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  • 1151. Gerber, Markus
    et al.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Lindegård, Agneta
    Börjesson, Mats
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H
    Cardiorespiratory fitness protects against stress-related symptoms of burnout and depression.2013In: Patient Education and Counseling, ISSN 0738-3991, E-ISSN 1873-5134, Vol. 93, no 1, p. 146-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To examine how cardiorespiratory fitness and self-perceived stress are associated with burnout and depression. To determine if any relationship between stress and burnout/depression is mitigated among participants with high fitness levels.

    METHODS: 197 participants (51% men, mean age=39.2 years) took part in the study. The Åstrand bicycle test was used to assess cardorespiratory fitness. Burnout was measured with the Shirom-Melamed Burnout Questionnaire (SMBQ), depressive symptoms with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD-D). A gender-matched stratified sample was used to ensure that participants with varying stress levels were equally represented.

    RESULTS: Participants with moderate and high fitness reported fewer symptoms of burnout and depression than participants with low fitness. Individuals with high stress who also had moderate or high fitness levels reported lower scores on the SMBQ Tension subscale and the HAD-D than individuals with high stress, but low fitness levels.

    CONCLUSION: Better cardiovascular fitness seems to be associated with decreased symptoms of burnout and a better capacity to cope with stress.

    PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Promoting and measuring cardiorespiratory fitness can motivate employees to adopt a more physically active lifestyle and thus strengthen their ability to cope with stress exposure and stress-related disorders.

  • 1152.
    Gerby, Henrik
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Tuneld, Sofie
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Hur är det att vara skadad truppgymnast?: En kvalitativ studie kring psykologiska faktorer i samband med rehabilitering och återgång till idrott2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med studien var att ta reda om det finns olika psykologiska faktorer som har påverkat och hjälpt i rehabiliteringen av en långvarig skada hos truppgymnaster. Frågeställningarna var: Hur upplever de tiden som skadad ur ett psykologiskt perspektiv? samt Vad motiverar gymnasten att återgå till idrotten?

    Metod

    Studien har en kvalitativ ansats och har genomförts med hjälp av semistrukturerade intervjuer. Sju elitgymnaster på hösta nationella nivå deltog i studien där alla hade varit skadade och borta från tävling minst 12 månader. Intervjuerna spelades in, transkriberades och analyserades. Analysen var deduktiv med self determination theory som teoretisk utgångspunkt för att kategorisera resultatet.                                                                                                   

    Resultat

    Resultatet visar att det som motiverar deltagarna att återgå till idrotten var de små framstegen, att rehabiliteringen ger resultat och att det går att utvecklas. Det hade även varit viktigt med socialt stöd under rehabiliteringen. Social support har bland annat kommit från tränare, lagkamrater, föräldrar och sjukgymnaster genom att de lyssnat, förklarat och försökt förstå den skadade. Under tiden som skadad har deltagarna i stor utsträckning förändrat sin syn på gymnastik på grund av skadan. De uppskattar idrotten mer och har fått en ökad förståelse. De känslor som deltagarna har tampats med mest med under tiden som skadad har varit frustration, ilska, bitterhet, vilsenhet, ångest, sorg, ledsamhet, oro, uppgivenhet och utanförskap.

    Slutsats

    Vad som hjälper en skadad idrottare att återgå till idrotten beror på individen. Det som visat sig gemensamt för flera av deltagarna har framförallt varit det sociala stödet, förmågan att kunna se de små framstegen i rehabiliteringen och att de identifierat sig med gymnastiken.

  • 1153.
    Gerdin, Göran
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Växjö.
    Larsson, Håkan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    The productive effect of power: (dis)pleasurable bodies materialising in and through the discursive practices of boys’ physical education.2018In: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 66-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Pleasure is often a key feature of school physical education (PE) and, indeed, a lot of students find pleasure in and through PE while others do not. However, pleasure is rarely considered to be of educational value in the subject [Pringle, R. (2010). “Finding Pleasure in Physical Education: A Critical Examination of the Educative Value of Positive Movement Affects.”Quest62: 119–134]. Further, since pleasure is linked to power [Foucault, M. (1980).Power/Knowledge: Selected Interviews and Other Writings, 1972–1977. New York: Pantheon; Gerdin, G., and R. Pringle. (2015). “The Politics of Pleasure: An Ethnographic Examination Exploring the Dominance of the Multi-Activity Sport-Based Physical Education Model.”Sport, Education and Society. doi:10.1080/13573322.2015.1019448] it is in fact not entirely straightforward to legitimise the educational value of PE in relation to pleasure.

    Purpose: In this paper, we explore how a group of boys derive pleasures from their involvement in PE, but also how these power-induced pleasures are integral to gender normalisation processes. The findings presented are particularly discussed in terms of inclusive/exclusive pedagogical practices related to gender, bodies and pleasures.

    Research setting and participants: The research setting was a single-sex, boys’ secondary school in Auckland, New Zealand. Participants in this study were 60 Year 10 (age 14–15) students from two PE classes.

    Data collection and analysis: Using a visual ethnographic approach [Pink, S. (2007).Doing Visual Ethnography. London: Sage] involving observations and video recordings of boys participating in PE, the boys’ representations and interpretations of the visual data were explored during both focus groups and individual interviews. The data were analysed using (a visually oriented) discourse analysis [Foucault, M. (1998). “Foucault.” InMichel Foucault. Aesthetics, Method and Epistemology, edited by J. D. Faubion, 459–463. New York: The New Press; Rose, G. (2007).Visual Methodologies: An Introduction to the Interpretation of Visual Materials. London: Sage].

    Findings: By elucidating the discursive practices of PE in this setting and employing (Butler, J. (1993).Bodies that Matter: On the Discursive Limits of ‘Sex’. New York: Routledge] concept of ‘materialisation’, we suggest that boy’s bodies materialise as productive and pleasurable or displeasurable bodies through submitting/subjecting to certain bodily regimes, developing embodied mastery when it comes to certain sports, and displaying bodies in particular ways. The analysis indicate that the discursive practices of PE contribute to boys’ bodies materialising as pleasurable or displeasurable and the (re)production of gender in the subject as shaped by discourse and the productive effect of power.

    Discussion and conclusions: In line with [Gard, M. (2008). “When a Boy’s Gotta Dance: New Masculinities, Old Pleasures.”Sport, Education and Society13 (2): 181–193], we conclude that the focus on certain discursively constructed bodily practices at the same time continues to restrict the production of a diversity of bodily movement pleasures. Hence, traditional gender patterns are reproduced through a selection of particular sports/physical activities that all the students are expected to participate in. We propose that the ongoing constitution of privileged forms of masculinity, masculine bodies and masculine pleasures as related to fitness, health and sport and (certain) boys’ subsequent exercise of power in PE needs further critical examination. 

  • 1154.
    Gibbs, Béatrice
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Wii lär oss dansa?: Om dansspel, rörelsekvaliteter och lärande i idrott och hälsa2014Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Few studies have focused on how learning takes place in physical education and health (PEH) practices, and even more so in relation to artifact use. Dance is a core content in the Swedish curriculum, but according to previous research it nevertheless rarely occurs in practice due to many teachers’ lack of knowledge. Movement qualities are something that students are supposed to develop in the subject, where dance can be used as a form of activity.

    The aim of the licentiate thesis is to examine students’ use and development of different movement qualities in a learning process where dance exergames are used as teaching aids in the PEH practice in upper secondary school. The research questions in the study are: (1) what kind of movement qualities do students use when they interact with each other and with dance exergames, and (2) how does the learning of movement qualities occur when dance exergames are used as teaching aids?

    A series of seven PEH-lessons were designed. Four of the lesson had a spe-cific purpose, such as working with rhythm and coordination where the exergames Nintendo Wii Just Dance 3 and 4 were used as teaching aids. In two other lessons the students worked in groups to create their own dances, and as a final goal, at lesson seven, the groups presented their dances. All the lessons were video recorded. A framework inspired by Laban’s movement analysis was used to analyze the students’ movement qualities, based on four aspects: body, space, effort and relationship. To be able to analyze the students, the dance exergames and the context as a whole, the study involved a socio-cultural ap-proach to learning. Learning situations in the ongoing practice were also ana-lyzed, where learning was investigated as something that occurs through inter-actions between students and between students and artifacts.

    The results show a way to describe students’ movement qualities, which con-tribute to PEH-teachers language of knowledge in movement. The results also demonstrate that learning occurred through imitation, repetition, communica-tion, negotiation, practice, modeling, instruction and using metaphors. A con-clusion is that students’ use and development of movement qualities do not depend on the use of the dance exergames per se, instead it depends on how the dance exergames are used in PEH practice.

  • 1155.
    Gibbs, Béatrice
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Almqvist, Jonas
    Uppsala universitet.
    Meckbach, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    Örebro universitet.
    Öhman, Marie
    Örebro universitet.
    TV-spel som läromedel i idrott och hälsa?2012In: Idrott & Hälsa, ISSN 1653-1124, no 8, p. 11-14Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1156.
    Gibbs, Béatrice
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences. School of Health Sciences, Örebro University.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    School of Health Sciences, Örebro University.
    Larsson, Håkan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Teaching dance in physical education using exergames2017In: European Physical Education Review, ISSN 1356-336X, E-ISSN 1741-2749, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 237-256Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the different ways in which a dance exergame can be used to teach dance in upper secondary school physical education. Particular attention is paid to the learning processes that students are involved in when the dance game is used as a teaching resource. A socio-cultural perspective on learning constitutes the analytical framework. The study demonstrates three different uses: instructor, facilitator and inspirer. In relation to these uses the students are involved in the following learning processes: learning by imitating, repeating, communicating, negotiating, instructing, modelling and using metaphors. It is argued that dance exergames can be used pedagogically to teach dance because they focus on the moves and steps and allow the teacher to focus on observing, supporting, assigning tasks and providing feedback.

  • 1157.
    Gidewall, Oscar
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Johnsson, Matthias
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Blodlaktat, hjärtfrekvens och skattad ansträngning vid löpning på rullband jämfört med löpning på fast underlag2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Treadmill running has become an increasingly popular substitute for training purposes, especially in northern degrees of latitude (due to bad weather conditions during the winter). The treadmill is also an important ergometer for estimating performance and testing in a controlled environment. A blood lactate accumulation test is a test predominately executed on a treadmill. Such a test is performed to establish the speed (velocity) at the point where blood lactate production exceeds the ability of lactate clearance, or a maximum lactate steady state. In order to use such a test to predict race speed, or to find a correct pace for threshold training purposes, it is assumed that running on a treadmill and track is equivalent. Starting from a blood lactate accumulation test executed on a treadmill, the aims of this study were to compare treadmill and track running, with attention to heart rate (HF), blood lactate (Hla) and rated perceived exertion (RPE). Are there any differences in treadmill and track running?

    Methodology

    A total of nine runners (7 males and 2 females) participated voluntarily in the study. The subjects were all very experienced and well-trained runners (Age: 20-39 yrs., m=26.8, SD=6.6). Initially each subject accomplished a blood lactate accumulation test on a treadmill. The individual speed (12.5-19.5 km/h, m=17.05, SD=2.15), corresponding to the anaerobic threshold of each runner, respectively, was used as the starting point. Secondly, two identical training sessions (5x1000m, with 60-sec rest) were accomplished by each subject, both on the track (200m, indoor), and on a treadmill. Half the group of subjects carried out the first session on the track, and vice verse. Immediately after each 1000m-run, lactate in blood was sampled and the exertion in legs and breathing were rated, following the RPE/Borg-scale. The HF was recorded continuously every 5-seconds, throughout the sessions.

    Results and conclusion

    The results of the study indicate significant differences in Hla and HF. The metabolic stress was significantly higher on the track. However, no statistically significant differences were found regarding RPE. The study concludes that testing performed on a treadmill cannot perfectly be reproduced on the track. Any monitoring of training intensity on a track, based on results from blood lactate accumulation testing on a treadmill, should be carried out with caution. The athlete and coach should be aware that the metabolic stress is higher on track compared to treadmill running. This knowledge is particularly valuable for any athlete who aims to train, or compete, at levels close to the anaerobic threshold, but without running any risk of exceeding the lactate steady state.

  • 1158.
    Gidén Persson, Roger
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Nyckelhålet: Hur uppfattar unga konsumenter symbolen?2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Aim

    The purpose of this research was to find out how consumers born between 1975-85 who has left their parents home comprehend the “Keyhole mark” symbol. The purpose is also to find out if there is any difference between men and women as well as consumers from the low price store and the normal price store. To evaluate this I have chosen five questions as starting points; 1. Do consumers recognize the symbol? 2. How do consumers describe their understanding of the symbol? 3. What qualities do the consumers ascribe to the keyhole mark? 4. What reasons do the consumer have to choose or not choose products with the keyhole mark? 5. From where has the consumer got the knowledge of the keyhole mark?

    Method

    60 people, 30 customers at a normal price store and 30 customers at a low price store have answered a questionnaire containing 21 questions. 36 of the people responding were women, and 24 were men. The questionnaire contained both open and closed questions. The selected group is born between 1975-85 and all of them have moved out from their parents home. I have been standing next to products marked with the keyhole mark, and there I have found my respondents. According to an estimation of the possible consumers for the stores I have managed to reach 33% of my sample group at the low price store and 29% at the normal price store.

    Results

    All of the people responding except one recognized the symbol Keyhole mark. The consumers understand the Keyhole mark as a symbol that conveys healthy and low fat products. Consumers describe the symbol as a mark of low fat and healthy food. They also choose to buy products with these qualities. Consumers do sometimes not choose these products due to the price. Media seems to be the information channel from where the consumers mainly have obtained knowledge of the symbol. There are no clear differences between the answers given by men and women, or between the consumers in the two different types of stores.

    Conclusions

    Consumers born between 1975-85, who has moved out from their parents home understand the keyhole marks properties well. As good as all respondents recognize the symbol. The majority of the respondents describe the symbol as a mark of low fat and healthy food. That is also the reason why they choose to buy these products. A large percentage of the consumers consider these products expensive. Media appears to be the channel, where a great part of the consumers have obtained knowledge about the keyhole mark. Differences between men´s and women’s knowledge about the keyhole mark are marginal. The same scenario concerns the differences between consumers in the low price store and the normal price store. Earlier studies have shown that a great percentage of the consumers consider the keyhole mark to be kind of environmental mark. The same results was found in the present study .

  • 1159. Gilenstam, Kajsa M
    et al.
    Thorsen, Kim
    Henriksson-Larsén, Karin B
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Physiological correlates of skating performance in women's and men's ice hockey.2011In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287, Vol. 25, no 8, p. 2133-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the current investigation was to identify relationships between physiological off-ice tests and on-ice performance in female and male ice hockey players on a comparable competitive level. Eleven women, 24 ± 3.0 years, and 10 male ice hockey players, 23 ± 2.4 years, were tested for background variables: height, body weight (BW), ice hockey history, and lean body mass (LBM) and peak torque (PT) of the thigh muscles, VO2peak and aerobic performance (Onset of Blood Lactate Accumulation [OBLA], respiratory exchange ratio [RER1]) during an incremental bicycle ergometer test. Four different on-ice tests were used to measure ice skating performance. For women, skating time was positively correlated (p < 0.05) to BW and negatively correlated to LBM%, PT/BW, OBLA, RER 1, and VO2peak (ml O2·kg(-1) BW(-1)·min(-1)) in the Speed test. Acceleration test was positively correlated to BW and negatively correlated to OBLA and RER 1. For men, correlation analysis revealed only 1 significant correlation where skating time was positively correlated to VO2peak (L O2·min(-1)) in the Acceleration test. The male group had significantly higher physiological test values in all variables (absolute and relative to BW) but not in relation to LBM. Selected off-ice tests predict skating performance for women but not for men. The group of women was significantly smaller and had a lower physiological performance than the group of men and were slower in the on-ice performance tests. However, gender differences in off-ice variables were reduced or disappeared when values were related to LBM, indicating a similar capacity of producing strength and aerobic power in female and male hockey players. Skating performance in female hockey players may be improved by increasing thigh muscle strength, oxygen uptake, and relative muscle mass.

  • 1160.
    Giotis, Anna-Maria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Hindrad av en tanke: En studie av mentala blockeringar inom kvinnlig truppgymnastik2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim and Questions

    The aim of this study is to examine the incidence, handling and experienced causes of mental blockings in female teamgym at national youth and junior level.

    • Which type of exercise is the most common mental blocking in female teamgym?

    • How does the blockings show according to the gymnasts and coaches?

    • Which possible causes to origin of mental blockings can be understood on the basis of the stories of the gymnasts and coaches?

    • In which ways have gymnasts and coaches tried to handle mental blockings?

    Method

    The study started out with a literature search for previous research. Thereafter a questionnaire was formed in two versions (for gymnasts and coaches) and these were sent to gymnasts and coaches at national youth and junior level in six different clubs. The gymnasts were chosen by their level of training and competition.

    Results

    The study showed that mental blockings is a very common phenomenon in teamgym and is something that the majority of the gymnasts at some point have been affected by. The blockings are often revealed by the gymnasts refusing or totally excluding the exercise from training and the blockings are most frequently occurring in the apparatus called tumbling. Yet, the study shows that most gymnasts experience mental blockings in more then one apparatus. Vaults that rotate backwards tend to bee the type of exercise that most gymnasts have blockings for. This was believed to mainly depend on the gymnasts thinking they will fail to succeed with the exercise followed by causes like previous injuries and mental immatureness. Most gymnasts and coaches have in some way tried to solve the problem, mainly by physical measures and have in situations of mental blockings felt afraid, frustrated and like failure.

    Conclusions

    Mental blockings is a big problem and few gymnasts and coaches know how to handle them. The need of more research in the area and focus on mental training in the gymnastics association is big.

  • 1161.
    Giotis, Anna-Maria
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Nilsson, Anna
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Våga vägra vara rädd!: En studie av rädsla inom kvinnlig truppgymnastik2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim and Questions

    The aim with this study was to examine the incidence and handling of fear in female teamgym and to suggest and test possible physical exercises and training possibilities.

    - How common is the feeling of fear among gymnasts?

    - How does the fear show according to the gymnasts themselves?

    - Do the selected physical exercises have a positive effect in handling and overcoming fear?

    Method

    Starting out, information in former studies was searched for. To be able to survey the participating gymnasts, a questionnaire was made. Through observation during training sessions and by means of the questionnaire we were able to see what exercises the gymnasts feel fearful about and how often they feel that fear is a part of training.

    On the basis of these questionnaires and observations a number of possible measures and ways of training this issue were designed and these were thereafter tested.

    Finally another evaluating questionnaire was made with all participating gymnasts to investigate if the tested exercises had given any positive results.

    Results

    Early in the study, the fact that fear is a common problem in Teamgym was established. Fear of loosing control, fear of injuries and fear of failure appeared to be common reasons among the gymnasts, and these could also be categorized in further types of fear. Tumbling and trampette turned out to be the apparatus that the gymnasts felt the most fearful about. The tested exercises all gave a positive result and the gymnasts considered themselves becoming not only less afraid but also better of handling their fear.

    Conclusions

    Through this study, a conclusion can be made that a psychological problem like fear can be treated physically. A combination of psychological and physical methods is probably the most effective way of treatment. Fear, however, is something very individual and should be treated thereafter.

  • 1162. Gjerset, Asbjørn
    et al.
    Nilsson, Johnny
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Wulf Helge, Jørn
    Enoksen, Eystein
    Idrettens treningslære2015 (ed. 2)Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [no]

    Den nye utgaven av Idrettens treningslære viser hvordan vi kan påvirke og utvikle en idrettsutøvers egenskaper og ferdigheter i gunstig retning.

    Boka omhandler først og fremst grunnleggende forhold ved trening som er felles for ulike idretter og målgrupper. I mange sammenhenger går boka også nærmere inn på mer spesifikke forhold ved treningen i forskjellige idretter. Særlig vektlegges

    • utvikling av egenskaper og ferdigheter som danner grunnlaget for den idrettslige prestasjonsevnen
    • planlegging, gjennomføring, dokumentasjon, analyse og evaluering av trening
    • fysiologiske, psykologiske og andre faktorer som er viktig for prestasjonen
    • belastning og tilpasning i forbindelse med trening
    • fysisk, motorisk, psykisk og sosial utvikling

    En treningslære som fungerer godt, hviler på både praktisk erfaring og bred analytisk tilnærming, og vitenskapelig dokumentasjon er en viktig del av dette. I denne boka kombineres derfor disse tilnærmingene.  

    Idrettens treningslære er skrevet for undervisning på universitets- og høgskolenivå, og for utdanningen av trenere i treningsbransjen og i idretten generelt. Boken har blitt til gjennom et samarbeid mellom treningsmiljøer i Norge, Sverige og Danmark. 17 forfattere har bidratt med sin kompetanse på sine fagfelt.

    (Information från förlaget)

  • 1163.
    Glas, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Tekniska fel i handboll: Analys av svensk och dansk herr-elithandboll2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet var att undersöka om tekniska fel har potentiell påverkan på framgång i handboll. Studiens frågeställningar var (1) Hur ser ett eventuellt samband ut mellan ett lags antal tekniska fel under en säsong och dess slutplacering i serietabellen? och (2) Vilken inverkan har ett lags aeroba förmåga på dess antal tekniska fel?

    Metod

    För att kunna besvara studiens frågeställning så delades studien upp i två delar. Första delen ämnar besvara huruvida ett lags antal tekniska fel inverkar på ett lags slutplacering i serietabellen. För att besvara den frågan inhämtades data från samtliga matcher och serietabeller i högsta serierna i Sverige (Elitserien) och Danmark (Boxerligan) under säsongerna 2011/12-2015/16.  För att besvara den andra frågeställningen rekryterades tre lag från Elitserien 2015/16 för genomförande av konditionstester.

    Resultat

    2011-16 var medelvärdet för tekniska fel/lag/match i Elitserien 11,8 ± 1,2 och i Boxerligan 11,4 ± 1,2. Missade passningar står för 40-45%, av alla tekniska fel, och närmare en fjärdedel av alla tekniska fel genererar ett mål till motståndaren inom 10 sekunder. För både Elitserien (BF=1,221e+22, p<0,001) och Boxerligan (BF=1,032e+10, p<0,001) var det ett väldigt starkt samband mellan antal tekniska fel och matchens utgång. Antal tekniska fel/lag/match var kopplat till lagets placering i både Elitserien (starkt stöd, BF=52, p<0,001) och i Boxerligan (väldigt starkt stöd, BF=2658, p<0,001). Sambandet mellan tekniska fel och lag som tog sig till slutspel mot de som inte gjorde det gav ett starkt stöd för Elitserien (BF=3,2, p<0,01) och ett mycket starkt stöd i Boxerligan (BF=87, p<0,001). Det lag som hade högst konditionsvärde hade lägst antal tekniska fel, men endast svagt stöd (BF=1,5) fanns för detta samband.

    Slutsats

    Slutplacering i Elitserien och Boxerligan har ett starkt samband med det antal tekniska fel ett lag förorsakar i match. Ju färre antal tekniska fel desto större chans att nå slutspel sett över åren 2011-2016. Det finns ett svagt samband som stöd för att kondition samvarierar med antal tekniska fel.

  • 1164.
    Glas, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH.
    Mattsson, C. Mikael
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Physiological requirements of elite handball – measured with a combination of local positioning system and heart rate monitoring.2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For all athletes, it is important to adjust training plans and competition schedule according to each individual's specific traits and situation. This is crucial in team sports, where players, despite being involved in the same sport, and even on the same team, may have very different physiological capacities and, also have completed a wide variety of work in both training and match situations. A first step towards being able to carry out individualized training is to accurately measure the amount of stress (physiological burden) for each individual. The purpose of the study was to create a comprehensive picture of the physical requirements of elite handball matches, and further investigate how the relationship between work load and physical capacity impacts performance.

    Heart rate measurements have since decades been used to quantify the relative work, and GPS measurement as a tool for objective values has been available for outdoor sports for about ten years, but GPS is not possible to use indoors. We have used a new technology with a similar system for indoor use called Local Positioning System (LPS) (Kinexon Precision Technologies, Münich, Germany) to record and analyze the players’ motion during games, and we have combined that technology with data from accelerometry, gyroscope and heart rate measurements.

    So far, 42 handball matches have been measured and analyzed, ranging from juniors (9 games U21 men's national team) to seniors, men and women, and both in Sweden’s highest league and between national teams (Women: 8 national and 7 international games; Men: 14 national and 4 international games).

    A first "result" is that the categorization of motion patterns need to be adapted to each sport. For example, some moves that should be counted as accelerations in handball are not recognized by the system, simply because it has been adapted to the pattern of motion on the much larger soccer field. This is similarly important to realize when comparing results for handball’s physiological requirements reached using other technologies. In this presentation, we will in part discuss the future technological opportunities, and in part report descriptive results, including how fast and far the players move, as well as differences between men and women, between national and international games, and between juniors and seniors.

  • 1165. Gleddie, Doug
    et al.
    Feith, Joey
    Howe, P. David
    Larsson, Håkan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Cale, Lorraine
    Casey, Ashley
    Joey: social media as a tool for professional development2016In: Digital technologies and learning in physical education: pedagogical cases / [ed] Ashley Casey, Victoria A. Goodyear, Kathleen M. Armour, Routledge, 2016, p. 121-136Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1166. Glemne, Mats
    et al.
    Fahlström, Per Göran
    Hageskog, Carl-Axel
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Linnér, Susanne
    London calling – OS 2012 är målet för Coachteamet2011In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 29-33Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett samverkansprojekt om coaching vid mästerskap pågår mellan Linnéuniversitetet och Svenska Friidrottsförbundet. Projektet Coachteamet har gett fruktbara möten mellan akademi och elitidrott; forskning och utbildning. Samtidigt visar hittills gjorda erfarenheter att det behövs tid för att överbrygga bland annat kulturella skillnader.

  • 1167.
    Glimvert, Daniel
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Svensson, Tobias
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Kommunicera mera!?!: en kvalitativ och kvantitativ studie om kommunikation mellan två svenska specialidrottsförbund och dess elitserieföreningar2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudent thesis
  • 1168.
    Godhe, Manne
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group. Militärmedicinska forskningsgruppen, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Helge, Torbjörn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group. Militärmedicinska forskningsgruppen, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Mattsson, C. Mikael
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences. Militärmedicinska forskningsgruppen, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group. Militärmedicinska forskningsgruppen, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Att bära tungt - en fysiologisk analys: Kvinnor: Rapport 8.2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sjutton kvinnliga vältränade försökspersoner, åtta stycken med vana att bära tungt och nio stycken utan sådan vana, genomförde gång på löpband och mjukt underlag i hastigheterna 3 och 5 km/tim med bärvikter i ryggsäck på 20, 35 och 50 kg.Mjukt underlag i form av blå gymnastikmattor, indikerande gång i lätt terräng, ökade energiomsättningen under både hastigheterna mellan 10 och 15 %, jämfört med hårt underlag (löpband) med en grads lutning. Energiomsättningen ökade i genomsnitt lika mycket med ökad hastighet som med ökad bärvikt. Den individuella variationen vid en given bärvikt och hastighet är mycket stor. Beroende på bärvikt och hastighet kan energiomsättningen variera med 100 %. Dessa stora variationer i energiomsättning bör uppmärksammas vid beräkning av energitilldelning via kosten vid längre militära operationer.Energiomsättningen vid tyngsta belastningen – 50 kilo bärvikt och hastigheten 5 km/tim – belastade försökspersonerna på i genomsnitt 57 % av maximal syreupptagningsförmåga. I individuella fall var belastningen 72 % av maximal syreupptagningsförmåga. Dessa höga belastningar är oacceptabelt höga för transporter under längre tid och kan vara en orsak till belastningsskador.Förmågan att bära tungt sammanfaller med ökad kroppsvikt och benmuskelstyrka. Bärförmåga för mindre vikter, högst 35 kg, sammanfaller inte med någon av ovanstående faktorer. Således, för tyngre bärvikter vid förflyttningar bör selektion av soldater ske enligt de uppmätta parametrarna, medan vad gäller lättare vikter föreligger inte samma selektionskriterier.En slutsats från resultaten av denna undersökning är den ursprungliga uttagningen till tunga arbetsuppgifter inom försvaret bör genomföras med tunga arbetsbelastningar, motsvarande de i denna undersökning. I kommande rapport sammanfattas studierna på män och kvinnors bärförmåga, likheter och olikheter mellan könen, möjliga selektionskriterier samt rekommendationer med utgångspunkt från genomförda undersökningar och resultat från olika andra undersökningar.

  • 1169.
    Godhe, Manne
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Helge, Torbjörn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Mattsson, C. Mikael
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Physiological factors of importance for load carriage2017In: ICSPP Abstracts: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, November 2017 20 Supplement 2:S105, 2017, Vol. 20, no Supplement 2, p. S105-, article id 176Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 1170.
    Godhe, Manne
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Helge, Torbjörn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Mattsson, C Mikael
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Physiological factors of importance for load carriageManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The energy expenditure during carrying no load, 20, 35 and 50 kg at two walking speeds, 3 and 5 km/h, was studied in 36 healthy participants, 19 men (30 ± 6 yrs, 82.5 ± 7.0 kg) and 17 women (29 ± 6 yrs, 66.1 ± 8.9 kg). Anthropometric data, leg muscle strength as well as trunk muscle endurance and muscle fibre distribution of the thigh were also obtained. To load the participant a standard backpack filled with extra weight according to the carrying weight tested was used. Extra Load Index (ELI), the oxygen uptake (VO2) during total load over no-load-exercise, was used as a proxy for load carrying ability. In addition to analyzing factors of importance for the ELI values, we also conducted mediator analyzes using sex and long term carrying experience as causal variables for ELI as the outcome value. For the lowest load (20 kg), ELI20, was correlated with body mass but no other factors. Walking at 5 km/h body mass, body height, leg muscle strength and absolute VO2max were correlated to ELI35 and ELI50, but relative VO2max, trunk muscle endurance and leg muscle fibre distribution were not. Sex as causal factor was evaluated in a mediator analyses with ELI50 as outcome. ELI50 at 5 km/h differed between the sexes. The limit for acceptable body load, 40% of VO2max (according to Astrand, 1967), was nearly reached for women carrying 35 kg (39%) and surpassed at 50 kg at 3 km/h, and for men carrying 50 kg at 5 km/h. This difference was only mediated by difference in body mass. Neither muscle fibre distribution, leg muscle strength, trunk muscle endurance and body height nor did absolute or relative VO2max explain the difference. Participants with long term experience of heavy load carrying had significant lower ELI20 and ELI50 values than those with minor or non-experience, but none of the above studied factors could explain this difference. The study showed that body mass and experience of carrying heavy loads are important factors for the ability to carry heavy loads.

  • 1171.
    Godhe, Manne
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Stoltz, Victor
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    GT3X - En valideringsstudie av en ny accelerometer2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med denna studie är att validera accelerometern GT3X. Utifrån detta syfte formulerades följande frågeställningar:

    - Hur väl kan GT3X uppskatta energiutgift på olika intensiteter?

    - Har kroppsplaceringen av GT3X någon betydelse för dess förmåga att uppskatta energiutgift?

    - Vilka är gränsvärdena för GT3X-counts relaterat till METs?

    Metod

    9 kvinnor och 18 män (ålder: 22-36 år) gick och joggade på ett löpband (3 km/h, 4,9 km/h, 8 km/h och 10 km/h) och utförde ett steptest (180 BPM). GT3X bars på fem olika placeringar (höger överarm, ländrygg, höger fotled, höger handled samt höger sida på höften) samtidigt, i syfte att beräkna energiutgift, insamlades data om försökspersonens in- och utandningsluft med ett syreupptagningsmätningssystem. Korrelationen mellan vardera accelerometerplacering (överarm, ländrygg, fotled, handled, höft) och uppmätt energiutgift beräknades genom ett bivariat korrelationstest. Genom regressionsanalyser fastställdes den bästa prediktorn för total energiutgift, uppmätt med syreupptagningsmätningssystem. Detta gjordes för låga, höga samt blandade intensiteter. Regressionsanalyserna utfördes med hänsyn till accelerometervektorer, vikt, längd och isättningar. I samtliga regressionsanalyser plockades även puls med, i ett separat steg.

    Resultat

    Samtliga placeringar visade hög korrelation, mellan GT3X-counts och uppmätt energiutgift, på låga intensiteter (rö.arm= 0, 840, rländrygg= 0,832, rfotleden= 0,790, rhandled= 0,789, rhöft= 0,801) samt över hela intensitetsspannet sammantaget (rö.arm= 0,704 rländrygg= 0,749 rfotleden= 0,600 rhandled= 0,642 rhöft= 0,716). På höga intensiteter visades, för samtliga placeringar, ett svagt negativt samband (rö.arm= -0,109, rländrygg= -0,086, rfotleden= -0,122, rhandled= -0,189, rhöft= -0,074) mellan GT3X counts och uppmätt energiutgift. På samtliga intensiteter kunde GT3X, tillsammans med övrig data, förklara upptill 87,1 % av variationer av uppmätt energiutgift (R2=0, 871).

    Slutsats

    GT3X är ett valitt mätinstrument för uppskattning av energiutgift på låg- samt blandad intensitet. Vid måttlig till hög intensitet är GT3X beroende av puls, för att uppnå samma höga förklaringsgrad. Placeringen av GT3X har en marginell betydelse vid uppskattning av energiutgift, detta gäller oavsett intensitet. Gränsvärdena för GT3X counts relaterat till METs varierar beroende på placering.

  • 1172.
    Godhe, Manne
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Stoltz, Victor
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Mätning av prestation i tekniska moment i fotboll: ett testbatteri genomfört av juniorer på elitnivå2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Aim: The aim of the study was to create and evaluate a test battery, which in an objective way could measure a group of soccer players’ technical performance, and further, to create a series of exercises, which incorporate important soccer-specific techniques, and test the exercises for reliability through “test-retest”. The aim of the study was also to make a comparison between dominant leg and non-dominant leg in exercises where both feet were being used.

    Method: Twelve male elite junior players (age 16-19) and seven women junior players (age 15-17) underwent a test battery consisting of a total of 21 exercises to measure the soccer-specific techniques of heading, controlling, running with the ball, and touch of the ball. Eight of the men (age 16-19) underwent the test battery again in order to evaluate the reliability of the test battery (”retest”). The correlation between each exercise’s test result from the first test session (”test”) and the second test session (“retest”) was determined by the use of Pearson’s correlation coefficients (r). The differences in quantified performance between dominant leg and second best foot non-dominant leg were calculated by the use of a paired t-test.

    Results: Five of the exercises showed significant correlation between the results from the two test sessions. These exercises were: dead ball precisionshot using best foot (r=0,949), shotspeed using best foot (r=0,734), controlling airborne ball with chest (r=0,743) and the exercises straight forward sprint without the ball and straight forward sprint with the ball from which the ratio between the two last mentioned exercises showed significant correlation (r=0,805). In both groups there were a significant difference in performance between best and second-best foot in the exercises of; shooting speed, ground long passing, and repeated touches. In addition, the male juniors showed a significant difference in performance in the exercise of shooting precision on bouncing ball.

    Conclusions: The low number of participants leads to the notion that the results of the study should be interpreted with precaution. The study however shows that an objective evaluation of several soccer-specific techniques is possible and that a couple of the exercises showed high correlation between ”test” and ”retest”. Since the results in some aspects point towards significant differences in performance between second-best foot and best foot, the authors’ opinion is that both feet should be tested in an evaluation of a soccer player’s technical ability.

  • 1173.
    Golding, Alison
    et al.
    Department of Dance Science, Trinity Laban, London, UK.
    Boes, Claudia
    School of Healthcare Studies, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK.
    Nordin-Bates, Sanna
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Investigating learning through developmental dance movement as a kinaesthetic tool in the Early Years Foundation Stage2016In: Research in Dance Education, ISSN 1464-7893, E-ISSN 1470-1111, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 235-267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The understanding of the significance of movement to learning benefits from advances in neuroscience. This study considered a neurophysiological perspective in relation to the educational theory of Accelerated Learning (AL) for which little empirical evidence exists. Childhood development themes and learning strategies from a neurophysical-psychological viewpoint were investigated through the use of developmental dance movement (DDM) as a kinaesthetic tool over an eight-session programme with three early years practitioners and two reception classes in two UK primary schools. The research strategy included both qualitative and quantitative methods to capture examples of accelerated learning and transfer. Qualitative data from three semi-structured interviews with early years practitioners was based on their observations of intervention sessions on a whole-group level and selected case studies of children in their class. The data were analysed with the aim of addressing their views on the children’s learning, which influenced and elucidated the practitioners own learning outcomes. Quantitative methods utilised the Goodenough–Harris draw-a-person test with participating children to explore change in visual-motor integration and developmental maturity as a measure of accelerated learning and transfer. Findings supported neuroscientific research and highlighted useful and contradictory aspects of AL theory. Practitioners were able to identify benefits for pupils with specific learning needs. Case studies demonstrated accelerated learning through observed changed behaviour. T-test results from Aston index pre-post scored drawings showed significant differences (p = 0.005) in visual-motor integration and developmental maturity. It is concluded that DDM can provide opportunity for physical/cognitive advancement for young children.

  • 1174. Goodger, K
    et al.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Professional practice issues in athlete burnout2012In: Professional Practice in Sport Psychology / [ed] S. Hanton & SD. Mellalieu, New York: Routledge, 2012, p. 133-164Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1175.
    Gottlind, Louise
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Kvinnors upplevelser av delaktighet, information och tillgänglighet efter digital fysioterapi via en interaktiv app: en webbaserad enkätstudie2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The aim was to explore women’s perceptions of web-based physiotherapy for musculoskeletal pain treatment delivered through an interactive application for smartphones. Questions: To what extent do women have a positive experience of participation, information and availability after web-based physiotherapy through an interactive app? Is there a difference in a-c between women who had visited primary care 2016 (NPE) and the ones who had received physiotherapeutic treatment trough the app (FT-app)?

    Background: The popularity of eHealth is growing both among health care innovators and media. eHealth may increase the access of health services and the evaluation of new services is important. Internet based psychological treatment for musculoskeletal pain is an alternative to traditional treatment in Sweden. A pilot with web-based physiotherapeutic treatment delivered through an interactive app (FT-app) was tested 2014-2017 for treatment in women with musculoskeletal pain. The app included a chat where the physiotherapist answered questions within 24 hours (mon-fri), an activity diary, videos of the exercises and uploaded movies from the patient doing the exercise. The treatment was based on behavioral medicine and lasted for at least 12 weeks. The women were screened for red and yellow flags before start and had no acute pain.

    Method: A web-based survey with 37 questions was emailed to the women (n=139) 1-24 months after finishing the treatment in FT-app. A Likert scale was used for rating the answer 1-4 and 1-5. The results were compared to results from women’s perceptions of primary health care in Sweden 2016 (NPE). The response rate in both samples were analyzed with a z-test.

    Results: 52,5 % answered the survey. The majority answered positively to the claim that getting answer and feedback within 24 hours made compliance to treatment plan easier (92,3%) and helped them accomplish the prescribed exercises and activity (94,5%). The written dialogue was effective for remembering the advices (93,2%) and the FT-app made it possible for the women to adjust the treatment to their everyday living (95,9%). There were significant differences between NPE and FT-app regarding explanation of the treatment (p=0,0045) information of warning signals (p=0,0002) and ways of contact (p=0,0045).

    Conclusion: This study shows that the FT-app women experienced a significant greater participation and access to the service compared to the primary care women in some claims. The response rate was not big enough to generalize the results to the population and the survey was not tested for validity or reliability. This study suggests more research in this field to investigate perceptions of internet-based treatment and to identify when telerehabilitation is suitable as an alternative to traditional health care.

  • 1176.
    Graffman-Sahlberg, Marie
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Fysisk aktivitetsgrad och nedstämdhet: En studie av elever i årskurs 3 på gymnasiet2009Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim

    The main aim of this study was to investigate if there is a correlation between the extent of physical activity and low-spiritedness/depression among students in the third year of upper secondary school. Further aims were to investigate if low-spirited or depressed students experienced the feelings of sense of meaning, joy and happiness, calm and harmony, and control of the weekday to the same extent as non low-spirited/depressed students. Moreover to investigate if the experienced level of stress relates to the amount of physical activity. Finally all these aspects where investigated with a gender perspective.

    Method

    In this study a quantitative questionnaire method was used. The participants were 252 students in the third year of upper secondary school from different study programmes. The questionnaire answers were statistically analyzed with SPSS, and the level of significance was set at p<0, 05.

    Results

    The results showed that more than a third of the students at the current schools where low-spirited or depressed, the girls to a higher degree than boys. The extent of physical activity was low, 37 % of the girls and 28 % of the boys where physically inactive.  The students who were very physically active had lower CES-D value i.e. they where less low-spirited and depressed. The results also showed that the students who had a higher extent of physical activity experienced a lower level of stress then students with lower extent or non physical activity. Seventy to ninety percent of those in this study who were low-spirited or depressed exhibited, girls as well as boys, that they seldom or never experienced the following feelings: sense of meaning, joy and happiness, calm and harmony, and control of the weekday.

    Conclusion

    The results from this study indicate that the extent of physical activity has a covariance with low-spiritedness and depression. To investigate what the cause and effect is intervention studies and longitudinal studies of this effect must be done. However, it appears that physical activity covariates with the extent of low spiritedness and depression.

  • 1177.
    Graffman-Sahlberg, Marie
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Fysisk hälsa som lärobjekt: En laborativ undervisningsmodell i idrott och hälsa2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An important challenge for physical education teachers is to find strategies for the implementation of health education in the school subject physical education and health (PEH). The overall aim of this thesis has been to develop and explore the implementation of a pedagogical, practice based teaching-learning model in PEH. Focus of the study has been to promote students' understanding of health with aerobic condition, and its impact on health, as the specific object of learn-ing. The concept of Health Literacy has pervaded the entire project, both in the design of the model and in the analysis of students' description of their experi-ence and knowledge development. One upper secondary school class (n=32) was chosen for this action-based study. The implementation of the pedagogical model was designed as a student task-oriented interactive model. The educational outcomes of the model derived from tests and questionnaires were examined analyzed with statistics and con-tent analyses, as presented in article I and with phenomenographic analyses of student reports presented in article II. In focus for the analysis was how the object of learning, the phenomenon that the students encountered were de-scribed, experienced, conceptualized and understood. The design of the model supported an active processing of knowledge and stu-dents' ability of critical self-reflection within the framework of health literacy. To better integrate health in physical education, we need to both broaden stu-dents' way of questioning, and challenge their ways of constructing knowledge in (physical) health.

  • 1178.
    Graffman-Sahlberg, Marie
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Brun Sundblad, Gunilla
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    A Possible Mission?: An Action-based Case Study of a Teaching-Learning Model in Physical Education and Health2014In: Swedish Journal of Sport Research, ISSN 2001-9475, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1179.
    Graffman-Sahlberg, Marie
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Brun Sundblad, Gunilla
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Teaching Health for Understanding?: A phenomenographic analysis of learn-ing experiences2014Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1180.
    Grahns Norgren, Sander
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Frukten av frukt: en studie om intaget av en banan kan påverka aktivitetsgraden under en idrottslektion2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syfte

    Att påverka aktivitetsgraden under en lektion i Idrott och Hälsa med hjälp av intag av banan innan lektionstillfället.

    Frågställning

    Kan intaget av en banan öka antalet steg som tas under en lektion i Idrott och Hälsa?

    Är det någon skillnad i steg mellan att inta en banan före eller efter en lektion i Idrott och Hälsa, samt gentemot kontrollgruppen?

    Metod

    Under en period på tio veckor, utrustades tjugotvå elever med stegräknare av modellen LS200 (Tudor-Locke, et al, 2004). Monterade enligt tillverkarens anvisningar, det vill säga, i kontakt med höftbenet. Lektionerna var innan lunch på tisdagar och torsdagar. Lektionsplaneringen var uppdelad i moment om två lektioner. Under alla lektioner togs stor hänsyn till att eleverna gavs möjlighet att själva styra över sin aktivitetsgrad. Men det menas att någon lektion med en bestämd sträcka, eller en dans med ett bestämt antal steg inte genomfördes. Inom alla moment var eleverna fria innanför ramarna för aktiviteten. Tio av tjugotvå elever serverades banan innan eller efter varje lektion. Tolv av tjugotvå var kontrollgrupp och fick ingen banan alls. Vilken lektion, av varje veckas två, som skulle servera banan innan respektive efter lektionstillfället, avgjordes av en tärning. Vid ojämna siffror, serverades bananen före lektion på tisdag. Jämna siffror, bananen serverades innan lektion torsdag. Efter varje lektion samlades stegräknarna in och antal steg registrerades av författaren i Excel.

    Resultat

    Att äta en banan innan en lektion i idrott och hälsa gav ingen statistisk säkerställd påverkan av den fysiska aktiviteten. Mellan banangruppens (åt banan) steg, banan före och banan efter, skiljde det sex steg, 2603 (SD 313) steg mot 2597 (SD 238) steg. Mellan kontrollgruppens (som inte åt banan) steg, banan före och banan efter, skiljde det 76 steg, 2621 (SD 283) steg mot 2535 (SD 314) steg.

    Slutsats

    Ett statistiskt säkerställd samband mellan att äta en banan innan en lektion i idrott och hälsa, och aktivitetsgraden under samma lektion i Idrott och Hälsa, återfanns ej.

  • 1181.
    Granholm, Alexandra
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Den inre klockan i obalans: en kvalitativ studie om hur kostvanor och måltidsmönster påverkas av skiftarbete2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of this study was to gain insight into how the diet and meal pattern of shift working police officers is affected by an irregular daily routine. The purpose was also to illustrate how and what methods are used to create healthy eating and sleeping routines in everyday life. More specifically, the research questions were how police officers experience that their eating habits and meal patterns are affected by shift work with irregular daily routines and what life strategies are used to handle diet and sleeping habits as a shift working police officer.

    Method

    The data collection is based on interviews with four police officers, of whom two are female and two male between the ages of 26 and 37 years and work at a police station in the Stockholm area. The respondents were selected on the basis of convenience sample through an acquaintance within the police. All participants were contacted via telephone and were informed of the study’s purpose, research questions and method before an interview was booked. They were also informed of the fact that they would remain anonymous. A pilot interview was held with the contact person one week prior to the interviews. The participants received the interview questions by e-mail the day before the interview. All interviews, apart from the final one, were conducted at the police station in a private room. The last interview was held over the phone. The first three interviews were recorded with a dictaphone and were later transcribed, revised and analyzed. The fourth interview was recorded with a cellphone, after which the sound file was transferred to a computer.

    Results and conclusions

    The results highlighted individual differences in the experience of how the diet is affected by shift work and an irregular daily routine. The regularity of the meal pattern appears to suffer the most.

    There is a tendency that the meals are displaced and that the police officers primarily miss out on lunch in case they have worked a night shift. Instead they eat some form of breakfast twice per day. The life strategies that are used could be enhanced in order to create better regularity in the police officers’ everyday lives.

     

     

  • 1182.
    Grankvist, Hannah
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Johansson, Filip
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Konsten att undvika utbrändhet: En hermeneutisk studie kring varför lärare med starkt KASAM inte blir utbrända2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet har varit att undersöka eventuella gemensamma generella motståndsresurser hos lärare, som har starkt KASAM (känsla av sammanhang) och inte ligger i riskzonen för utbrändhet. Frågeställningarna var följande: Hur upplever lärare sin fysiska, psykiska och sociala arbetsmiljö? Hur kan lärarnas utsagor tolkas i relation till begreppet KASAM?

    Metod

    Den kvalitativa metod som användes bestod av sex halvstrukturerade intervjuer. Kravet på intervjupersoner var att de: arbetat heltid som lärare i minst 20 år, aldrig varit sjukskrivna för utbrändhet, inte ligger i riskzon för utbrändhet samt besitter starkt KASAM. Urvalet säkerställdes dels genom ett KASAM-formulär, dels genom ett utmattningsformulär. Ur detta framkom intervjuobjekten. Intervjufrågorna var förankrade i forskningsvärldens allmänt vedertagna uppdelning av stressorer; fysiska, psykiska och sociala. Svaren analyserades genom Antonovskys KASAM-teori och metod, detta för att finna eventuella gemensamma GMR.

    Resultat

    Lärarna upplever överlag sin fysiska arbetsmiljö som god. De påstår sig ha behändiga klasstorlekar, bra lokaler och ljudnivåer som inte orsakar några större problem. Deras psykiska miljö upplevs vara krävande, men också givande i form av bl.a. uppskattning och synlig utveckling hos eleverna. Gällande den sociala miljön betonas en god relation till arbetskollegor och elever. Lärarnas starka KASAM bekräftas i utsagorna. Eftersom lärarna har starkt KASAM leder inte stressorerna, vilka uppkommer i arbetet, till utbrändhet.

    Slutsats

    Det framkommer flera likheter i lärarnas utsagor, både hur de upplever och hanterar arbetsmiljön. Genom att tolka dessa utsagor har följande generella motståndsresurser framträtt: stödet från omgivningen, god relation till elever och kollegor, personlighet, erfarenhet i yrket samt gränssättning. Dessa GMR kan vara en betydande orsak till varför lärarna lyckats undvika utbrändhet under alla dessa år i yrket.

  • 1183.
    Granlund, Jesper
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Holmstén, Patrik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    CASIO–modellen vägen till välbefinnande?: en interventionsstudie om den positiva psykologins påverkan på gymnasieelever2011Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if Positive Psychology, in terms of the CASIOmodel, through intervention affected students at a sports gymnasium when it comes to wellbeing, stress and coping abilities. We focused on the following questions:

    - What differences can we see from the pre- to the after tests in the intervention group?

    - What differences can we see from the pre- to the after tests in the control group?

    - What differences can we see between the intervention- and control group in the pre and the after tests?

    Method

    The method we used in our study was a six week long quantitative intervention and the participants was students at a sports gymnasium. We used a convenience selection. We used the CASIO-model (Circumstances, Attitude, Standards, Importance & Other things) as foundation for the intervention. This model is originated from the Positive Psychology and gives the participants tools to solve problems in life and increase their quality of life. To answer our questions we have used three different surveys that process well-being, stress and coping abilities. These surveys were handed out to the students before the intervention and one week after it was finished. To interpret the results we ran a couple of Paired Sample Tests in the statistic program SPSS.

    Results

    When it came to total well-being and stress there were no statistical significant changes in the intervention group. But when it came to some parts of the well-being there were some statistical significant deteriorations. In the coping ability survey there were some positive statistical significant changes in the coping strategy ventilate thoughts.

    Conclusions

    Our study did not have any major positive effects on students at a sports gymnasium, rather the opposite effect. The time for the pre- and after test  could work as a confounder that affects the result because by the time of the after test the students had a heavier workload at school than at the pretest. 

  • 1184.
    Granskog, Siri
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Nordin, Annie
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    ”Jag är inte här för att bli älskad”: en jämförande studie mellan klassrumsundervisning i svenska och finska skolor2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka och jämföra hur klassrumsundervisning bedrivs i två svenska och två finska skolor för att finna möjliga förklaringar till PISA-undersökningens resultat (Programme for International Student Assessment). Syftet besvaras med hjälp av följande frågeställning: Hur och till vad utnyttjas lektionstiden till? Hur upplevs det allmänna klassrumsklimatet? Hur ser ledarskapet i klassrummet ut?

    Metod

    De metoder som använts i studien är löpande och på förhand kategoriserade observationer och kvalitativa intervjuer. Totalt har 24 klassrumsobservationer, tio lärarintervjuer och två intervjuer med rektorer genomförts vid två högstadieskolor i Storstockholm och vid två högstadieskolor i Helsingfors. Det som observerades var; lektionsinnehållet och tiden lagd på olika moment, elevernas självständighet, det disciplinära klimatet och relationen mellan lärare och elev samt klassrumsklimatet. Lärarintervjuerna rörde deras inställning till och åsikter om lärarrollen, undervisningen och eleverna medan rektorerna intervjuades om andelen behöriga lärare i kollegiet, lärarlöner, upplevda skillnader mellan skolor i Finland och Sverige samt effekter av skollagen.

    Resultat

    Det viktigaste fyndet i studien var den markanta skillnaden av andelen eget arbete. Med eget arbete menas att eleven arbetar enskilt med givna uppgifter eller att eleven självständigt eller med hjälp sätter egna mål, planerar, genomför och utvärderar det egna arbetet. I de finska skolorna användes 32% av lektionstiden till eget arbete medan samma siffra i Sverige var 70%. De finska lärarna hade även ett mer varierat lektionsinnehåll än de svenska lärarna. Dessutom undervisades de finska eleverna till 94% i helklass inom klassrummets fyra väggar medan samma siffra i Sverige bara var 74%. Andra skillnader mellan länderna var lärarnas ledarstil, synen på läxor och relationen till eleverna där de finska lärarna över lag utövade mer kontroll än de svenska. Klassrumsklimatet i de båda länderna skiljer sig åt i mindre grad.  Atmosfären i klassrummen upplevdes positiv i de båda länderna.

    Slutsats

    En förklaring till resultatskillnaderna mellan Sverige och Finland i PISA-undersökningen och de svenska elevernas försämring kan vara att lärarna i Sverige har en mer elevorienterad ledarstil medan lärarna i Finland har en mer uppgiftsorienterad ledarstil. I den elevorienterade ledarstilen är det den enskilda elevens förutsättningar som är i fokus och läraren ses som en handledare som vägleder sina elever i det egna arbetet. I den uppgiftsorienterade ledarstilen är det uppgiften, kunskapen som är i fokus och läraren ses en kunskapsförmedlare.

  • 1185.
    Gray, Stuart R
    et al.
    Strathclyde inst of pharmacy and biomedical sciences, university of strathclyde, Glasgow UK.
    Söderlund, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ferguson, Richard A
    ATP and phosphocreatine utilization in single human muscle fibres during the development of maximal power output at elevated muscle temperatures.2008In: Journal of Sports Sciences, ISSN 0264-0414, E-ISSN 1466-447X, Vol. 26, no 7, p. 701-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we examined the effect of muscle temperature (Tm) on adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and phosphocreatine utilization in single muscle fibres during the development of maximal power output in humans. Six male participants performed a 6-s maximal sprint on a friction-braked cycle ergometer under both normal (Tm = 34.3 degrees C, s = 0.6) and elevated (T(m) = 37.3 degrees C, s = 0.2) muscle temperature conditions. During the elevated condition, muscle temperature of the legs was raised, passively, by hot water immersion followed by wrapping in electrically heated blankets. Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis before and immediately after exercise. Freeze-dried single fibres were dissected, characterized according to myosin heavy chain composition, and analysed for ATP and phosphocreatine content. Single fibres were classified as: type I, IIA, IIAX25 (1 - 25% IIX isoform), IIAX50 (26 - 50% IIX), IIAX75 (51 - 75% IIX), or IIAX100 (76 - 100% IIX). Maximal power output and pedal rate were both greater (P < 0.05) during the elevated condition by 258 W (s = 110) and 22 rev . min(-1) (s = 6), respectively. In both conditions, phosphocreatine content decreased significantly in all fibre types, with a greater decrease during the elevated condition in type IIA fibres (P < 0.01). Adenosine triphosphate content was also reduced to a greater (P < 0.01) extent in type IIA fibres during the elevated condition. The results of the present study indicate that after passive elevation of muscle temperature, there was a greater decrease in ATP and phosphocreatine content in type IIA fibres than in the normal trial, which contributed to the higher maximal power output.

  • 1186.
    Gray, Stuart R
    et al.
    Institute of medical sciences, University of Aberdeen, Skottland.
    Söderlund, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Watson, Moira
    Ferguson, Richard A
    Skeletal muscle ATP turnover and single fibre ATP and PCr content during intense exercise at different muscle temperatures in humans.2011In: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology, ISSN 0031-6768, E-ISSN 1432-2013, Vol. 462, no 6, p. 885-893Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of temperature on skeletal muscle ATP turnover, pulmonary oxygen uptake and single fibre ATP and PCr content was studied during intense cycling exercise. Six healthy male subjects performed 6-min intense (Δ50%LT-VO(2peak)) cycling, at 60 rpm, under conditions of normal (N) and elevated muscle temperature (ET). Muscle biopsies obtained from the vastus lateralis at rest, 2 and 6 min were analysed for homogenate ATP, PCr, lactate and glycogen, allowing estimation of anaerobic ATP turnover. Freeze-dried single fibres from biopsies were characterised according to their myosin heavy chain composition (type I, IIA or IIAX) and analysed for ATP and PCr content. Pulmonary gas exchange was measured throughout. There was no difference in pulmonary oxygen uptake between the trials. The elevation of muscle temperature resulted in a lower (P < 0.05) PCr content, higher (P < 0.05) lactate content and greater (P < 0.05) anaerobic ATP turnover after 2 min of exercise. There was no effect of temperature on these measures at 6 min. In single fibres it was observed that in ET, there was a lower (P < 0.05) PCr content in type I fibres after 2 min with no differences between conditions after 6 min. The present study demonstrates that elevation of muscle temperature results in a greater anaerobic ATP turnover and type I fibre PCr degradation during the initial 2 min of intense exercise.

  • 1187.
    Gredin, Viktor
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Skill acquisition in youth novice soccer players: An intervention study of repetitive-part and dual-task training strategies for acquisition of dribbling technique and decision making2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to examine the outcome of repetitive-part training and dual-task training in the acquisition of dribbling technique and decision making in prepubescent novice soccer players.

    Method: Twenty four preschool pupils, with an age of 6.2 ± 0.4 years (mean ± SD) and with no previous experience of partaking in any organized team or ball sport participated in the study. The participants were tested (pre test) for initial performance level of dribbling technique and decision making and were then divided into two balanced experimental groups. The repetitive-part group underwent four weeks of part-task training (isolated dribbling-technique training) which were followed by four weeks of dual-task training (simultaneous training of dribbling technique and decision making). The dual-task group underwent eight weeks of dual-task training. The outcome in acquisition of dribbling technique and decision making was examined after four (mid test) and eight (post test) weeks of training. Both training regimes were followed by four weeks of non-training and thereafter a test (retention test) of the retention effects was carried out. Effect sizes (d) of the acquisition within each group and of the difference in performance and acquisition between the two groups were evaluated based on Cohen's effect size criteria (|d| > 0.2, small effect; |d| > 0.5, moderate effect; |d| > 0.8, large effect).

    Results: Between the pre and mid test, both groups showed large improvements in dribbling technique. The corresponding improvement was small in the repetitive-part group and moderate in the dual-task group between the mid and post test. There were large differences between the groups' decision-making performances at the mid, post, and retention test where the dual-task group was superior to the repetitive-part group. The dual task group showed large improvements of decision making between the pre and mid test. Between the mid and post test, the corresponding effect was large within the repetitive-part group and moderate in the dual-task group. The improvement of the dual-task group's decision making between the pre and mid test was greater than the corresponding improvement showed by the repetitive-part group, between the mid and post test. This difference produced a moderate effect size.

    Conclusions: These findings challenge conventional repetitive-part training regimes and, with references to previous research, emphasize the importance of dual-task training for skill acquisition in prepubescent novice soccer players.

  • 1188.
    Gredin, Viktor
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    The relative effectiveness of various instructional approaches in youth soccer skill acquisition2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: We investigated the relative effectiveness of explicit internal-oriented instructions, explicit external-oriented instructions and discovery learning in outcomes of performance, practice and learning of lofted soccer kicks in novice youth soccer players. Method: Thirty seven fourth- and fifth-grade pupils (age = 9.9 ± 0.7 years [mean ± SD]) with no previous team organized soccer-practice experience were tested for initial performances (radial error [cm]) under practice and transfer conditions (pre-test). Based on their performances, the participants were divided into three balanced groups (explicit internal group, explicit external group, and discovery group). Thereafter, performances under group-specific instructional conditions were assessed (group-specific test 1). They then performed three practice sessions (group-specific practice 1, 2 and 3) under group-specific instructional conditions. After each session, performances under group-specific instructional conditions were assessed (group-specific test 2, 3, and 4). Finally, the participants' performances under practice and transfer conditions were assessed (retention test). Results: Between pre-test and group-specific test 1, the radial error increased in the explicit internal group and the explicit external group relatively to the discovery group (d = 0.44 ± 0.45 [mean ± CL] and d = 0.32 ± 0.54, respectively). The radial error decreased with a larger magnitude in the explicit internal group relatively to the discovery group (d = -0.31 ± 0.48) between group-specific test 1 and 2 and in the explicit external group relatively to the explicit internal group between group-specific test 2 and 3. Between group-specific test 3 and 4, the decrease was larger in the discovery group relatively to the explicit internal group (d = -0.50 ± 0.33) and the explicit external group (d = -0.28 ± 0.47) and the decrease in the explicit external group was larger relatively to the explicit internal group (d = -0.26 ± 0.48). The radial-error scores decreased with a larger magnitude in the discovery group relatively to the explicit internal group and the explicit external group under practice (d = -0.87 ± 0.54 and d = -0.32 ± 0.68, respectively) and transfer conditions (d = -0.51 ± 0.53 and d = -0.29 ± 0.52, respectively) between pre-test and retention test. Corresponding decrease was larger in the explicit external group relatively to the explicit internal group under practice (d = -0.61 ± 0.73) and transfer conditions (d = -0.20 ± 0.40). Conclusions: For isolated technical-skill acquisition in novice youth soccer players, we suggest that generalized explicit instructions should be used with caution in favor for discovery learning which facilitates individualized movement solutions.

  • 1189.
    Gredin, Viktor
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Williams, A Mark
    The Relative Effectiveness of Various Instructional Approaches During the Performance and Learning of Motor Skills.2016In: Journal of motor behavior, ISSN 0022-2895, E-ISSN 1940-1027, Vol. 48, no 1, p. 86-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors examined the relative effectiveness of explicit internal-oriented instructions, explicit external-oriented instructions, and unguided discovery learning on the performance, acquisition, and learning of a motor skill using novice youth soccer players. Thirty-seven players (age = 9.9 ± 0.7 years) underwent 3 × 30 trials of instruction-specific blocks of practice. The accuracy of lofted soccer kicks was assessed under practice conditions (prior to and after the practice period and after each practice block) and transfer conditions (prior to and after the practice period). Our findings indicated that generalized explicit instructions have detrimental effects on performance, whereas the benefits of unguided discovery learning increase with the amount of practice undertaken and when performing under transfer conditions.

  • 1190.
    Green, Linda
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Unga vuxnas behov av stödjande verksamheter sett ur personalens perspektiv2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudent thesis
  • 1191.
    Greitz, Gustaf
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Rönquist, Frida
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Fysisk aktivitet på recept: vad påverkar förskrivningen?2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Aim: The aim of this study was to examine relations between selected factors significant to the prescription of Physical Activity Referral Scheme (PAR, Swedish: Fysisk aktivitet på recept, FaR) at health centers in Sweden.

    Method: A questionnaire study was carried out within 37 non-private health centers in Malmö, Stockholm and Umeå. A total of 241 questionnaires were answered by personnel authorized to prescribe FaR. Studied factors, expressed as questions in the questionnaire, were: prescriptors sex, age, profession, county council, the use of FaR/FYSS, personal exer-cise, FaR-education, lack of time, guidelines, follow-up, cooperation with preventive health care centers, FaR-coordinator, reference of FaR-patients, knowledge about how to inspire people to physical activity and knowledge about which conditions/diseases that can be treated with physical activity. A web-based questionnaire was distributed and collected through e-mail and a questionnaire in paperform was used at a couple of health centers. Results from the questionnaire were analysed with chi-square test and binary logistic regression.

    Results:  The probability to prescribe FaR was significantly seven times higher for personnel who knew where to refer FaR-patients compared to those who did not know where reference could be given. Further the probability to prescribe FaR was significantly four times higher for personnel with specific FaR-education compared to those who lacked FaR-education. The study also showed that FaR-prescription had significant covariation with the factors profession, county council, cooperation with preventive health care centers, guidelines from the employer, knowledge about what conditions/diseases that can be treated with physical activity and knowledge about how to motivate patients to physical activity. No significant covariation were found between FaR-prescription and the following factors: prescriptors sex, age, use of FaR/FYSS, personal exercise, FaR-coordinator, follow-up or if personnel refrain from prescribing FaR because it extends patient visiting-hours.

    Conclusion: When working with FaR it is important to create clear guidelines, cooperate with preventive health care centers, that the personnel has knowledge about conditions/diseases which can be treated with physical activity and motivation to physical activity. Above all we want to point out that it is important that the personnel is educated about FaR and that they know where to refer patients with FaR-prescription in order to make the working method more effective at health centers in Sweden.

  • 1192.
    Gren, Karin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Cures, Luis
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Att våga bry sig om skadade idrottare: En kvalitativ studie om skadade idrottares upplevelser kring socialt stöd samt tränares agerande under rehabilitering2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka hur idrottare upplever socialt stöd vid långvariga skador. Särskilt fokus ligger på hur tränarens sociala stöd upplevs av idrottare samt hur det kan underlätta en idrottslig comeback. Vilken typ av socialt stöd har idrottare erhållit eller saknat under sin rehabilitering? Hur har idrottare som erhållit ett bra socialt stöd agerat och vad kan de som upplevt en saknad göra för att få ett ökat socialt stöd? Hur anser idrottare att tränare bör agera för att underlätta rehabiliteringen?

    Metod

    Studien genomfördes med en kvalitativ ansats vilket innebär att sju individer medverkat i semi-strukturerade intervjuer. Deltagarna hade varit borta i minst två månader på grund av idrottsskada. Informationen från intervjuerna analyserades i programmet NVivo 10.  Resultatet granskades genom ett Self-Determination Theory perspektiv.

    Resultat

    Den största delen av det sociala stödet som idrottarna erhållit har upplevts positivt. Deltagarna har upplevt stöd ifrån olika källor samt av olika typer: emotionellt stöd, materiellt stöd, informativt stöd och tillhörighetsstöd. I resultatet framkom det ett nytt fenomen som benämns som negativt stöd. Överdrivet stöd från omgivningen upplevdes negativt och stressande. Alla deltagare var medvetna hur de agerat för att erhålla ett bra socialt stöd eller vad de kunde gjort för att få ett ökat socialt stöd. Den mängd socialt stöd idrottarna erhållit har påverkats till en viss del av idrottarnas eget agerande. Deltagarna ansåg att stöd och engagemang ifrån tränare underlättade en comeback.

    Slutsats

    Idrottarna i denna studie uppgav att socialt stöd hjälpt dem under sin rehabiliteringstid. Genom att känna tillhörighet, uppleva kompetens och genom att fatta sina egna beslut kan en idrottare underlätta sin rehabilitering. Framförallt finns det saker som både tränare och idrottare kan göra för att idrottaren ska få ett bra eller ökat socialt stöd.

  • 1193.
    Grigorenko, Anatoli
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Bjerkefors, Anna
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Rosdahl, Hans
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control. Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Laboratory of Applied Sports Science (LTIV).
    Hultling, Claes
    Alm, Marie
    Thorstensson, Alf
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Sitting balance and effects of kayak training in paraplegics.2004In: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 1650-1977, E-ISSN 1651-2081, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 110-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to evaluate biomechanical variables related to balance control in sitting, and the effects of kayak training, in individuals with spinal cord injury. SUBJECTS: Twelve individuals with spinal cord injury were investigated before and after an 8-week training period in open sea kayaking, and 12 able-bodied subjects, who did not train, served as controls. METHODS: Standard deviation and mean velocity of centre of pressure displacement, and median frequency of centre of pressure acceleration were measured in quiet sitting in a special chair mounted on a force plate. RESULTS: All variables differed between the group with spinal cord injury, before training, and the controls; standard deviation being higher and mean velocity and median frequency lower in individuals with spinal cord injury. A significant training effect was seen only as a lowering of median frequency. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that individuals with spinal cord injury may have acquired and consolidated an alternative strategy for balance control in quiet sitting allowing for only limited further adaptation even with such a vigorous training stimulus as kayaking.

  • 1194. Grillner, S
    et al.
    Nilsson, Johnny
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Thorstensson, Alf
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Intra-abdominal pressure changes during natural movements in man.1978In: Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6772, E-ISSN 1365-201X, Vol. 103, no 3, p. 275-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The weight of the upper part of the trunk is partially transmitted to the pelvis via the vertebral column. If the muscle walls around the abdominal cavity are contracted, a high pressure can be generated within the cavity (greater than 200 mmHg). The abdominal space can them transmit part of weight to, e.g., the upper part of the body, Intra-abdominal pressure recordings have been performed during locomotion and other natural movements with intragastric pressure recordings. With each step, there is a phasic variation in pressure, with its peak coinciding with that of the peak vertical force exerted by the leg against the ground. The peak values increase progressively with the speed of walking/running up to a mean of 38 mmHg and with trough values of 16 mmHg. The phasic variations with each step is due to a phasic activation of the abdominal muscles, with an EMG activity starting 50 ms or more before foot contact. If an extra load is put on the back, the posture changes and at the highest speed of running the pressure values are significantly higher than without this additional load. After a jump down from a moderate height of 0.4 m, the average increase is 89 mmHg and can often exceed 100 mmHg. These pressure changes are large and will presumably act to unload the spine under the prevailing biomechanical conditions and, in addition, there will no doubt be an effect on the circulatory system.

  • 1195. Grimby, Agneta
    et al.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Sätt änkorna i rörelse - för hälsans skull!2002In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 99, no 1-2, p. 78-80Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sorg är ingen sjukdom, men kan förvisso ge sådan. Ensamhet, isolering, inaktivitet, dåliga matvanor, ökad konsumtion av alkohol och tobak minskar avsevärt ambitionen att röra på sig – bildligt och bokstavligt – och är vanligt bland nyblivna änkepersoner. Kommunal hälso- och psykosocial intervention i form av tidigt stöd  och uppmuntran i sorgen – som skulle kunna bryta negativa mönster – är idag nästan obefintlig. Denna grupp människor kan ha svårt att ta till sig folkuppmaningen »Sätt Sverige i rörelse«, trots vetskapen om att regelbunden lågintensiv motion och muskelträning kan ge stora positiva hälsoeffekter. Vem antar utmaningen att  sätta änkorna i rörelse – och vem bekostar?

  • 1196. Grimby, G
    et al.
    Börjesson, Mats
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Jonsdottir, I H
    Schnohr, P
    Thelle, D S
    Saltin, Bengt
    The "Saltin-Grimby Physical Activity Level Scale" and its application to health research.2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 25, no Suppl 4, p. 119-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of a four-level questionnaire to assess leisure time physical activity (PA) and its validation is reviewed in this paper. This questionnaire was first published in 1968 and has then been used by more than 600 000 subjects, especially in different population studies in the Nordic countries. A number of modifications to the questionnaire have been published. These are mostly minor changes, such as adding practical examples of activities to illustrate the levels of PA. Some authors have also added duration requirements that were not included for all levels of PA in the original version. The concurrent validity, with respect to aerobic capacity and movement analysis using objective measurements has been shown to be good, as has the predictive validity with respect to various risk factors for health conditions and for morbidity and mortality.

  • 1197.
    Gripeteg, Lena
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Arvidsson, Daniel
    University of Gothenburg.
    Johannesson, Elias
    University of Gothenburg.
    Larsson, Christel
    University of Gothenburg.
    Sjöberg, Agneta
    University of Gothenburg.
    Angerås, Oskar
    University of Gothenburg.
    Fagman, Erika
    University of Gothenburg.
    Brandberg, John
    University of Gothenburg.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Bergström, Göran
    University of Gothenburg.
    Börjesson, Mats
    University of Gothenburg.
    Concomitant Associations of Healthy Food Intake and Cardiorespiratory Fitness With Coronary Artery Calcium.2018In: American Journal of Cardiology, ISSN 0002-9149, E-ISSN 1879-1913, Vol. 122, no 4, p. 560-564, article id S0002-9149(18)31060-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conflicting findings remain regarding associations between lifestyle behaviors and coronary artery calcium (CAC). We investigated concomitant associations of healthy food intake and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) with CAC. Data from 706 men and women 50 to 64 years old from the Swedish SCAPIS pilot trial were analyzed. A CAC score was calculated using the Agatston method. A Healthy Food Index (HFI) was established using data from a web-based food frequency questionnaire. CRF was assessed from a bike exercise test. Regression analyses were performed with occurrence of CAC (dichotomous) and level of CAC score in patients with CAC (continuous) as outcomes. 58% had 0 CAC score. HFI was significantly associated with having no CAC (standardized coefficient β = 0.18, p <0.001) but not with level of CAC score (β = -0.09, p = 0.34). CRF showed no significant association with having no CAC (β = -0.08, p = 0.12) or with the level of CAC score (β = -0.04, p = 0.64). However, there was an interaction between HFI and CRF (β = -0.23, p = 0.02); for increasing levels of CRF there was stronger negative association between HFI and level of CAC score, reaching β = -0.48, p = 0.045 for the highest CRF level. In conclusion, these results emphasize the importance of a healthy food intake in combination with higher CRF to counteract CAC development.

  • 1198.
    Grzelak, Bartosz
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Henriksson, Frida
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Auktoritära Ola Norrman och Demokratiska Svenne Svensk, eller hur var det nu?: en jämförande studie av upplevt ledarskap inom elitfotbollen i Sverige och Norge2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med denna uppsats var att jämföra det svenska och norska ledarskapet inom elitfotbollen. Frågeställningarna var: Hur upplever de spelare som är verksamma i Sverige respektive Norge beslutsfattandet? Hur upplever de spelare som är verksamma i Sverige respektive Norge avståndet mellan spelare och tränare? Vilken typ av ledarstil upplever de spelare som är verksamma i Sverige respektive Norge att tränaren har? Skiljer sig spelarnas upplevelse av ledarskapet mellan länderna?

    Metod

    Författarna har valt att göra en kvalitativ intervjustudie av spelarnas upplevda ledarskap. Två av dessa spelare är verksamma i Sverige, två spelare är verksamma i Norge samt två spelare som har erfarenhet från både svensk och norsk elitfotboll. Utöver dessa intervjuer har relevant litteratur, både svensk och norsk, använts.

    Resultat och slutsats

    Resultatet visar att det inom elitfotboll, till stor del, bedrivs auktoritärt ledarskap. Inga tydliga skillnader finns dock mellan Sverige och Norge vad gäller ledarstilar, dock tenderar det svenska ledarskapet att upplevas mer auktoritärt. Anledningen till detta förklaras, enligt framförallt norska spelare, med att svenska spelare i regel är mer passiva i kommunikationen och initiativtaganden. Vidare framkom det att många spelare trivs med att tränaren är den som bestämmer och har förståelse och respekt för hans auktoritet. Majoriteten av spelarna önskar dock att de emellanåt involverades lite mer. Det visar sig att de spelare som har hög status i laget oftast har en bättre relation till tränaren än andra spelare i laget. Detta tolkar författarna som att tränaren har större tillit till kompetenta och erfarna spelare.

  • 1199.
    Gräns, Joakim
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Karlsson, Fredrika
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    "Sunt förnuft räcker långt – om man tar sig tid till att reflektera!": en kvantitativ studie om lärares upplevda hälsa2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim and questions

    The study aims to examine and compare which factors in teachers’ work environment, in both metropolitan and small urban areas, correlate with teachers' perceived health. To meet this aim, three questions were designed: (1) What do teachers experience as stress factors in their work environment affecting their health? (2) What influence do the school management and colleagues have on their perceived health? (3) How does the teachers' perceived health correlate with their physical activity level?

    Method

    A quantitative method with a questionnaire has been used for the study. In essence, the questionnaire was designed with closed answers. A so-called comfort selection has been made for the choice of schools, where teachers at each school who wanted to participate in the study formed the basis for the collection of data. Overall 98 questionnaires were collected and the statistical analysis was done with help of the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences - SPSS version 19.0. Theoretical frameworks used were Antonovsky's SOC-theory (Sense of Coherence) and Karasek´s and Theorell´s Requirements-control-support model.

    Results

    Our results show that there is a strong correlation between mental and physical health, both for teachers in the metropolitan (p = 0.01) and smaller urban area (p = 0.08). The participants from both areas feel that they have a good mental health and that it makes sense to go to work. Over 40% answer that they often (3-5 days per week) feel that they experience self-monitoring, manageability, meaningfulness as teachers and that they are a part of a context. Factors that correlate with mental health are demands from students, school management and themselves. With regard to the physical environment, factors that affect teachers in both metropolitan and small urban areas are noise level and cleanliness. School management plays a large role in teachers' perceived health, both in metropolitan (p => 0.000) and in smaller urban areas (p = 0.009). However, over 50% of the teachers feel that they do not have support from school management. Teachers indicate that administrative tasks, time, planning and working environment are important factors in relation to their experienced health. The result also shows that experienced physical health among teachers correlates with the feeling of waking up refreshed and the ability to relax. The teachers in both metropolitan and less urban areas feel that they have a good physical health. For teachers in metropolitan areas, there is a correlation between support from friends and how physically active you are.

    Conclusions

    A conclusion to be drawn from this study is that there are small differences between teachers’ experienced health and work environment in metropolitan and less urban areas. The majority of the teachers feel they have a experienced health, both mentally and physically, and are doing well. A contributing factor to this could be that teachers experience strong support from colleagues, friends and relatives. This could suggest that social networks constitute a form of coping strategy, which help teachers manage their stress.

    A high percentage of the teachers seem to find a balance between perceived demands and finding resources to experience the sense of coherence. Based on the demands-control-support model, this means that teachers experience a feeling of balance.

  • 1200.
    Gränström, Louise
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Fritzell, Ebba
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Finns det skillnader mellan könen i upplevd arbetsmiljö?: En kvantitativ studie utifrån Krav-, kontroll- och stödmodellen2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim was to investigate if there was a difference between women and men regarding employees experienced health at work in relation to the demand-control-support model.

    Our framing of questions were:

    • Is there a gender difference regarding demand, control and support at the workplace?
    • Is there a correlation between employees experienced health and a working climate containing high workload and stress in relation to the demand-control-model?

    Method: The study was quantitative and all data was collected with a questionnaire from Easyquest. The questionnaire was sent out through a comfort selection of individuals on Facebook and mail. The data was compiled and analyzed in SPSS. Furthermore, the data was put in a T-test and a correlation analysis to obtain a result to try our hypothesis. The questionnaire had a scoresystem where the total score from each question answered if the individual had high or low demands/control and support at the workplace.

    Results: The study contained a total of 147 people with loss of 2 persons because of unanswered questions in the questionnaire. The total data used was thus from 145 individuals. The results revealed that men in all categories had more support, less demands and higher control compared to women. The results also showed that people regardless sex felt better the more support, less demands and higher support they had at their workplace. The correlation between social support and experienced health was significant (r=-,250. p<.01).

    Conclusion: Women experienced having higher demands, less control and less social support than men in all categories. The hypothesis was confirmed and therefore hopes to leave interest for future research on the subject. Considering that the respondents only had to be workers to be included in the study, much information was excluded which may have affected the outcome results of the study. The external validity of the study can be questioned. Correlation between experienced health and social support at workplace was shown to be significant with a p-value of 0,002.

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