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  • 1151.
    Gago, Paulo
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Zoellner, Anja
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Cezar, Julio
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Ekblom, Maria M
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Post Activation Potentiation and Concentric Contraction Performance: Effects on Rate of Torque Development, Neuromuscular Efficiency and Tensile Properties.2018In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated how a 6s maximal voluntary isometric conditioning contration (MVIC) affected plantar flexor twitch rate of torque development (RTDTW), as well as peak torque (PTCC) and rate of torque development (RTDCC) of maximal voluntary concentric contractions (MVCC) performed at 60°/s. RTDCC and normalized triceps surae electromyography signals (EMGTS) were measured during different phases of contraction. Additionally, muscle tendon unit passive stiffness index (SI) calculated from the torque-angle relation was measured following each MVCC.Enhancements were found in the RTDTW immediately (by 59.7%) and up to 480s (by 6.0%) post MVIC (p<0.05). RTDCC during the 100-200ms, 50-200ms, and 0-200ms phases and PTCC were enhanced (by 5.7-9.5%) from 90-300s post conditioning (p<0.05). Neuromuscular efficiency increased (decreased EMGTS/RTDCC) in the 50-200ms and 0-200ms phases by 8.8-12.4%, from 90-480s post MVIC (p<0.05). No significant changes were found in the SI or in RTDCC during the 50-100ms phase, suggesting that the enhancements reported, reflect mainly contractile rather than neural or tensile mechanisms.PAP effects on PTCC and RTDCC were significant, and more durable at a lower velocity than previously reported. Enhancement in RTDCC and neuromuscular efficiency were found to be more prominent in later phases (>100ms) of the MVCC. This suggests that enhanced contractile properties, attained via MVIC, benefit concentric contraction performance.

  • 1152.
    Gajic, Jelena
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Tillämpad idrottspsykologisk verksamhet med inriktning mot tävlingsidrott och prestation: en komparativ studie mellan Sverige och Serbien2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The main aim with this study is to research weather there are differences in applied sportpsychology activities between Sweden and Serbia, with a focus on competitive sports andperformance. What are the differences and similarities, and in which way is the sportpsychology helping the sportsmen and sportswomen? The main goal with this study is tocome to conclusions that can be of importance to both countries development in applied sportpsychology activities.

    Method

    For this study the qualitative method was used and the design is descriptive and comparative.A practical comparison in the form of interviews has been done. Eight persons wereinterviewed at different times, four in Sweden and four in Serbia, one researcher in sportpsychology, one practitioner in sports psychology (a common term for a sport psychologist,mental trainer, performance coach etc.), one sports coach and one sportswoman in eachcountry. For the interviews an adequate interview guide was designed and used.

    Results

    Practical application in the form of various training opportunities within the sport psychologyfield, sports psychology advisory services and research in sports psychology are applied to agreater extent in Sweden then in Serbia. Generally, the Swedish sport psychology activitiesare governed of the National Sports Association and in Serbia of the National Sport Institute.

    Conclusions

    Sweden is one step ahead Serbia when it comes to applied sport psychology activities withinthe competitive sport, but at the same time both countries can learn from each others sportpsychology practice in different fields. Improvement that can be done both in Sweden andSerbia, when it comes to applied sport psychology activities with focus on sportsperformance, are identified mainly in the form of planning and systematizing the work ofsportsmen/women in their sport psychology preparation and to increase the quality of theservices offered by the sport psychological activities.

  • 1153. Gajic, Jelena
    et al.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Theoretical and empirical comparison of applied sport psychology activities between Serbia and Sweden2011In: Book of abstracts from International Scientific Conference about Effects of physical activity application to anthropological status with children, youth and adults., 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 1154. Gajić, Jelena
    et al.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Sverige vs. Serbien: idrottspsykologi i skilda världar2011In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 58-60Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sverige och Serbien är två länder med olika kultur och med bakgrund i olika samhällssystem. En kartläggning av idrottspsykologisk litteratur visar att det skrivs betydligt mer i Sverige än i Serbien. Emotioner och utbrändhet är populära teman här. Däremot är forskning på ungdomsidrott vanligare i Serbien.

  • 1155.
    Ganemo, Tom
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Det är mitt ansvar som lärare: En studie om lärares förhållningssätt till sociala medier i sin yrkesroll2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka hur verksamma lärare upplever och förhåller sig till sociala medier i förhållande till sin yrkesroll.

    • Hur beskriver lärarna sitt eget användande av medierna?
    • Vilka för- och nackdelar finner lärarna med användandet av sociala medier?
    • Hur resonerar lärarna i olika dilemman som de kan ställas inför med användandet av sociala medier?

    Metod

    Intervjuer har gjorts med sex verksamma nyutexaminerade lärare. Studien är kvalitativ och har analyserats ur ett läroplansteoretisk perspektiv.

    Resultat

    Det är stor skillnad i vilka sociala medier lärare använder för olika syften, vissa använder man privat och andra använder man i sin yrkesroll. De anser att sociala medier i yrkesrollen skulle vara ett bra verktyg för att skapa relationer till eleverna i skolan, men ingen av dem jobbar på detta sätt. De upplever också att sociala medier medför en risk för exponering som de oroas över. När det kommer till olika etiska dilemman som lärare kan ställas inför resonerar lärarna väldigt olika i hur man ska förhålla sig till dessa. Resonemangen skiljer sig beroende på vad man anser ingår i ens yrkesroll eller ej, samt vilken form av ansvar man känner för eleverna.

    Slutsats

    Studien har visat att lärare förhåller sig på väldigt olika sätt till användandet av sociala medier i yrkesrollen. De upplever och förhåller sig främst till sociala medier som något man använder i privatlivet och de har en gemensam bild av hur man inte får använda sociala medier som lärare. De sociala medier man använder i yrket är bara mail och lokala webplattformar och lärarna upplever att det finns en risk för exponering i samband med sociala medier som inte gynnar deras arbetsroll. Detta material är inte genererbart utan svarar endast för de informanter som ingick i studien.

  • 1156. Gangnebien, Béatrice
    et al.
    Makkonen, Helena
    Dansande tjurar och dribblande kvigor: en tvärvetenskaplig studie av dans och bollspel ur ett genusperspektiv i skolan2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med denna studie har varit att undersöka gymnasieelevers föreställningar om samt deras fysiska ansträngningsgrad inom bollspel och dans ur ett genusperspektiv. De fyra frågeställningar som har använts är: Hur uppfattar flickor och pojkar bollspel och dans? Hur tror flickor och pojkar att andra individer upplever bollspel och dans? Hur beter sig flickor och pojkar under en lektion i bollspel respektive dans? Är det någon skillnad i ansträngningsgrad mellan respektive inom könen i bollspel och dans?

    Metod

    Denna studie är både kvalitativ och kvantitativ, där fokus ligger på elever i en gymnasieklass i Stockholms innerstad. Flickorna och pojkarna i klassen observerades under en bollspels- och en danslektion för att se hur de uppför och uttrycker sig. Fem flickor och fem pojkar valdes sedan ut för att bli intervjuade om deras uppfattningar om bollspel och dans samt vad de tror att andra tycker om dessa aktiviteter. Under lektionen bar några elever pulsklockor vilket registrerade deras snittpuls och högst uppnådda puls. Efter lektionen fick eleverna även uppskatta sin egen ansträngningsgrad utifrån Borgskalan. Resultaten från intervjuer och observationer har analyserats utifrån Yvonne Hirdmans genusteori.

    Resultat

    Alla pojkarna i studien är mer positiva till bollspel än flickorna. Dansen är mer omtyckt av flickorna, men pojkarna är inte negativt inställda till den. Respondenterna tror att andra flickor och pojkar tycker om bollspel. Dans antar de att flickor tycker om medan pojkar överlag uppfattar det som löjligt. Pojkarna är mer aktiva än flickorna under innebandylektionen medan ingen aktivitetsskillnad uppfattas under dansen. Studien visar också att det finns större skillnader i ansträngningsgrad inom än mellan könen.

    Slutsats

    Föreställningarna säger att pojkar är duktiga på bollspel och flickor är bra på dans. Intervjuerna bekräftar att pojkarna är mer positiva till innebandy än flickorna. Däremot upplever både flickorna och pojkarna glädje under salsan. Studien visar också att det finns större skillnader i ansträngningsgrad inom än mellan könen.

  • 1157.
    Garcia, Alexander
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Pedersen, Robin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Det idrottsliga begreppet: en studie om idrott, tävling och bedömning2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Aim

    The intention of the study is to examine how physical education teachers in the current study understand the concept of sport and how this is reflected in their teaching.

     

    • What definitions have PE teachers on the concept of sport?
    • What are teachers’ thoughts about competition in their teaching?
    • What difficulties do teachers find on assessment within the subject?

    Method

    To collect the data needed for the study we used qualitative interviews. Sample group consisted of four teachers who teach physical education in all grades, elementary school through high school. The reason why all age groups are included in this study is to get a wider perspective.

    Results

    The results show that teachers’ definition of sport partly reflected their past experience but it does not seem to affect their teaching in any significant way. The competition is seen as a motivating factor, but also something that can have an inhibitory effect. Difficulties are also in the assessment because it is subjective, however, teachers who have been working as PE teachers for a long time doesn’t distinguish the same difficulties as the less experienced.

    Conclusion

    Our results shows that past experiences of sport influences how one defines it. This does not seem to affect the teaching approach. All teachers agree that competition motivates many students. They are also aware of the inhibitory effect. The dilemma is then to find a balance in order to capture all students' interest. However, we find that less time is devoted to the theoretical knowledge which is a big part of the curriculum and which also are important for the students' deeper understanding of health in a lifelong perspective.

     

    Keywords: Sport, Physical Education, competitive activities, assessment and health

  • 1158.
    Garcia, Alexander
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Pedersen, Robin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Föreningsaktiva pojkar - vinnarna i ämnet idrott och hälsa: En studie om skillnaderna mellan föreningsaktiva och icke föreningsaktiva elever i årskurs 92012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med studien är att jämföra hur föreningsaktiva respektive icke föreningsaktiva elever uppfattar ämnet idrott och hälsa i årskurs 9 samt vilken betydelse kön och aktivitetsgrad har för betyget.

    • Skiljer sig attityden till idrott och hälsa i skolan mellan föreningsaktiva och icke föreningsaktiva samt mellan könen?
    • Finns det skillnader i betyg mellan elever med olika aktivitetsnivåer samt mellan könen i ämnet idrott och hälsa?
    • Skiljer sig uppfattningen av tävlingsmomentet inom ämnet idrott och hälsa för föreningsaktiva respektive icke föreningsaktiva, samt om det är någon grupp som gynnas av tävlingen?
    • Hur uppfattar elever i årskurs 9 kraven som ställs inom ämnet idrott och hälsa?

    Metod

    För att samla in de data som behövdes för studien användes en kvantitativ enkätmetod. Urvalsgruppen bestod av fem högstadieskolor varav 341 elever i årskurs nio deltog. Svarsfrekvensen uppnådde 78 %. Enkätsvaren behandlades statistiskt med hjälp av GoogleDocs samt Microsoft Excel.

     

    Resultat

    Resultaten visar att föreningsaktiva får högre betyg, har en mer positiv attityd och upplever större förmåga att klara de krav som ställs i ämnet idrott och hälsa än vad icke föreningsaktiva gör. Studien visar även att pojkar premieras mer än flickor samt att högre aktivitetsnivå på fritiden är avgörande för att lyckas i ämnet. Tävlingsmomentet visar sig vara en betydande faktor för undervisning överlag, men att vissa grupperingar upplevde det viktigare än andra.

     

    Slutsats

    Studiens resultat visar att föreningsidrotten återspeglas i ämnet idrott och hälsa i form av prestation och tävling. Resultaten visar även att föreningsaktiva i större omfattning premieras av deras redan tidigare erhållna rörelsekompetens. Ämnet ställs inför ett dilemma då individuella prestationer ställs emot varandra istället för att individens kunskap i relation till ämnet bedöms.

     

    Nyckelord: Attityder, föreningsidrott, könskillnader, idrott och hälsa, oorganiserad idrott

  • 1159.
    Gardholm, Sofia
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Futsal- ett organisatoriskt dilemma?: En kvalitativ studie av organisationsalternativ för en ny idrottsgren inom och utanför Riksidrottsförbundet2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of this study was to examine different alternatives for organization of futsal in Sweden within and outside The Swedish Sports Confederation (RF). I have used the following questions: How is futsal organized internationally? Which alternatives for organization are there within RF and what are the advantages and disadvantages of these alternatives? Which alternatives for organization are there outside RF and what are the advantages and disadvantages of these alternatives? How is futsal organized in Scandinavia? How has other newly established sports been organized in Sweden and why?

    Method

    The study is based on eight qualitative interviews with persons representing separate sport organizations with importance for the organization of futsal. The interviews is done with a similar structure but is standardized to a low extent.

    Results

    The international situation with two separate organizations for futsal has influence on the alternatives for organization on the national level. The going alternative today within RF is entrance in the Swedish Football Association (SvFF). One advantage with this is that futsal becomes a member of an established organization, a disadvantage is the limited right to make own decisions. Outside RF there are commercial organizations that lack the authorization of RF, the advantage is that these organizations only work with futsal and not football. Floorball and ringette has been choosing different alternatives for organization within RF because of their different conditions. In Finland futsal is organized within the Football Association of Finland. Any decision about futsal has not been taken by the Norwegian Football Association and the commercial organization Indoor Football Scandinavia (IFS) is running futsal today.

    Conclusions

    There is competition about futsal both on the international and the national level. A new and united international organization should combine the focus on futsal with administrative knowledge. Futsal continues to spread all over the world. But from an organizational view futsal is a dilemma because none of the two existing international organizations are optimal

  • 1160.
    Gardström, Gustaf
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Ivarsson, Niclas
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Hinder vid rådgivning av fysisk aktivitet inom primärvården: En intervjustudie inom Järfälla kommun2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

     

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Studien syftar till att ge svar på om de hinder som presenteras i tidigare forskning även är applicerbara i primärvården inom Järfälla kommun.

    Frågeställningar i studien är:

    1. Vilka hinder visar tidigare forskning att läkare har inom primärvården när det gäller att ge råd om fysisk aktivitet till sina patienter?
    2. Är hinder vid rådgivning av fysisk aktivitet enligt tidigare studier väsentliga i Järfälla kommun?
    3. Anser läkarna i Järfälla kommun att de har som sin arbetsuppgift att förändra människors levnadsvanor mot ett mer fysiskt aktivt liv?

    Metod

    En litteratursökning har genomförts med sökningar i PubMed, Chochrane Library samt Google Scholar. Inklusionskriterier för studierna är att de innehåller åsikter och värderingar från läkare inom primärvården om FA och livsstilsrelaterade frågor i preventivt syfte som publicerats senare än 1995. Fyra studier följde inklusionskriterierna. Definierade hinder och möjligheter för rådgivning av FA inom primärvården från litteratursökningen sammanställdes och vägdes mot en intervjustudie på allmänläkare i Järfälla kommun för att undersöka om vidhållna hinder även kunde bekräftas inom den lokala primärvården.

    Resultat

    "Tidsbrist" och "bristfällig kunskap om FA och prevention med FA" är de största hindren enligt tidigare forskning. Inget av dessa nämndes i intervjusituationer. De största hindren i intervju var "bristfällig motivation", "misstro på behandlingsform" De intervjuade läkarna ansåg att det är deras ansvar att förändra människors levnadsvanor mot ett mer fysiskt aktivt liv.

    Slutsats

    Definierade hinder i forskning är inte relevanta i en intervjustudie med allmänläkare i Järfälla kommun. Tidigare forskning med en sammanvägning av intervjuer tyder på ett komplext problemområde. Hinder är inte generaliserbara på enskilda läkare. Mycket tyder på att en kombination av systematiska problem i primärvården som organisation samt en misstro hos läkare på sin egen förmåga till förändring är det största hindren för att utföra mer rådgivning och ordination av fysisk aktivitet på recept. Framtida forskning bör ta till hänsyn till de yttre och inre hinder som påverkar läkaren i sin situation med patienten.

  • 1161.
    Gasslander, Malin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Geers, Nicole
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    "När jag blir stor då ska jag fan bli kille": en studie i hur genus återskapas bland idrottslärarstudenter2008Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syftet var att studera hur idrottslärarstudenter återskapar genus i idrottsundervisningen. För att uppfylla syftet har följande frågeställningar använts: Vilka exempel på upprätthållande av genuskontrakten förekommer under idrottslektionerna? På vilka sätt bryter studenterna mot de i klassen rådande genuskontrakten? Hur förändras genuskontrakten mellan de olika idrottsmomenten?

    Metod

    Under en tre veckors period utfördes åtta löpande observationer med fokus på kritiska händelser. De kritiska händelserna vi fokuserade på var då könsroller upprätthölls och då rådande könsmönster bröts. För att få en djupare förståelse för studenternas handlande och deras tankar kring sin egen bild av genusåterskapande i klassen utförde vi efter sista observationstillfället sex intervjuer av kvalitativ karaktär. De sex studenter som valdes ut för intervju representerade de fyra diskurser, vad gäller genusåterskapande, som vi uppmärksammade under observationerna.

    Resultat

    Resultaten visar att studenterna oftast grupperar sig efter kön under idrottslektionerna, de upprätthåller på detta vis dikotomin. De manliga studenterna är mer aktiva före, under och mellan lektionerna än de kvinnliga och tar även större plats under gymnastiklektionerna samt vågar ta i mer och göra svårare övningar. De kvinnliga studenterna är mer försiktiga och avvaktande under gymnastiken men har mer framträdande roller under danslektionerna. Vissa kvinnliga studenter har brutit mot genuskontrakten genom att vara delaktiga i de manliga studenternas aktiviteter eller vågat utmana sig själva i gymnastiken. På samma sätt har de manliga studenterna brutit när de har suttit ner och umgåtts med de kvinnliga innan lektionerna eller när de har visat rädsla eller omtanke.

    Slutsats

    Lärarstudenterna återskapar genus utifrån fyra olika diskurser. Majoriteten av studenterna befinner sig oftast i någon av de upprätthållande diskurserna, men dessa grupperingar är inte fasta och studenterna träder in och ut ur dem i olika situationer.

    Syfte

  • 1162.
    Gebrail, Christine
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Får flickor spela fotboll?: En studie om lärarens bemötande av flickor och pojkar i idrottsundervisningen2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    I denna studie undersöks hur genus konstrueras i det pedagogiska mötet mellan lärare och elev i idrottsundervisningen. Denna empiriska studie ger svar på de två frågeställningar som använts som verktyg för att uppfylla syftet. Dessa två frågeställningar var:

    • Hur fördelar läraren sin uppmärksamhet mellan flickor och pojkar?

    • Vilka olikheter kan uppmärksammas i lärarens bemötande av flickor respektive pojkar?

    Metod

    Datainsamlingen är gjord med hjälp av videoinspelningar – observationer under tolv idrottslektioner. I undersökningen har dels en kvantitativ, dels en kvalitativ metod använts.

    Resultat

    Resultatet visar att pojkar får mycket mer uppmärksamhet av lärarna, både i form av beröm, tillsägelser och möjlighet att komma till tals, samt att flickor och pojkar blir bemötta på olika sätt av lärarna. Det är pojkarna som i hög grad företräder gruppen och det är också pojkarna som mest svarar på frågor och ofta rakt ut utan att räcka upp handen. Lärarna samtalar på olika sätt med flickor respektive pojkar och även förväntningarna på eleven skiftar beroende på vilket kön eleven tillhör.

    Slutsats

    Slutsatsen är att lärarna i undersökningen reproducerar pojkarnas dominans. Det krävs ett medvetet genusperspektiv i undervisningen för att elevernas lärande inte ska påverkas negativt av stereotypa förväntningar på könen.

  • 1163.
    Gebrail, Christine
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Idrott för elever med ADHD: En kvalitativ studie om lärares arbete med att anpassa undervisningen2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Det övergripande syftet med denna uppsats var att undersöka hur lärare i ämnet idrott och hälsa arbetar med elever med diagnosen ADHD samt vilken kunskap de har om diagnosen.

    Mina frågeställningar var:

    1. Har idrottslärare kunskap om ADHD?

    2. Hur anpassar idrottslärare sin undervisning i ämnet idrott och hälsa för att elever med ADHD också ska kunna delta?

    3. Hur arbetar idrottslärare utifrån inkluderad eller exkluderad undervisning för elever med ADHD?

    Metod

    Metoden som användes i studien var kvalitativa intervjuer. Det var fyra idrottslärare som deltog och samtliga arbetade på samma skola. Skolan var min VFU-skola under utbildningen och den är belägen i en förort söder om Stockholm.

    Resultat

    Samtliga lärare hade kunskap om symptomen för ADHD. Barn med ADHD ska vara inkluderade i undervisningen men en lärare påpekade att det kanske inte ser ut så i verkligheten. Det är viktigt att undervisningen har tydlig struktur och noggrann genomgång. Samtliga lärare använde något slags vektyg som till exempel whiteboard. Något som också visades var att det är viktigt att vara konsekvent och ha tydliga regler. Samtliga lärare sa också att de inte bara anpassar sig efter barn med diagnoser utan försöker tillgodose hela klassens behov.

    Slutsats

    Lärarna var eniga om hur man ska förhålla sig till inkludering och exkludering. Däremot var vissa uttalanden från lärarna svåra att tolka då de var motsägelsefulla. Detta kan bero på att lärarna själva inte vet hur de ska tolka begreppen. En slutsats var också att flickor inte uppmärksammas på samma sätt som pojkar då pojkar är mer utagerande än flickor. Lärarna kunde därför ha svårt att "se" flickorna och tillgodose deras behov.

  • 1164.
    Gejl, Kasper Degn
    et al.
    University of Southern Denmark.
    Thams, Line
    University of Southern Denmark.
    Hansen, Mette
    Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Rokkedal-Lausch, Torben
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Plomgaard, Peter
    Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Nybo, Lars
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen Denmark.
    Larsen, Filip J
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Research group for Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll. Karolinska Institute.
    Cardinale, Daniele A
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Research group for Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Jensen, Kurt
    University of Southern Denmark.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Vissing, Kristian
    Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Ørtenblad, Niels
    University of Southern Denmark.
    No Superior Adaptations to Carbohydrate Periodization in Elite Endurance Athletes.2017In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 49, no 12, p. 2486-2497Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: The present study investigated the effects of periodic CHO restriction on endurance performance and metabolic markers in elite endurance athletes.

    METHODS: Twenty-six male elite endurance athletes (VO2max: 65.0 ml O2[BULLET OPERATOR]kg[BULLET OPERATOR]min) completed 4 weeks of regular endurance training, while matched and randomized into two groups training with (Low) or without (High) carbohydrate (CHO) manipulation three days a week. The CHO manipulation days consisted of a 1-hr high intensity bike session in the morning, recovery for 7 hrs while consuming isocaloric diets containing either high CHO (414±2.4 g) or low CHO (79.5±1.0 g), and a 2-hr moderate bike session in the afternoon with or without CHO. VO2max, maximal fat oxidation and power output during a 30-min time trial (TT) were determined before and after the training period. The TT was undertaken after 90 mins of intermittent exercise with CHO provision before the training period and both CHO and placebo after the training period. Muscle biopsies were analyzed for glycogen, citrate synthase (CS) and β-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (HAD) activity, carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT1b) and phosphorylated acetyl-CoA carboxylase (pACC).

    RESULTS: The training effects were similar in both groups for all parameters. On average, VO2max and power output during the 30-min TT increased by 5 ± 1% (P<0.05) and TT performance was similar after CHO and placebo during the preload phase. Training promoted overall increases in glycogen content (18 ± 5%), CS activity (11 ± 5%) and pACC (38 ± 19%) (P<0.05) with no differences between groups. HAD activity and CPT1b protein content remained unchanged.

    CONCLUSION: Superimposing periodic CHO restriction to 4 weeks of regular endurance training had no superior effects on performance and muscle adaptations in elite endurance athletes.

  • 1165. Gejl, Kasper
    et al.
    Hvid, Lars G
    Frandsen, Ulrik
    Jensen, Kurt
    Sahlin, Kent
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Research group for Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Ortenblad, Niels
    Muscle Glycogen Content Modifies SR Ca2 + Release Rate in Elite Endurance Athletes.2014In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 496-505Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of muscle glycogen content on sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) function and peak power output (Wpeak) in elite endurance athletes.

    METHODS: Fourteen highly trained male triathletes (VO2max 66.5 ± 1.3 ml O2 kg min), performed 4h of glycogen depleting cycling exercise (HRmean 73 ± 1% of maximum). During the first 4h recovery, athletes received either water (H2O) or carbohydrate (CHO), separating alterations in muscle glycogen content from acute changes affecting SR function and performance. Thereafter, all subjects received CHO enriched food for the remaining 20h recovery.

    RESULTS: Immediately following exercise, muscle glycogen content and SR Ca release rate was reduced to 32 ± 4% (225 ± 28 mmol kg dw) and 86 ± 2% of initial levels, respectively (P < 0.01). Glycogen markedly recovered after 4h recovery with CHO (61 ± 2% of pre) and SR Ca release rate returned to pre-exercise level. However, in the absence of CHO during the first 4h recovery, glycogen and SR Ca release rate remained depressed, with normalization of both parameters at the end of the 24h recovery after receiving a CHO enriched diet. Linear regression demonstrated a significant correlation between SR Ca release rate and muscle glycogen content (P < 0.01, r = 0.30). The 4h cycling exercise reduced Wpeak by 5.5-8.9% at different cadences (P < 0.05) and Wpeak was normalized after 4h recovery with CHO whereas Wpeak remained depressed (P < 0.05) following water provision. Wpeak was fully recovered after 24h in both the H2O and the CHO group.

    CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the present results suggest that low muscle glycogen depresses muscle SR Ca release rate, which may contribute to fatigue and delayed recovery of Wpeak 4 hours post exercise.

  • 1166.
    Genberg, Andreas
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Mårdberg, Johan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Bra? Jag mår fantastiskt!: en kvalitativ studie om hälsa2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    This is a study based on a national longitudinal study on Swedish school students (the School, sport and health project, SIH).

    Aim:

    The purpose of this study was to examine why young adults rate their health as good. The primary purpose was to determine the factors that respondents perceive as meaningful for their subjectively perceived health. A secondary purpose was to investigate how the informants self rated health status have changed since 2010.

    • How do the respondents define the concept of health?
    • How do the respondents reflect about their health in relation to their everyday life, living, work/studies, leisure, training, family/friends, past life/future life?
    • In which extent do the respondents feel that they can influence their own lives?

    Method:

    The study is of a qualitative character. Ten semi-structured interviews were conducted with a sample group, which originated in the SIH project. The interviews have been based on seven main topics: Everyday life, work /studies, leisure, training, family/friends, past life / future life and pathogenic problems. The results have been analyzed on the basis of Antonovsky's SOC-term

    Results:

    Our results demonstrate that the control over daily life, physical activity, and to some extent also religious participation could possibly be related to the informants' good health status. The results also show that informants’ health status has deteriorated slightly since 2010, both physically and mentally.

    Conclusion:

    Our informants have a high SOC in relation to their daily lives, which might result in their good health status. The importance of physical activity and social interaction are two factors highlighted by this study. However, we have seen the difficulty of ascertaining what actually affects what. Our interpretation is that the ability of a factor to affect an individual, positively or negatively, is proportional to their subjective perception and values.

  • 1167.
    Genlott, Rebecca
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Robèrt, Neah
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Korta rörelsepauser under lektionstid: Har detta en positiv effekt på koncentrationen och den kognitiva förmågan hos en klass i årskurs 9?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Fler rör sig mindre och det börjar redan i skolåren. En stor del av skoldagen består av stillasittande lektioner och i de högre årskurserna ökar stillasittandet alltmer. Det finns en mängd strategier som har utvecklats för att integrera fysisk aktivitet i inlärningsmiljön, såsom fysiskt aktiva lektioner benämnt som movement integration, (MI).

    Syfte och frågeställning

    Syftet med denna studie var att se om korta rörelsepauser under lektionstid kunde öka den kognitiva förmågan och koncentrationsförmågan, samt bryta stillasittandet för elever i årskurs 9. Frågeställning som undersöktes var: Kan den kognitiva förmågan och koncentrationsförmågan förbättras av korta rörelsepauser under lektionstid i årskurs 9?

    Metod

    Studien riktade sig till en klass i årskurs 9 med 27 elever. Metoden som användes var en kvantitativ mätmetod, där eleverna fick fylla i en enkät om deras upplevda koncentration i klassrummet och ett kognitivt ord- och färgtest (Stroop) innan och efter interventionen. Under en period på 3 veckor skulle klassen utföra rörelsepauser under de teoretiska lektionerna. Dessa rörelsepauser skulle utföras var 20:e minut under cirka 2–3 minuter och kunde innehålla knäböj, dansrörelser och avslappningsövningar med mera.

    Resultat

    Av totalt 27 elever slutförde 25 stycken studien. Resultaten från två frågor i enkäten visade signifikanta förbättringar gällande den upplevda koncentrationen och ljudnivån i klassrummet. Ord- och färgtestet visade en signifikant förbättring i tid.

    Slutsats

    Rörelsepauser kan ha en positiv påverkan på elevernas upplevda koncentrationsförmåga och kognitiva förmåga, men det behövs mer forskning kring området. Det är viktigt att poängtera att all rörelse är betydelsefull oavsett under hur lång tid övningen utförs. Det behövs bara att eleverna gör enkla rörelser i klassrummet för att det ska ge effekt på deras koncentration och kognitiva förmåga.

  • 1168.
    Georgelis, Alexander
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Betyg, dialog och samspel.: En studie om elevers syn på betygskriterierna i idrott och hälsa.2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Aim and specific questions

    The purpose of this study is to examine how much knowledge pupils believe they have about the grading criteria in physical education

    • How well does the pupils think they know the knowledge requirements for the different grade levels?
    • How does the dialogue between pupil and teacher concerning the grading criteria function according to the students?
    • Are there differences between pupils who believe they have good knowledge of the grading criteria compared with those who feel that they have little knowledge in terms of the dialogue with the teacher, participation and motivation for PE classes?

    Method

    The study is based on a quantitative survey where respondents answered a questionnaire. The respondents, from the ninth grade, comprised of six classes from three different schools, consisting of a total of 146 pupils. 

    Results

    The results of this study show that most pupils felt they had reasonably good knowledge of the grading criteria in Physical Education, however , it was found that about a quarter of the pupils felt they had relatively little knowledge of the grading criteria. The results also show that there were clear and statistically significant differences between pupils who felt that they had good or poor r knowledge of the grading criteria.

    Conclusion

    Pupils who reported that they had good knowledge of the grading criteria felt they had a better dialogue with the PE teacher, was more involved and had a more positive view of  the PE classes compared with pupils who reported that they had poor knowledge of the grading criteria.

  • 1169. Gerber, Markus
    et al.
    Jonsdottir, IH
    Börjesson, Mats
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Lindegård, A gneta
    Changes in Mental Health in Compliers and Non-Compliers with Physical Activity Recommendations in Patients with Stress-Related Exhaustion2015In: Proceedings of the 2015 AIESEP International Conference. Revista Española de Educación Física y Deportes, 410 (Supl.), 3er trimestre., 2015, 2015, Vol. 410 (Supl.), p. 300-301Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1170. Gerber, Markus
    et al.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Lindegård, Agneta
    Börjesson, Mats
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H
    Cardiorespiratory fitness protects against stress-related symptoms of burnout and depression.2013In: Patient Education and Counseling, ISSN 0738-3991, E-ISSN 1873-5134, Vol. 93, no 1, p. 146-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To examine how cardiorespiratory fitness and self-perceived stress are associated with burnout and depression. To determine if any relationship between stress and burnout/depression is mitigated among participants with high fitness levels.

    METHODS: 197 participants (51% men, mean age=39.2 years) took part in the study. The Åstrand bicycle test was used to assess cardorespiratory fitness. Burnout was measured with the Shirom-Melamed Burnout Questionnaire (SMBQ), depressive symptoms with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD-D). A gender-matched stratified sample was used to ensure that participants with varying stress levels were equally represented.

    RESULTS: Participants with moderate and high fitness reported fewer symptoms of burnout and depression than participants with low fitness. Individuals with high stress who also had moderate or high fitness levels reported lower scores on the SMBQ Tension subscale and the HAD-D than individuals with high stress, but low fitness levels.

    CONCLUSION: Better cardiovascular fitness seems to be associated with decreased symptoms of burnout and a better capacity to cope with stress.

    PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Promoting and measuring cardiorespiratory fitness can motivate employees to adopt a more physically active lifestyle and thus strengthen their ability to cope with stress exposure and stress-related disorders.

  • 1171.
    Gerby, Henrik
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Tuneld, Sofie
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Hur är det att vara skadad truppgymnast?: En kvalitativ studie kring psykologiska faktorer i samband med rehabilitering och återgång till idrott2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med studien var att ta reda om det finns olika psykologiska faktorer som har påverkat och hjälpt i rehabiliteringen av en långvarig skada hos truppgymnaster. Frågeställningarna var: Hur upplever de tiden som skadad ur ett psykologiskt perspektiv? samt Vad motiverar gymnasten att återgå till idrotten?

    Metod

    Studien har en kvalitativ ansats och har genomförts med hjälp av semistrukturerade intervjuer. Sju elitgymnaster på hösta nationella nivå deltog i studien där alla hade varit skadade och borta från tävling minst 12 månader. Intervjuerna spelades in, transkriberades och analyserades. Analysen var deduktiv med self determination theory som teoretisk utgångspunkt för att kategorisera resultatet.                                                                                                   

    Resultat

    Resultatet visar att det som motiverar deltagarna att återgå till idrotten var de små framstegen, att rehabiliteringen ger resultat och att det går att utvecklas. Det hade även varit viktigt med socialt stöd under rehabiliteringen. Social support har bland annat kommit från tränare, lagkamrater, föräldrar och sjukgymnaster genom att de lyssnat, förklarat och försökt förstå den skadade. Under tiden som skadad har deltagarna i stor utsträckning förändrat sin syn på gymnastik på grund av skadan. De uppskattar idrotten mer och har fått en ökad förståelse. De känslor som deltagarna har tampats med mest med under tiden som skadad har varit frustration, ilska, bitterhet, vilsenhet, ångest, sorg, ledsamhet, oro, uppgivenhet och utanförskap.

    Slutsats

    Vad som hjälper en skadad idrottare att återgå till idrotten beror på individen. Det som visat sig gemensamt för flera av deltagarna har framförallt varit det sociala stödet, förmågan att kunna se de små framstegen i rehabiliteringen och att de identifierat sig med gymnastiken.

  • 1172.
    Gerdin, Göran
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Växjö.
    Larsson, Håkan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    The productive effect of power: (dis)pleasurable bodies materialising in and through the discursive practices of boys’ physical education.2018In: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 66-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Pleasure is often a key feature of school physical education (PE) and, indeed, a lot of students find pleasure in and through PE while others do not. However, pleasure is rarely considered to be of educational value in the subject [Pringle, R. (2010). “Finding Pleasure in Physical Education: A Critical Examination of the Educative Value of Positive Movement Affects.”Quest62: 119–134]. Further, since pleasure is linked to power [Foucault, M. (1980).Power/Knowledge: Selected Interviews and Other Writings, 1972–1977. New York: Pantheon; Gerdin, G., and R. Pringle. (2015). “The Politics of Pleasure: An Ethnographic Examination Exploring the Dominance of the Multi-Activity Sport-Based Physical Education Model.”Sport, Education and Society. doi:10.1080/13573322.2015.1019448] it is in fact not entirely straightforward to legitimise the educational value of PE in relation to pleasure.

    Purpose: In this paper, we explore how a group of boys derive pleasures from their involvement in PE, but also how these power-induced pleasures are integral to gender normalisation processes. The findings presented are particularly discussed in terms of inclusive/exclusive pedagogical practices related to gender, bodies and pleasures.

    Research setting and participants: The research setting was a single-sex, boys’ secondary school in Auckland, New Zealand. Participants in this study were 60 Year 10 (age 14–15) students from two PE classes.

    Data collection and analysis: Using a visual ethnographic approach [Pink, S. (2007).Doing Visual Ethnography. London: Sage] involving observations and video recordings of boys participating in PE, the boys’ representations and interpretations of the visual data were explored during both focus groups and individual interviews. The data were analysed using (a visually oriented) discourse analysis [Foucault, M. (1998). “Foucault.” InMichel Foucault. Aesthetics, Method and Epistemology, edited by J. D. Faubion, 459–463. New York: The New Press; Rose, G. (2007).Visual Methodologies: An Introduction to the Interpretation of Visual Materials. London: Sage].

    Findings: By elucidating the discursive practices of PE in this setting and employing (Butler, J. (1993).Bodies that Matter: On the Discursive Limits of ‘Sex’. New York: Routledge] concept of ‘materialisation’, we suggest that boy’s bodies materialise as productive and pleasurable or displeasurable bodies through submitting/subjecting to certain bodily regimes, developing embodied mastery when it comes to certain sports, and displaying bodies in particular ways. The analysis indicate that the discursive practices of PE contribute to boys’ bodies materialising as pleasurable or displeasurable and the (re)production of gender in the subject as shaped by discourse and the productive effect of power.

    Discussion and conclusions: In line with [Gard, M. (2008). “When a Boy’s Gotta Dance: New Masculinities, Old Pleasures.”Sport, Education and Society13 (2): 181–193], we conclude that the focus on certain discursively constructed bodily practices at the same time continues to restrict the production of a diversity of bodily movement pleasures. Hence, traditional gender patterns are reproduced through a selection of particular sports/physical activities that all the students are expected to participate in. We propose that the ongoing constitution of privileged forms of masculinity, masculine bodies and masculine pleasures as related to fitness, health and sport and (certain) boys’ subsequent exercise of power in PE needs further critical examination. 

  • 1173.
    Gibbs, Béatrice
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Wii lär oss dansa?: Om dansspel, rörelsekvaliteter och lärande i idrott och hälsa2014Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Few studies have focused on how learning takes place in physical education and health (PEH) practices, and even more so in relation to artifact use. Dance is a core content in the Swedish curriculum, but according to previous research it nevertheless rarely occurs in practice due to many teachers’ lack of knowledge. Movement qualities are something that students are supposed to develop in the subject, where dance can be used as a form of activity.

    The aim of the licentiate thesis is to examine students’ use and development of different movement qualities in a learning process where dance exergames are used as teaching aids in the PEH practice in upper secondary school. The research questions in the study are: (1) what kind of movement qualities do students use when they interact with each other and with dance exergames, and (2) how does the learning of movement qualities occur when dance exergames are used as teaching aids?

    A series of seven PEH-lessons were designed. Four of the lesson had a spe-cific purpose, such as working with rhythm and coordination where the exergames Nintendo Wii Just Dance 3 and 4 were used as teaching aids. In two other lessons the students worked in groups to create their own dances, and as a final goal, at lesson seven, the groups presented their dances. All the lessons were video recorded. A framework inspired by Laban’s movement analysis was used to analyze the students’ movement qualities, based on four aspects: body, space, effort and relationship. To be able to analyze the students, the dance exergames and the context as a whole, the study involved a socio-cultural ap-proach to learning. Learning situations in the ongoing practice were also ana-lyzed, where learning was investigated as something that occurs through inter-actions between students and between students and artifacts.

    The results show a way to describe students’ movement qualities, which con-tribute to PEH-teachers language of knowledge in movement. The results also demonstrate that learning occurred through imitation, repetition, communica-tion, negotiation, practice, modeling, instruction and using metaphors. A con-clusion is that students’ use and development of movement qualities do not depend on the use of the dance exergames per se, instead it depends on how the dance exergames are used in PEH practice.

  • 1174.
    Gibbs, Béatrice
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Almqvist, Jonas
    Uppsala universitet.
    Meckbach, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    Örebro universitet.
    Öhman, Marie
    Örebro universitet.
    TV-spel som läromedel i idrott och hälsa?2012In: Idrott & Hälsa, ISSN 1653-1124, no 8, p. 11-14Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1175.
    Gibbs, Béatrice
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences. School of Health Sciences, Örebro University.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    School of Health Sciences, Örebro University.
    Larsson, Håkan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Teaching dance in physical education using exergames2017In: European Physical Education Review, ISSN 1356-336X, E-ISSN 1741-2749, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 237-256Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the different ways in which a dance exergame can be used to teach dance in upper secondary school physical education. Particular attention is paid to the learning processes that students are involved in when the dance game is used as a teaching resource. A socio-cultural perspective on learning constitutes the analytical framework. The study demonstrates three different uses: instructor, facilitator and inspirer. In relation to these uses the students are involved in the following learning processes: learning by imitating, repeating, communicating, negotiating, instructing, modelling and using metaphors. It is argued that dance exergames can be used pedagogically to teach dance because they focus on the moves and steps and allow the teacher to focus on observing, supporting, assigning tasks and providing feedback.

  • 1176.
    Gidewall, Oscar
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Johnsson, Matthias
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Blodlaktat, hjärtfrekvens och skattad ansträngning vid löpning på rullband jämfört med löpning på fast underlag2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Treadmill running has become an increasingly popular substitute for training purposes, especially in northern degrees of latitude (due to bad weather conditions during the winter). The treadmill is also an important ergometer for estimating performance and testing in a controlled environment. A blood lactate accumulation test is a test predominately executed on a treadmill. Such a test is performed to establish the speed (velocity) at the point where blood lactate production exceeds the ability of lactate clearance, or a maximum lactate steady state. In order to use such a test to predict race speed, or to find a correct pace for threshold training purposes, it is assumed that running on a treadmill and track is equivalent. Starting from a blood lactate accumulation test executed on a treadmill, the aims of this study were to compare treadmill and track running, with attention to heart rate (HF), blood lactate (Hla) and rated perceived exertion (RPE). Are there any differences in treadmill and track running?

    Methodology

    A total of nine runners (7 males and 2 females) participated voluntarily in the study. The subjects were all very experienced and well-trained runners (Age: 20-39 yrs., m=26.8, SD=6.6). Initially each subject accomplished a blood lactate accumulation test on a treadmill. The individual speed (12.5-19.5 km/h, m=17.05, SD=2.15), corresponding to the anaerobic threshold of each runner, respectively, was used as the starting point. Secondly, two identical training sessions (5x1000m, with 60-sec rest) were accomplished by each subject, both on the track (200m, indoor), and on a treadmill. Half the group of subjects carried out the first session on the track, and vice verse. Immediately after each 1000m-run, lactate in blood was sampled and the exertion in legs and breathing were rated, following the RPE/Borg-scale. The HF was recorded continuously every 5-seconds, throughout the sessions.

    Results and conclusion

    The results of the study indicate significant differences in Hla and HF. The metabolic stress was significantly higher on the track. However, no statistically significant differences were found regarding RPE. The study concludes that testing performed on a treadmill cannot perfectly be reproduced on the track. Any monitoring of training intensity on a track, based on results from blood lactate accumulation testing on a treadmill, should be carried out with caution. The athlete and coach should be aware that the metabolic stress is higher on track compared to treadmill running. This knowledge is particularly valuable for any athlete who aims to train, or compete, at levels close to the anaerobic threshold, but without running any risk of exceeding the lactate steady state.

  • 1177.
    Gidén Persson, Roger
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Nyckelhålet: Hur uppfattar unga konsumenter symbolen?2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Aim

    The purpose of this research was to find out how consumers born between 1975-85 who has left their parents home comprehend the “Keyhole mark” symbol. The purpose is also to find out if there is any difference between men and women as well as consumers from the low price store and the normal price store. To evaluate this I have chosen five questions as starting points; 1. Do consumers recognize the symbol? 2. How do consumers describe their understanding of the symbol? 3. What qualities do the consumers ascribe to the keyhole mark? 4. What reasons do the consumer have to choose or not choose products with the keyhole mark? 5. From where has the consumer got the knowledge of the keyhole mark?

    Method

    60 people, 30 customers at a normal price store and 30 customers at a low price store have answered a questionnaire containing 21 questions. 36 of the people responding were women, and 24 were men. The questionnaire contained both open and closed questions. The selected group is born between 1975-85 and all of them have moved out from their parents home. I have been standing next to products marked with the keyhole mark, and there I have found my respondents. According to an estimation of the possible consumers for the stores I have managed to reach 33% of my sample group at the low price store and 29% at the normal price store.

    Results

    All of the people responding except one recognized the symbol Keyhole mark. The consumers understand the Keyhole mark as a symbol that conveys healthy and low fat products. Consumers describe the symbol as a mark of low fat and healthy food. They also choose to buy products with these qualities. Consumers do sometimes not choose these products due to the price. Media seems to be the information channel from where the consumers mainly have obtained knowledge of the symbol. There are no clear differences between the answers given by men and women, or between the consumers in the two different types of stores.

    Conclusions

    Consumers born between 1975-85, who has moved out from their parents home understand the keyhole marks properties well. As good as all respondents recognize the symbol. The majority of the respondents describe the symbol as a mark of low fat and healthy food. That is also the reason why they choose to buy these products. A large percentage of the consumers consider these products expensive. Media appears to be the channel, where a great part of the consumers have obtained knowledge about the keyhole mark. Differences between men´s and women’s knowledge about the keyhole mark are marginal. The same scenario concerns the differences between consumers in the low price store and the normal price store. Earlier studies have shown that a great percentage of the consumers consider the keyhole mark to be kind of environmental mark. The same results was found in the present study .

  • 1178. Gilenstam, Kajsa M
    et al.
    Thorsen, Kim
    Henriksson-Larsén, Karin B
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Physiological correlates of skating performance in women's and men's ice hockey.2011In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287, Vol. 25, no 8, p. 2133-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the current investigation was to identify relationships between physiological off-ice tests and on-ice performance in female and male ice hockey players on a comparable competitive level. Eleven women, 24 ± 3.0 years, and 10 male ice hockey players, 23 ± 2.4 years, were tested for background variables: height, body weight (BW), ice hockey history, and lean body mass (LBM) and peak torque (PT) of the thigh muscles, VO2peak and aerobic performance (Onset of Blood Lactate Accumulation [OBLA], respiratory exchange ratio [RER1]) during an incremental bicycle ergometer test. Four different on-ice tests were used to measure ice skating performance. For women, skating time was positively correlated (p < 0.05) to BW and negatively correlated to LBM%, PT/BW, OBLA, RER 1, and VO2peak (ml O2·kg(-1) BW(-1)·min(-1)) in the Speed test. Acceleration test was positively correlated to BW and negatively correlated to OBLA and RER 1. For men, correlation analysis revealed only 1 significant correlation where skating time was positively correlated to VO2peak (L O2·min(-1)) in the Acceleration test. The male group had significantly higher physiological test values in all variables (absolute and relative to BW) but not in relation to LBM. Selected off-ice tests predict skating performance for women but not for men. The group of women was significantly smaller and had a lower physiological performance than the group of men and were slower in the on-ice performance tests. However, gender differences in off-ice variables were reduced or disappeared when values were related to LBM, indicating a similar capacity of producing strength and aerobic power in female and male hockey players. Skating performance in female hockey players may be improved by increasing thigh muscle strength, oxygen uptake, and relative muscle mass.

  • 1179.
    Giotis, Anna-Maria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Hindrad av en tanke: En studie av mentala blockeringar inom kvinnlig truppgymnastik2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim and Questions

    The aim of this study is to examine the incidence, handling and experienced causes of mental blockings in female teamgym at national youth and junior level.

    • Which type of exercise is the most common mental blocking in female teamgym?

    • How does the blockings show according to the gymnasts and coaches?

    • Which possible causes to origin of mental blockings can be understood on the basis of the stories of the gymnasts and coaches?

    • In which ways have gymnasts and coaches tried to handle mental blockings?

    Method

    The study started out with a literature search for previous research. Thereafter a questionnaire was formed in two versions (for gymnasts and coaches) and these were sent to gymnasts and coaches at national youth and junior level in six different clubs. The gymnasts were chosen by their level of training and competition.

    Results

    The study showed that mental blockings is a very common phenomenon in teamgym and is something that the majority of the gymnasts at some point have been affected by. The blockings are often revealed by the gymnasts refusing or totally excluding the exercise from training and the blockings are most frequently occurring in the apparatus called tumbling. Yet, the study shows that most gymnasts experience mental blockings in more then one apparatus. Vaults that rotate backwards tend to bee the type of exercise that most gymnasts have blockings for. This was believed to mainly depend on the gymnasts thinking they will fail to succeed with the exercise followed by causes like previous injuries and mental immatureness. Most gymnasts and coaches have in some way tried to solve the problem, mainly by physical measures and have in situations of mental blockings felt afraid, frustrated and like failure.

    Conclusions

    Mental blockings is a big problem and few gymnasts and coaches know how to handle them. The need of more research in the area and focus on mental training in the gymnastics association is big.

  • 1180.
    Giotis, Anna-Maria
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Nilsson, Anna
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Våga vägra vara rädd!: En studie av rädsla inom kvinnlig truppgymnastik2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim and Questions

    The aim with this study was to examine the incidence and handling of fear in female teamgym and to suggest and test possible physical exercises and training possibilities.

    - How common is the feeling of fear among gymnasts?

    - How does the fear show according to the gymnasts themselves?

    - Do the selected physical exercises have a positive effect in handling and overcoming fear?

    Method

    Starting out, information in former studies was searched for. To be able to survey the participating gymnasts, a questionnaire was made. Through observation during training sessions and by means of the questionnaire we were able to see what exercises the gymnasts feel fearful about and how often they feel that fear is a part of training.

    On the basis of these questionnaires and observations a number of possible measures and ways of training this issue were designed and these were thereafter tested.

    Finally another evaluating questionnaire was made with all participating gymnasts to investigate if the tested exercises had given any positive results.

    Results

    Early in the study, the fact that fear is a common problem in Teamgym was established. Fear of loosing control, fear of injuries and fear of failure appeared to be common reasons among the gymnasts, and these could also be categorized in further types of fear. Tumbling and trampette turned out to be the apparatus that the gymnasts felt the most fearful about. The tested exercises all gave a positive result and the gymnasts considered themselves becoming not only less afraid but also better of handling their fear.

    Conclusions

    Through this study, a conclusion can be made that a psychological problem like fear can be treated physically. A combination of psychological and physical methods is probably the most effective way of treatment. Fear, however, is something very individual and should be treated thereafter.

  • 1181. Gjerset, Asbjørn
    et al.
    Nilsson, Johnny
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Wulf Helge, Jørn
    Enoksen, Eystein
    Idrettens treningslære2015 (ed. 2)Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [no]

    Den nye utgaven av Idrettens treningslære viser hvordan vi kan påvirke og utvikle en idrettsutøvers egenskaper og ferdigheter i gunstig retning.

    Boka omhandler først og fremst grunnleggende forhold ved trening som er felles for ulike idretter og målgrupper. I mange sammenhenger går boka også nærmere inn på mer spesifikke forhold ved treningen i forskjellige idretter. Særlig vektlegges

    • utvikling av egenskaper og ferdigheter som danner grunnlaget for den idrettslige prestasjonsevnen
    • planlegging, gjennomføring, dokumentasjon, analyse og evaluering av trening
    • fysiologiske, psykologiske og andre faktorer som er viktig for prestasjonen
    • belastning og tilpasning i forbindelse med trening
    • fysisk, motorisk, psykisk og sosial utvikling

    En treningslære som fungerer godt, hviler på både praktisk erfaring og bred analytisk tilnærming, og vitenskapelig dokumentasjon er en viktig del av dette. I denne boka kombineres derfor disse tilnærmingene.  

    Idrettens treningslære er skrevet for undervisning på universitets- og høgskolenivå, og for utdanningen av trenere i treningsbransjen og i idretten generelt. Boken har blitt til gjennom et samarbeid mellom treningsmiljøer i Norge, Sverige og Danmark. 17 forfattere har bidratt med sin kompetanse på sine fagfelt.

    (Information från förlaget)

  • 1182.
    Glas, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Tekniska fel i handboll: Analys av svensk och dansk herr-elithandboll2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet var att undersöka om tekniska fel har potentiell påverkan på framgång i handboll. Studiens frågeställningar var (1) Hur ser ett eventuellt samband ut mellan ett lags antal tekniska fel under en säsong och dess slutplacering i serietabellen? och (2) Vilken inverkan har ett lags aeroba förmåga på dess antal tekniska fel?

    Metod

    För att kunna besvara studiens frågeställning så delades studien upp i två delar. Första delen ämnar besvara huruvida ett lags antal tekniska fel inverkar på ett lags slutplacering i serietabellen. För att besvara den frågan inhämtades data från samtliga matcher och serietabeller i högsta serierna i Sverige (Elitserien) och Danmark (Boxerligan) under säsongerna 2011/12-2015/16.  För att besvara den andra frågeställningen rekryterades tre lag från Elitserien 2015/16 för genomförande av konditionstester.

    Resultat

    2011-16 var medelvärdet för tekniska fel/lag/match i Elitserien 11,8 ± 1,2 och i Boxerligan 11,4 ± 1,2. Missade passningar står för 40-45%, av alla tekniska fel, och närmare en fjärdedel av alla tekniska fel genererar ett mål till motståndaren inom 10 sekunder. För både Elitserien (BF=1,221e+22, p<0,001) och Boxerligan (BF=1,032e+10, p<0,001) var det ett väldigt starkt samband mellan antal tekniska fel och matchens utgång. Antal tekniska fel/lag/match var kopplat till lagets placering i både Elitserien (starkt stöd, BF=52, p<0,001) och i Boxerligan (väldigt starkt stöd, BF=2658, p<0,001). Sambandet mellan tekniska fel och lag som tog sig till slutspel mot de som inte gjorde det gav ett starkt stöd för Elitserien (BF=3,2, p<0,01) och ett mycket starkt stöd i Boxerligan (BF=87, p<0,001). Det lag som hade högst konditionsvärde hade lägst antal tekniska fel, men endast svagt stöd (BF=1,5) fanns för detta samband.

    Slutsats

    Slutplacering i Elitserien och Boxerligan har ett starkt samband med det antal tekniska fel ett lag förorsakar i match. Ju färre antal tekniska fel desto större chans att nå slutspel sett över åren 2011-2016. Det finns ett svagt samband som stöd för att kondition samvarierar med antal tekniska fel.

  • 1183.
    Glas, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH.
    Mattsson, C. Mikael
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Physiological requirements of elite handball – measured with a combination of local positioning system and heart rate monitoring.2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For all athletes, it is important to adjust training plans and competition schedule according to each individual's specific traits and situation. This is crucial in team sports, where players, despite being involved in the same sport, and even on the same team, may have very different physiological capacities and, also have completed a wide variety of work in both training and match situations. A first step towards being able to carry out individualized training is to accurately measure the amount of stress (physiological burden) for each individual. The purpose of the study was to create a comprehensive picture of the physical requirements of elite handball matches, and further investigate how the relationship between work load and physical capacity impacts performance.

    Heart rate measurements have since decades been used to quantify the relative work, and GPS measurement as a tool for objective values has been available for outdoor sports for about ten years, but GPS is not possible to use indoors. We have used a new technology with a similar system for indoor use called Local Positioning System (LPS) (Kinexon Precision Technologies, Münich, Germany) to record and analyze the players’ motion during games, and we have combined that technology with data from accelerometry, gyroscope and heart rate measurements.

    So far, 42 handball matches have been measured and analyzed, ranging from juniors (9 games U21 men's national team) to seniors, men and women, and both in Sweden’s highest league and between national teams (Women: 8 national and 7 international games; Men: 14 national and 4 international games).

    A first "result" is that the categorization of motion patterns need to be adapted to each sport. For example, some moves that should be counted as accelerations in handball are not recognized by the system, simply because it has been adapted to the pattern of motion on the much larger soccer field. This is similarly important to realize when comparing results for handball’s physiological requirements reached using other technologies. In this presentation, we will in part discuss the future technological opportunities, and in part report descriptive results, including how fast and far the players move, as well as differences between men and women, between national and international games, and between juniors and seniors.

  • 1184. Gleddie, Doug
    et al.
    Feith, Joey
    Howe, P. David
    Larsson, Håkan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Cale, Lorraine
    Casey, Ashley
    Joey: social media as a tool for professional development2016In: Digital technologies and learning in physical education: pedagogical cases / [ed] Ashley Casey, Victoria A. Goodyear, Kathleen M. Armour, Routledge, 2016, p. 121-136Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1185. Glemne, Mats
    et al.
    Fahlström, Per Göran
    Hageskog, Carl-Axel
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Linnér, Susanne
    London calling – OS 2012 är målet för Coachteamet2011In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 29-33Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett samverkansprojekt om coaching vid mästerskap pågår mellan Linnéuniversitetet och Svenska Friidrottsförbundet. Projektet Coachteamet har gett fruktbara möten mellan akademi och elitidrott; forskning och utbildning. Samtidigt visar hittills gjorda erfarenheter att det behövs tid för att överbrygga bland annat kulturella skillnader.

  • 1186.
    Glimvert, Daniel
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Svensson, Tobias
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Kommunicera mera!?!: en kvalitativ och kvantitativ studie om kommunikation mellan två svenska specialidrottsförbund och dess elitserieföreningar2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudent thesis
  • 1187.
    Godhe, Manne
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control. Karolinska Institutet.
    Pontén, Marjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Andersson, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control. Karolinska Institutet.
    Improved daily movement patterns in an accelerometer-assessed 8-weeks exercise project in older adults2019In: British Journal of Sports Medicine Vol 53, suppl 1, BMJ Publishing Group Ltd, 2019, Vol. 53, p. A2-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 1188.
    Godhe, Manne
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group. Militärmedicinska forskningsgruppen, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Helge, Torbjörn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group. Militärmedicinska forskningsgruppen, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Mattsson, C. Mikael
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences. Militärmedicinska forskningsgruppen, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group. Militärmedicinska forskningsgruppen, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Att bära tungt - en fysiologisk analys: Kvinnor: Rapport 8.2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sjutton kvinnliga vältränade försökspersoner, åtta stycken med vana att bära tungt och nio stycken utan sådan vana, genomförde gång på löpband och mjukt underlag i hastigheterna 3 och 5 km/tim med bärvikter i ryggsäck på 20, 35 och 50 kg.Mjukt underlag i form av blå gymnastikmattor, indikerande gång i lätt terräng, ökade energiomsättningen under både hastigheterna mellan 10 och 15 %, jämfört med hårt underlag (löpband) med en grads lutning. Energiomsättningen ökade i genomsnitt lika mycket med ökad hastighet som med ökad bärvikt. Den individuella variationen vid en given bärvikt och hastighet är mycket stor. Beroende på bärvikt och hastighet kan energiomsättningen variera med 100 %. Dessa stora variationer i energiomsättning bör uppmärksammas vid beräkning av energitilldelning via kosten vid längre militära operationer.Energiomsättningen vid tyngsta belastningen – 50 kilo bärvikt och hastigheten 5 km/tim – belastade försökspersonerna på i genomsnitt 57 % av maximal syreupptagningsförmåga. I individuella fall var belastningen 72 % av maximal syreupptagningsförmåga. Dessa höga belastningar är oacceptabelt höga för transporter under längre tid och kan vara en orsak till belastningsskador.Förmågan att bära tungt sammanfaller med ökad kroppsvikt och benmuskelstyrka. Bärförmåga för mindre vikter, högst 35 kg, sammanfaller inte med någon av ovanstående faktorer. Således, för tyngre bärvikter vid förflyttningar bör selektion av soldater ske enligt de uppmätta parametrarna, medan vad gäller lättare vikter föreligger inte samma selektionskriterier.En slutsats från resultaten av denna undersökning är den ursprungliga uttagningen till tunga arbetsuppgifter inom försvaret bör genomföras med tunga arbetsbelastningar, motsvarande de i denna undersökning. I kommande rapport sammanfattas studierna på män och kvinnors bärförmåga, likheter och olikheter mellan könen, möjliga selektionskriterier samt rekommendationer med utgångspunkt från genomförda undersökningar och resultat från olika andra undersökningar.

  • 1189.
    Godhe, Manne
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Helge, Torbjörn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Mattsson, C. Mikael
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Physiological factors of importance for load carriage2017In: ICSPP Abstracts: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, November 2017 20 Supplement 2:S105, 2017, Vol. 20, no Supplement 2, p. S105-, article id 176Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 1190.
    Godhe, Manne
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Helge, Torbjörn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Mattsson, C Mikael
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Physiological factors of importance for load carriageManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The energy expenditure during carrying no load, 20, 35 and 50 kg at two walking speeds, 3 and 5 km/h, was studied in 36 healthy participants, 19 men (30 ± 6 yrs, 82.5 ± 7.0 kg) and 17 women (29 ± 6 yrs, 66.1 ± 8.9 kg). Anthropometric data, leg muscle strength as well as trunk muscle endurance and muscle fibre distribution of the thigh were also obtained. To load the participant a standard backpack filled with extra weight according to the carrying weight tested was used. Extra Load Index (ELI), the oxygen uptake (VO2) during total load over no-load-exercise, was used as a proxy for load carrying ability. In addition to analyzing factors of importance for the ELI values, we also conducted mediator analyzes using sex and long term carrying experience as causal variables for ELI as the outcome value. For the lowest load (20 kg), ELI20, was correlated with body mass but no other factors. Walking at 5 km/h body mass, body height, leg muscle strength and absolute VO2max were correlated to ELI35 and ELI50, but relative VO2max, trunk muscle endurance and leg muscle fibre distribution were not. Sex as causal factor was evaluated in a mediator analyses with ELI50 as outcome. ELI50 at 5 km/h differed between the sexes. The limit for acceptable body load, 40% of VO2max (according to Astrand, 1967), was nearly reached for women carrying 35 kg (39%) and surpassed at 50 kg at 3 km/h, and for men carrying 50 kg at 5 km/h. This difference was only mediated by difference in body mass. Neither muscle fibre distribution, leg muscle strength, trunk muscle endurance and body height nor did absolute or relative VO2max explain the difference. Participants with long term experience of heavy load carrying had significant lower ELI20 and ELI50 values than those with minor or non-experience, but none of the above studied factors could explain this difference. The study showed that body mass and experience of carrying heavy loads are important factors for the ability to carry heavy loads.

  • 1191.
    Godhe, Manne
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Stoltz, Victor
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    GT3X - En valideringsstudie av en ny accelerometer2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med denna studie är att validera accelerometern GT3X. Utifrån detta syfte formulerades följande frågeställningar:

    - Hur väl kan GT3X uppskatta energiutgift på olika intensiteter?

    - Har kroppsplaceringen av GT3X någon betydelse för dess förmåga att uppskatta energiutgift?

    - Vilka är gränsvärdena för GT3X-counts relaterat till METs?

    Metod

    9 kvinnor och 18 män (ålder: 22-36 år) gick och joggade på ett löpband (3 km/h, 4,9 km/h, 8 km/h och 10 km/h) och utförde ett steptest (180 BPM). GT3X bars på fem olika placeringar (höger överarm, ländrygg, höger fotled, höger handled samt höger sida på höften) samtidigt, i syfte att beräkna energiutgift, insamlades data om försökspersonens in- och utandningsluft med ett syreupptagningsmätningssystem. Korrelationen mellan vardera accelerometerplacering (överarm, ländrygg, fotled, handled, höft) och uppmätt energiutgift beräknades genom ett bivariat korrelationstest. Genom regressionsanalyser fastställdes den bästa prediktorn för total energiutgift, uppmätt med syreupptagningsmätningssystem. Detta gjordes för låga, höga samt blandade intensiteter. Regressionsanalyserna utfördes med hänsyn till accelerometervektorer, vikt, längd och isättningar. I samtliga regressionsanalyser plockades även puls med, i ett separat steg.

    Resultat

    Samtliga placeringar visade hög korrelation, mellan GT3X-counts och uppmätt energiutgift, på låga intensiteter (rö.arm= 0, 840, rländrygg= 0,832, rfotleden= 0,790, rhandled= 0,789, rhöft= 0,801) samt över hela intensitetsspannet sammantaget (rö.arm= 0,704 rländrygg= 0,749 rfotleden= 0,600 rhandled= 0,642 rhöft= 0,716). På höga intensiteter visades, för samtliga placeringar, ett svagt negativt samband (rö.arm= -0,109, rländrygg= -0,086, rfotleden= -0,122, rhandled= -0,189, rhöft= -0,074) mellan GT3X counts och uppmätt energiutgift. På samtliga intensiteter kunde GT3X, tillsammans med övrig data, förklara upptill 87,1 % av variationer av uppmätt energiutgift (R2=0, 871).

    Slutsats

    GT3X är ett valitt mätinstrument för uppskattning av energiutgift på låg- samt blandad intensitet. Vid måttlig till hög intensitet är GT3X beroende av puls, för att uppnå samma höga förklaringsgrad. Placeringen av GT3X har en marginell betydelse vid uppskattning av energiutgift, detta gäller oavsett intensitet. Gränsvärdena för GT3X counts relaterat till METs varierar beroende på placering.

  • 1192.
    Godhe, Manne
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Stoltz, Victor
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Mätning av prestation i tekniska moment i fotboll: ett testbatteri genomfört av juniorer på elitnivå2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Aim: The aim of the study was to create and evaluate a test battery, which in an objective way could measure a group of soccer players’ technical performance, and further, to create a series of exercises, which incorporate important soccer-specific techniques, and test the exercises for reliability through “test-retest”. The aim of the study was also to make a comparison between dominant leg and non-dominant leg in exercises where both feet were being used.

    Method: Twelve male elite junior players (age 16-19) and seven women junior players (age 15-17) underwent a test battery consisting of a total of 21 exercises to measure the soccer-specific techniques of heading, controlling, running with the ball, and touch of the ball. Eight of the men (age 16-19) underwent the test battery again in order to evaluate the reliability of the test battery (”retest”). The correlation between each exercise’s test result from the first test session (”test”) and the second test session (“retest”) was determined by the use of Pearson’s correlation coefficients (r). The differences in quantified performance between dominant leg and second best foot non-dominant leg were calculated by the use of a paired t-test.

    Results: Five of the exercises showed significant correlation between the results from the two test sessions. These exercises were: dead ball precisionshot using best foot (r=0,949), shotspeed using best foot (r=0,734), controlling airborne ball with chest (r=0,743) and the exercises straight forward sprint without the ball and straight forward sprint with the ball from which the ratio between the two last mentioned exercises showed significant correlation (r=0,805). In both groups there were a significant difference in performance between best and second-best foot in the exercises of; shooting speed, ground long passing, and repeated touches. In addition, the male juniors showed a significant difference in performance in the exercise of shooting precision on bouncing ball.

    Conclusions: The low number of participants leads to the notion that the results of the study should be interpreted with precaution. The study however shows that an objective evaluation of several soccer-specific techniques is possible and that a couple of the exercises showed high correlation between ”test” and ”retest”. Since the results in some aspects point towards significant differences in performance between second-best foot and best foot, the authors’ opinion is that both feet should be tested in an evaluation of a soccer player’s technical ability.

  • 1193.
    Golding, Alison
    et al.
    Department of Dance Science, Trinity Laban, London, UK.
    Boes, Claudia
    School of Healthcare Studies, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK.
    Nordin-Bates, Sanna
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Investigating learning through developmental dance movement as a kinaesthetic tool in the Early Years Foundation Stage2016In: Research in Dance Education, ISSN 1464-7893, E-ISSN 1470-1111, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 235-267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The understanding of the significance of movement to learning benefits from advances in neuroscience. This study considered a neurophysiological perspective in relation to the educational theory of Accelerated Learning (AL) for which little empirical evidence exists. Childhood development themes and learning strategies from a neurophysical-psychological viewpoint were investigated through the use of developmental dance movement (DDM) as a kinaesthetic tool over an eight-session programme with three early years practitioners and two reception classes in two UK primary schools. The research strategy included both qualitative and quantitative methods to capture examples of accelerated learning and transfer. Qualitative data from three semi-structured interviews with early years practitioners was based on their observations of intervention sessions on a whole-group level and selected case studies of children in their class. The data were analysed with the aim of addressing their views on the children’s learning, which influenced and elucidated the practitioners own learning outcomes. Quantitative methods utilised the Goodenough–Harris draw-a-person test with participating children to explore change in visual-motor integration and developmental maturity as a measure of accelerated learning and transfer. Findings supported neuroscientific research and highlighted useful and contradictory aspects of AL theory. Practitioners were able to identify benefits for pupils with specific learning needs. Case studies demonstrated accelerated learning through observed changed behaviour. T-test results from Aston index pre-post scored drawings showed significant differences (p = 0.005) in visual-motor integration and developmental maturity. It is concluded that DDM can provide opportunity for physical/cognitive advancement for young children.

  • 1194. Goodger, K
    et al.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Professional practice issues in athlete burnout2012In: Professional Practice in Sport Psychology / [ed] S. Hanton & SD. Mellalieu, New York: Routledge, 2012, p. 133-164Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1195.
    Gottlind, Louise
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Kvinnors upplevelser av delaktighet, information och tillgänglighet efter digital fysioterapi via en interaktiv app: en webbaserad enkätstudie2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The aim was to explore women’s perceptions of web-based physiotherapy for musculoskeletal pain treatment delivered through an interactive application for smartphones. Questions: To what extent do women have a positive experience of participation, information and availability after web-based physiotherapy through an interactive app? Is there a difference in a-c between women who had visited primary care 2016 (NPE) and the ones who had received physiotherapeutic treatment trough the app (FT-app)?

    Background: The popularity of eHealth is growing both among health care innovators and media. eHealth may increase the access of health services and the evaluation of new services is important. Internet based psychological treatment for musculoskeletal pain is an alternative to traditional treatment in Sweden. A pilot with web-based physiotherapeutic treatment delivered through an interactive app (FT-app) was tested 2014-2017 for treatment in women with musculoskeletal pain. The app included a chat where the physiotherapist answered questions within 24 hours (mon-fri), an activity diary, videos of the exercises and uploaded movies from the patient doing the exercise. The treatment was based on behavioral medicine and lasted for at least 12 weeks. The women were screened for red and yellow flags before start and had no acute pain.

    Method: A web-based survey with 37 questions was emailed to the women (n=139) 1-24 months after finishing the treatment in FT-app. A Likert scale was used for rating the answer 1-4 and 1-5. The results were compared to results from women’s perceptions of primary health care in Sweden 2016 (NPE). The response rate in both samples were analyzed with a z-test.

    Results: 52,5 % answered the survey. The majority answered positively to the claim that getting answer and feedback within 24 hours made compliance to treatment plan easier (92,3%) and helped them accomplish the prescribed exercises and activity (94,5%). The written dialogue was effective for remembering the advices (93,2%) and the FT-app made it possible for the women to adjust the treatment to their everyday living (95,9%). There were significant differences between NPE and FT-app regarding explanation of the treatment (p=0,0045) information of warning signals (p=0,0002) and ways of contact (p=0,0045).

    Conclusion: This study shows that the FT-app women experienced a significant greater participation and access to the service compared to the primary care women in some claims. The response rate was not big enough to generalize the results to the population and the survey was not tested for validity or reliability. This study suggests more research in this field to investigate perceptions of internet-based treatment and to identify when telerehabilitation is suitable as an alternative to traditional health care.

  • 1196.
    Graffman-Sahlberg, Marie
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Fysisk aktivitetsgrad och nedstämdhet: En studie av elever i årskurs 3 på gymnasiet2009Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim

    The main aim of this study was to investigate if there is a correlation between the extent of physical activity and low-spiritedness/depression among students in the third year of upper secondary school. Further aims were to investigate if low-spirited or depressed students experienced the feelings of sense of meaning, joy and happiness, calm and harmony, and control of the weekday to the same extent as non low-spirited/depressed students. Moreover to investigate if the experienced level of stress relates to the amount of physical activity. Finally all these aspects where investigated with a gender perspective.

    Method

    In this study a quantitative questionnaire method was used. The participants were 252 students in the third year of upper secondary school from different study programmes. The questionnaire answers were statistically analyzed with SPSS, and the level of significance was set at p<0, 05.

    Results

    The results showed that more than a third of the students at the current schools where low-spirited or depressed, the girls to a higher degree than boys. The extent of physical activity was low, 37 % of the girls and 28 % of the boys where physically inactive.  The students who were very physically active had lower CES-D value i.e. they where less low-spirited and depressed. The results also showed that the students who had a higher extent of physical activity experienced a lower level of stress then students with lower extent or non physical activity. Seventy to ninety percent of those in this study who were low-spirited or depressed exhibited, girls as well as boys, that they seldom or never experienced the following feelings: sense of meaning, joy and happiness, calm and harmony, and control of the weekday.

    Conclusion

    The results from this study indicate that the extent of physical activity has a covariance with low-spiritedness and depression. To investigate what the cause and effect is intervention studies and longitudinal studies of this effect must be done. However, it appears that physical activity covariates with the extent of low spiritedness and depression.

  • 1197.
    Graffman-Sahlberg, Marie
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Fysisk hälsa som lärobjekt: En laborativ undervisningsmodell i idrott och hälsa2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An important challenge for physical education teachers is to find strategies for the implementation of health education in the school subject physical education and health (PEH). The overall aim of this thesis has been to develop and explore the implementation of a pedagogical, practice based teaching-learning model in PEH. Focus of the study has been to promote students' understanding of health with aerobic condition, and its impact on health, as the specific object of learn-ing. The concept of Health Literacy has pervaded the entire project, both in the design of the model and in the analysis of students' description of their experi-ence and knowledge development. One upper secondary school class (n=32) was chosen for this action-based study. The implementation of the pedagogical model was designed as a student task-oriented interactive model. The educational outcomes of the model derived from tests and questionnaires were examined analyzed with statistics and con-tent analyses, as presented in article I and with phenomenographic analyses of student reports presented in article II. In focus for the analysis was how the object of learning, the phenomenon that the students encountered were de-scribed, experienced, conceptualized and understood. The design of the model supported an active processing of knowledge and stu-dents' ability of critical self-reflection within the framework of health literacy. To better integrate health in physical education, we need to both broaden stu-dents' way of questioning, and challenge their ways of constructing knowledge in (physical) health.

  • 1198.
    Graffman-Sahlberg, Marie
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Brun Sundblad, Gunilla
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    A Possible Mission?: An Action-based Case Study of a Teaching-Learning Model in Physical Education and Health2014In: Swedish Journal of Sport Research, ISSN 2001-9475, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1199.
    Graffman-Sahlberg, Marie
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Brun Sundblad, Gunilla
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Teaching Health for Understanding?: A phenomenographic analysis of learn-ing experiences2014Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1200.
    Grahns Norgren, Sander
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Frukten av frukt: en studie om intaget av en banan kan påverka aktivitetsgraden under en idrottslektion2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syfte

    Att påverka aktivitetsgraden under en lektion i Idrott och Hälsa med hjälp av intag av banan innan lektionstillfället.

    Frågställning

    Kan intaget av en banan öka antalet steg som tas under en lektion i Idrott och Hälsa?

    Är det någon skillnad i steg mellan att inta en banan före eller efter en lektion i Idrott och Hälsa, samt gentemot kontrollgruppen?

    Metod

    Under en period på tio veckor, utrustades tjugotvå elever med stegräknare av modellen LS200 (Tudor-Locke, et al, 2004). Monterade enligt tillverkarens anvisningar, det vill säga, i kontakt med höftbenet. Lektionerna var innan lunch på tisdagar och torsdagar. Lektionsplaneringen var uppdelad i moment om två lektioner. Under alla lektioner togs stor hänsyn till att eleverna gavs möjlighet att själva styra över sin aktivitetsgrad. Men det menas att någon lektion med en bestämd sträcka, eller en dans med ett bestämt antal steg inte genomfördes. Inom alla moment var eleverna fria innanför ramarna för aktiviteten. Tio av tjugotvå elever serverades banan innan eller efter varje lektion. Tolv av tjugotvå var kontrollgrupp och fick ingen banan alls. Vilken lektion, av varje veckas två, som skulle servera banan innan respektive efter lektionstillfället, avgjordes av en tärning. Vid ojämna siffror, serverades bananen före lektion på tisdag. Jämna siffror, bananen serverades innan lektion torsdag. Efter varje lektion samlades stegräknarna in och antal steg registrerades av författaren i Excel.

    Resultat

    Att äta en banan innan en lektion i idrott och hälsa gav ingen statistisk säkerställd påverkan av den fysiska aktiviteten. Mellan banangruppens (åt banan) steg, banan före och banan efter, skiljde det sex steg, 2603 (SD 313) steg mot 2597 (SD 238) steg. Mellan kontrollgruppens (som inte åt banan) steg, banan före och banan efter, skiljde det 76 steg, 2621 (SD 283) steg mot 2535 (SD 314) steg.

    Slutsats

    Ett statistiskt säkerställd samband mellan att äta en banan innan en lektion i idrott och hälsa, och aktivitetsgraden under samma lektion i Idrott och Hälsa, återfanns ej.

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