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  • 101.
    Olusoga, Peter
    et al.
    Sheffield Hallam Univ, Acad Sport &, Sheffield, England.
    Bentzen, Marte
    Norwegian Sch Sport Sci, Oslo, Norway.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för idrottspsykologi.
    Coach Burnout: A Scoping Review2019Ingår i: International Sport Coaching Journal, ISSN 2328-918X, E-ISSN 2328-9198, Vol. 6, nr 1, s. 42-62Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Coaches' experiences of burnout and stress have been popular topics for research within sport psychology, particularly over the last decade. The purpose of this scoping review was to provide an up-to-date and critical review of the coaching burnout literature, consolidate research findings, assess current methodological and conceptual trends, and identify avenues for research in this area. Five electronic databases were used to conduct the literature search up to September 30th, 2017 (PsycINFO, Web of Science, PubMed, SPORTDiscus, ORIA, Google Scholar). Initially, 65 papers, reviews, and books chapter were identified, but through an iterative process, 45 peer-reviewed, published articles satisfied the inclusion criteria, and the data from these studies was charted. Findings indicated that coach burnout literature is explored from a number of different theoretical perspectives, and shortcomings were identified regarding constructs and concepts used, and research quality. Based on consolidated findings, key challenges are identified, and recommendations for future research are suggested. Recommendations include the use of designs that fully capture the enduring nature of the burnout experience, further consideration being given to the measurement of coach burnout, and further research exploring the clinical treatment and prevention of burnout in coaching contexts.

  • 102. Pavlik, Katherine
    et al.
    Nordin-Bates, Sanna
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för idrottspsykologi.
    Imagery in Dance: A Literature Review2016Ingår i: Journal of Dance Medicine & Science, ISSN 1089-313X, Vol. 20, nr 2, s. 51-63Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Dance imagery is a consciously created mental representation of an experience, either real or imaginary, that may affect the dancer and her or his movement. In this study, imagery research in dance was reviewed in order to: 1. describe the themes and ideas that the current literature has attempted to illuminate and 2. discover the extent to which this literature its the Revised Applied Model of Deliberate Imagery Use. A systematic search was performed, and 43 articles from 24 journals were found to it the inclusion criteria. he articles were reviewed, analyzed, and categorized. he findings from the articles were then reported using the Revised Applied Model as a framework. Detailed descriptions of Who, What, When and Where, Why, How, and Imagery Ability were provided, along with comparisons to the field of sports imagery. Limitations within the field, such as the use of non-dance-specific and study-specific measurements, make comparisons and clear conclusions difficult to formulate. Future research can address these problems through the creation of dance-specific measurements, higher participant rates, and consistent methodologies between studies.

  • 103. Quested, Eleanor
    et al.
    Duda, Joan
    Jauni, T
    Castillo, I
    Morales, V
    Balaguer, I
    Ntoumanis, N
    Maxwell, J
    Cumming, J
    Nordin-Bates, Sanna M
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för idrottspsykologi.
    Norfield, J
    Optimising motivation and healthful engagement in dance: New research findings and applied implications.2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 104. Raedeke, TD
    et al.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för idrottspsykologi.
    Olusoga, P.
    Calling 'time-out': A narrative analysis of burnout and recovery in sports coaching2014Ingår i: Proceedings from the 29th Annual Conference of the Association for the Applied Sport Psychology, 2014Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 105. Raedeke, Thomas D.
    et al.
    Smith, Alan L.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för idrottspsykologi.
    Arce, Constantino
    De Francisco, Cristina
    Burnout in Sport: From Theory to Intervention2014Ingår i: Positive Human Functioning From a Multidimensional Perspective: Volume 1: Promoting Stress Adaptation / [ed] A. Rui Gomes, Rui Resende and Alberto Albuquerque, Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2014, s. 113-142Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 106.
    Redding, Emma
    et al.
    Trinity Laban Conservatoire of Music and Dance.
    Nordin-Bates, Sanna M
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för idrottspsykologi.
    Walker, Imogen J
    Trinity Laban Conservatoire of Music and Dance.
    Passion, Pathways and Potential in Dance: Trinity Laban Research Report : An interdisciplinary longitudinal study into dance talent development2011Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Download the full research report which includes the background to the research, methods, key findings in seven main areas, and recommendations for teaching: http://www.trinitylaban.ac.uk/media/573037/laban_report_single_pages.pdf

  • 107.
    Reitmeyer Pavlik, Katherine
    et al.
    Trinity Laban.
    Nordin-Bates, Sanna M
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för idrottspsykologi.
    Dance Imagery: A Literature Review2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 108.
    Roberts, Claire-Marie
    et al.
    University of the West of England, UK.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för idrottspsykologi.
    Knowing when, and how, to step out: coach retirement2019Ingår i: Professional advances in sports coaching: research and practice / [ed] Richard Thelwell and Matt Dicks, Routledge, 2019, s. 397-414Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 109.
    Sanchez, Erin N
    et al.
    Trinity Laban Conservatoire of Music and Dance.
    Aujla, Imogen J
    Trinity Laban Conservatoire of Music and Dance.
    Nordin-Bates, Sanna M
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för idrottspsykologi.
    Cultural background variables in dance talent development: Findings from the UK Centres for Advanced Training2013Ingår i: Research in Dance Education, ISSN 1464-7893, E-ISSN 1470-1111, Vol. 14, nr 3, s. 260-278Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is a qualitative enquiry into cultural background variables – social support, values, race/ethnicity and economic means – in the process of dance talent development. Seven urban dance students in pre-vocational training, aged 15–19, participated in semi-structured interviews. Interviews were inductively analysed using QSR International NVivo 7.0. Further deductive analysis revealed that the findings were in line with the Differentiated Model of Giftedness and Talent. Results indicated that social environments positively influenced dance students’ feelings of psychological well-being, self-esteem and motivation, which in turn supported the transformation of aptitude into dance talent. Social benefits, such as building close friendships, facilitated learning and encouraged persistence during more difficult periods of dance training. Economic support was an essential aid to talent development, providing training and performance opportunities, transport and physiotherapy. The study offers a preliminary indication that economic limitations may not only prohibit dance training but may also be related to lower perceptions of social support both in the home and in dance environments. Cultural values espoused in dancers’ homes encouraged the value of hard work and raised questions about the economic suitability of a career in dance. Overall, cultural background variables appear to have a major effect on dance talent development.

  • 110.
    Seger, Jan
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Bergsten, Urban
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Ledarskapscentrum vid GIH2007Ingår i: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, nr 2, s. 64-67Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 111. Svedberg, P.
    et al.
    Blom, Victoria
    Karolinska institutet.
    Narusyte, J.
    Bodin, L.
    Bergstrom, G.
    Hallsten, L.
    Genetic and Environmental Influences on Performance-based Self-esteem in a Population-based Cohort of Swedish Twins2014Ingår i: Self and Identity, ISSN 1529-8868, E-ISSN 1529-8876, Vol. 13, nr 2, s. 243-256Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Contingent self-esteem has regularly been associated with socialization experiences. In the present study, genetic and environmental influences on a contingent self-esteem construct were investigated among women and men in different age groups. The study sample consisted of 21,703 same and opposite sex Swedish twins, aged 20 to 46 years. Contingent self-esteem was measured on a scale for performance-based self-esteem. Sex and age-group effects were assessed using biometrical model fitting procedures. Individual differences in performance-based self-esteem were best explained by additive genetic and non-shared environmental factors for both female and male twins, with similar heritability estimates. No age-group effects were found. However, partially different genes seem to influence performance-based self-esteem among women and men.

  • 112.
    Svedberg, Pia
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Mather, Lisa
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University.
    Blom, Victoria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för idrottspsykologi. Karolinska insititutet, Stockholm University.
    Time pressure and sleep problems due to thoughts about work as risk factors for future sickness absence.2018Ingår i: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 91, nr 8, s. 1051-1059Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: This study investigated whether time pressure or sleep problems due to thoughts about work are associated with future sickness absence (SA) among women and men employed in different sectors, also when adjusting for confounders including familial factors (genetics and shared environment).

    METHODS: The study sample included 16,127 twin individuals (52% women), aged 19-47 years who in 2005 participated in an online survey including questions regarding time pressure, sleep, work and health. Register data on SA (> 14 days) were obtained from the National Social Insurance Agency and individuals were followed from date of survey response until 12/31/2013. Associations between time pressure, sleep problems due to thoughts about work and future SA were investigated using logistic regression analyses to assess odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI).

    RESULTS: In total 5723 (35%) individuals had an incident SA spell during follow-up. Sleep problems due to thoughts about work were associated with SA in the fully adjusted model (OR 1.22, CI 1.10-1.36). Stratified by sector, the highest estimate was found for state employees (OR 1.54, CI 1.11-2.13). Familial factors did not seem to influence the associations. We found no statistically significant associations between time pressure and SA. No sex differences were found.

    CONCLUSIONS: Results indicated that sleep problems due to thoughts about work is a risk factor for future SA. This follows previous research showing that sleep length and sleep disturbances, regardless of reason, are associated with SA. But, experiences of work-related time pressure seem to have no effect on SA.

  • 113.
    Van Slingerland, Krista J
    et al.
    University of Ottawa, Canada.
    Durand-Bush, Natalie
    University of Ottawa, Canada.
    Bradley, Lindsay
    Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada..
    Goldfield, Gary
    Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Ottawa, Canada.
    Archambault, Roger
    University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada..
    Smith, Danika
    University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada..
    Edwards, Carla
    McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada..
    Delenardo, Samantha
    Student-Athlete Mental Health Initiative, Ottawa, Canada..
    Taylor, Shaunna
    Canadian Sport Psychology Association..
    Werthner, Penny
    Canadian Sport Psychology Association..
    Kenttä, Göran
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för idrottspsykologi. University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada..
    Canadian Centre for Mental Health and Sport (CCMHS) Position Statement: Principles of Mental Health in Competitive and High-Performance Sport.2019Ingår i: Clinical Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 1050-642X, E-ISSN 1536-3724, Vol. 29, nr 3, s. 173-180Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The brave decision made by many Canadian athletes to share their experience with mental illness has fed a growing dialogue surrounding mental health in competitive and high-performance sport. To affect real change for individuals, sport culture must change to meet demands for psychologically safe, supportive, and accepting sport environments. This position statement addresses mental health in competitive and high-performance sport in Canada, presenting solutions to current challenges and laying a foundation for a unified address of mental health by the Canadian sport community. The paper emerged from the first phase of a multidisciplinary Participatory Action Research (PAR) project, in which a sport-focused mental health care model housed within the Canadian Centre for Mental Health and Sport (CCMHS) is currently being designed, implemented, and evaluated by a team of 20 stakeholders, in collaboration with several community partners and advisors.

  • 114.
    Walker, Imogen J
    et al.
    Trinity Laban Conservatoire of Music and Dance.
    Nordin-Bates, Sanna M
    Trinity Laban Conservatoire of Music and Dance .
    Talent identification and development in dance: A review of the literature2010Ingår i: Research in Dance Education, ISSN 1464-7893, E-ISSN 1470-1111, Vol. 11, nr 3, s. 165-189Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Talent identification and development processes are important components of many dance programmes, yet talent is notoriously difficult to define and its identification may rely on intuitive judgements. Taking a systematic approach to the study of dance talent could enable researchers and educators to better determine what talent actually is, the multi‐faceted components that exist within talent and subsequently how best it can be optimised. The aim of this paper is to review existing literature relating to aspects of dance talent. While not attempting to define talent nor provide a guide for identification, the review reports on existing relevant literature that describes the characteristics associated with talent in the hope that it will be valuable to educators and researchers. Further research into the characteristics of talented dancers may enable teachers to prepare their students optimally for the exciting opportunities that dance can offer.

  • 115.
    Walker, Imogen J
    et al.
    Trinity Laban Conservatoire of Music and Dance.
    Nordin-Bates, Sanna M
    Trinity Laban Conservatoire of Music and Dance .
    The importance of control: Performance anxiety experiences of professional ballet dancers2010Ingår i: Journal of Dance Medicine and Science, ISSN 1089-313X, Vol. 14, nr 4, s. 133-145Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Performance anxiety research abounds in sport psychology, yet has been relatively sparse in dance. The present study explores ballet dancers' experiences of performance anxiety in relation to: 1. symptom type, intensity, and directional interpretation; 2. experience level (including company rank); and 3. self-confidence and psychological skills. Fifteen elite ballet dancers representing all ranks in one company were interviewed, and qualitative content analysis was conducted. Results revealed that cognitive anxiety was more dominant than somatic anxiety, and was unanimously interpreted as debilitative to performance. Somatic anxiety was more likely to be interpreted as facilitative, with the majority of dancers recognizing that a certain amount of anxiety could be beneficial to performance. Principal dancers suffered from higher intensities of performance anxiety than corps de ballet members. Feeling out of control emerged as a major theme in both the experience of anxiety and its interpretation. As a result, prevention or handling of anxiety symptoms may be accomplished by helping dancers to feel in control. Dancers may benefit from education about anxiety symptoms and their interpretation, in addition to psychological skills training incorporating cognitive restructuring strategies and problem-focussed coping to help increase their feelings of being in control.

  • 116.
    Walker, Imogen J
    et al.
    Trinity Laban Conservatoire of Music and Dance.
    Nordin-Bates, Sanna M
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för idrottspsykologi.
    Redding, Emma
    Trinity Laban Conservatoire of Music and Dance.
    A mixed methods investigation of dropout in young dancers: Findings from the UK Centres for Advanced Training2012Ingår i: Journal of Dance Medicine and Science, ISSN 1089-313X, Vol. 16, nr 2, s. 65-73Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to understand reasons for dropout from a dance-talent program in the UK, using a mixed methods design. In-depth interviews were conducted with ten dropout students to explore the influencing factors in their decision to leave the program. In order to triangulate  these findings, reasons for dropout were then examined from descriptive records of 147 young dancers who had withdrawn from the talent program over a four-year period. Overall, the most frequently cited reasons for dropping out were conflicting demands, change in aspirations, course content,  difficulty making friends, and lost passion. Injury, financial factors, low perceived competence, and teacher behavior emerged as minor reasons. Intervention strategies that focus on changes in course content may be the easiest to implement and most effective means to enhance student retention.

  • 117.
    Walker, Imogen J
    et al.
    Trinity Laban Conservatoire of Music and Dance.
    Nordin-Bates, Sanna M
    Trinity Laban Conservatoire of Music and Dance.
    Redding, Emma
    Trinity Laban Conservatoire of Music and Dance.
    Characteristics of talented dancers and age group differences: Findings from the UK Centres for Advanced Training2011Ingår i: High Ability Studies, ISSN 1359-8139, E-ISSN 1469-834X, Vol. 22, nr 1, s. 43-60Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated differences in the characteristics of talented dancers in relation to age. Physical (handgrip muscular strength, leg muscular power, hamstring flexibility and external hip rotation), psychological (passion, self-esteem and anxiety) and social (the motivational climate) characteristics were assessed in 334 students enrolled on a talented scheme. The male late adolescence group (16 to 18 years) had greater jump height than the early (10 to 12 years) and mid-adolescence groups (13 to 15 years). For both sexes, the early adolescence group exhibited the lowest and the late adolescence group the greatest grip strength values. The late adolescence group reported lower self-esteem than the two younger groups, and the two older groups reported greater perceptions of ego-involving motivational climates than the early adolescence group. Results suggest that, as some characteristics of talented dancers differ across the adolescent years, talent identification and development criteria could be adapted according to age.

  • 118.
    Walker, Imogen J
    et al.
    Trinity Laban Conservatoire for Music and Dance.
    Redding, Emma
    Trinity Laban Conservatoire for Music and Dance.
    Nordin-Bates, Sanna M
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för idrottspsykologi.
    The development of young talented dancers: an interdisciplinary perspective2012Ingår i: DANCING TIMES, ISSN 0011-605X, Vol. 102, nr 1220, s. 21-24Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 119.
    Watson, Debbie
    et al.
    Trinity Laban Conservatoire of Music and Dance.
    Nordin-Bates, Sanna M
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för idrottspsykologi.
    Chappell, Kerry
    University of Exeter.
    Facilitating and nurturing creativity in pre-vocational dancers: Findings from the UK Centres for Advanced Training2012Ingår i: Research in Dance Education, ISSN 1464-7893, E-ISSN 1470-1111, Vol. 13, nr 2, s. 153-173Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a case study investigation into creativity involving young dancers and faculty members on the UK government-funded pre-vocational contemporary dance training programme. Qualitative research techniques were used to gather and interpret data on how individuals nurtured and viewed creativity at an individual level, as well as how the facilitation of creativity was perceived and manifested at a teaching and institutional level. Findings suggest that nurturing creativity at a within-person level involves the evolution and development of personality characteristics and abilities in both direct and indirect ways. Two other factors were influential at this level, namely inspiration and motivation. At an interpersonal and environmental level, the study found that a communal and collaborative approach underpinned the nurture of creativity in the setting. Additionally, teaching styles which supported the development of dancers’ own voice alongside dance skills were critical in helping to encourage and realise creativity in young people. The study sheds light on the constantly evolving and dynamic processes involved when nurturing and facilitating creativity.

  • 120.
    Williams, Sarah
    et al.
    University of Birmingham.
    Cumming, Jennifer
    University of Birmingham.
    Ntoumanis, Nikos
    University of Birmingham.
    Nordin-Bates, Sanna M
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för idrottspsykologi.
    Ramsey, Richard
    Université Catholique de Louvain.
    Hall, Craig
    University of Western Ontario.
    Further Validation and Development of the Movement Imagery Questionnaire2012Ingår i: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology (JSEP), ISSN 0895-2779, E-ISSN 1543-2904, Vol. 34, nr 5, s. 621-646Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This research validated and extended the Movement Imagery Questionnaire-Revised (MIQ-R; Hall & Martin, 1997). Study 1 (N = 400) examined the MIQ-R’s factor structure via multitrait-multimethod confirmatory factor analysis. The questionnaire was then modified in Study 2 (N = 370) to separately assess the ease of imaging external visual imagery and internal visual imagery, as well as kinesthetic imagery (termed the Movement Imagery Questionnaire-3; MIQ-3). Both Studies 1 and 2 found that a correlated-traits correlated-uniqueness model provided the best fit to the data, while displaying gender invariance and no significant differences in latent mean scores across gender. Study 3 ( N = 97) demonstrated the MIQ-3’s predictive validity revealing the relationships between imagery ability and observational learning use. Findings highlight the method effects that occur by assessing each type of imagery ability using the same four movements  and demonstrate that better imagers report greater use of observational learning.

  • 121. Williams, Sarah
    et al.
    Cumming, Jennifer
    Ntoumanis, Nikos
    Nordin-Bates, Sanna M
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för idrottspsykologi.
    Ramsey, Richard
    Hall, Craig
    Validation of the Movement Imagery Questionnaire – 3.2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 122.
    Zitek, Martin
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Elevers motivation till idrott och hälsa2012Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar: Syftet med studien var att utifrån teoretiska antaganden om motivation inom Self-determination theory (SDT), undersöka elevers motivation till ämnet idrott och hälsa. Studien har följt en explorativ ansats utifrån frågeställningarna: i) Hur ser sambandet ut mellan typ av motivation hos eleverna för ämnet idrott och hälsa och deras självskattade grad av fysisk aktivitet utanför skoltiden? ii) Hur ser sambandet ut mellan elevernas typ av motivation till ämnet idrott och hälsa och deras uppskattning av föräldrarnas engagemang för ämnet idrott och hälsa? 

    Metod: Deltagarna bestod av 147 gymnasieelever i årskurs ett och två, från en gymnasieskola söder om Stockholm. Eleverna besvarade en enkät i två delar. Den första delen innefattade items för att mäta typ av motivation. Den andra delen innefattade frågor kring elevernas vanor av fysisk aktivitet, samt frågor kring deras föräldrars engagemang för ämnet. Data har analyserats med korrelationsberäkningar, simultan multipel regressionsanalys samt multivariat variansanalys.

    Resultat: Svaga men signifikanta korrelationer påvisades mellan typ av motivation och elevernas grad av fysisk aktivitet vid sidan av skolan. Resultatet visade att elever som var fysiskt aktiva mer frekvent tenderade att även visa på mer autonom motivation för ämnet jämfört med elever som inte var fysiskt aktiva vid sidan av skolan. Mellan typ av motivation och föräldrarnas engagemang erhölls flera signifikanta samband. Ungefär 19 % förklarad varians återfanns i föräldrarnas engagemang, och 10 % förklarad varians återfanns i grad av fysisk aktivitet vid sidan av skolan och kan härledas till elevernas typ av motivation för ämnet.

    Slutsats: Studien indikerar att autonom motivation tycks vara fördelaktigt i relation till elevernas grad av fysisk aktivitet på fritiden, samt i relation till föräldrarnas engagemang. Följaktligen föreslås att idrottsundervisningen bör sträva efter att tillgodose de grundläggande psykologiska behoven hos eleverna i linje med SDT, vilket kan främja ett långsiktigt och hälsosamt beteende. 

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