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  • 101.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH.
    Negativ hälsoutveckling kräver nationell strategi2020Inngår i: Idrottsforskning.se, artikkel-id 2 decemberArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    En stor grupp av arbetsföra svenskar har haft en negativ utveckling av såväl kondition, förekomst av övervikt och fetma samt mående och upplevd hälsa under de senaste 30 åren. Det visar flera studier som baserats på en unik databas med hälsoprofiler.

  • 102.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysiologi, nutrition och biomekanik.
    Engström, Lars-Magnus
    Bestämningsfaktorer för stillasittande2021Inngår i: Långvarigt stillasittande: en hälsofara i tiden? / [ed] Elin Ekblom Bak, Studentlitteratur AB, 2021, 2, s. 151-160Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 103.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Att mäta stillasittande2021Inngår i: Långvarigt stillasittande: en hälsofara i tiden? / [ed] Elin Ekblom Bak, Studentlitteratur AB, 2021, 2, s. 123-150Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 104.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Väisänen, Daniel
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysiologi, nutrition och biomekanik.
    Blom, Victoria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Kallings, Lena
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Hemmingsson, Erik
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    HPI Health Profile Institute, Sweden.
    Wallin, Peter
    HPI Health Profile Institute, Sweden.
    Salier Eriksson, Jane
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Holmlund, Tobias
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Sweden; University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Lönn, Amanda
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Women's Health and Allied Health Professionals Theme Medical Unit Occupational Therapy and Physiotherapy, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Cardiorespiratory fitness and lifestyle on severe COVID-19 risk in 279,455 adults: a case control study.2021Inngår i: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, E-ISSN 1479-5868, Vol. 18, nr 1, artikkel-id 135Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The impact of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and other lifestyle-related factors on severe COVID-19 risk is understudied. The present study aims to investigate lifestyle-related and socioeconomic factors as possible predictors of COVID-19, with special focus on CRF, and to further study whether these factors may attenuate obesity- and hypertension-related risks, as well as mediate associations between socioeconomic factors and severe COVID-19 risk.

    METHODS: Out of initially 407,131 participants who participated in nationwide occupational health service screening between 1992 and 2020, n = 857 cases (70% men, mean age 49.9 years) of severe COVID-19 were identified. CRF was estimated using a sub-maximum cycle test, and other lifestyle variables were self-reported. Analyses were performed including both unmatched, n = 278,598, and sex-and age-matched, n = 3426, controls. Severe COVID-19 included hospitalization, intensive care or death due to COVID-19.

    RESULTS: Patients with more severe COVID-19 had significantly lower CRF, higher BMI, a greater presence of comorbidities and were more often daily smokers. In matched analyses, there was a graded decrease in odds for severe COVID-19 with each ml in CRF (OR = 0.98, 95% CI 0.970 to 0.998), and a two-fold increase in odds between the lowest and highest (< 32 vs. ≥ 46 ml·min-1·kg-1) CRF group. Higher BMI (per unit increase, OR = 1.09, 1.06 to 1.12), larger waist circumference (per cm, OR = 1.04, 1.02 to 1.06), daily smoking (OR = 0.60, 0.41 to 0.89) and high overall stress (OR = 1.36, 1.001 to 1.84) also remained significantly associated with severe COVID-19 risk. Obesity- and blood pressure-related risks were attenuated by adjustment for CRF and lifestyle variables. Mediation through CRF, BMI and smoking accounted for 9% to 54% of the associations between low education, low income and blue collar/low skilled occupations and severe COVID-19 risk. The results were consistent using either matched or unmatched controls.

    CONCLUSIONS: Both lifestyle-related and socioeconomic factors were associated with risk of severe COVID-19. However, higher CRF attenuated the risk associated with obesity and high blood pressure, and mediated the risk associated with various socioeconomic factors. This emphasises the importance of interventions to maintain or increase CRF in the general population to strengthen the resilience to severe COVID-19, especially in high-risk individuals.

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  • 105.
    Ekblom, Maria
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Bojsen-Møller, Emil
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Blom, Victoria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Tarassova, Olga
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysiologi, nutrition och biomekanik.
    Moberg, Marcus
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysiologi, nutrition och biomekanik.
    Pontén, Marjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysiologi, nutrition och biomekanik.
    Wang, Rui
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Acute effects of physical activity patterns on plasma cortisol and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in relation to corticospinal excitability.2022Inngår i: Behavioural Brain Research, ISSN 0166-4328, E-ISSN 1872-7549, Vol. 430, artikkel-id 113926Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and cortisol are both capable of modulating synaptic plasticity, but it is unknown how physical activity-induced changes in their plasma levels relate to corticospinal plasticity in humans. Sixteen inactive middle-aged men and women participated in three separate interventions consisting of 3hours prolonged sitting (SIT); 3hours sitting interrupted every 30minutes with frequent short physical activity breaks (FPA); and 2.5hours prolonged sitting followed by 25minutes of moderate intensity exercise (EXE). These 3hour sessions were each followed by a 30min period of paired associative stimulation over the primary motor cortex (PAS). Blood samples were taken and corticospinal excitability measured at baseline, pre PAS, 5min and 30min post PAS. Here we report levels of plasma BDNF and cortisol over three activity conditions and relate these levels to previously published changes in corticospinal excitability of a non-activated thumb muscle. There was no interaction between time and condition in BDNF, but cortisol levels were significantly higher after EXE compared to after SIT and FPA. Higher cortisol levels at pre PAS predicted larger increases in corticospinal excitability from baseline to all subsequent time points in the FPA condition only, while levels of BDNF at pre PAS did not predict such changes in any of the conditions. Neither BDNF nor cortisol modified changes from pre PAS to the subsequent time points, suggesting that the increased corticospinal excitability was not mediated though an augmented effect of the PAS protocol. The relationship between cortisol and plasticity has been suggested to be U-shaped. This is possibly why the moderately high levels of cortisol seen in the FPA condition were positively associated with changes AURC, while the higher cortisol levels seen after EXE were not. A better understanding of the mechanisms for how feasible physical activity breaks affect neuroplasticity can inform the theoretical framework for how work environments and schedules should be designed. DATA AVAILABILITY: Data are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.

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  • 106.
    Ekblom, Maria
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Institutionen för Neurovetenskap, KI.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Selinus, Eva Noren
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Fysisk aktivitet och hjärnhälsa: En bok för skolan2021 (oppl. 1)Bok (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Fysisk aktivitet gynnar förutsättningarna för lärande och psykiskt välbefinnande, men ungdomar rör sig mindre än någonsin och fysisk aktivitet har blivit allt mer av en klassfråga. Detta har lett till orättvisa villkor för barns hälsa och lärande, en orättvisa som skolan kan bidra till att jämna ut.

    Boken Fysisk aktivitet och hjärnhälsa går konkret igenom hur skolor kan främja fysisk aktivitet inom ramen för skolvardagen och vilka effekter detta kan ge. Här beskrivs vad vi idag faktiskt vet om sambanden mellan fysisk aktivitet och hjärnhälsa med fokus på barn och ungdomar, men också vad vi behöver mer kunskap om. Med ett kritiskt förhållningssätt gör författarna en evidensbaserad genomgång av centrala begrepp inom området fysisk aktivitet med koppling till effekter på hjärnhälsa och lärande.

    Barn och ungdomar i skolåldern bör röra sig minst 60 minuter om dagen och eftersom eleverna spenderar en så stor del av sin vakna tid i skolan behöver gynnsamma förutsättningar skapas i skolmiljön då inte enbart inom skolämnet Idrott och hälsa.

    Fysisk aktivitet och hjärnhälsa vänder sig till alla lärare, lärarstudenter, skolledare och elevhälsoteam som vill bidra till ökad fysisk aktivitet, hjärnhälsa och goda vanor för livet.

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  • 107.
    Ekblom, Maria
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Wiklund, Camilla
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Wang, Rui
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Environmental and genetic contributions to device-based measures of physical activity in Swedish 9-year-olds.2023Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

     

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  • 108.
    Ekblom, Maria
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Hillman, Charles
    Northeastern University, USA.
    Rattray, Ben
    University of Canberra, Australia.
    Physical activity for cognitive health across the lifespan: when, what and how?2023Konferansepaper (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Physical activity for cognitive health across the lifespan: when, what and how?

    Physical activity appears crucial to wellbeing, and is commonly linked to our physical health. Increasingly however, physical activity is acknowledged to also play a crucial role for mental, cognitive, and brain health throughout the lifespan. Speakers in this session will address the role of physical activity across three broad life stages, childhood, adulthood and older age. The session will present the evidence around physical activity for cognitive and brain health, and considerations for what and how physical activity can be delivered for optimal outcomes at different life stages.

    Physical activity may benefit mental, cognitive, and brain health through several mechanisms. Reducing potential harm through chronic disease reduction, transiently improving mood via alterations at the cellular and molecular levels, providing a means for skill development and social interaction, and bathing the brain in a rich neurotropic environment are the main means through which cognitive benefits from physical activity are proposed.

    The impact of physical activity on cognitive and brain function can be also considered from both an acute and chronic perspective. Beneficial chronic adaptations may come from the repeated exposure to positive acute physical activity responses, but how should physical activity be dosed for these important long-term benefits? This session will provide the latest updates in the area and suggest future directions for the field to emerge.

    Speaker 1

    Title:  Physical activity effects on cognitive and brain health in school age children Speaker Last Name: HillmanSpeaker First Name: CharlesSex: MaleAcademic title: ProfessorUniversity: Northeastern UniversityDepartment: Psychology; Physical Therapy, Movement, & Rehabilitation SciencesCountry: USAEmail: c.hillman@northeastern.edu

    Physical activity (PA) can improve physical, mental, cognitive, and brain health throughout the lifespan. During childhood, the benefits of PA for cognitive and brain health have been increasingly studied, with evidence indicating enhanced executive function and improved academic performance, along with adaptations to underlying brain structure and function in specific regions and networks that support these aspects of cognition. Such findings are especially relevant given that there is a growing public health burden of unhealthy behaviors (e.g., physical inactivity, excessive energy intake) among children of industrialized nations. In recent years, children have become increasingly inactive, leading to concomitant increases in the prevalence of being overweight and unfit. Poor PA behaviors during childhood often track throughout life and have implications for the prevalence of several chronic diseases during adulthood. Particularly troubling is the absence of public health concern for the effect of physical inactivity on cognitive and brain health. It is curious that this has not emerged as a larger societal issue, given its clear relation to childhood obesity and other health disorders that have captured public attention. 

    Relative to cognitive and brain health, the literature has predominantly focused on preadolescent children, with a comparatively smaller body of evidence in preschool age and adolescent children. Such a contrast is even more striking relative to the use of neuroimaging tools to assess PA on brain health. To date, the vast majority of neuroimaging studies have investigated preadolescent children, using electroencephalography and functional magnetic resonance imaging, and found that PA and aerobic fitness benefit neural structures and networks that support executive function and memory, including the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Such findings have been linked to cognitive outcomes including aspects of executive function such as inhibition, working memory, and mental flexibility as well as other cognitive outcomes including relational memory and academic achievement.

    Despite evidence that PA promotes cognitive and brain health during development, a growing number of schools have minimized PA opportunities across the school day. Accordingly, this generation of children have become increasingly inactive, contributing to public health and educational concerns. By dedicating time to active play, sports, physical education, and other forms of PA, children are best-positioned to thrive in both the physical and cognitive domains. Such discoveries are timely and important for public health concerns related to chronic disease prevention as a function of childhood inactivity and obesity. These findings link pervasive societal concerns with brain health and cognition, and have implications for the educational environment and the context of learning.

    Speaker 2

    Title:  Building a cognitive reserve during adulthood: what is the prescription? Speaker Last Name: RattraySpeaker First Name: BenSex: MaleAcademic title: ProfessorUniversity: University of CanberraDepartment: Sport and Exercise ScienceCountry: AustraliaEmail: ben.rattray@canberra.edu.au 

    During adulthood, healthy individuals typically report few cognitive complaints. As a result, the role of physical activity in cognitive health either receives little attention or finds very few relationships. This is likely also a result of the cognitive engagement many adults have through education, vocational, and social settings. There are however observations that physical activity during adulthood does impact later life. Physical activity for cognitive health during early and middle adulthood therefore focuses on general health, reducing the potential harm to brain structures and processes that are associated with several lifestyle-related diseases.

    Outside of reducing harm through physical health, physical activity may play a crucial role in building a cognitive reserve, potentially improving cognitive performance, but importantly protecting against later-life declines. Taking advantage of physical activity benefits, such as increases in cerebral blood flow and neurotrophic factors, offers an opportunity to maximise neural plasticity. In this session optimising the dose characteristics of physical activity will be discussed.

    Interventions that specifically attempt to take advantage of plasticity-supporting physical activity are those that ensure cognitive activity is in close temporal proximity. Sequentially- or concurrently-programming physical exercise with a cognitive intervention are gaining popularity, with most evidence currently in older adults. This session will provide an update on the latest evidence for concurrent training in healthy adulthood.

    It is hypothesized that an increased availability of factors such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor during targeted cognitive interventions improve the gains that such training can provide. However, depending on the outcome, some propose that concurrent activity may also work through the combination of effortful behaviours impacting individuals’ capacity, or tolerance for work. This fatigue-linked pathway may also impact cognitive health when engaged over longer periods, or when individuals are asked to report subjective cognitive complaints. These potential pathways will also be discussed in terms of informing the when, what, and how of physical activity interventions for cognitive health.

    Speaker 3

    Title:  How physical activity affects cognitive health in older adultsSpeaker Last Name: EkblomSpeaker First Name: MariaSex: FemaleAcademic title: ProfessorUniversity: Swedish School of Sport and Health SciencesDepartment: Physical Activity and HealthCountry: SwedenEmail: maria.ekblom@gih.se 

    There is consistent evidence to suggest that being more fit in young adulthood is associated to having better cognitive function in both young and older adulthood. We also know that being aerobically high fit is associated with having executive abilities that make it easier to attain and sustain healthy habits. While such information may be interesting, it tells us very little on whether physical activity promotion among low fit inactive individuals might have a positive influence on their future cognitive health. In midlife, lack of time is a commonly perceived barrier towards physical activity. Still, as we retire, individuals who were inactive in midlife tend to stay inactive after retiring, despite now having more spare time at hand. When preaching that it is never too late, we need to take care not to shame those whose shoes we have not walked in. Remember, that although we have all equal human value, we have different opportunities, both genetically and in terms of socioeconomic circumstances. 

    When we compare the brain health of senior athletes to that of their less active peers, this is not helping anyone. That is why I prefer randomized controlled trials for the purpose of figuring out what type of exercise might work for whom. The Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability evaluated whether a 2-year multicomponent intervention with exercise, cognitive training, diet and vascular risk monitoring could slow down the cognitive decline in an at-risk population. They show that such intervention actually can have small effects on the trajectories of cognitive decline, but we are still not close to understanding what the active component is. Large scale exercise RCTs using advanced neuroimaging to investigate neurophysiological mechanisms are under way, but these are very expensive. Major breakthroughs in plasma biomarkers of neurodegenerative disease progression have been exposed recently. Such new techniques should be exploited in future RCTs by researchers who want to investigate if support to increased physical activity can really change the cognitive trajectories of physically inactive individuals who want to spare their brain health. This presentation will explore our current understanding of how and physical activity affects cognitive health in older adults and suggest new avenues of exploration.

  • 109.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Cider, Åsa
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital and University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hambraeus, Kristina
    Falun Hospital, Falun, Sweden.
    Bäck, Maria
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital and University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Leosdottir, Margrét
    Skåne University Hospital and Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Lönn, Amanda
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Börjesson, Mats
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital and University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Participation in exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation is related to reduced total mortality in both men and women: results from the SWEDEHEART registry.2022Inngår i: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, ISSN 2047-4873, E-ISSN 2047-4881, Vol. 29, nr 3, s. 485-492Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS: Participation in exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (exCR) increases aerobic capacity and improves outcomes in patients following myocardial infarction (MI) and is therefore universally recommended. While meta-analyses consistently report that participation in exCR reduces cardiovascular mortality, there are conflicting results regarding effects on total mortality. Presently, many eligible patients do not receive exCR in clinical practice. We aimed to investigate the relation between participation in exCR post-MI and total mortality in men and women in a nationwide real-world cohort from the SWEDEHEART registry.

    DESIGN: Longitudinal, observational cohort study.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: In total, 20 895 patients from the SWEDEHEART registry were included. Mortality data were obtained from the Swedish National Population Registry. During a mean of 4.55 (±2.33) years of follow-up, 1000 patients died. Using Cox regression for proportional odds and taking a wide range of potential confounders into consideration, participation in exCR was related to significantly lower total mortality [hazard ratio (HR) 0.72, 95% confidence interval 0.62-0.83]. Excluding patients with shorter follow-up than 2 years did not alter the results. Exercise-based CR participation was related to lowered total mortality in most of the investigated subgroups. The risk reduction was more pronounced in women than in men (HR 0.54 vs. 0.81, respectively).

    CONCLUSION: Participation in exCR was associated with reduced total mortality, and more pronounced in women, compared with men. Our results further support the recommendations to participate in exCR, and hence we argue that exCR should be a mandatory part of comprehensive CR programmes, offered to all patients post-MI.

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  • 110.
    Ekman, Matilda
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    The development of a novel sport specific isometric strength measurement for para kayak classification: A reliability study2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    To the author’s knowledge, no research has earlier been done on the development of a sport specific strength measurement system for para kayak classification.Aim: In order to work in line with the International Paralympic Committee, to develop more evidence-based methods for classification, the overall purpose of this study was to design and develop a sport specific test battery to measure force in isometric contractions. It was also: (1) to test-retest the battery on able-bodied participants, to ensure the reliability of the method for further research and (2) to evaluate whether performing two or three trials is sufficient when testing the test battery for reliability. Method: Ten able-bodied participants volunteered to this study. All participants performed a test battery of four isometric strength tests. The participants completed three voluntary maximal isometric contractions for each exercise with a duration of 5 seconds, and a 30 second rest separating each trial. Data used in the analysis, was the mean value of two respectively three trials. The Shapiro-Wilk test of normality was used to assess the normality of the data. The level of significance when testing normality was set to p < 0.05. A dependent t-test and an intraclass correlations coefficient (ICC) with a 2-way mixed effects- model, absolute agreement, method 3.1 were used to assess the test-retest reliability for both trial 1-2 and trial 1-3. Results: All tests showed high reliability and no systematic error were found. The data were normally distributed. When analysing data from three trials, one test showed good reliability; knee extension left (ICC=0,77). All other data showed excellent reliability. When analysing data from two trials, two tests showed good reliability; leg press left (ICC = 0,88) and knee extension left (ICC = 0,78). All other data showed excellent reliability (> 90). Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that all tests can reliably be applied in a classification system for para-kayak. Both of the methods, using three data points and using two data points, can be used when analysing the data.

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  • 111.
    Ekström, Lena
    et al.
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Mous, Dinah
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Heiland, Vincent
    Heiland, Emerald G.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Department of Surgical Sciences, Medical Epidemiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Schulze, Jenny
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Intra-individual stability of longitudinal urinary steroid profiles in Swedish athletes.2023Inngår i: Drug Testing and Analysis, ISSN 1942-7603, E-ISSN 1942-7611, Vol. 15, nr 7, s. 769-778Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The steroid module of the athlete biological passport (ABP) aims to detect doping with endogenous steroids by longitudinally monitoring epitestosterone (E), testosterone (T), and four metabolically related steroids and their ratios. There are large variations in the urinary levels of the androgen metabolites due to genetic polymorphisms, drug use, menstrual cycle, and other factors. In this study, we aimed to increase our understanding of the natural, within-individual variations of the established ABP markers in males and females over time, looking at samples collected both in and out-of-competition (IC/OOC). Urinary steroid profiles from 323 Swedish athletes, with at least five samples per athlete, were extracted from ADAMS together with information on type of sport, IC/OOC, and time of day. Data were analyzed using coefficient of variation (CV%) to examine within-subject variability and linear mixed effects models to estimate within-subject change in the metabolites over time. The metabolites and ratios expressed higher individual CV% in females (23-56) than in males (18-39). Samples taken OOC showed larger intra-individual variations than samples collected IC for most of the ABP metabolites in both sexes. The median concentrations were higher IC for some metabolites, particularly testosterone being 52% higher among females. Time of day influenced the intra-individual variation of the urinary steroid profile with decreases in androgen metabolites over time, if measured in evening versus daytime. These findings can aid in the testing strategies and interpretation of the steroidal module of ABP.

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  • 112.
    Elinder, Liselotte Schäfer
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Region Stockholm, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wiklund, Camilla
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Norman, Åsa
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Stattin, Nouha Saleh
    Region Stockholm, Stockholm, Sweden; Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden..
    Andermo, Susanne
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Patterson, Emma
    Hemmingsson, Erik
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Cook, Clayton
    University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA..
    Raposo, Sara
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Region Stockholm, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kwak, Lydia
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    IMplementation and evaluation of the school-based family support PRogram a Healthy School Start to promote child health and prevent OVErweight and obesity (IMPROVE) - study protocol for a cluster-randomized trial.2021Inngår i: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 21, nr 1, artikkel-id 1630Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: IMPROVE aims to conduct a hybrid type 3 evaluation design to test the effectiveness of bundled implementation strategies on intervention fidelity of the Healthy School Start (HSS) program, while simultaneously monitoring effects on health outcomes of children and parents. The HSS is a 4-component family support program for children starting school (5-7 years of age) promoting healthy dietary habits and physical activity in the home environment to prevent childhood obesity and parents' risk of developing type 2 diabetes.

    METHODS: IMPROVE is a cluster-randomized controlled trial with two arms to evaluate and compare the effects of two different bundles of implementation strategies on intervention fidelity expressed as adherence and responsiveness at 12 and 24 months (primary outcomes). Thirty schools in two municipalities will participate in the study reaching about 1400 families per school year. In stakeholder workshops, key implementation determinants were identified according to the domains of the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research. Through a consensus process with stakeholders, two bundles of implementation strategies were tailored to address context-specific determinants. Schools randomly assigned to group 1 will receive bundle 1 (Basic) and group 2 will receive bundle 1 + 2 (Enhanced). Bundle 2 consists of external facilitation, fidelity monitoring and feedback strategies. Secondary outcomes will include change in acceptability, appropriateness, feasibility, and organisational readiness as perceived by school staff. In addition, child weight status and diet, and parents' feeding practices and risk of type 2 diabetes will be monitored. Linear and ordinal regression analysis will be used to test the effect on the primary and secondary outcomes, taking clustering and covariates into consideration where needed. Process evaluation will be conducted through key stakeholder interviews to investigate experiences of the program and perceptions on sustainability.

    DISCUSSION: This systematic approach to investigating the effectiveness of two different bundles of implementation strategies tailored to context-specific determinants on the fidelity of the HSS intervention will provide new insight into feasible implementation strategies and external support needed for the HSS to be effective and sustainable. Results will help inform how to bridge the gap between the research on school-based health programs and routine practice in schools.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registered prospectively at ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT04984421 , registered July 30, 2021.

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  • 113.
    Envall, Helena
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Muscle fibre type distribution along the human vastus lateralis: The impact of anatomical positioning and methodology2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
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  • 114.
    Ericsson, Linnea
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Hur samvarierar fysisk aktivitet med upplevd livskvalité bland fyra individer med psykisk ohälsa: ”Livet är en dans, ibland”2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the significance of physical activity as a treatment for four individuals with mental illness. Can physical activity as a form of treatment coexist with an individual´s physical and mental health, quality of life and other components of life?

    - Primary research question: “How does physical activity coexist with perceived quality of life in four individuals with mental illness?”

    - Secondary research question: How does physical activity coexist with physical health?”

    - Secondary research question: “How does physical activity coexist with mental health?”

    - Secondary research question: “What impact does physical activity as a form of treatment have on the individual´s other aspects of life?” (Unemployment, home sitters, social exclusion, socioeconomic vulnerability, body perception).

    - Secondary research question: “How does the individual experience the immediate and long-term effects of physical activity?”

    Method: The study included three women and one man between the ages of 23-55. The participants live with conditions and diagnoses that primarily affect their mental health and all have undergone treatment with physical activity as a single form or in combination with therapy and medication. Physical activity on prescription was offered through primary care or respective psychiatric clinics, with primary activities being dance, strength, and conditioning training. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to gain an in-depth understanding of the participants' experiences with physical activity as a treatment and whether it affected their quality of life as well as their physical and mental health. Results: Physical activity had a positive effect on quality of life, as the activity itself created meaning, structure, and zest for life, thus having a positive effect on respondents' daily lives. Physical activity was a leading factor in increased motivation, reduced social exclusion, and reduced disease symptoms that were described as challenges before treatment began. Leader-led activity was considered a crucial factor for compliance. Conclusion: When designing treatment plans for individuals with mental illness, physical activity should be considered as a primary or complementary component. One possible effect of this can be improved quality of life, relief of illness conditions, and improved general health. A structured leader-led group training is considered advantageous for compliance and implementation of physical activity, and furthermore, the sense of community in group training was seen to create meaning, structure, and value for these four respondents who participated in the study.

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  • 115.
    Eriksson, Adam
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Positional differences of physical peak intense periods in Swedish elite football: A pilot study of under 19 and first team players2024Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med denna studie är att med hjälp av multivariata parametrar undersöka skillnader i fysisk extern belastning under den mest intensiva perioden (MIP) av match för spelare på ungdomselit och seniornivå samt att identifiera eventuella skillnader mellan positioner och halvlekar.Metod: En kvantitativ retrospektiv studie tillämpades, där spelare från ett seniorlag (SEN)spelandes i högsta divisionen i Sverige samt fotbollsspelare från ett ungdomselitlag (U19)från samma klubb spelades i näst högsta divisionen för åldersgruppen deltog i studien. Fysisk extern belastning mättes med hjälp av Global Positioning System (GPS). MIP analyserades utifrån spelares taktiska utgångsposition och med hjälp av multivariata parametrar. Rullande medelvärden användes för analys av 1-min MIP.Resultat: SEN täckte signifikant längre distans under den mest intensiva 1-mintusperioden av match jämfört med U19 (SEN 140 ± 22,3 m; U19 120 ± 24,1 m, p < 0.001). Vid jämförelse mellan positioner täcker SEN-Lateral längre distanser än U19-Lateral under mest intensiva 1-mintusperioden av MIP-kinematik (135 ± 23.5 m vs 104 ± 40.3 m, p = 0.015).Slutsats: Sammanfattningsvis konfirmerar denna studie en skillnad av den mest intensiva 1-minuters perioden för senior- och ungdomsspelare för MIPk. Studien visar att seniorspelare positionerade lateral på planen täcker längre distanser under MIPk jämfört med U19 på samma position. Praktiker bör beakta dessa skillnader i sina träningsupplägg för att kunna förbereda ungdomsspelare för de fysiska krav som ses i seniormiljön

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  • 116.
    Eriksson, Dan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Fysisk aktivitet, kostvanor och psykisk hälsa hos individer med ett stillasittande yrke2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka sambandet mellan fysisk aktivitetsnivå, kostvanor och psykisk hälsa hos individer med ett stillasittande yrke. Frågeställningar var om individer med ett stillasittande arbete har sämre kostvanor och sämre upplevd psykisk hälsa jämfört med fysiskt aktiva individer med ett stillasittande arbete.

    Metod

    En kvantitativ e-enkätstudie som besvarades av individer med stillasittande yrke. Ett mejl skickades ut som inkluderade en länk till e-enkäten och ett informationsbrev om studiens syfte och upplägg. Enkäten innehöll bakgrundsfrågor om kön, åldersgrupp, högsta slutförda utbildning, hur många timmar spenderades i stillasittande under arbetsdagen och på fritiden, hur många minuter spenderades åt fysisk aktivitet i måttlig respektive hög intensitet i veckan. Enkäten innehöll även frågor om psykisk hälsa och livsmedelskonsumtion. Utifrån svaren kategoriserades data för fysiskt aktivitet/inaktivitet, psykisk hälsa/ohälsa och sunda/osunda kostvanor. Logistisk regression och Student t-test användes för att besvara frågeställningarna.

    Resultat

    Trettioen person besvarade enkäten; sex män och 25 kvinnor. Medelvärde och standardavvikelse för ålder, längd och vikt var följande: medelådersgruppen 30–39 år, medellängden 1.7 ± 0.07m och medelvikten 71 ± 14.6kg Av dessa uppfyllde 30 personer kriteriet att var stillasittande ≥5 timmar av sin arbetstid. Av dessa uppfyllde 18 personer (60 %) rekommendationer för fysisk aktivet. Tjugotre (77 %) upplevde god psykisk hälsa och majoriteten av gruppen konsumerade sunda livsmedel regelbundet medan livsmedel som kategoriserades som osunda förekom då och då hos 13 personer (43 %). I studien sågs ingen signifikant skillnad mellan gruppen stillasittande individer som var fysiskt aktiva respektive fysiskt inaktiva och upplevd psykisk hälsa (p=0.38) eller sunda kostvanor (p=0.99) respektive osunda kostvanor (p=0.37).

    Slutsats

    Med endast 30 deltagare i studien var det svårt att dra några generella slutsatser utifrån studiens frågeställningar men sammanfattningsvis var den psykiska hälsan och kostvanorna bra i gruppen stillasittande individer som nådde upp till rekommenderad fysisk aktivitetsnivå och de som inte nådde upp till den fysiska aktivitetsnivån. Jag skulle skriva att inga skillnader mellan grupperna kunde urskiljas, sannolikt beroende på typ-2 fel i vissa analyser. En begränsning i studien var förutom de få deltagarna även att insamlingen av data genomfördes med enkäter3vilket gör att deltagarna kan över- eller underskatta sina svar och därmed påverka validiteten på studien negativt.

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  • 117.
    Eriksson, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Axelsson, Amanda
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Ökad förståelse för de bakomliggande faktorerna som påverkar kostvanor: En kvalitativ intervjustudie2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Människor drabbas av hälsomässiga konsekvenser som ett resultat av ohälsosamma kostvanor. Kost är en stor del av vår vardag och en viktig faktor för vår hälsa, vilket betyder att valet av kost påverkas av en rad olika bakomliggande faktorer. De bakomliggande faktorer som studien har valt att belysa vidare är sociala sammanhang, motivation, beteende, matvanor. 

    Syfte och Frågeställningar: Att få en ökad förståelse hur sociala sammanhang, motivation, beteende och matvanor påverkar kostvanorna hos individer. 

    - Hur påverkar sociala sammanhang individens kostvanor?

    - Hur påverkar motivationen individens kostvanor?

    - Vilken påverkan har beteendet på individens kostvanor?

    - Hur påverkar matvanor individen?

    Metod: En kvalitativ studie innebär att forskaren fokuserar mer på det direkta orden som i studiens fall blir deltagarnas berättelser, som är grunden för författarnas tolkning. Sex semistrukturerade intervjuer genomfördes med deltagarna som har valts ut efter ett målstyrt urval. Alla intervjuer traskiberades och analyserades och vidare i studien användes en tematisk innehållsanalys för att finna olika teman i deltagarnas berättelser. 

    Resultat: Visar att deltagarnas kostvanor påverkas av sociala sammanhang de befann sig i. En mer specifik påverkan på kostvanorna upplever deltagarna när det befinner sig i ett större sällskap eller med familjen. Deltagarnas motivation påverkas av den inre motivationen och self-efficacy. Beteenden grundas av både vanor och djupare beteenden från barndomen.  Matvanorna hos deltagarna var komplexa och under analysarbetet fann författarna matkunskaper, tid och kostförändringar som en mer specifik påverkan på kostvanorna.

    Slutsats: Svaren som funnits i studien är att specifika faktorer påverkar individens kostvanor. Dock innehåller studien endast fyra olika huvudfaktorer som är kopplade till individens kostvanor, vilket gör att ytterligare forskning behövs för att täcka upp det områden med faktorer som ännu inte har blivit forskat på.

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  • 118.
    Eriksson, Louise
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    “Man ger så mycket av sig själv men samtidigt så får man så mycket”: En intervjustudie om barnmorskors hälsa, arbetsmiljö och faktorer till att stanna kvar i yrket2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med studien var att undersöka faktorer inom arbetsmiljö och hälsa som är betydande för att barnmorskor inom förlossningsvården väljer att stanna kvar och arbeta i en stressig/högbelastad arbetsmiljö. Frågeställningarna i studien var följande: 1. Hur ser barnmorskorna på sin arbetsmiljö? 2. Vilka faktorer har en positiv inverkan på arbetsmiljön? 3. Vilken betydelse har friskvårdsbidraget från arbetsgivaren för välmåendet på arbetsplatsen och i vilken omfattning utnyttjas bidraget?

    Metod: Med en kvalitativ ansats genomfördes 5 intervjuer med barnmorskor som arbetar på samma arbetsplats och som hade minst 1,5 års erfarenhet av att arbeta som barnmorska inom förlossningsvården. Intervjuerna spelades in och transkriberades. Materialet analyserades med en induktiv innehållsanalys.

    Resultat: Intervjuerna samt efterföljande innehållsanalys resulterade i tre huvudkategorier; “Psykisk arbetsmiljö”, “Fysisk arbetsmiljö” och “Utanför arbetet”. Kollegorna, arbetsglädjen till yrket, känslan av att göra gott för patienterna och familjerna samt att ha ett stimulerande och utvecklande jobb var de positiva faktorer som beskrevs främst när det gällde psykisk arbetsmiljö. Den fysiska arbetsmiljön berörde både hur lokalerna man arbetar i var utformade, men även hur det var en positiv faktor att barnmorskorna är aktiva och rör på sig mycket under arbetsdagen. Återhämtning på fritiden var en viktig positiv faktor utanför arbetet för att barnmorskorna ska orka med.

    Slutsats: Resultaten i studien tyder på att all stress i barnmorskans arbetsmiljö inte behöver vara negativ utan den vardagliga stressen kan hjälpa till att hålla rätt fokus i arbetet. Dock spelar kollegorna, patienterna och arbetsglädjen till yrket stor roll för att stressen inte ska bli för betungande. Återhämtningen för barnmorskan på fritiden var också en viktig faktor för att de skulle orka fortsätta att arbeta inom yrket.

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  • 119.
    Eriksson, Oscar
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Swedish National Team selections in ice hockey: A retrospective study2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Countries invest a large amount of money in talent development and talent identification. The Swedish ice hockey federation is reorganizing and evaluating the national team selection system. Relative age effect (RAE) refers to a selection bias when relatively older athletes get selected because maturity can be mistaken for talent. This study aimed to examine the selection patterns in the Swedish ice hockey national team and see if there is a relationship between selected players and their birth month. Studies on selections have been conducted in Canadian ice hockey and different leagues, but no one has investigated selections in national team ice hockey. 

    A Quantitative approach was used, to analyze the sample from this retrospective study.The sample contained 384 players that has been selected for the Swedish youth and junior national team once or more from five different cohorts from 1997-2001. The statistical analyses were conducted through 𝑋!test of association, 𝑋! goodness of fit and factorial ANOVA. The significance level was set to £0,05. Cramers V and h2 was used to measure the effect size. 

    The results showed that 78% of selected players got re-selected, and most players were entering the system early. A relationship between players birth distribution and selection for the Swedish youth and junior national team was obtained, more players selected were born in the first half of the year. No significant difference in birth distribution was found among the players that played in the World Junior Championship (WJC) in 2017-2021. 92 players were selected for the world junior championship (WJC) rosters. 139 spots were available and 58 of these were taken by underaged players. Underaged players showed a significant difference in birth distribution. Underaged players born in the first half of the year were more likely to be selected as underaged for the U20 WJC rosters compared to their relatively younger peers. No significant difference was found in players height and weight between the four birth quarters. 

    In conclusion, the Swedish ice hockey national team has adopted a collectivistic approach, players could enter the system at a later stage and still be selected to play in the U20 WJC. Most players are initially selected at age 16, which can indicate that the system is closed. Differences in players birth distribution were found and players born early in the year are more likely to be selected for the national team, however in the WJC squads the birth distribution evens out. 

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  • 120.
    Erlandsson, Mattias
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Dvärby, Owe
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Kroppsuppfattning hos unga idrottare: En jämförelse mellan judokas och fotbollsspelare2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Aim - The purpose of the study was to compare differences in body image between a specific weight-base sport and a ball sport. Related questions where as follows:

    “Are there any differences in distorted body image between soccer players and judokas?”

    “Is there an association between gender and age with distorted body image regardless of 

    sport?”

    Method - The survey was given to athletes striving to be elite within either judo or soccer. Groups occurred according to sport, gender and age category. In addition to the basic questions, the survey consisted of 22 questions where 13 were from the Body Appreciation Scale (BAS) and 9 from the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI), specifically those related to body image. Comparison was then made based on the groupings, where independent sample t-tests demonstrated differences. A correlation analysis was then made which evaluated the correlation between age and gender independent of sport.

    Results - A total of 93 participants completed the survey in its entirety, 43 women and 50 men. 50 were striving to be elite within judo (21 women, 29 men, 25 in high school, 25 post-high school) and 43 in soccer (22 women, 21 men, 21 in high school, 22 post-high school). The total score in the entire questionnaire gave an average value of 96,0 for judo and 93,1 for soccer (p=0,27). The mean value was 88,7 för women and 99,8 for men (p=<0,001), as well as a mean value corresponding to 94,0 for the post-high school group and 96,3 for the high school group (p=0,52).

    Conclusions - No significant difference could be seen in the tendency to distorted body image between the sports or whether they belonged to the high school or post-high school category. Differences in results regarding specific questions in the EDI, however, indicate a tendency for the dissatisfaction to express itself in different ways within the sports. A significant difference could be seen in gender, with a greater tendency in women towards distorted body image compared to men. Further sport-specific research is requested.

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  • 121.
    Eronen, Andreas
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Positional differences in peak intensity periods in Swedish elite football2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Football players cover around 8-13 kilometres of running in different speeds in a match. However, the reporting of the sum or average of total distance covered fail to give an accurate picture of the most physically intense and demanding periods in matches, called “peak periods”. These periods have shown to cause temporary fatigue to the players, also known as “transient fatigue”. By gaining more information and knowledge about the peak intensity periods and how they affect players, coaches could train players to meet the physiological demands of elite football matches in a more accurate and effective manner.

    Aim: The aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of positional differences in peak periods in elite football and how they affect the players in terms of fatigue.

    Method: This study analysed peak intense periods as well as transient fatigue effects of 37 players from two male teams playing in 45 Swedish first division matches. Position specific analysis was conducted, based on the positions central defender (CD), external defender (ED), central midfielder (CM), wide midfielder (WM) and striker (ST), as well as a merged positional comparison between the central (CEN) positions (CD+CM+ST) and lateral (LAT) positions (ED+WM). The data was acquired through Catapult Vector x7 10 Hz GPS devices. Five-minute rolling periods and the variable “PEAK” was used and stands for the sum of distance of the variables “High intensity running”, “High speed running”, “Sprinting”, “Acceleration” and “Deceleration”. The difference between playing positions was analysed using a two-way mixed ANOVA with repeated measures and an independent t-test was used for the merged positional analysis.

    Results: There was a significant difference in peak, post and mean distance between the positions overall. The magnitude of the peak periods was greatest for WM and ED. The magnitude was lowest for CD. The results were similar for the post and mean distances. In terms of transient fatigue in meters, WM and ED displayed the highest values. The peak, post and mean values as well as transient fatigue in meters were significantly higher for LAT players compared to CEN players.

    Conclusion: There are differences in peak periods between positions in the Swedish first division, with CD position standing out as the least demanding. Lateral positions have higher magnitude of peak periods overall compared to central positions, as well as higher transient fatigue values.

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  • 122.
    Farias, Lisette
    et al.
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Nursing, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Department of Global Public Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andermo, Susanne
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Nursing, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden; Department of Global Public Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Adolescents' experiences of a school-based health promotion intervention in socioeconomically advantaged and disadvantaged areas in Sweden: a qualitative process evaluation study.2023Inngår i: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 23, nr 1, artikkel-id 1631Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Adolescence is a transition period in which positive experiences of physical activity have the potential to last into later adulthood. These experiences are influenced by socioeconomic determinants, leading to health inequalities. This study aims to explore adolescents' experiences and participation in a multi-component school-based intervention in schools located in socioeconomically advantaged and disadvantaged areas in Sweden.

    METHODS: A qualitative design was used to evaluate how participants experienced the intervention. The intervention was a multi-component school-based intervention. It was conducted in six schools (four control and two intervention schools) with a total of 193 students and lasted one school year. It was teacher-led and consisted of three 60-minute group sessions per week: varied physical activities, homework support with activity breaks, and walks while listening to audiobooks. In total, 23 participant observations were conducted over eight months and 27 students participated in focus groups. A content analysis was conducted.

    RESULTS: The results describe a main category 'Engaging in activities depending on socioeconomic status' and three generic categories: 1. Variations in participation in PA together with classmates and teachers; 2. Variations in engagement in PA after school; and 3. Differences in time and place allocated to do homework and listen to audiobooks. These categories illustrate how participants looked forward to the physical activities but used the time spent during the walks and homework support differently depending on how busy they were after school. Frequently, those who were busiest after school were also those from the advantaged area, and those who had little to do after school were from the disadvantaged area.

    CONCLUSION: Socioeconomic factors influence participants' possibilities to engage in the intervention activities as well as how they use their time in the activities. This study showed that it is crucial to support adolescents' participation in physical activities by providing structure and engaging well-known teachers in the activities, especially in schools located in disadvantaged areas.

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  • 123.
    Fernberg, Ulrika
    et al.
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Fernström, Maria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Hurtig-Wennlöf, Anita
    Örebro University, Sweden; Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Higher Total Physical Activity is Associated with Lower Arterial Stiffness in Swedish, Young Adults: The Cross-Sectional Lifestyle, Biomarkers, and Atherosclerosis Study2021Inngår i: Vascular Health and Risk Management, ISSN 1176-6344, E-ISSN 1178-2048, Vol. 17, s. 175-185Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Arterial stiffness describes the rigidity of the arterial walls and is associated withrisk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Arterial stiffness predicts future events andmortality, and the predictive value is stronger in younger versus older subjects. The aims ofthe present study were, firstly, to present data on physical activity (PA) and time spentsedentary, in the population of Swedish, young adults. Secondly, to explore the associationbetween PA and arterial stiffness.

    Material and Methods: Self-reported healthy, non-smoking, Swedish, young adults, 18–25years old, participated in the cross-sectional Lifestyle, Biomarkers and Atherosclerosis(LBA) study. The daily PA was objectively measured with an accelerometer for 1 week.Of the 834 participants, 658 individuals had valid registrations. The arterial stiffness measures, pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (AIx) were measured withapplanation tonometry.

    Results: Women were on overall more physically active than men, they spent 214 min/dayin light PA (LPA) compared to men who spent 202 min/day. Women took significantly moresteps per day than men, 7796 vs 7336 steps/day, and spent less time sedentary, 523 min/day,compared to men who spent 547 min/day sedentary. In total, 76% of the individuals spent onaverage at least 30 minutes per day in the recommended moderate and vigorous PA (MVPA).Lower arterial stiffness was associated with more MVPA and total PA in the total population.

    Conclusion: We conclude that in this age group of young, self-reported healthy adults18–25 years, it is important to highlight the health-enhancing possibilities of time spent inphysical activity on the vascular function, measured as PWV and AIx. It is of high relevancein a public health perspective to expand preventive efforts beyond the high-risk groups andencourage young adults to be physically active.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 124.
    Fernström, Maria
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Fernberg, Ulrika
    Örebro University, Sweden .
    Hurtig-Wennlöf, Anita
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    The importance of cardiorespiratory fitness and sleep duration in early CVD prevention: BMI, resting heart rate and questions about sleep patterns are suggested in risk assessment of young adults, 18–25 years: The cross-sectional lifestyle, biomarkers and atherosclerosis (LBA) study.2020Inngår i: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 20, artikkel-id 1715Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and sleep habits are lifestyle factors with potential to prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD). CVD is the leading cause of death worldwide. It is therefore important to establish a healthy lifestyle at a young age. In the Lifestyle, Biomarkers and Atherosclerosis (LBA) study we have examined 834 healthy non-smoking adults, aged 18–25 years. The general purpose of the LBA study was to study the effect of lifestyle on traditional biomarkers known to influence CVD risk. The aims of the present study were to evaluate sleep habits of young adult women and men participating in the LBA study, and to compare the importance of sleep and other lifestyle habits on clinically relevant biomarkers for CVD. An additional aim was to find easy and reliable non-invasive biomarkers to detect young adults with increased risk of developing CVD later in life.

    Methods

    The participants had previously been examined for lifestyle factors, biomarkers and CVD risk score. They filled in a validated computerized questionnaire about their general physical and mental health. The questionnaire included questions on sleep duration and experienced quality of sleep.

    Results

    In total 27% of the young adult participants reported difficulties falling asleep or experienced troubled sleep with frequent awakenings per night. The experienced troubled sleep was not related to a higher CVD risk score, but sleep quality and duration were correlated. Shorter sleep duration was significantly associated to higher body mass index (BMI), body fat (%), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and CVD risk. The modifiable lifestyle factor with the highest odds ratio (OR) for CVD risk was CRF. Sleep duration was the second most influential lifestyle factor, more important than moderate- and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and food habits. Correlations between CRF and heart rate (HR), (P < 0.01) and HOMA-IR and BMI (P < 0.01) were observed, indicating that BMI and resting HR in combination with questions about sleep patterns are easy and reliable non-invasive biomarkers to detect young adults who need counselling on a healthy lifestyle.

    Conclusion

    Decreased sleep duration in combination with decreased CRF, in young adults, is a serious health issue.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 125.
    Fernström, Maria
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Heiland, Emerald G
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Department of Surgical Sciences, Medical Epidemiology, Uppsala University Uppsala Sweden.
    Kjellenberg, Karin
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Pontén, Marjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysiologi, nutrition och biomekanik.
    Tarassova, Olga
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysiologi, nutrition och biomekanik.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Department of Global Public Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Effects of prolonged sitting and physical activity breaks on measures of arterial stiffness and cortisol in adolescents2023Inngår i: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 112, nr 5, s. 1011-1018Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    In adults, prolonged periods of sitting have been linked to acute negative effects on vascular structure and function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the acute effects of physical activity (PA) breaks during prolonged sitting on arterial stiffness, cortisol and psychological factors in adolescents.

    Methods

    Adolescents underwent different short (3-min) breaks starting every 20 min, during 80 min of sitting on three separate days. Breaks were (A) social seated breaks (SOC), (B) low-intensity simple resistance activity PA breaks (SRA) and (C) moderate-intensity step-up PA breaks (STEP). The arterial stiffness measures were augmentation index (AIx), AIx@75 and pulse wave velocity (PWV). Cortisol was measured from saliva. Psychological factors were self-reported.

    Results

    Eleven girls and six boys (average age 13.6 ± 0.7 years) participated, with average baseline heart rates of 72 ± 11 bpm, systolic/diastolic blood pressure 111 ± 7/64 ± 6 mmHg and cortisol 10.9 ± 5.8 nmoL/L. PWV, cortisol and psychological factors did not change after any of the conditions. AIx@75 increased significantly (4.9 ± 8.7–9.2 ± 13.2) after the STEP intervention compared with SOC and SRA (time × condition p < 0.05).

    Conclusion

    Arterial stiffness increased after prolonged sitting with frequent, short step-up activity breaks. The results indicate potential important intensity-dependent effects of physical activity on vascular regulation in youth.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 126.
    Fliess Douer, Osnat
    et al.
    KU, Leuven, Belgium; Israel Paralympic Committee, Tel Aviv, Israel; The Academic College at Wingate Institute, Israel.
    Koseff, Davidah
    Israel Paralympic Committee, Tel Aviv, Israel..
    Tweedy, Sean
    University of Queensland, St Lucia, Australia.
    Molik, Bartosz
    Jozef Pilsudski University of Physical Education, Warsaw, Poland..
    Vanlandewijck, Yves
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. KU, Leuven, Belgium.
    Challenges and opportunities in wheelchair basketball classification - A Delphi study.2021Inngår i: Journal of Sports Sciences, ISSN 0264-0414, E-ISSN 1466-447X, Vol. 39, nr Sup1, s. 7-18Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The International Paralympic Committee (IPC) mandates Paralympic Sports to develop evidence-based classification systems that allocate athletes into 'classes' according to the impact of their impairment on sport-specific performance. In wheelchair-basketball, a panel of classifiers assesses athlete's performance through observation. One key barrier to evidence-based classification is the absence of defined eligible impairments, including clear guidelines on how to assess them and their impact on wheelchair basketball performance. This study aims to reach expert consensus on issues specific to wheelchair basketball that can benefit from evidence-based classification. It offers recommendations for refining the classification manual, thus improving adherence to the IPC classification code. A three-round Delphi study was conducted with 29 experts in wheelchair basketball. The experts agreed with the new definition for the aim of wheelchair basketball classification, which is in line with the IPC code. Cases identified as having the highest risk for disagreement between classifiers included classifying players with upper limb deficiency or with impaired coordination. The panel failed to agree on changing the classification procedures and on defining the eligible impairment list. This study identifies issues specific to wheelchair basketball classification to be addressed in future research. Additional discussions need to take place to promote further resolution.

  • 127.
    Flockhart, Mikael
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysiologi, nutrition och biomekanik.
    Tischer, Dominik
    School of Health Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Lina
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysiologi, nutrition och biomekanik.
    Blackwood, Sarah J
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysiologi, nutrition och biomekanik.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Katz, Abram
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysiologi, nutrition och biomekanik.
    Apro, William
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysiologi, nutrition och biomekanik.
    Larsen, Filip J
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysiologi, nutrition och biomekanik.
    THREE HOURS OF MODERATE INTENSITY EXERCISE TRAINING REDUCES GLUCOSE TOLERANCE IN ENDURANCE TRAINED ATHLETES2022Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND

    It is well accepted that exercise training improves glucose uptake and insulin sensitivity, and that endurance trained athletes in general show a high capacity for these parameters and excellent metabolic control. However, some studies fail to observe positive effects on glucose regulation in healthy, trained subjects the day after exercise. These, often unexpected, results have been postulated to be caused by excessive training loads, muscle damage, energy deficit, differences in glucose uptake in the exercised and non-exercised musculature and a metabolic interaction through increased fatty acid metabolism which suppresses glucose oxidation and uptake. The mode or volume of exercise that can lead to glucose intolerance in trained athletes as well as mechanistic insights and its relevance for health and performance are, however, not fully understood.

    AIM

    We studied the metabolic response to a glucose load the day after a session of high intensity interval training (HIIT) or three hours of continuous exercise (3h) in endurance trained athletes and compared the results with measurements during rest.

    METHOD

    Nine endurance trained athletes (5 females, 4 males) underwent oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) after rest and ~14 hours after exercise on a cycle ergometer (HIIT 5x4 minutes at ~95% of VO2max or 3h at 65% of VO2max). Venous blood was sampled at 15-minute intervals for 120 minutes and concentrations of glucose, insulin, free fatty acids (FFA) and ketones (β-hydroxybutyrate) were measured. Statistical analysis was performed using a RM one-way ANOVA with the Giesser-Greenhouse correction and Dunnett’s test was used to compare the exercise conditions to the resting condition.

    RESULTS

    The area under the curve (AUC) during the OGTT increased greatly after 3h (668±124 mM · min) (p<0.01) compared to rest (532±89) but was found to be unchanged after HIIT (541±96). Resting values of FFA and ketones were increased after 3h (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively) but not after HIIT. Insulin was found to be unaltered during all conditions.

    CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE

    Here, we show manifestation of glucose intolerance in endurance trained athletes together with concomitant increases in plasma concentrations of FFA and ketones the day after a session of prolonged exercise training but not after HIIT. This could be a protective response for securing glucose delivery to the brain and therefore have a positive effect on endurance. It also has the potential to reduce the recovery of glycogen depots, glucose uptake during exercise and performance at higher work rates.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    THREE HOURS OF MODERATE INTENSITY EXERCISE TRAINING REDUCES GLUCOSE TOLERANCE IN ENDURANCE TRAINED ATHLETES
  • 128.
    Flyborg, Matilda
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Simon, Sindemark
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    FaR too slow!: En studie med syftet att uppmärksamma hälsopedagogens kompetens för en mer välfungerande FaR-metod2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte. Det övergripande syftet med studien var att undersöka hälso- och sjukvårdspersonalens inställning och användande av FaR-metoden (Fysisk aktivitet på Recept). Studien har även undersökt möjligheten till huruvida hälsopedagoger kan vara en samverkande profession och således öka FaR-förskrivningen. Studiens frågeställningar var; -Vilken är hälso- och sjukvårdspersonalens inställning gällande användandet av FaR-förskrivning? -Vilka möjligheter och hinder upplever hälso- och sjukvårdspersonalen för FaR-förskrivning? -Skulle möjligheten att nyttja hälsopedagoger inom eller utanför vården vara ett alternativ för hälso- och sjukvårdspersonalen för att öka FaR förskrivningen? -Skiljer sig ovan beroende på yrkesprofession inom hälso- och sjukvården? (läkare jämfört med sjuksköterskor) - Påvisar “tillräckligt” fysiskt aktiva personer inom hälso- och sjukvården en bättre inställning till FaR?

    Metod. Studien genomfördes kvantitativt i form av en tvärsnittsstudie. Insamling av data skedde via en anonym digital enkät utskickad till totalt 67 primärvårdsenheter inom Stockholmsregionen. Enkäten bestod av 17 frågor och var riktad mot legitimerad sjukvårdspersonal inom primärvården och analyserades i statistikprogrammet SPSS.

    Resultat. Av studiens 64 deltagare angav en stor majoritet (86%) positiv inställning till FaR som alternativ behandlingsmetod och 72% angav metoden som nödvändig inom sin profession. Mer än hälften (56%) av hälso- och sjukvårdspersonalen upplevde hinder med FaR-förskrivning där tidsbrist och svårighet med uppföljning var de mest angivna orsakerna. Nästan hälften (40%) av studiedeltagarna angav att de inte besitter någon utbildning om FaR. Sjuksköterskorna i studien påvisade signifikant bättre allmän uppfattning om FaR som metod (p=0,016) samt inställning till nyttjande av hälsopedagoger för ökad förskrivning av FaR (p=0,033) än läkare.

    Slutsats. Hälso- och sjukvårdspersonal har en positiv inställning gällande användandet och uppfattning om FaR som behandlingsmetod. Det förekommer hinder och finns en avsaknad av kompetens som begränsar användandet av metoden inom respektive profession och således dess framfart. De uppmärksammade hinder och avsaknaden av kompetens hälso- och sjukvårdspersonalen uppger sig ha, är något en hälsopedagog kan bidra med och besitter. Således skulle hälsopedagogen kunna fungera som en samverkande profession inom hälso- och sjukvården för att öka förskrivningen och framfarten av FaR för att nå dess fulla potential.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 129.
    Fochsen, Eva
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Kunskap, erfarenhet och inställning hos unga kvinnliga fotbollsspelare gällande skador och förebyggande träning: En kvalitativ studie2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att beskriva kunskap om, erfarenheter av och inställning till skador och akuta knäskador samt förebyggande åtgärder som t.ex. Knäkontroll hos flickor i åldrarna 13 och 14 år som spelar fotboll på hög nivå. Frågeställningarna var:

    ·      Vilken kunskap har flickor i akademilag av skador och förebyggande åtgärder?

    ·      Vilken erfarenhet har flickor i akademilag av skador och förebyggande åtgärder?

    ·      Vilken inställning har flickor i akademilag till skador och förebyggande träning?

    Metod: En kvalitativ metod med semistrukturerade intervjuer valdes som tillvägagångssätt inför en manifest innehållsanalys av datamaterialet med deduktiv ansats. Tio flickor i 13 och 14 års åldern som spelade i akademilag i Stockholm valdes ut genom ändamålsenligt urval. De var sedan tidigare utan akuta knäskador och hade spelat fotboll i minst 4 år.

    Resultat: Innehållsanalysen av intervjuerna resulterade i tre övergripande kategorier: 1) kunskap om skador och förebyggande träning, 2) erfarenhet av skador och förebyggande träning samt 3) inställning till skador och förebyggande träning. Dessa hade i sin tur fem eller sex subkategorier vardera. Spelarna hade 1) viss kunskap om knäskador och dess konsekvenser men saknade en bredare förståelse för vad förebyggande träning som Knäkontroll egentligen innefattar. Spelarna hade 2) erfarenhet av skador och förebyggande träning men upplevde osäkerhet i utförandet av Knäkontroll-övningar och att initiering av knäövningar skiljde sig åt mellan tränare. Spelarnas 3) inställning till skador präglades av acceptans och att det var en del av spelet, men även oro för vilka konsekvenser en skada skulle få både avseende idrottsidentiteten och det idrottsliga sammanhanget spelarna ingick i. Inställningen till förebyggande träning som Knäkontroll präglades av rutinmässigt utförande av övningar som inte var roliga att göra.

    Konklusion: Resultaten i studien tyder på att unga kvinnliga fotbollsspelare på hög nivå har viss kunskap och erfarenhet vad gäller skador och förebyggande träning men saknar djupgående förståelse avseende innehållet och syftet med övningarna i konceptet Knäkontroll. Inställningen hos spelarna till skador präglas av acceptans och inställningen till förebyggande träning av ett plikttroget utförande utan större engagemang. En praktisk implikation vore att mer utförligt utbilda spelarna i hur övningarna utförs och dess speltekniska effekter.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 130.
    Fors, Rasmus
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Israelsson, Johan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Socioekonomi vs. covid-19: Sambandet mellan socioekonomiskstatus och covid-192021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte. Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka om det finns ett samband mellan en individs socioekonomiska status och sannolikhet att insjukna i covid-19 hos seniorer som har deltagit i GIHs hälsoprojekt under åren 2017-2020.Metod. En retrospektiv longitudinell kohortstudie utfördes för att studera om risken att få covid-19 hängde samman med de socioekonomiska faktorerna utbildningsnivå och inkomst. Data från GIHs hälsoprojekt från upp till 4 år tillbaka har använts som baslinje. Data på utfallsmåttet, självrapporterad covid-19 infektion, samlades in vid en uppföljningsundersökning som genomfördes via telefonintervjuer. Studiepopulationen omfattar 383 personer där samtliga har deltagit i en träningsintervention vid GIH och som vid efterundersökningen var mellan 62 till 91 års ålder. Resultat. Utbildning och även ålder visade samband med risk att insjukna. En multivariabel analys visade att utbildningsnivå hade ett positivt oberoende samband med risk för covid-19 infektion (OR: 1,962, 95% CI 1,063 till 3,622 per steg upp i utbildning). Ålder visade ett negativt oberoende samband med risk att insjukna (OR:0,909, 95 % CI: 0,829 till 0,996 per år). 

    Slutsats. Resultaten i denna studie är i motsats till resultat från tidigare studier (Hawkins et al. 2020, Chung et al., 2020, Holuka et al. 2020). Det vore intressant att fler framtida studier utförs för att kartlägga samband mellan olika socioekonomiska faktorer och förekomst av covid-19 bland olika grupper av seniorer för att därmed kunna bidra till att förbättra preventiva åtgärder mot denna vitt spridda infektionssjukdom. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 131.
    Forsman, Amanda
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Bergdahl, Sara
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    "Jag är inte sjuk, det är bara en omställning i min kropp som gör mig lite koko.": En kvalitativ studie om hur fysisk aktivitet upplevs hos regelbundet aktiva kvinnor i klimakteriet.2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställning. Syftet med studien var att rikta in sig på fysiskt aktiva kvinnor i klimakteriet och hur tillämpningen av fysisk aktivitet upplevs samt om träningsmotivationen har förändrats i relation till klimakterier besvär. Studien ämnade att främja kvinnohälsa genom att belysa deras upplevda erfarenheter gällande vägledning och stöd av fysisk aktivitet i relation till klimakteriet. Studiens frågeställningar är: (1) Hur upplevs fysisk aktivitet hos aktiva kvinnor med klimakteriebesvär? (2) Vad motiverar aktiva kvinnorna att träna i klimakteriet? (3) Vad har aktiva kvinnor i klimakteriet för erfarenhet och inställning till stöd för att vara fysisk aktiva? 

    Metod. Studien har utgått från en kvalitativ metod där fem fysiskt aktiva kvinnor med olika utförande av fysisk aktivitet intervjuats. Kvinnorna var mellan 49–56 år och hade varierande klimakteriebesvär. Semistrukturerade intervjuer har genomförts och var enskilda, där en intervjuguide har utgåtts ifrån. Intervjuerna spelades in och transkriberades. Bearbetning av data analyserades enligt innehållsanalys. Genom dialog har tema, subtema, meningsbärande enheter, kondenserade meningar och koder skapats utifrån materialet. 

    Resultat. Fysisk aktivitet i klimakteriet visade sig ha positiv effekt och upplevs som ett sätt att hantera mentala och kroppsliga besvär som förekommer under klimakteriet. Vissa kroppsliga och mentala klimakteriebesvär förändrade upplevelsen av träningen. I sin tur kunde det ha en negativ inverkan på motivationen till fysisk aktivitet. Däremot visade det sig vara motivationshöjande att kunna hantera och förbättra sitt mående genom fysisk aktivitet. Kvinnorna framförde en saknad av engagemang, där ökad förståelse och ett helhetsperspektiv på klimakteriet är nödvändigt. Fysisk aktivitet kunde ses som ett sätt att skapa ett sammanhang där man kan känna gemenskap och stöd i denna period. 

    Slutsats. Baserat på intervjuerna och kvinnornas erfarenheter kan fysisk aktivitet motverka till en viss del klimakteriebesvär och är en betydande aktivitet att fortsätta med i klimakteriet men att modifiering av träningen kan behövas göras. Fysisk aktivitet upplevs som en betydelsefull och nödvändig insats i klimakteriet samt att dess effekt på borde belysas mer i den målgruppen. Klimakteriet och fysisk aktivitet är ett brett ämne och hälso- och sjukvård borde implantera stöd i det både mentalt och fysiskt.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 132.
    Freak-Poli, Rosanne
    et al.
    Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Wagemaker, Nina
    Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Wang, Rui
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lysen, Thom S.
    Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Ikram, M. Arfan
    Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands;Department of Neurology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands;Department of Radiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Vernooij, Meike W.
    Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands;Department of Radiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Dintica, Christina S.
    Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Vernooij-Dassen, Myrra
    Radboud University Medical Center, IQ Healthcare, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Melis, Rene J.M.
    Department of Geriatric Medicine, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Laukka, Erica J.
    Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fratiglioni, Laura
    Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Xu, Weili
    Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tiemeier, Henning
    Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands;Department of Social and Behavioral Science, Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.
    Loneliness, Not Social Support, Is Associated with Cognitive Decline and Dementia Across Two Longitudinal Population-Based Cohorts2022Inngår i: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, ISSN 1387-2877, E-ISSN 1875-8908, Vol. 85, nr 1, s. 295-308Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Poor social health is likely associated with cognitive decline and risk of dementia; however, studies show inconsistent results. Additionally, few studies separate social health components or control for mental health.

    Objective: To investigate whether loneliness and social support are independently associated with cognitive decline and risk of dementia, and whether depressive symptoms confound the association.

    Methods: We included 4,514 participants from the population-based Rotterdam Study (RS; aged 71±7SD years) followed up to 14 years (median 10.8, interquartile range 7.4-11.6), and 2,112 participants from the Swedish National Study on Aging and Care in Kungsholmen (SNAC-K; aged 72±10SD years) followed up to 10 years (mean 5.9±1.6SD). At baseline, participants were free of major depression and scored on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) ≥26 for RS and ≥25 for SNAC-K. We investigated loneliness, perceived social support, and structural social support (specifically marital status and number of children). In both cohorts, dementia was diagnosed and cognitive function was repeatedly assessed with MMSE and a global cognitive factor (g-factor).

    Results: Loneliness was prospectively associated with a decline in the MMSE in both cohorts. Consistently, persons who were lonely had an increased risk of developing dementia (RS: HR 1.34, 95%CI 1.08-1.67; SNAC-K: HR 2.16, 95%CI 1.12-4.17). Adjustment for depressive symptoms and exclusion of the first 5 years of follow-up did not alter results. Neither perceived or structural social support was associated with cognitive decline or dementia risk.

    Conclusion: Loneliness, not social support, predicted cognitive decline and incident dementia independently of depressive symptoms.

  • 133.
    Fridolfsson, J
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Arvidsson, D
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Bergström, G
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Börjesson, M
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    One size does not fit all - translating absolute accelerometry to relative individual physical activity intensity for health2023Inngår i: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, Volume 30, Issue Supplement_1, Oxford University Press, 2023, Vol. 30, nr Supplement_1, artikkel-id zwad125.064Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Funding Acknowledgements

    Type of funding sources: Foundation. Main funding source(s): The main funding body of The Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImage Study (SCAPIS) is the Swedish Heart-Lung Foundation. The study is also funded by the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, the Swedish Research Council and VINNOVA (Sweden’s Innovation agency) the University of Gothenburg and Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm county council, Linköping University and University Hospital, Lund University and Skåne University Hospital, Umeå University and University Hospital, Uppsala University and University Hospital.

    Introduction

    Physical activity intensity can be expressed in either absolute (e.g. brisk walking or metabolic equivalents) or relative terms (e.g. proportion of maximal oxygen consumption or perceived exertion) (1). Although intervention studies typically use relative intensity for exercise prescription, large scale observational studies measuring physical activity with accelerometers always use absolute intensity. The association between relative physical activity intensity and cardiometabolic risk factors has not been studied using accelerometry previously.

    Purpose

    To compare absolute and relative measures of physical activity intensity in terms of physical activity level and associations with cardiovascular risk factors among individuals with different fitness level.

    Methods

    A subsample of the Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImage Study (SCAPIS), in total 4234 men and women aged 50-64, was analysed (2). Physical activity was measured by accelerometers and the raw data processed with the 10 Hz frequency extended method (FEM) to get a more accurate measure of physical activity intensity compared to previous methods (3). Maximal oxygen consumption (fitness) was estimated by a submaximal ergometer test. Waist to hip ratio, systolic blood pressure, glycated haemoglobin (HBA1c) and high-density lipoprotein to total cholesterol ratio were combined into a composite cardiometabolic risk factor score. Partial least squares regression was used to investigate the associations of absolute and relative physical activity intensity with fitness as well as the composite score. The sample was divided into tertiles of fitness for stratified analyses.

    Results

    Overall, there was an association between physical activity at absolute moderate intensity and above, and the health outcomes. Yet, the main associations were found in the absolute moderate intensity range for the low fitness group and in the absolute vigorous intensity range for the high fitness group. When considering relative intensity however, all the main associations started in the upper part of the moderate intensity range and peaked in the vigorous intensity range (Figure 1). In addition, when comparing absolute and relative cut-offs for moderate intensity, absolute moderate intensity was too low for 95% of individuals in the sample (Figure 2). When using absolute intensity, 99% of individuals reached the general guidelines of 150 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity per week, while only 21% reached the guidelines based on relative intensity.

    Conclusions

    Health benefits of absolute intensity are misleading for most individuals in this sample and absolute measures of physical activity overestimate time spent at moderate intensity and above. Relative intensity should be used when interpreting accelerometer measured physical activity and when communicating health promoting physical activity.

  • 134.
    Fridolfsson, Jonatan
    et al.
    Center for Health and Performance, Department of Food and Nutrition and Sport Science, Faculty of Education, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Arvidsson, Daniel
    Center for Health and Performance, Department of Food and Nutrition and Sport Science, Faculty of Education, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Bergström, Göran
    Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden. ; Department of Clinical Physiology, Region Västra Götaland, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Börjesson, Mats
    Center for Lifestyle Intervention, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden. ; Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Region Västra Götaland, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Accelerometer-measured absolute versus relative physical activity intensity: cross-sectional associations with cardiometabolic health in midlife.2023Inngår i: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 23, nr 1, artikkel-id 2322Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Observational studies investigating the association between accelerometer-measured physical activity and health all use absolute measures of physical activity intensity. However, intervention studies suggest that the physical activity intensity required to improve health is relative to individual fitness. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between accelerometer-measured absolute and relative physical activity intensity and cardiometabolic health, and what implications these associations may have on the interpretation of health-associated physical activity.

    METHODS: A sample of the cross-sectional Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImage Study (SCAPIS) consisting of 4,234 men and women aged 55-64 years was studied. Physical activity intensity was measured by accelerometry and expressed as absolute (e.g., metabolic equivalents of task) or relative (percentage of maximal oxygen consumption). Fitness was estimated by the submaximal Ekblom-Bak test. A composite ('metabolic syndrome') score combined measures of waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, and glycated hemoglobin. Associations of absolute and relative physical activity intensity with the health indicators (i.e., fitness and metabolic syndrome score) were studied by partial least squares regression. Analyses were stratified by fitness level.

    RESULTS: Both absolute and relative physical activity intensity associated with the health indicators. However, the strongest associations for absolute intensity varied depending on fitness levels, whereas the associations for relative intensity were more synchronized across fitness groups. The dose-response relationship between moderate-to-vigorous intensity and the health indicators was stronger for relative than for absolute intensity. The absolute and relative moderate-to-vigorous intensity cut-offs intersected at the 5th fitness percentile, indicating that the absolute intensity cut-off is too low for 95% of individuals in this sample. While 99% of individuals fulfilled the general physical activity recommendations based on absolute intensity measures, only 21% fulfilled the recommendations based on relative intensity measures. In relation to a "sufficient" fitness level, 9% fulfilled the recommendations.

    CONCLUSIONS: Accelerometer-measured relative physical activity intensity represents the intensity related to health benefits regardless of fitness level. Traditional absolute moderate intensity accelerometer cut-offs are too low for most individuals and should be adapted to the fitness level in the sample studied. Absolute and relative physical activity intensity cannot be used interchangeably.

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  • 135.
    Fridén Sandqvist, Agnes
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Naili, Olivia
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Självupplevd prestation och psykiskt välbefinnande kring träning i relation till menstruationscykeln: En kvalitativ studie med dagbokslogg2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion: Det finns ett flertal faktorer som påverkar prestationen vid fysisk aktivitet, bland annat kost, sömn, allmän dagsform och så väl fysiska som psykiska förutsättningar. Dessa förutsättningar skiljer sig åt mellan kvinnor och män på grund av rent biologiska skillnader. Kunskapen kring hur kvinnors hormonutsöndring kan påverka träning är litenoch det finns idag inga speciella rekommendationer kring hur man ska planera sin träning kring de olika faserna i menstruationscykeln. Det finns en kunskapslucka kring idrott och träning i relation till menstruationscykeln och den här studien ämnar till att väcka intresse till att förstå hur träning, och måendet kring träning, kan påverkas av menstruationscykeln.

    Syfte: Studiens syfte är att genom dagboksanteckningar över en hel menstruationscykel undersöka om kvinnor upplever skillnad i sin träningsprestation utifrån sitt fysiska samt psykiska välbefinnande, relaterat till var i menstruationscykeln de befinner sig.

    Metod: Vid start fylldes ett formulär i av deltagarna gällande deras fysiska och psykiskahälsostatus. Under en menstruationscykel (individuellt antal dagar för varje deltagare) fördes dagbok över träning och mående både psykiskt och fysiskt via en dagbok. Dagboken var utformad för att specifikt samla in information gällande deltagarnas fysiska och psykiska välbefinnande, samt logga deras fysiska aktivitetsmönster. När varje dag i en hel menstruationscykel var ifylld var dagboken färdigställd. Användandet av Natural Cycles fungerade som ett hjälpmedel för att monitorera menstruationscykeln.Därefter sammanställdes dagböckerna från de olika deltagarna för att undersöka om det fanns några likheter i de olika faserna gällande upplevt fysiskt och psykiskt välbefinnande samt prestationsförmåga.

    Analys av resultat: En del deltagare upplever sig väldigt påverkade avmenstruationsblödningen medan vissa knappt upplever några problem alls i relation tillmenstruationen. Huruvida det fysiska välmåendet hänger ihop med det psykiskavälmåendet varierade mellan deltagarna.

    Slutsats: Efter avslutad studie kan vi konstatera att större delen av deltagarna upplevdesig påverkade prestationsmässigt såväl fysiskt som psykiskt. Det fanns däremot inga evidens för under vilka faser som de var mer eller mindre påverkade.

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  • 136.
    Frisk, M K
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hedner, J
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Grote, L
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Arvidsson, D
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bergström, G
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Börjesson, M
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Zou, D
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    EVENINGNESS IS ASSOCIATED WITH SEDENTARY BEHAVIOR AND INCREASED CARDIOVASCULAR RISK - DATA FROM THE SCAPIS PILOT COHORT2022Inngår i: Sleep Medicine: Special issue: Abstracts from the 16th World Sleep Congress, March 11-16, 2022 in Rome, Italy, Elsevier, 2022, Vol. 100, s. S48-S49Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 137.
    Frisk, M. Kobayashi
    et al.
    Gothenburg Univ, Inst Med, Ctr Sleep & Vigilance Disorders, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Fagman, E.
    Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Dept Radiol, Gothenburg, Sweden.;Gothenburg Univ, Sahlgrenska Acad, Inst Clin Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Arvidsson, D.
    Gothenburg Univ, Dept Food Nutr & Sports Sci, Ctr Hlth & Performance, Fac Educ, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Börjesson, M.
    Gothenburg Univ, Inst Med, Dept Mol & Clin Med, Gothenburg, Sweden.;Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Bergström, G.
    Gothenburg Univ, Inst Med, Dept Mol & Clin Med, Gothenburg, Sweden.;Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Physiol, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Zou, D.
    Gothenburg Univ, Inst Med, Ctr Sleep & Vigilance Disorders, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Eveningness is associated with coronary artery calcification in a middle-aged swedish population2022Inngår i: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 31, nr SI, artikkel-id O178/P717Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 138.
    Fröberg, Andreas
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kjellenberg, Karin
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Lindroos, Anna Karin
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Self-reported physical activity and sedentary behaviour among adolescents in Sweden vary depending on sex, age and parental education.2021Inngår i: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 110, nr 11, s. 3097-3104Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate self-reported physical activity and sedentary behaviour by sex, age and parental education in a large representative sample of Swedish adolescents.

    METHODS: This study is based on data from the national dietary survey Riksmaten Adolescents that was conducted by the Swedish Food Agency in 2016-2017. In total, 3477 students in grade five (11-12 years), eight (14-15 years), and eleven (17-18 years) were included. A web questionnaire was used to collect information about physical activity and sedentary behaviour.

    RESULTS: In total, 53% reported active transport to and from school, 93% that they usually participate in the physical education, 76% reported a physically active leisure time, and 66% that they participated in organised physical activities. In addition, 12% and 6% reported two hours or less of screen time on weekdays and weekends, respectively. Participation in physical activity was generally lower among girls, older adolescents and for those from families with low parental education.

    CONCLUSION: This study provide reference values for self-reported physical activities and sedentary behaviours among adolescents in Sweden. Strategies to increase physical activity and reduce screen time are needed, particularly among girls, older adolescents and among those with low parental education.

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  • 139.
    Fröberg, Andreas
    et al.
    Department of Food and Nutrition and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindroos, Anna-Karin
    Department of Risk Benefit Assessment, Swedish Food Agency, Uppsala, Sweden; Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Moraeus, Lotta
    Department of Risk Benefit Assessment, Swedish Food Agency, Uppsala, Sweden; .
    Patterson, Emma
    Department of Risk Benefit Assessment, Swedish Food Agency, Uppsala, Sweden; Department of Global Public Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Warensjö Lemming, Eva
    Department of Risk Benefit Assessment, Swedish Food Agency, Uppsala, Sweden; .
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Department of Global Public Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Leisure-time organised physical activity and dietary intake among Swedish adolescents.2022Inngår i: Journal of Sports Sciences, ISSN 0264-0414, E-ISSN 1466-447X, Vol. 40, nr 11, s. 1198-1205Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to investigate associations between participation in leisure-time organised physical activity (LTOPA) and dietary intake in a large representative sample of Swedish adolescents participating in the national dietary survey Riksmaten Adolescents 2016-2017. A sample of 2807 participants aged 11-12, 14-15 and 17-18 years were included. Information about LTOPA and dietary intake were collected through questionnaires and two 24-hour recalls on the web (RiksmatenFlex). For dietary intake, overall healthy eating index, intake of fruit, vegetables, candy, sugar-sweetened beverages, and the proportion of added sugar to total energy intake were analysed. Significance-testing for associations was performed with analysis of covariance. LTOPA was associated with lower sugar-sweetened beverages intake among adolescent boys (p < 0.001, ηp2 = 0.012) and girls (p = 0.007, ηp2 = 0.005), higher fruit intake among boys (p = 0.043, ηp2 = 0.003), and lower vegetable intake among girls (p < 0.001, ηp2 = 0.009). However, LTOPA was unrelated to the overall healthy eating index, candy intake, and the proportion of added sugar to total energy intake (p > 0.05). LTOPA was only associated with some healthy eating behaviours, and there is much room for improvement in the diets of Swedish adolescents.

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  • 140. Gallagher, P
    et al.
    Nilsson, Jonna
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Institute of Neuroscience, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK..
    Finkelmeyer, A
    Goshawk, M
    Macritchie, K A
    Lloyd, A J
    Thompson, J M
    Porter, R J
    Young, A H
    Ferrier, I N
    McAllister-Williams, R H
    Watson, S
    Neurocognitive intra-individual variability in mood disorders: effects on attentional response time distributions.2015Inngår i: Psychological Medicine, ISSN 0033-2917, E-ISSN 1469-8978, Vol. 45, nr 14, s. 2985-97Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Attentional impairment is a core cognitive feature of major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). However, little is known of the characteristics of response time (RT) distributions from attentional tasks. This is crucial to furthering our understanding of the profile and extent of cognitive intra-individual variability (IIV) in mood disorders.

    METHOD: A computerized sustained attention task was administered to 138 healthy controls and 158 patients with a mood disorder: 86 euthymic BD, 33 depressed BD and 39 medication-free MDD patients. Measures of IIV, including individual standard deviation (iSD) and coefficient of variation (CoV), were derived for each participant. Ex-Gaussian (and Vincentile) analyses were used to characterize the RT distributions into three components: mu and sigma (mean and standard deviation of the Gaussian portion of the distribution) and tau (the 'slow tail' of the distribution).

    RESULTS: Compared with healthy controls, iSD was increased significantly in all patient samples. Due to minimal changes in average RT, CoV was only increased significantly in BD depressed patients. Ex-Gaussian modelling indicated a significant increase in tau in euthymic BD [Cohen's d = 0.39, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.09-0.69, p = 0.011], and both sigma (d = 0.57, 95% CI 0.07-1.05, p = 0.025) and tau (d = 1.14, 95% CI 0.60-1.64, p < 0.0001) in depressed BD. The mu parameter did not differ from controls.

    CONCLUSIONS: Increased cognitive variability may be a core feature of mood disorders. This is the first demonstration of differences in attentional RT distribution parameters between MDD and BD, and BD depression and euthymia. These data highlight the utility of applying measures of IIV to characterize neurocognitive variability and the great potential for future application.

  • 141.
    Gallo, Federico
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden. National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia. Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy..
    Kalpouzos, Grégoria
    Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Laukka, Erika J
    Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden. Stockholm Gerontology Research Center, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wang, Rui
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden. University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, United States.
    Qiu, Chengxuan
    Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Bäckman, Lars
    Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Marseglia, Anna
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Fratiglioni, Laura
    Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden. Stockholm Gerontology Research Center, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dekhtyar, Serhiy
    Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Cognitive Trajectories and Dementia Risk: A Comparison of Two Cognitive Reserve Measures.2021Inngår i: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, ISSN 1663-4365, E-ISSN 1663-4365, Vol. 13, artikkel-id 737736Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Objectives: Cognitive reserve (CR) is meant to account for the mismatch between brain damage and cognitive decline or dementia. Generally, CR has been operationalized using proxy variables indicating exposure to enriching activities (activity-based CR). An alternative approach defines CR as residual variance in cognition, not explained by the brain status (residual-based CR). The aim of this study is to compare activity-based and residual-based CR measures in their association with cognitive trajectories and dementia. Furthermore, we seek to examine if the two measures modify the impact of brain integrity on cognitive trajectories and if they predict dementia incidence independent of brain status.

    Methods: We used data on 430 older adults aged 60+ from the Swedish National Study on Aging and Care in Kungsholmen, followed for 12 years. Residual-based reserve was computed from a regression predicting episodic memory with a brain-integrity index incorporating six structural neuroimaging markers (white-matter hyperintensities volume, whole-brain gray matter volume, hippocampal volume, lateral ventricular volume, lacunes, and perivascular spaces), age, and sex. Activity-based reserve incorporated education, work complexity, social network, and leisure activities. Cognition was assessed with a composite of perceptual speed, semantic memory, letter-, and category fluency. Dementia was clinically diagnosed in accordance with DSM-IV criteria. Linear mixed models were used for cognitive change analyses. Interactions tested if reserve measures modified the association between brain-integrity and cognitive change. Cox proportional hazard models, adjusted for brain-integrity index, assessed dementia risk.

    Results: Both reserve measures were associated with cognitive trajectories [β × time (top tertile, ref.: bottom tertile) = 0.013; 95% CI: -0.126, -0.004 (residual-based) and 0.011; 95% CI: -0.001, 0.024, (activity-based)]. Residual-based, but not activity-based reserve mitigated the impact of brain integrity on cognitive decline [β (top tertile × time × brain integrity) = -0.021; 95% CI: -0.043, 0.001] and predicted 12-year dementia incidence, after accounting for the brain-integrity status [HR (top tertile) = 0.23; 95% CI: 0.09, 0.58].

    Interpretation: The operationalization of reserve based on residual cognitive performance may represent a more direct measure of CR than an activity-based approach. Ultimately, the two models of CR serve largely different aims. Accounting for brain integrity is essential in any model of reserve.

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  • 142.
    Gerhardt, Karin
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Skelton, Alasdair ()
    Stockholms universitet.
    Hamrin, Kerstin ()
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysiologi, nutrition och biomekanik.
    Lindstam, Jacob ()
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för rörelse, kultur och samhälle.
    ten Siethoff, Lasse ()
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysiologi, nutrition och biomekanik.
    Schantz, Peter ()
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Hoy, Sara ()
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för rörelse, kultur och samhälle.
    Al Fakir, Ida ()
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för rörelse, kultur och samhälle.
    Lundquist Wanneberg, Pia ()
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för rörelse, kultur och samhälle.
    Thedin Jakobsson, Britta ()
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för rörelse, kultur och samhälle.
    Buller, Daniel ()
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för rörelse, kultur och samhälle.
    Nordin-Bates, Sanna ()
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Psilander, Niklas ()
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysiologi, nutrition och biomekanik.
    Nog nu, politiker – ta klimatkrisen på allvar: 1 944 svenska forskare och anställda i forskarvärlden: Vad är det ni inte förstår?2022Inngår i: artikkel-id 25 augustiArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 143.
    Gilson, Nicholas D
    et al.
    University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.
    Andersson, Dan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Papinczak, Zoe E
    University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.
    Rutherford, Zoe
    University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.
    John, Julie
    University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.
    Coombes, Jeff S
    University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.
    Brown, Wendy J
    University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.
    High intensity and sprint interval training, and work-related cognitive function in adults: A systematic review.2023Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 33, nr 6, s. 814-833Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To assess evidence on the impact of acute and chronic high intensity interval training (HIIT) and sprint interval training (SIT) on work-related performance tests of cognitive function in adults.

    METHODS: The databases PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, PsycINFO, Embase and the Cochrane Library were searched for relevant articles up to August 2022. Eligible studies assessed the effects of HIIT (70-100% VO2max ) and/or SIT (≥100% VO2max ) on cognitive function test scores in cognitively healthy adults, relative to a control or comparative exercise group/condition. Data on participant characteristics, exercise protocol, key outcomes and intervention setting were extracted. Study quality was assessed using a 9 (single session HIIT/SIT) and 14 (multiple session HIIT/SIT) item checklist.

    RESULTS: 36 studies (15 countries; n=11 to 945 participants) met inclusion criteria. Mean quality scores were 'fair-to-good' for acute (single session; mean=6.9 [SD 1.0]), and chronic (multiple session; mean=9.8 [SD 1.6]) training studies. Eighteen from 36 studies (12/20 [55%] acute and 6/16 [38%] chronic training studies) evidenced significant improvements in aspects of cognitive function related to work performance (i.e., attention, inhibition, memory, information processing speed, cognitive flexibility, intelligence, reaction time and learning). Only four studies tested the impact of HIIT/SIT on cognitive function in a work-based setting (e.g., the office or home).

    CONCLUSIONS: While there is promising evidence, particularly from acute training studies, to indicate that high intensity, short duration exercise benefits cognitive function in adults, there is very limited evidence of application in workplace contexts. To better understand the potential benefits to employee performance and safety, HIIT/SIT and cognitive function research needs to transition from laboratory to 'in-situ' occupational settings.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 144.
    Gimlin, Olivia
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Nordin, Emeli
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Positiv kroppsuppfattning och fysisk aktivitetsnivå hos högskolestudenter: En kvantitativ tvärsnittsstudie på två högskolor2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med uppsatsen var att undersöka fysisk aktivitetsnivå och positiv kroppsuppfattning hos högskolestudenter på Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan (GIH) samt Kungliga musikhögskolan (KMH). Tre frågeställningar har undersökts; Finns det någon skillnad i positiv kroppsuppfattning och fysisk aktivitetsnivå mellan studenter på GIH och KMH? Finnsdet någon skillnad i positiv kroppsuppfattning och fysisk aktivitetsnivå mellan kön? Finns det någon korrelationen mellan positiv kroppsuppfattning och fysisk aktivitetsnivå?

    Metod

    En kvantitativ tvärsnittsstudie genomfördes med insamling av data genom en enkät. Studien riktade sig till högskolestudenter på GIH och KMH där ålder och kön inte spelade in. Enkäten bestod av tre delar som besvarar deltagarnas nivå av positiv kroppsuppfattning, fysiska aktivitetsnivå samt bakgrundsfrågor kring ålder, kön och högskola. Data sammanställdes och analyserades i statistikprogrammet SPSS.  

    Resultat

    Resultatet baseras på 103 svar från GIH samt 55 svar från KMH. Vid undersökningen av skillnaden mellan högskolorna visade GIH ha signifikant högre nivå av både positiv kroppsuppfattning (p <0,001) och högre fysisk aktivitetsnivå (p <0,01) än KMH. Inga signifikanta skillnader konstaterades mellan kön i positiv kroppsuppfattning (p=0,267) och fysisk aktivitetsnivå (p=0,673). Ingen signifikant korrelation påvisades mellan positiv kroppsuppfattning och fysisk aktivitetsnivå (r=0,033, p=0,685).

    Slutsats

    Korrelationen mellan fysisk aktivitetsnivå och positiv kroppsuppfattning var svag. En skillnad i fysisk aktivitetsnivå samt positiv kroppsuppfattning mellan högskolorna kunde noteras bland studenterna. Studenter på GIH hade en högre fysisk aktivitetsnivå och mer positiv kroppsuppfattning jämfört med studenter på KMH. Med stöd från tidigare forskning kring fysisk aktivitet på olika högskoleutbildningar kan detta antas bero på de olika inriktningarna. Denna vetskap bidrar till möjligheter att studera vidare inom ämnet för att bidra till högre fysiska aktivitetsnivåer och en mer positiv kroppsuppfattning för en bättre folkhälsa.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 145.
    Godhe, Manne
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Pontén, Marjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysiologi, nutrition och biomekanik.
    Andersson, Eva
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Improved accelerometer assessed physical activity patterns after an eight-week exercise intervention.2021Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Godhe et al. 2021
  • 146.
    Godhe, Manne
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Pontén, Marjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysiologi, nutrition och biomekanik.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Kallings, Lena
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Andersson, Eva
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Fysiska aktivitetsmönster hos äldre vuxna före och efter en ledarledd träningsperiod - en accelerometerstudie2021Inngår i: Svensk idrottsmedicin 2021:3, Svensk förening för fysisk aktivitet och idrottsmedicin , 2021, s. 36-37Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 147.
    Godhe, Manne
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Pontén, Marjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysiologi, nutrition och biomekanik.
    Nilsson, Johnny
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysiologi, nutrition och biomekanik. Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Kallings, Lena
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Andersson, Eva
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Reliability of the accelerometer to control the effects of physical activity in older adults.2022Inngår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 17, nr 9, artikkel-id e0274442Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Reliable physical activity measurements in community-dwelling older adults are important to determine effects of targeted health promotion interventions. Many exercise interventions aim to improve time spent sedentary (SED), in light-intensity-physical-activity (LPA) and moderate-to-vigorous-intensity-physical-activity (MVPA), since these parameters have independently proposed associations with health and longevity. However, many previous studies rely on self-reports which have lower validity compared to accelerometer measured physical activity patterns. In addition, separating intervention-effects from reactivity measurements requires sufficient test-retest reliability for accelerometer assessments, which is lacking in older adults.

    OBJECTIVES: The study objective was to investigate the reliability of sensor-based PA-patterns in community-dwelling older adults. Furthermore, to investigate change over time of physical activity patterns and examine any compensatory-effect from the eight-week supervised exercise-intervention.

    METHODS: An exercise-group (n = 78, age-range:65-91yrs) performed two 1h-exercise sessions/week during eight-weeks. PA-pattern was assessed (using hip-worn accelerometers), twice before and once during the last-week of the intervention. A control-group (n = 43, age-range:65-88yrs) performed one pre-test and the end-test with no exercise-intervention. A dependent-t-test, mean-difference (95%-CI), limits-of-agreement and intraclass-correlation-coefficient-ICC were used between the two pre-tests. Repeated-measures-ANOVA were used to analyze any intervention-effects.

    RESULTS: The exercise-groups´ two pre-tests showed generally no systematic change in any PA- or SED-parameter (ICC ranged 0.75-0.90). Compared to the control group, the exercise intervention significantly (time x group-interaction, p<0.05) increased total-PA-cpm (exercise-group/control-group +17%/+7%) and MVPA-min/week (+41/-2min) and decreased %-of-wear-time for SED-total (-4.7%/-2.7%) and SED-bouts (-5.7%/-1.8%), and SED-bouts min/d (-46/-16min). At baseline level, no significant differences were found between the two groups for any parameter.

    CONCLUSIONS: The current study presents a good test-retest-reliability of sensor-based-one-week-assessed-PA-pattern in older-adults. Participating in an 8-week supervised exercise intervention improved some physical activity and sedentary parameters compared to the control group. No compensatory-effect was noted in the intervention-group i.e., no decrease in any PA-parameter or increase in SED at End-test (in %-of-wear-time, min/day or total-PA).

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 148.
    Godhe, Manne
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rönquist, Gustaf
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Nilsson, Johnny
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysiologi, nutrition och biomekanik.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Nyberg, Lillemor
    Department of Medicine and School of Health Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden..
    Edman, Gunnar
    Research and Development, Norrtälje Hospital, Tiohundra AB, Norrtälje, Sweden.; Department of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Andersson, Eva
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.; Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Reliability in Novel Field-Based Fitness Measurements and Postexercise Scores from a Physical Fitness Test Battery in Older Adults.2024Inngår i: Gerontology, ISSN 0304-324X, E-ISSN 1423-0003, Vol. 70, nr 6, s. 639-660Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Physical fitness is strongly associated with daily physical function, health, and longevity in older adults. Field-based tests may provide a reasonable alternative compared to advanced laboratory testing. Separating postexercise test scores from reactivity measurements requires sufficient test-retest reliability. Postexercise test scores with reliability analyses of field-based fitness tests in older adults are lacking. The present study aimed to examine the test-retest reliability of some novel easily accommodated fitness test measurements and compare pretest scores with postexercise results in these tests along with other field-based fitness tests in older adults.

    METHODS: Totally 1,407 community-dwelling older adults (69% female), x̄ = 71.5 ± 5.0 (65-84 years), performed twelve field-based fitness tests at pretest 1, pretest 2 and a posttest after an 8-week exercise period (twice weekly 1 h of combined strength and aerobic training). T tests, intra-class correlation, limits of agreement, standard error of measurement, and coefficient of variance were performed between pre-1 and pre-2 tests, and repeated measures ANOVA and partial eta squared effect size for postexercise differences for men and women in 5-year age groups ranging from 65 to 84 years.

    RESULTS: Between pre-1 and pre-2 tests a significant difference was noted in some of the novel fitness test measurements but generally not, e.g., in isometric trunk flexion and step-up height on either leg among all sex and age groups. In most of these novel fitness test measurements, no significant differences occurred between the two pretests. Examples of results from the pre-2 test to the posttest were isometric trunk flexion 45° endurance and isometric trunk extension endurance improved significantly for both sexes in age groups 65-74 years. Women, but not men, improved the maximal step-up height for both legs in most age groups. The speed in the 50 sit-to-stand improved significantly for most age groups in both sexes. Six-min walk distance improved significantly for most age groups in women but among men only in 65-69 years. In the timed-up-and-go test, significant improvements were seen for all age groups in women and in men 70-79 years. No postexercise improvements were generally observed for grip strength or balance.

    CONCLUSIONS: In most of the novel fitness test measures, no significant difference was noted between the two pretests in the assessed sex and age groups. Results after the 8-week exercise period varied between sex and age groups, with significant improvements in several of the twelve studied fitness tests. These findings may be valuable for future projects utilizing easily accommodated physical fitness tests in older adults.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 149.
    Granberg, Jonas
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Resistance exercise in the glycogen depleted state increases autophagy signalling2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Fulltekst tilgjengelig fra 2024-11-06 15:28
  • 150.
    Griffin, Frida
    et al.
    Institute of Medicine, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Arvidsson, Daniel
    Center for Health and Performance, Department of Food and Nutrition and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Paulsson, Sofia
    Research Department, HPI Health Profile Institute, Sweden..
    Börjesson, Mats
    Institute of Medicine, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden. ; Centre for Lifestyle Intervention, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Maintaining or increasing cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with reduced hospital admission rate.2024Inngår i: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, ISSN 2047-4873, E-ISSN 2047-4881, Vol. 31, nr 4, s. 436-444Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: To investigate the association between change in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related and all-cause hospital admission, and explore if the association varies dependent on prior admission, baseline CRF, sex, and age.

    METHODS: 91,140 adult participants (41.5% women) with two examinations from occupational health profile assessments between 1986 and 2019 were included (mean 3.2-years between examinations). CRF was assessed as maximal oxygen consumption and estimated through a submaximal cycle test. CRF change was defined as annual percentage change in relative CRF (mL*min-1*kg-1) and further divided into "decliners" (<-1%), "maintainers" (-1%; 1%), and "increasers" (>1%). Hospital admissions were followed over a mean of 7-years. Natural cubic splines and Cox's proportional hazards model were applied. Additionally, prevented fraction for the population was calculated.

    RESULTS: Increase in CRF was associated with lower risk of CVD [HR = 0.99] and all-cause hospital admission [HR = 0.99], after multilevel-adjustment for confounders and change in smoking, diet, and stress. Compared to a decline, maintenance of CRF was associated with 9% and 7% lower risk of CVD and all-cause admission, respectively. Increase in CRF reduced the risk with 13% and 11%, and for individuals with prior admission, with 20% and 14%. The burden of CVD and all-cause admission was 6% and 5% lower than if the whole cohort had declined CRF, with large potential cost-savings.

    CONCLUSIONS: Efforts to maintain or improve CRF should be included in disease preventive strategies, regardless of change in other lifestyle-related risk factors. Preventing the age-associated decline in CRF can lessen healthcare utilization and costs.

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