specific athletic groups, namely sprinters and dancers, as well as the generality of these findings in other sports.

    Methods: In the first project, 18 sprinters and 15 dancers with acute first time hamstring strains were prospectively included. All subjects were examined, clinically and with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), on 4 occasions after injury: at day 2-4, 10, 21 and 42. The follow-up period was 2 years. In the second project, 30 subjects from 21 different sports were prospectively included. All subjects were examined clinically and with MRI. The follow-up period lasted until the subjects returned to sport or finished their sport activity due to the injury.

    Results: All sprinters sustained their injuries during competitive high-speed running. In contrast, all dancers encountered their injuries during slow-speed stretching type of exercises. The initial loss of strength and flexibility was significantly greater in sprinters than in dancers. At 42 days after injury, both groups could perform more than 90% of the test values of the uninjured leg. All the sprinters’ injuries were primarily located in biceps femoris long head, whereas the dancers’ injuries were mainly (87%) involving the proximal free tendon of semimembranosus. For the sprinters, involvement of the proximal free tendon, as estimated by MRI, and proximity to the ischial tuberosity, as estimated both by palpation and MRI, were associated with significantly longer time to return to pre-injury level. In the dancers, there were no significant correlations between clinical or MRI parameters and time to return to per-injury level. The time to pre-injury level was significantly longer (median 50 weeks, range 30-76) for the dancers compared to the sprinters (16, 6-50). In the second project, all injuries occurred during movements reaching a position with combined extensive hip flexion and knee extension. They were all located close to the ischial tuberosity and 83% involved the proximal free tendon of semimembranosus. Fourteen subjects (47%) decided to end their sport activity and for the remaining 16 subjects the median time back to sport was 31 (range 9-104) weeks. There were no significant correlations between clinical and MRI parameters and time to return to sport.

    Conclusions: There seems to be a link between the injury situation and the two types of acute hamstring strain in sprinters and dancers with respect to clinical findings, injury location, muscles and tissues involved, and time to return to pre-injury level. Proximity of the injury to the ischial tuberosity, as estimated both by palpation and MRI, is associated with longer recovery time. Also in other sports, an injury situation where the hamstrings reach extensive lengths caused a specific injury to the proximal posterior thigh similar to that described in dancers. Due to the prolonged recovery time associated with this type of injury, correct diagnosis based on history, clinical and MRI investigation, and adequate information to the athletes are essential.

  • 176.
    Askling, Carl
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Hamstrings – så hanterar du fotbollens vanligaste skada2016In: Idrottsforskning.se, ISSN 2002-3944, article id 13 juniArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Hamstrings är fotbollsspelarens mest skadedrabbade muskelgrupp. Återfallsskador är också ett stort problem. Rehabiliteringstiden kan halveras med rätt övningar. Och Asklings H-test ger vägledning om när det är dags för spel igen.

  • 177.
    Askling, Carl
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Lengthening hamstring exercises - the key to rehabilitation success?2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 178.
    Askling, Carl
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Prevention of hamstring injuries2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 179.
    Askling, Carl
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Why do so many hamstring injuries occur/recur?2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 180.
    Askling, Carl
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Karlsson, J
    Thorstensson, Alf
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Hamstring injury occurrence in elite soccer players after preseason strength training with eccentric overload.2003In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 244-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a preseason strength training programme for the hamstring muscle group - emphasising eccentric overloading - could affect the occurrence and severity of hamstring injuries during the subsequent competition season in elite male soccer players. Thirty players from two of the best premier-league division teams in Sweden were divided into two groups; one group received additional specific hamstring training, whereas the other did not. The extra training was performed 1-2 times a week for 10 weeks by using a special device aiming at specific eccentric overloading of the hamstrings. Isokinetic hamstring strength and maximal running speed were measured in both groups before and after the training period and all hamstring injuries were registered during the total observational period of 10 months. The results showed that the occurrence of hamstring strain injuries was clearly lower in the training group (3/15) than in the control group (10/15). In addition, there were significant increases in strength and speed in the training group. However, there were no obvious coupling between performance parameters and injury occurrence. These results indicate that addition of specific preseason strength training for the hamstrings - including eccentric overloading - would be beneficial for elite soccer players, both from an injury prevention and from performance enhancement point of view.

  • 181.
    Askling, Carl
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Lund, H
    Saartok, T
    Thorstensson, Alf
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Self-reported hamstring injuries in student-dancers.2002In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 230-5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dancing involves powerful movements as well as flexibility exercises, both of which may be related to specific injuries to the musculo-tendinosus tissue, e.g., the hamstring muscle complex. In this study, the occurrence of acute and overuse injuries to the rear thigh in dancers was investigated retrospectively by means of a questionnaire. All but one (n = 98) of the student-dancers (age 17-25 years) at the Ballet Academy in Stockholm participated. The results demonstrated that, during the past 10 years, every third dancer (34%) reported that they had acute injuries and every sixth dancer (17%) had overuse injuries to the rear thigh. Most (91%) of the acute injuries were subjectively located to an area close to tuber ischiadicum. The majority (88%) stated that the acute injury occurred during slow activities in flexibility training, e.g., splits, and only a few (12%) in powerful movements. Continuing problems were reported by 70% of the acutely injured dancers. Many of the dancers neglected their acute injury (14 did not even stop the ongoing dance activity) and they also greatly underestimated the recovery time. Only 4 dancers (12%) received acute medical assistance. Thus the results, based on the recollection of the subjects, indicated that stretching could induce severe strain injuries to the proximal hamstrings in dancers. Extrapolating these results to the practice, it can be recommended that stretching exercises be executed with caution in connection with dancing sessions and training, and that, information about the seriousness and acute treatment of such injuries be added to the student-dancers' curriculum.

  • 182.
    Askling, Carl M.
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Heiderscheit, Bryan C.
    Acute Hamstring Muscle Injury: Types, Rehabilitation, and Return to Sports2015In: Sports injuries: Prevention, Diagnosis, Treatment and Rehabilitation / [ed] Mahmut Nedim Doral, Jon Karlsson, Berlin: Springer, 2015, p. 2137-2147Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Acute hamstring muscle injury is the most frequent cause of acute posterior thigh pain, but referred pain to this area is also common. This chapter will focus only on acute hamstring injuries that are detectable on MRI (structural hamstring injuries). Hamstring injuries remain a challenge for clinicians, athletes, and coaches given the high incidence rate and often with persistent symptoms. The primary objective of all rehabilitation protocols is to return the athlete as soon as possible to the prior level of performance with a minimal risk of injury recurrence. The aim of this chapter is to describe the management of acute hamstring injuries including clinical examination, rehabilitation exercises, and return-to-sport criteria.

  • 183.
    Askling, Carl M
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Koulouris, George
    Saartok, Tönu
    Werner, Suzanne
    Best, Thomas M
    Total proximal hamstring ruptures: clinical and MRI aspects including guidelines for postoperative rehabilitation.2013In: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy, ISSN 0942-2056, E-ISSN 1433-7347, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 515-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to provide a state-of-the-art review for treatment of acute, total proximal hamstring tendon ruptures. For total proximal hamstring tendon ruptures, early (<2-3 w) surgical refixation minimizes muscle atrophy and facilitates a somewhat predictable time course for healing and rehabilitation. A postoperative rehabilitation program is detailed that has been used by one physical therapist for the past 7 years on over 200 patients with surgical repair for total proximal hamstring tendon rupture. One re-rupture has occurred, 7 months after surgery, following the rehabilitation program described herein. The rehabilitation program, including avoidance of postoperative bracing, appears effective for total proximal hamstring ruptures. Early surgery together with a specific rehabilitation program appears to be the treatment of choice for timely and safe return to sport and an active lifestyle. Level of evidence V.

  • 184.
    Askling, Carl M
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Tengvar, Magnus
    Saartok, Tönu
    Thorstensson, Alf
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Acute first-time hamstring strains during high-speed running: a longitudinal study including clinical and magnetic resonance imaging findings.2007In: American Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0363-5465, E-ISSN 1552-3365, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 197-206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Hamstring muscle strain is one of the most common injuries in sports. Still, knowledge is limited about the progression of clinical and magnetic resonance imaging characteristics and their association with recovery time in athletes. HYPOTHESIS: Knowing the anatomical location and extent of an acute first-time hamstring strain in athletes is critical for the prognosis of recovery time. STUDY DESIGN: Case series (prognosis); Level of evidence, 2. METHODS: Eighteen elite sprinters with acute first-time hamstring strains were prospectively included in the study. All subjects were examined, clinically and with magnetic resonance imaging, on 4 occasions after injury: at day 2 to 4, 10, 21, and 42. The clinical follow-up period was 2 years. RESULTS: All sprinters were injured during competitive sprinting, and the primary injuries were all located in the long head of the biceps femoris muscle. There was an association between the time to return to pre-injury level (median, 16; range, 6-50 weeks) and the extent of the injury, as indicated by the magnetic resonance imaging parameters. Involvement of the proximal free tendon, as estimated by MRI, and proximity to the ischial tuberosity, as estimated both by palpation and magnetic resonance imaging, were associated with longer time to return to pre-injury level. CONCLUSION: Careful palpation during the first 3 weeks after injury and magnetic resonance imaging investigation performed during the first 6 weeks after injury provide valuable information that can be used to predict the time to return to pre-injury level of performance in elite sprinting.

  • 185.
    Askling, Carl M
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Tengvar, Magnus
    Saartok, Tönu
    Thorstensson, Alf
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Acute first-time hamstring strains during slow-speed stretching: clinical, magnetic resonance imaging, and recovery characteristics.2007In: The American journal of sports medicine, ISSN 1552-3365, Vol. 35, no 10, p. 1716-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Hamstring strains can be of 2 types with different injury mechanisms, 1 occurring during high-speed running and the other during stretching exercises. HYPOTHESIS: A stretching type of injury to the proximal rear thigh may involve specific muscle-tendon structures that could affect recovery time. STUDY DESIGN: Case series (prognosis); Level of evidence, 2. METHODS: Fifteen professional dancers with acute first-time hamstring strains were prospectively included in the study. All subjects were examined, clinically and with magnetic resonance imaging, on 4 occasions after injury: at day 2 to 4, 10, 21, and 42. The clinical follow-up period was 2 years. RESULTS: All dancers were injured during slow hip-flexion movements with extended knee and experienced relatively mild acute symptoms. All injuries were located proximally in the posterior thigh close to the ischial tuberosity. The injury involved the semimembranosus (87%), quadratus femoris (87%), and adductor magnus (33%). All injuries to the semimembranosus involved its proximal free tendon. There were no significant correlations between clinical or magnetic resonance imaging parameters and the time to return to preinjury level (median, 50 weeks; range, 30-76 weeks). CONCLUSION: Stretching exercises can give rise to a specific type of strain injury to the posterior thigh. A precise history and careful palpation provide the clinician enough information to predict a prolonged time until return to preinjury level. One factor underlying prolonged recovery time could be the involvement of the free tendon of the semimembranosus muscle.

  • 186.
    Askling, Carl M
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Tengvar, Magnus
    Saartok, Tönu
    Thorstensson, Alf
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Proximal hamstring strains of stretching type in different sports: injury situations, clinical and magnetic resonance imaging characteristics, and return to sport.2008In: The American journal of sports medicine, ISSN 1552-3365, Vol. 36, no 9, p. 1799-804Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Hamstring strains can be of at least 2 types, 1 occurring during high-speed running and the other during motions in which the hamstring muscles reach extreme lengths, as documented for sprinters and dancers. HYPOTHESIS: Hamstring strains in different sports, with similar injury situations to dancers, also show similarities in symptoms, injury location, and recovery time. STUDY DESIGN: Case series (prognosis); Level of evidence, 4. METHODS: Thirty subjects from 21 different sports were prospectively included. All subjects were examined clinically and with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The follow-up period lasted until the subjects returned to or finished their sport activity. RESULTS: All injuries occurred during movements reaching a position with combined extensive hip flexion and knee extension. They were located proximally in the posterior thigh, close to the ischial tuberosity. The injuries were often complex, but 83% involved the semimembranosus and its proximal free tendon. Fourteen subjects (47%) decided to end their sports activity. For the remaining 16 subjects, the median time for return to sport was 31 weeks (range, 9-104). There were no significant correlations between specific clinical or MRI parameters and time to return to sport. CONCLUSIONS: In different sports, an injury situation in which the hamstring muscles reach extensive length causes a specific injury to the proximal posterior thigh, earlier described in dancers. Because of the prolonged recovery time associated with this type of injury, correct diagnosis, based on history and palpation, and adequate information to the subject are essential.

  • 187.
    Askling, Carl M
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Tengvar, Magnus
    Tarassova, Olga
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Thorstensson, Alf
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Acute hamstring injuries in Swedish elite sprinters and jumpers: a prospective randomised controlled clinical trial comparing two rehabilitation protocols.2014In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 48, no 7, p. 532-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Hamstring strain is a common injury in sprinters and jumpers, and therefore time to return to sport and secondary prevention become of particular concern.

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of two rehabilitation protocols after acute hamstring injury in Swedish elite sprinters and jumpers by evaluating time needed to return to full participation in the training process.

    STUDY DESIGN: Prospective randomised comparison of two rehabilitation protocols.

    METHODS: Fifty-six Swedish elite sprinters and jumpers with acute hamstring injury, verified by MRI, were randomly assigned to one of two rehabilitation protocols. Twenty-eight athletes were assigned to a protocol emphasising lengthening exercises, L-protocol, and 28 athletes to a protocol consisting of conventional exercises, C-protocol. The outcome measure was the number of days to return to full training. Re-injuries were registered during a period of 12 months after return.

    RESULTS: Time to return was significantly shorter for the athletes in the L-protocol, mean 49 days (1SD±26, range 18-107 days), compared with the C-protocol, mean 86 days (1SD±34, range 26-140 days). Irrespective of protocol, hamstring injuries where the proximal free tendon was involved took a significantly longer time to return than injuries that did not involve the free tendon, L-protocol: mean 73 vs 31 days and C-protocol: mean 116 vs 63 days, respectively. Two reinjuries were registered, both in the C-protocol.

    CONCLUSIONS: A rehabilitation protocol emphasising lengthening type of exercises is more effective than a protocol containing conventional exercises in promoting time to return in Swedish elite sprinters and jumpers.

  • 188.
    Askling, Carl M
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Tengvar, Magnus
    Thorstensson, Alf
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Acute hamstring injuries in Swedish elite football: a prospective randomised controlled clinical trial comparing two rehabilitation protocols.2013In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 47, no 15, p. 953-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Hamstring injury is the single most common injury in European professional football and, therefore, time to return and secondary prevention are of particular concern.

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of two rehabilitation protocols after acute hamstring injury in Swedish elite football players by evaluating time needed to return to full participation in football team-training and availability for match selection.

    STUDY DESIGN: Prospective randomised comparison of two rehabilitation protocols.

    METHODS: Seventy-five football players with an acute hamstring injury, verified by MRI, were randomly assigned to one of two rehabilitation protocols. Thirty-seven players were assigned to a protocol emphasising lengthening exercises, L-protocol and 38 players to a protocol consisting of conventional exercises, C-protocol. The outcome measure was the number of days to return to full-team training and availability for match selection. Reinjuries were registered during a period of 12 months after return.

    RESULTS: Time to return was significantly shorter for the players in the L-protocol, mean 28 days (1SD±15, range 8-58 days), compared with the C-protocol, mean 51 days (1SD±21, range 12-94 days). Irrespective of protocol, stretching-type of hamstring injury took significantly longer time to return than sprinting-type, L-protocol: mean 43 vs 23 days and C-protocol: mean 74 vs 41 days, respectively. The L-protocol was significantly more effective than the C-protocol in both injury types. One reinjury was registered, in the C-protocol.

    CONCLUSIONS: A rehabilitation protocol emphasising lengthening type of exercises is more effective than a protocol containing conventional exercises in promoting time to return in Swedish elite football.

  • 189.
    Askling, Carl Magnus
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    ACUTE HAMSTRING INJURIES IN ELITE FOOTBALL: REHABILITATION - RETURN - PREVENTION2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 190.
    Askling, Carl Magnus
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    LENGTHENING EXERCISES - THE KEY TO REHABILITATION SUCCESS?2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 191.
    Askling, Carl Magnus
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    MANAGING RETURN TO PLAY IN PLAYERS WITH RECURRENT HAMSTRING INJURIES2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 192.
    Askling, Carl Magnus
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Karlsson, Jon
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Malliaropoulos, N
    High-speed running type or stretching-type of hamstring injuries makes a difference to treatment and prognosis2012In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 46, no 2, p. 86-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article focuses on the two distinct types of hamstring muscle strains, highlighting the applicable rehabilitation approaches. It notes that acute hamstring strains are distinguished by the injury situations, namely the high-speed running type, and the stretching type, with the former requiring shorter rehabilitation period than the latter. It cites a comparative study of two rehabilitation protocols, pointing out that rehabilitation is shorter with lengthening exercises.

  • 193.
    Askling, Carl
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Nilsson, Johnny
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Thorstensson, Alf
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    A new hamstring test to complement the common clinical examination before return to sport after injury2010In: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy, ISSN 0942-2056, E-ISSN 1433-7347, Vol. 18, no 12, p. 1788-1803Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: The aim was to introduce and evaluate the reliability and validity of an active hamstring flexibility test as a complement to common clinical examination when determining safe return to sport after hamstring injury.

    METHODS: Eleven healthy subjects (28 years) were tested on repeated occasions, and 11 athletes (21 years) with MRI-verified acute hamstring strain were tested when common clinical examination revealed no signs of remaining injury, i.e. there was no differences between the legs in palpation pain, manual strength tests, and passive straight leg raise. Flexibility, i.e. highest range of motion of three consecutive trials, was calculated from electrogoniometer data during active ballistic hip flexions and conventional passive slow hip-flexions in a supine position. A VAS-scale (0-100) was used to estimate experience of insecurity during active tests.

    RESULTS: No significant test-retest differences were observed. Intra-class correlation coefficients ranged 0.94-0.99 and coefficients of variation 1.52-4.53%. Active flexibility was greater (23%) than passive flexibility. In the athletes, the injured leg showed smaller (8%) active, but not passive, flexibility than the uninjured leg. Average insecurity estimation was 52 (range 28-98) for the injured and 0 for the uninjured leg, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: The new test showed high reliability and construct validity; furthermore, it seems to be sensitive enough to detect differences both in active flexibility and in insecurity after acute hamstring strains at a point in time when the commonly used clinical examination fails to reveal injury signs. Thus, the test could be a complement to the common clinical examination before the final decision to return to sport is made.

  • 194.
    Askling, Carl
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Saartok, Tönö
    Thorstensson, Alf
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Type of acute hamstring strain affects flexiblility, strength and time to return to pre-injury level2006In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 40, p. 40-44Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 195.
    Askling, Carl
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Schache, Anthony
    Posterior thigh pain2013In: Brukner & Khan's clinical sports medicine / [ed] Brukner & Khan, Australia: McGraw-Hill, 2013, 4, p. 594-625Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 196.
    Askling, Carl
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Tengvar, M
    Saartok, T
    Thorstensson, Alf
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Sports related hamstring strains--two cases with different etiologies and injury sites.2000In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 10, no 5, p. 304-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hamstring strains are common injuries in sports. Knowledge about their etiology and localization is, however, limited. The two cases described here both had acute hamstring strains, but the etiologies were entirely different. The sprinter was injured when running at maximal speed, whereas the hamstring strain in the dancer occurred during slow stretching. Also the anatomical localizations of the injuries clearly differed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed pathological changes in the distal semitendinosus muscle in the sprinter and the proximal tendon of the semimembranosus muscle in the dancer. Subjectively, both athletes severely underestimated the recovery time. These case observations suggest a possible link between etiology and localization of hamstring strains.

  • 197.
    Askman, Sebastian
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Lindberg, Sofie
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Att arbeta med kroppsideal i idrott och hälsa - vad innebär det?: En kvalitativ studie om hur lärare på gymnasiet arbetar med kroppsideal2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how PE-teachers in high school reason about their work with body ideals in teaching. The study is of a qualitative type and has a curriculum theoretical starting point.

    - How do PE-teachers work with body ideals?

    - What challenges do PE-teachers consider with the work with body ideals?

    Method

    Five semi-structured interviews were conducted with PE-teachers at high schools in Stockholm County. The interviews analyzed by theoretically thematic analysis.

    Results

    The interviews presented that the teaching of body ideals was mainly characterized by discussions in small or larger groups and the students were examined through either oral discussions or written reflection tasks. The biggest challenges for the teachers was that the subject could be sensitive to talking about and it was difficult to know exactly what should be taught regarding body ideals because the concept of body ideal was difficult to define for the teachers.

    Conclusions

    The lessons was characterized by discussions and it can be difficult for the teachers to know what the teaching should contain.

  • 198.
    Astudillo, Gabriela
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Södrén, Jenny
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Är motivation anledningen till könsuppdelning på gymanläggningar?: En kvantitativ studie om kvinnors motivation till träning, gymanläggningar och tjejdel2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka vilka motivationsfaktorer som finns bland kvinnor som endast styrketränar på gemensam del och bland kvinnor som styrketränar på tjejdel på gym i Stockholm samt om det skiljer sig åt mellan grupperna.

    1. Vad motiveras kvinnor av som styrketränar på gymanläggningar?
    2. Vad motiveras kvinnor av som endast styrketränar på den gemensamma delen på gymanläggningar?
    3. Vad motiveras kvinnor av som styrketränar på tjejdel på gymanläggningar?
    4. Finns det någon/några skillnader i motivationsfaktorer bland kvinnor som endast styrketränar på gemensam del och kvinnor som styrketränar på tjejdel på gymanläggning?

    Metod

    En kvantitativ studiedesign valdes för att besvara studiens syfte och frågeställningar. Urvalsmetoden som användes i denna studie var bekvämlighetsurval som syftar till att respondenterna ska vara lättillgängliga. Utdelningen av enkäterna skedde på två olika gymanläggningar i Stockholms innerstad vid två olika tidpunkter, en tidig morgon och en sen eftermiddag. Enkäten som användes i studien var den validerade enkäten Exercise Motivations Inventory (EMI-2). Enkäten sammanställdes genom att addera siffrorna från varje påstående i 14 underkategorier som därefter kunde delas in i fem nya överkategorier. Testerna som användes för att besvara studiens frågeställningar var Friedman-, Wilcoxon- och Mann-Whitneytest.

    Resultat

    Gruppen som endast styrketränade på den gemensamma delen och gruppen som styrketränade på tjejdelen, det vill säga kvinnor i Stockholm, motiverades mest av Fitnessmotiv och minst av Personliga motiv. Ingen skillnad kunde ses mellan vad som motiverar kvinnor till att styrketräna, oberoende av vilken del kvinnor använder på gymanläggningarna i Stockholm.

    Slutsats

    Motivation var inte en anledning till att kvinnor valde att styrketräna på tjejdelen på gymanläggning. Anledningen till att kvinnor valde att styrketräna på tjejdelen på gymanläggningar är fortfarande obesvarat.

  • 199.
    Atler, Linda
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    ”De som kan simma ska få fördjupning”  : en studie om utvalda skolors simundervisning  2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to describe and compare education in swimming in grade six in two different schools. Another purpose was to investigate students’ perception of their swimming skills and their attitudes to education in swimming. The more précised questions were: (1) How is the education in swimming organized in each school? (2) How do the teachers control that the students reach the goals to attain in swimming in the 5: th grade? (3) How do the students judge their own swimming knowledge? And (4) What attitudes towards the education in swimming do the students have?

    Method: A quantitative method, a questionnaire, was used to answer the purpose and questions of the study. 88 students in grade six in two selected schools participated in the survey. The questionnaire consisted of both open and closed questions. The schools were selected through a purposeful sample. All four physical education teachers at the selected schools were interviewed. A curriculum-theoretical framework has been used to deepen the understanding of the study’s results.

    Results: All four physical education teachers believe that it is important to be able to swim. However the education in swimming is organized very differently in the two schools. One of the schools has swimming lessons 12 weeks per year, once a week (grade 1-6). The other school only offers classes in swimming in the second grade: one semester, in grade 3-6 the school let students show their skills once per school year. The students at both schools are satisfied with the swimming lessons however; they have suggestions of how to improve it. 50% of the students learned to swim in the swimming school outside of school, and could therefore swim before they started school. 13% of the students claim that they are not able to swim 200 meters. The teachers however indicated that all students reach the goals. All four physical education teachers think it is important to be able to swim but that it is the parent’s responsibility

    Conclusion: Swimming education differs a lot in the two schools, despite the fact that all four physical education teachers consider it important. The teachers’ focused on the formulation stage and the achievement of the objectives of the curriculum, rather than problematizing the transformation and realization of objectives. Students are aware of their swimming ability and limitations of this. They also want to learn more in the context swimming education.

     

  • 200.
    Atler, Linda
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Westman, Lisa
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Hur ser elitgolfspelare i Sverige på sin träning?: en nulägesanalys utifrån fyra utvalda hörnstenar2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Utveckling sker inom golfen i Sverige och kunskapen om golfens olika delkapaciteter ökar, men hur ser ”helheten” ut? Detta är en är nulägesanalys på SAS Masters Tour utifrån fyra utvalda hörnstenar samt deras delkapaciteter som vi finner relevanta för elitgolfare i Sverige. Hörnstenarna är fysiskträning, psykiskträning, golfträning samt sociala aspekter.

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet är att ta fram en nulägesanalys utifrån hur elitgolfspelarna tränar idag samt deras egna uppfattningar om vilka behov en elitspelare bör kunna tillfredställa utifrån fyra utvalda hörnstenar.

    Frågeställningar:

    1. Vilka delkapaciteter prioriterar elitspelarna?

    2. Vad önskar elitgolfarna att de kunde lägga ner mer tid på?

    3. Hur tränar golfarna de olika delkapaciteterna, vilka tester ingår?

    Metod

    För att få djupare kunskap om de olika delkapaciteterna granskades först artiklar i databaserna PubMed, Sportdiscus, Eric samt sökning i GIH:s kataloger. Vi har valt att använda en kvantitativ metod där en enkätundersökning ligger som grund för studiens resultat. Enkäten bestod av 79 frågor uppdelade på sex olika delar. Respondenterna var rankade topp 30 på SAS Masters Tour 2008, 20 damer och 20 herrars svar bearbetades sedan i statistikprogrammet SPSS.

    Resultat

    Majoriteten av elitspelarna prioriterar golfträning under tävlingssäsongen under vintersäsongen varierar prioriteringarna. Den delkapaciteten som spelarna lägger ner minst tid på är den psykiska och det är även den som de flesta elitspelarna önskar de kunde prioritera mer. Mindre än hälften av elitspelarna gör kontinuerliga tester för att utvärdera och planera sin träning.

    Slutsats

    Elitspelarna lägger ner tid på de olika hörnstenarna men ser oftast inte sammankopplingen mellan dessa. En lösning på problemet kan vara mer samarbete med nätverk, kommunikation mellan mentaltränare, fystränare och tekniktränare och alltid med spelaren i fokus. Med bättre kommunikation kan vi lära av varandra!

     

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