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  • 101.
    Meckbach, Jane
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Larsson, Håkan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Redelius, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Gender(ed) patterns in Swedísh school physical education and health: a problem of equity: PE teacher’s talk about girls and boys in Physical Education and Health in a Swedish context2010In: Making a difference / [ed] Jan Wright, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PE teacher’s talk about girls and boys in Physical Education and Health in a Swedish context

    Jane Meckbach, Håkan Larsson, Suzanne Lundvall & Karin Redelius, The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm 

    Statistics from the Swedish National Agency of Education (SNAE) reveal that Physical Education and Health (PEH) is the only subject where boys receive higher grades than girls. Previous research indicate that the subject “in practice” is constituted in a sports discourse (in contrast to the health discourse that constitutes the national curriculum for PEH) and that teaching in PEH is conducted on boys’ terms. According to the latest national evaluation of the subject, teaching in PEH is dominated by ball games and fitness training, activities that most boys and some of the girls favour. The overall aim of the symposium is to study girls' and boys' conditions in Swedish PEH. The purpose of this particular presentation is to look upon factors related to PEH teachers´ ways of reasoning about aims, teaching and assessment in the subject, and their view of equity issues.

    17 PEH teachers from schools in the region of Stockholm and Lake Mälaren were selected for interviews. The selection was based on statistics from SNAE presented in the symposium overview. There were four selection criteria: that the school had: 

    -   a high share of students (boys or girls) acquiring Passed with special distinction (the highest grade) in PEH,

    -  a high share of students that did Not pass in PEH,

    -  an equal share of girls and boys acquiring Passed with special distinction in PEH,

    -  an unequal share of boys and girls acquiring Passed with special distinction in PEH (boys or girls acquiring the highest grade).

    Our analytical framework is inspired by Pierre Bourdieu. Through the interviews we want to highlight the logic of PEH in the eyes of PEH teachers and what they assign value in the subject, and how they reason about girls and boys – and girls’ and boys’ conditions – in relation to how they describe their subject.

    The results from the interviews suggest that teachers from schools with a high share of students acquiring Passed with special distinction in PEH seem to focus a lot on learning processes and their students’ reflections about what they learn. These teachers depicted their students as ‘sporty types’. They also seem well aware about gender issues in PEH.

    Teachers from schools with a high share of students that did Not pass in PEH report that many students are frequently absent and that a lot of those who fail to pass cannot swim. Gender issues seem not to be of primary concern to these teachers, and the teachers seem to focus on keeping the students active (they are activity oriented).

    Teachers from schools with an equal share of girls and boys acquiring Passed with special distinction in PEH seem to reason about the subject and girls’ and boys’ conditions in the subject in the same way as the teachers in the first category. They seem to be aware of gender issues in the subject, they are task oriented (rather than activity oriented) and they include activities that are often left out by other teachers (e.g. creative movements).

    Teachers from schools with an unequal share of boys and girls acquiring Passed with special distinction in PEH depict their students as ‘sporty types’. They seem, however, not to reflect upon equity issues to the same extent as the teachers in the previous category.

    It must be emphasised that these findings also mirror the general social conditions of the schools in question. In effect, PEH teachers working in schools with a lot of the students having a privileged social background seem to emphasise learning processes and equity issues more than those working in schools with a lot of students with a less privileged background. In effect, gender equity issues can, paradoxically, be described as something of the icing of the cake in PEH.

    References

    Bourdieu, P. (1984) Distinction. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

    Bourdieu, P. (1990) The logic of practise. Cambridge: Polity Press

    Lundvall, S. & Meckbach, J. (2008). Mind the Gap – Physical Education and Health and the Frame Factor Theory as a Tool for Analysing Educational Settings, Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 2008:4, pp. 345– 364.

    Redelius, K., Fagrell, B. & Larsson, H. Symbolic capital in physical education and health: To be, to do or to know? That is the gendered question, Sport, Education and Society, 2009:2, pp. 245-260.

    SNAE http://www.skolverket.se/sb/d/193/url/

  • 102.
    Meckbach, Jane
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Ett ämne i rörelse: Gymnastik för kvinnor och män i lärarutbildningen vid Gymnastiska Centralinstitutet/Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan under åren 1944 till 19922003Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    For almost 200 years the University College of Physical Education and Sports in Stockholm (former Royal Central Institute of Gymnastics; GCI later GIH; Stockholm College of Physical Education and Sports) has been educating PE teachers - and still does. In the very beginning and throughout the first 100 years, gymnastics was a major part of the studies at the insti-tute, and also in ordinary schools. Early gymnastics were invented by Per Henrik Ling, the father of the Swedish Ling gymnastics, and later devel-oped by his son, Hjalmar Ling. The part of the Ling system called peda-gogical gymnastics, consisted of “daily gymnastic training exercises”, which showed how gymnastics should be taught and performed.

    The aim of this thesis is to follow and describe gymnastics as a subject and its development at the PE teacher-training programme at GCI/GIH. Special attention is placed on the movement part without apparatus (the floor exercise) for male and female students. The time period studied is 1944 to 1992. The thesis consists of two separate empirical studies, with a shared interview study of 12 former teacher educators participating in both studies. Besides the above-mentioned interviews, the methods used are document analyses and visual analyses. Triangulation is used in order to follow the changes of the subject’s content, figuration and representation.

    The first empirical study investigates the institution of gymnastics’- col-lective memory, its content and legitimacy. This is done by looking at what time was allotted to the subject in relation to other subjects, and also which concepts were used in relation to floor exercise. The interviews deal with the objectives of the subject and what kind of influences the former teacher educators came in contact with. From a semiotic approach, the second study deals with visual analyses of film sequences, with floor exercises performed by male and female students. (See enclosed CD). The film material comes from the Institute’s events. The content and composition of the film se-quences are analysed, and the representation of the movements is inter-preted by semiotic discourse analyses. The interview study deals with the former teacher educators’ pedagogical view of the formation of the gymnastics.

    The results show that in 1944 the subject gymnastics took approximately 40% of the total study time. In 1992 the time allocated for gymnastics has been reduced to approximately 9%. From the 1940s to the 1970s, two separate gymnastics discourses existed, one male and one female, expressed in the movement content and in the figuration of movements. The male discourse was maintained almost intact, without any changes. The female discourse, on the other hand, was continually changed and developed over the actual period of time, strongly influenced by rhythmic and dance. When co-education was implemented in the late 1970s, a new culture of body movements was developed – which was unisex. Between 1949 and1970 in the film material, the masculine discourse was represented by the body image of a systematically trained and disciplined body, executing corrective gymnastics exercises, according to an instrumental way of looking at physical training. The smooth, healthy looking young body image of a woman, executing rhythmical aesthetical gymnastics, according to existing values, characterised the feminine discourse. There seems to have been aesthetics fostering rationality that ruled the female gymnastics. In 1985 the representation of the body image changed, and focus on the performance of the movements disappeared. The objectives of the subject have changed from the collective, corrective and/or aesthetical form of gymnastics to a gymnastic discourse where the attention of simplifying the movements, the individual and the social climate in the group are central.

    Finally, the findings show that four factors have influenced the changes and development of the subject and the teacher-training programme. Firstly, changes in society in terms of equality, gender roles and a changed role of the PE teacher. Secondly, the impact of the sport discourse outweighed the status of the gymnastics discourse and its legitimacy. The cultivating val-ues, in terms of the aesthetical schooling for the female students, disap-peared. Thirdly, the striving for research-related instructions in the teacher-training programme, (urged by the state from 1977) affected both time al-lotments for gymnastics and sports and the relation between theoretical and practical courses. Finally, over the years, the subject gymnastics has been strongly influenced by different scientific discourses: first the medical dis-course, followed by the physiological discourse and from the1980s and on, by the social scientific (pedagogical) discourse.

  • 103.
    Meckbach, Jane
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Flickor och fysisk aktivitet: Bilder av flickors och deras föräldrars skattning av fysisk aktivitet och inställning till idrott och hälsa2008In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 12-16Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vad vet vi om flickor och upplevelse av sin egen fysiska aktivitet och inställning till ämnet idrott och hälsa? Med denna artikel är vår intention att med hjälp av kvantitativa data på ett kvalitativt sätt diskuterar resultaten från SIH 2002 studien där inaktiva flickor och deras föräldrar är i fokus.

  • 104.
    Meckbach, Jane
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Från frisk- och sjukgymnast till lärare i idrott och hälsa2013In: I takt med tiden?: Perspektiv på idrottslärarutbildning i Skandinavien / [ed] Erik Backman & Lena Larsson, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2013, 1:1, p. 31-48Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 105.
    Meckbach, Jane
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Idrottsdidaktik - konsten att undervisa i idrott2007In: Idrottsdidaktiska utmaningar, Stockholm: Liber , 2007, p. 17-35Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kapitlet ger en introduktion till begreppen didaktik och ämnesdidaktik samt belyser idrottsdidaktisk forskning relaterad till skolans kroppsövningsämne över tid. Kapitlet inleds med de förväntningar och krav på legitimitet som omgärdar ämnet idrott och hälsa. Fokus finns på hur forskning och yrkespraktik möts och hur de interagerar - eller om inte alls.

  • 106.
    Meckbach, Jane
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Idrottsdidaktik - konsten att undervisa idrott2012In: Idrottsdidaktiska utmaningar / [ed] Larsson, H. & Meckbach, J, Stockholm: Liber, 2012, 2, p. 17-35Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 107.
    Meckbach, Jane
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Pedagogical implications: Students and physical activity2013In: Physical Education and Sport: Promoting Gender Equality, 2013, p. 10-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    In Sweden young people take part in school physical education and health (PEH) , club sport and physical activity  if they feel that they acquire skills, feel fit, and experience sport and physical activity as fun. Physical education and health is popular but in Sweden there is a higher percentage of non-participation among physically inactive students and specially girls. To be noted is that PEH is the only subject in the Swedish compulsory school where girls are awarded lower grades compared to boys. The subject has been dominated by masculine and heterosexual ideals, both in Sweden as in other countries (Larsson et al. 2010; Gard, 2006, Flinthoff and Scraton, 2006). PEH represents a site for exploring negotiations of gender and physicality.

     

    Purpose

    The aim of this study is to highlight the latest school reform in physical education and health in Sweden from 2011 and possible implications for inactive girls and boys. Our departure point is literature about inactive students and their attitudes towards physical education and health and physical activity. Theoretical framework draws on curriculum studies and Bernstein´s (2003) concepts of classification and frames.

     

    Findings

    Taking the new curricula as a departure point a stronger classification and framing of the subject in terms of principles of power and control may render new and different forms of educational settings and communication of valid knowledge. The new steering document can give physical inactive and active students opportunities to find individual and differentiated problem solving learning tasks increasing the meaning making in PEH.

  • 108.
    Meckbach, Jane
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Seger, Jan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    2nd World Summit on Physical Education: Magglingen 2005 värnade idrottsämnets roll som hälso- och kulturbärare2006In: Idrott & Hälsa, ISSN 0281-5338, Vol. 133, no 2, p. 24-25Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    År 1999 anordnades en konferens i Berlin, First World Summit, med syfte att öka insikten om de positiva effekterna av idrottsundervisning. Konferensen syftade även till att öka kunskapen hos politiker, media, och allmänhet om idrottsämnets svåra situation runt om i världen. Befintlig forskning inom området presenterades och mötet gav utrymme till att stärka nätverk och koordinera planer för aktioner.

    Arrangören för denna konferens var International Council of Sport Scienceand Physical Education (ICSSPE), med säte i Berlin. Organisationen har ca 250 medlemsorganisationer runt om i världen, statliga och icke statliga(Non governmental, NGO) intressenter inom områdena idrott och hälsa och vetenskap. Organisationen stöds av UNESCO. I korthet kom representanter från ett 80-tal länder överens om följande uttalande:

    Idrottsundervisning är en rättighet för alla barn och en grundläggande´komponent i deras utveckling och utbildning.

    Strategier och aktioner behövs för att säkerställa att en kvalitativ idrottsundervisning genomförs och stöds över hela världen.

    Konferensen föreslog även att FN skulle utlysa ett ”International Year of Sport and Physical Education”, vilket också genomfördes 2005.

    I slutet av förra året anordnade ICPSSE ett andra möte i Magglingen, Schweiz i syfte att följa upp vad som hänt med idrottsämnets status och analysera eventuella förändringar.

    I Ken Hardmans och Joseph Marshalls genomgång gavs dystra besked, liten förändring hade ägt rum i jämförelse med den tidigare undersökningen(Worldwide Survey of PE). En något annan bild framträdde i Uwe Pühses och Markus Gerbers studie, vilken var av mer kvalitativ karaktär. I deras studie presenterades bland annat behovet av att ta fram kvalitetskriterier för personlig och social utveckling inom idrottsämnet. I ett slutanförande ”Making the political case for physical education” betonade Professor Margaret Talbot vikten av effektiva strategier för att kunna säkerställa och vidareutveckla idrottsundervisningen som en viktig del av utbildning i allmänhet.

    Mötet utmynnade i en allmän deklaration, som bland annat innefattar en uppmaning till regeringar att följa de mål som fastställts under ”International Year of Sport and Physical Education” och som understryker idrottsämnets unika roll inom kultur, hälsa och utveckling.

    Mötesdeltagarna uppmanades att arbeta för att:

    Implementera de aktionsförslag som beslutades 1999.

    Det angelägna behovet av en översyn och en förbättring av utbildning och fortbildning av idrottslärare synliggörs.

    Etablera och/eller stärka nationella, regionala och lokala nätverk i syfte att sprida praktiska råd om undervisning byggda på mångvetenskaplig forskning och beprövad erfarenhet.

    Utveckla samarbetsformer med regeringsorgan och andra beslutsfattare för att främja idrottsundervisning och skolidrott för barn; dess bidrag till hälsa, livslångt deltagande i idrott, dans och fysisk aktivitet, och dess värde för de utbildnings- och sociala system inom vilka de lever och verkar. ICSSPE åtar sig att, på internationell bas, verka för fortsatt forskning inom området, samt spridning av ”god praktik” och framtagandet av ett argumentationsmaterial för främjande av idrottsundervisning. Vidare avser organisationen att utveckla internationella kvalitetskriterier för idrottsundervisning i skolan.

  • 109.
    Meckbach, Jane
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Söderström (Lundvall), Suzanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    A picture says more than 1000 words: A study of self-portraits drawn in a gymnasium by intermediate school children2002In: Mädchen und Jungen im Sportunterricht: Beiträge zum geschlechtssensiblen Unterrichten / [ed] Kugelmann & Zipprich, Deutsche Vereinigung für Sportwissenschaft e. V.: Czwalina , 2002, p. 37-46Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [de]

    Das Ziel dieser Studie war, aus einer Geschlechts-/Genusperspektive zu analysieren, wie sich 11-12-jährige selbst in einem Sportmilieu zeichnen. Von insgesamt 190 Zeichnungen wurden wahllos 48 Bilder (24 Jungen und 24 Mädchen) ausgewählt. Der theoretische Rahmen besteht aus einem Durchgang und Analyse von Chodorows Objektsrelationstheorie und Gilligans Theorie für Moralentwicklung. Das Selbstporträt wurde auf seinen Inhalt analysiert und kategorisiert in: i)Typ von Aktivität, ii) Anzahl Personen auf der Zeichnung, iii) Zusammenarbeit mit anderen, iv) Ausdruck (Mienenspiel) und v) Gesamteindruck. Unsere Studie ergab folgendes Resultat - die Jungen neigten dazu sich selbst als stark, mutig, leistungsfähig (12 von 24 Zeichnungen) darzustellen, während die Mädchen dazu neigten sich selbst in verschiedenen Aktivitäten zu zeichnen, ohne die Leistung als solche zu betonen. Kein Mädchen zeichnete sich selbst als mutig oder aggressiv.

    Die Studie wurde durchgeführt, um unsere Kenntnisse über die Vorstellung der Schüler über sich selbst in einem Sportmilieu zu erweitern. Man kann das Resultat so deuten, dass Jungen und Mädchen verschiedene Erwartungen haben, was sie mit ihrem Körper ausdrücken wollen. Welche sozialen und kulturellen Konstruktionen sollen beibehalten werden? Auf welche Weise soll der Sportlehrer zu einer Veränderung von Einstellungen und Vorstellungen beitragen?

  • 110.
    Meckbach, Jane
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Söderström (Lundvall), Suzanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Att studera en utvecklingsprocess av ett ämnesinnehåll2000In: Idrottsforskaren, ISSN 0348-9787, no 2, p. 32-34Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 111.
    Meckbach, Jane
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Söderström (Lundvall), Suzanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Den oformulerade didaktiken - idrott och hälsa som skolämne: Idrott och hälsa som skolämne2002In: Skolämne i kris? / [ed] Björn Falkevall och Staffan Selander, Stockholm: HLS förlag , 2002, Vol. 10, p. 57-73Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kroppsövningsämnet har sedan ämnet infördes i den svenska folkskolan 1864, bytt namn totalt fem gånger. Skolämnet kom att etableras först under tidigt 1900-tal. I dans­litteratur omnämns tidsepoken som rörelsernas tid, med rörelseflöde och naturlig skönhet som cent­rala begrepp. Till detta kopplades hälsa och naturlighet, ledord för den nya mo­der­na män­niskan. Dansforskaren Cecilia Ohlsson konstaterar att i modernitetens spår följ­de inte bara ny teknologi, nya maskinparker och ny arkitektur, utan även nya kropps­tekni­ker som t.ex. nya sätt att gå, sitta och springa. Nyckelbegrepp som under olika tidsepoker har använts och delvis fortfarande används för skolämnet är begrepp som fostran, håll­ning, allsidig kropps­utveckling, lek och självbehärskning, fritt skapande, hälsa och välbe­finnande samt strävan att utveckla en ”positiv självbild” med idrottens hjälp.

    Inom skolämnet kan man dock se en viss förskjutning, från det tidiga 1900-talets fokuse­ring på de rent kroppsliga förutsättningarna för hälsa och välbefinnande, till slutet av 1900-talets syn på ämnets möjligheter att främja den psykiska och sociala hälsan.  Målet ”själslig och kroppslig hälsa” må ha stått sig sedan Per Henrik Ling grundade den svenska  gymnastiken, men formen för hur dessa mål ska nås är mer oklar idag.

     

    Vår artikel kommer att handla om kroppsövningsämnets didaktik och de val och icke-val som formar ämnets innehåll, en beslutsprocess som tycks ske med eller utan stöd i de styr­­­­dokument som finns. Hur främjas de övergripande målen bäst och hur kan vi utvär­dera om målen nås? Kan dessa mål mätas i antalet glada elever som upplever rörelse­glädje, i fysiska testresultat, i goda idrottsprestationer, i antalet medlemmar i idrottsfö­reningar eller i antalet personer som äger tält eller annan friluftslivsutrustning. Frågan kan kännas en aning tillspetsad, men blir en slags realitet då resultatet och kvaliteten av ett visst kunskapsinhämtande ska bedömas och relateras till andra ämnen och till givet tidsutrymme.

    [1] Olsson, Cecilia (2000) ”Rörelsens kön, Kvinnligt och manligt i scendansen vid tre sekelskiften” I Göransson, Anita (red) Sekelskiften och kön.. Strukturella och kulturella övergångar år 1800, 1900, 2000. Stockholm: Prisma.

  • 112.
    Meckbach, Jane
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Söderström (Lundvall), Suzanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Estetik och kroppsrörelse2002In: Pedagogiska perspektiv på idrott, Stockholm: HLS förlag , 2002, p. 258-269Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi vill påstå att det i kroppsövningskulturen finns ett delvis outtalat estetiskt perspektiv, ett upplevelseperspektiv, en förnimmelsekunskap, där känslan av och för rörelseutövandet kan forma en estetisk helhet. Redan Per Henrik Ling, den svenska gymnastikens fader, talade om den estetiska dimensionen av kroppsrörelser. Vad är då estetik? Estetik som begrepp står bl.a. för uppfattningar och förhållningssätt rörande utseenden och uttryck i dans, konst, natur och vardagliga miljöer. Estetiken sägs också stå för läran om det sköna och dess modifikationer, dvs. det sublima, det komiska, det tragiska. Enligt Antikens sätt att se på smakuppfattning var den på det hela taget objektivistisk i den meningen att man tänkte sig att det sköna var oberoende av människors vilja och betraktande.

    Vårt motiv till att lyfta fram den estetiska dimensionen i detta kapitel är tvåfaldigt, dels finns ett rent rörelsemässigt intresse i att studera estetiken dels finns strömningar i samhället som åter igen börjar aktualisera den estetiska kunskapen.En kunskap som kan uppfattas som motpol till den kunskap som förvärvas genom tanke och förnuft (den rationella kunskapen).Det estetiska förhållningssättet karakteriseras av ett egenvärde, att det vi förnimmer är viktigt för sin egen skull, dvs. att det berikar vårt inre och det ger oss känslomässiga upplevelser. Estetisk verksamhet är exempel på icke verbal kommunikation, vilken kan bidra till vår sammantagna förmåga till kommunikation och interaktion och detta är ett angeläget kunskapsområde för lärarutbildning, menar kommittén. Viktigt i bemärkelsen att kunskapsområdet skall ge förutsättningar för det nya läraruppdraget; utbildningen av våra nya medborgare. Estetiken verkar ha ett uppdrag att fylla!

  • 113.
    Meckbach, Jane
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Söderström (Lundvall), Suzanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Idrott och hälsa2001In: Idrottsforskaren : informationsorgan för SVEBI, Svensk förening för beteendevetenskaplig idrottsforskning, ISSN 0348-9787Article, review/survey (Other academic)
  • 114.
    Meckbach, Jane
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Söderström (Lundvall), Suzanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Kärt barn har många namn - idrott och hälsa i skolan2002In: Pedagogiska perspektiv på idrott, Stockholm: HLS förlag , 2002, p. 209-239Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I riksdagsdebatterna om ämnet idrott och hälsa under åren 1991-94, handlade de flesta motionerna om det viktiga i att förebygga arbetsskador. Andra argument som lyftes fram var dels den fysiska aktivitetens betydelse för att utveckla intellektet (att god fysisk förmåga ökar den intellektuella kapaciteten i andra ämnen) dels vikten av hälsokunskap. Hälsoaspekterna på ämnet vilade på argument om att dessa kunskaper är centrala för att bland annat minska välfärdssjukdomarna. I en sammanställning av riksdagsledamöternas motiv för ämnet idrott och hälsa framkommer att endast fem av de totalt 51 motionerna handlade om att ämnet ger förutsättningar för motorisk utveckling. Få motioner poängterar skolämnets möjligheter att stimulera barns och ungdomars sociala utveckling. Ingen motion handlade om ämnets egenvärde, det vill säga att utövandet i sig är viktigt.

    Detta kapitel får ses som ett bidrag till att ge läsaren en orientering om ett skolämne som funnits med i den svenska skolan sedan mitten av 1800-talet. Syftet med texten är att ge en beskrivning av kroppsövningsämnets centrala delar och hur ämnet har förändrats, bland annat med hjälp av den idrottspedagogiska forskningen. Därtill vill vi lyfta fram ett antal didaktiska frågeställningar, där en angelägen fråga är den innehållsliga delen som på sikt kommer att avgöra åt vilket håll ämnet är på väg.

  • 115.
    Meckbach, Jane
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Söderström (Lundvall), Suzanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Nyberg, Marie
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Frykman Järlefeldt, Margareta
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Hägglöf, Caroline
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Wedin, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Börja Dansa: Idrotteket nr 92001Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 116.
    Meckbach, Jane
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Söderström (Lundvall), Suzanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Wedin, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Didaktik i rytmik, rörelse och dans: Idrotteket nr 82001Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 117.
    Meckbach, Jane
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Söderstöm (Lundvall), Suzanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Från Ling till trender2001In: Tema Forskning, ISSN 1104-3105, Vol. 2000/2001, p. 42-43Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 118.
    Mikaels, Jonas
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Backman, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    In and out of place: exploring the discursive effects of teachers' talk about outdoor education in secondary schools in New Zealand2016In: Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Learning, ISSN 1472-9679, E-ISSN 1754-0402, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 91-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article is to explore and problematise teachers’ talk about outdooreducation in New Zealand. The focus is on what can be said, how it is said and thediscursive effects of such ways of speaking. The inquiry draws on Foucauldiantheoretical insights to analyse interview transcripts derived from semi-structured interviewswith eight outdoor education teachers who work at secondary schools in NewZealand. Findings suggest that different discourses co-exist and are intertwined in theparticipants’ talk. Associated with a dominating discourse of adventure are subdiscoursesof risk and safety, pursuit-based activities, skill and assessment. Connected to adiscourse of learning are subdiscourses of environment, sustainability and socialcritique. Resistance towards a dominating discourse of adventure with pursuit-basedactivities can be traced in a discourse of learning in the form of a more placeresponsivepedagogy.

  • 119.
    Mikaels, Jonas
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Mygind, Erik
    University of Copenhagen.
    Dettweiler, Ulrich
    University of Stavanger.
    Outdoor and environmental education research – a critical exploration into ontology, epistemology, methodology and methods: Book of Abstract : PhD Summer School in Outdoor Studies 2017 Stockholm, Sweden, May 2-62017Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The PhD Summer School aims to bring together PhD students, and some of their supervisors, from various disciplines in the field of outdoor studies. This includes education (both teaching and learning), environmental education, learning outside the classroom, udeskole, leisure and recreation. The seminar aims to build on the social, cultural and critical dimensions of research and theorising in diverse outdoor practices.

    This year’s seminar builds upon previous PhD summer schools, hosted by Copenhagen University in partnership with University of Edinburgh in 2015, and Technische Universität München in 2016. The focus will be to share and explore the diversity of outdoor and environmental education research going on amongst the participating PhD students and supervisors.

  • 120.
    Nilsson Gangnebien (Meckbach), Jane
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Söderström (Lundvall), Suzanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Active Living Through Quality Physical Education1998In: Tidskrift i Gymnastik & Idrott, ISSN 1653-1124, Vol. 125, no 8, p. 14-19Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 121.
    Nilsson Gangnebien (Meckbach), Jane
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Söderström (Lundvall), Suzanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    En bild säger mer än 1000 ord1999In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 4-7Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vad vet vi som arbetar inom idrottsområdet om flickors och pojkars föreställningar om sin kropp och dess möjligheter? Troligtvis alldeles för lite. I ett försök att öka vår kunskap inom detta område genomförde vi under våren 1995 en studie av ett antal mellanstadiebarns bilder av sig själva. Syftet med studien var att utifrån en teoretisk referensram analysera hur 11-12-åringar tecknar sig själva i en idrottsmiljö. Den teoretiska referensramen består av en genomgång och analys av Chodorows objekt-relationsteori och Gilligans moralutvecklings teori samt en beskrivning av hur olika forskare sökt tillämpa och i viss mån kritiserat dessa teorier

     

     

  • 122.
    Nilsson Gangnebien (Meckbach), Jane
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Söderström (Lundvall), Suzanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Talade bilder: Analys av elevers bilder i en idrottssituation sett ur ett genusperspektiv1996In: Tidskrift i Gymnastik & Idrott, ISSN 0281-5338, Vol. 123, no 7, p. 30-37Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 123.
    Nilsson Gangnebien (Meckbach), Jane
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Söderström, Suzanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Att lära sig dansa - eller - att lära sig en dans1999In: Tidskrift i Gymnastik & Idrott, ISSN 0281-5338, Vol. 126, no 4, p. 14-19Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 124.
    Redelius, Karin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Larsson, Lena
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Larsson, Håkan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Physical education teacher education in Sweden2019In: European physical education teacher education practices: initial, induction, and professional development / [ed] Ann MacPhail, Deborah Tannehill, Zuleyha Avsar, Meyer & Meyer Sport, 2019, p. 379-396Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 125.
    Schantz, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Changing Perspectives on Physical Education in Sweden: Implementing Dimensions of Public Health and Sustainable Development2014In: Physical Education and Health: Global Perspectives and Best Practice / [ed] Christopher Edginton, Ming-Kai Chin, Urbana, Illinois, USA: Sagamore Publishing, 2014, 1, p. 463-475Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Health was introduced as part of physical education (PE) in Sweden in 1994. This chapter focuses on both transformational processes and the lack thereof in PE and in physical education teacher education (PETE) in Sweden with the introduction of "health." Prior to that PE focused entirely on different bodily movements for about 170 years, and the demanded changeover has been markedly lagging. At the same time, scientific development within the field of physical activity and health has been strong during the past two decades. Presently, the PETE at The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH in Stockholm, Sweden, is undergoing changes with the aim of creating a merger of perspectives from old, mainly sports-oriented, traditions in PE with newer individual and population health-related perspectives to a wider perspective of physical activity. These new perspectives are framed within diverse dimensions of the environment: for example, how the physical environment affects levels of physical activity and well-being and the need for sustainable development. The rationale for the latter perspective is that the contexts of bodily movement can affect the environment both positively and negatively and are thereby closely linked to both individual and public health. The transformational process described is still in an early state, and clearly future developmental steps are needed, some of which are described in the final section.

  • 126.
    Thedin Jakobsson, Britta
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Brun Sundblad, Gunilla
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Redelius, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    In- and outflow in club sport: A longitudinal study among Swedish youth aged 10-19 years2014Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 127.
    Thedin Jakobsson, Britta
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    A Disrupted Landscape for Participating in Youth Club Sport and PE in Sweden2018In: Physical Education and Sport help build a Healthy Society, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Societal and technological changes have an impact on habits related to youth sport and leisure time. The internet-based character of leisure time has created new practices. Young people have to navigate within a disrupted landscape of time, place and space. The aim of this study is to explore views of leisure time, sport activities and PE participation among students aged 15. The results will be discussed from a critical sociocultural perspective with focus on how culture, structure and agency intersect. The findings will also be discussed in relation to a similar study conducted in 2007.

    The project is a follow-up, cross-sectional study based on a longitudinal research project named School – Sport – Health, initiated in 2001. Eight semi-structured focus group interviews were conducted in 2016 (30 boys, 18 girls), based on a strategic sample of four schools that participated in 2001. Two of the schools reported high levels of physical activity among the students, and two schools reported low levels of physical activity. An inductive qualitative content analysis guided the procedure for analyzing the empirical material.

    The results show that school and friends are central to the way students handle leisure time involving physical activities. The students strive to be independent, to experience development and belonging, all of which challenge the way organized sports are planned. For a number of students, club sports are still a dominant part of their leisure time, however not uncontested. Internet-based activities allow flexibility, where one can choose to interact across time, place and space, as well as across gender and age. The value of school PE is highlighted in terms of health and wellbeing. The results indicate tension between physical activities in a school setting and leisure time physical activities. Content and quality are related to experienced agency and structure. Schoolwork, experienced lack of time and development, play a more central role in students’ experiences of everyday life physical activities in 2016 compared to results from 2007.

  • 128.
    Thedin Jakobsson, Britta
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    A disrupted landscape for participating in youth club sport: A study of changes in sport and leisure time activities2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Several societal and technological changes have affected youth sport and leisure time habits. The netification of leisure time has created new practices and young people have to navigate within a disrupted landscape of time, place and space.

    The overall aim of the study is to explore 15 year old students’ view on leisure time and sport activities. The results will be discussed from a critical sociocultural perspective with a focus on how culture, structure and agency intersect. The  indings will be compared to a similar study conducted in 2007.

    Methods

    The study is a follow-up, cross sectional study based on a longitudinal research project named School – Sport – Health, starting in 2001. Eight semi structured focus group interviews were conducted in 2016 (30 boys, 18 girls), based on a strategic sample of four schools that participated in 2001. An inductive qualitative content analysis guided the analyzing procedure of the empirical material.

    Results

    The findings show that school and friends frame what leisure time can be and are central departure points for how to act and handle leisure time activities. Lack of time interferes with the participation in organized club sport. The adolescents drive to become independent, to experience development and belonging challenge the way organized sport is figurate. Netbased activities represent flexibility, where one can choose to interact across time, place and space, as well as across gender and age. Club sport is still, for a number of students a dominant part of their leisure time, but not uncontested.

    Conclusions

    The findings indicate a new tension around leisure time content and quality related to practice, agency and structure. Furthermore school work and the feeling of lack of time and development, play a more central role in the teenagers’ everyday life year 2016 compared to the results from 2007.

  • 129.
    Thedin Jakobsson, Britta
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Redelius, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Reasons to stay: A study of 19 year old Swedish club sport participants2014In: Sport Science Review, ISSN 2069-7244, Vol. 23, no 5-6, p. 205-224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A vital part of many teenagers’ lives is participation in club sports. Despite this, many adolescents drop out of club sports. Since physical inactivity is increasing among young people, this is of great political concern. One aim of this study is to explore why young people in their late teens continue to participate in organized club sports. Another aim is to examine the perceived levels and intensity of physical activity among participants and non-participants (n = 377). The results show that primary reasons to continue participating in club sports are having fun and the sense of enjoyment, the sense of belonging, and the sense of improving sport skills. Of lesser importance, however, is the desire to compete. A large amount of club sports participants (74%) report that they are regularly physically active in an intense form of exercise compared to a significantly smaller amount (12%) of non-participants. The findings are discussed in relation to Aaron Antonovsky’s salutogenic approach and his concepts of sense of coherence (SOC).

  • 130.
    Thedin Jakobsson, Britta
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Redelius, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Engström, Lars-Magnus
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Almost All Start But Who Continue?: A Longitudinal Study of Youth Participation in Swedish Club Sports2012In: European Physical Education Review, ISSN 1356-336X, E-ISSN 1741-2749, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 3-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many young people in Sweden stop participating in club sports during their teens but some continue. Drawing on a longitudinal study, the aim of this article is to highlight some of the characteristics of teenagers who continue with club sports and to discuss the relation between club-sport participation, and social and cultural conditions with the help of Bourdieu’s theoretical framework. This is done by studying the characteristics of teenagers who do club sports at thirteen and sixteen years of age and comparing them with non-participants at the age of sixteen. In focus, are girls and boys (n = 289) who participated in both 2004 and 2007 by answering self-reported questionnaires on sporting activity in their leisure time, their academic success, and the social position of their families. The conclusion is that young people who possess specific dispositions and certain assets in terms of a habitus with a taste for sport and a cultural capital remain more often in club sports.

  • 131.
    Thedin Jakobsson, Britta
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Sundblad, Gunilla Brun
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Redelius, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Participation patterns in Swedish youth sport.: A longitudinal study of participants aged 10-19 years.2018In: Swedish Journal of Sport Research, ISSN 2001-6018, E-ISSN 2001-9475, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 25-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden almost everyone participate in youth sport at one time or another. In recent years, however, overall participation rates have declined and many stop early. The aspiration of the sport confederation as well as the Swedish state is that young people should stay longer in sport which raises questions about participation patterns during adolescence, the ease of joining a sport club, and the barriers to remaining a participant. Drawing on a nine-year longitudinal study, this article reports on the participation patterns among a group of 241 youth that were followed from 10 to 19 years. They took part in four surveys (when they were 10, 13, 16 and 19 years of age). The results show a clear polarisation, one fourth did not take part at all or had only participated for a short time, one fourth participated all the time from the age of 10 to 19. Few started after the age of 10. The pathways for those continuing were characterised by diversification and not specialisation.

  • 132.
    Tidén, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Redelius, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Movement Assessment Tools: A Critical Examination2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    In contemporary society there are calls to increase young people’s physical activity. In the wake of this concern we find a growing interest in studying and assessing children’s and adolescents’ movement abilities. Consequently, there are a number of tools developed for assessing children’s movement abilities. However, many scholars have suggested that ability is far from a neutral concept and the notion of ability is often taken for granted as simply a measureable and observable capacity. The aim with this study is to critically examine assessment tools used for healthy and typically developed children. (Evans, 2004; Hay & Macdonald, 2013; Wright & Burrows, 2006).

    Methods

    The examination comprises ten tools from six different countries. In the study we pay special attention to selected movement tasks in the tools and the evaluation methods. The theoretical framework is inspired by Bourdieu’s concepts of habitus and capital, (Bourdieu, 1988) which are used as analytical tools. The analysis explores and discusses what kind of movement ability the tools may construct.

    Results

    The findings show both a great variation of concepts and evaluation methods and a narrow view of what is regarded as valuable to assess. The assessment tools are strongly related to traditional sports and represent a specific form of physical capital. Rhythm and dance, for example, are never or seldom assessed, neither movements in a broader perspective as open skills or movement tasks taking place in an outdoor environment. The examined tools and tests assess a limited number of decontextualised movements and produce a narrow view of movement ability.

    Discussion

    The study gives an overview of what kind of movements and abilities that is valued and promoted in movement assessment. Evaluation processes often promotes a child who is physically mature and benefits those who have experience of traditional sports. In other words, the assessed ‘taste for sport’ and the ‘embodied physical capital’ construct what is considered to be legitimate knowledge in relation to movement culture. Accordingly, the construction of movement ability through assessment tools could affect how children see themselves and their ‘ability’. The results raises questions about how the assessments influence children’s desire to move or their interest for physical activity in broader perspectives.

    References

    Bourdieu, P. (1988). Program for Sociology of Sport. Sociology of Sport Journal, 5, 153-161.

    Evans, J. (2004). Making a difference? Education and ‘ability’ in physical education. European Physical Education Review, 10, 95-108.

    Hay, P.J., & Macdonald, D. (2013). Evidence for the social construction of ability in physical education. Sport Education and Society, 15, 1-18.

    Wright, J. & Burrows, L. (2006). Re-conceiving ability in physical education: a social analysis. Sport Education and Society, 11, 275-291.

  • 133.
    Tidén, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Redelius, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    The social construction of ability in movement assessment tools2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    THE SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION OF ABILITY IN MOVEMENT ASSESSMENT TOOLS

    Anna Tidén

    Karin Redelius

    Suzanne Lundvall

    The Swedish School of Sport and Health Studies, Stockholm, Sweden (GIH)

    The notion of ability is often taken for granted as simply a measureable and observable capacity. Consequently, there is a number of assessment tools developed for evaluation children’s movement abilities. However, many scholars have suggested that ability is far from a neutral concept. The aim with this study is to investigate how ability is conceptualized and socially configured in a number of movement tests. Questions of particular interest are: What are the purposes of the tests? What kinds of evaluation methods are used and what movement ‘abilities’ are valued? Different assessment tools used in research and education have been examined regarding purpose, content, and assessment orientation. The tests have been analyzed from a sociocultural perspective and Bernstein’s models of pedagogies and Bourdieu’s concept of physical capital have been used. Preliminary findings indicate that the kind of abilities or physical capital that renders high scores on many tests is integral to traditional sports. Rhythm and dance, for example, are never or seldom assessed, neither movements in a broader perspective. The construction of ability in the tests seems to be related to Bernstein’s hierarchical model of pedagogy, performance codes, rather than to competence codes which relates to a more holistic perspective on human movement. The study gives a picture about what kind of movements and abilities that is valued in movement assessment. It raises question about which child benefits from the testing and which child does not. How will the testing influence children’s desire to move or their interest for physical activity in a broader perspective?

    References

    Burton, A. W., & Miller, D. E. (1998). Movement Skill Assessment. Champaign. IL: Human Kinetics.

    Bernstein, B. (1990). The Structuring of Pedagogic Discourse. London: Routledge.

    Bourdieu, P. (1988). Program for Sociology of Sport. Sociology of Sport Journal.5, 153-161.

    Evans, J. (2004). Making a difference? Education and ‘ability’ in physical education. European Physical Education Review, 10, 95-108.

    Evans, J., & Penney, D. (2008). Levels on the playing field: The social construction of physical ‘ability’ in physical education curriculum. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 13(1), 31-47.

    Hay, P.J., & Macdonald, D. (2013). Evidence for the social construction of ability in physical education. Sport Education and Society, 15(1), 1-18.

    Wright, J. & Burrows, L. (2006). Re-conceiving ability in physical education: a social analysis. Sport Education and Society, 11(3), 275-291.

    Anna Tidén – anna.tiden@gih.se

  • 134.
    Tidén, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Redelius, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    The social construction of ability in movment assessment tools.2017In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243, Vol. 22, no 6, p. 697-709Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on how 'ability' is conceptualised, configured and produced in movement assessment tools. The aim of the study was to critically analyse assessment tools used for healthy and typically developed children. The sample consists of 10 tools from 6 different countries. In the study, we pay special attention to content and evaluation methods. The theoretical analysis explores and discusses what kind of movement ability the tools construct. The theoretical framework is inspired by Bourdieu's concepts of habitus, capital and field which are used as analytical tools to explore how the testing processes and content shape what is regarded as ability. Our findings show both a great variation of concepts and evaluation methods and a narrow view of what is regarded as valuable to assess. The assessed movements are strongly related to traditional sports and construct a specific form of physical capital. None of the tasks assessed take place in natural outdoor environments. Open skills, rhythmical movements to music or tasks including a wider range of flexibility are also absent in the assessment tools. The explored tools and tests assess a limited number of decontextualised movements and produce a narrow view of 'ability'. Hence, the testing process itself often promotes a child who is physically mature and benefits those who have experience of traditional sports. In other words, the assessed 'taste for sport' and the 'embodied physical capital' construct what is considered to be legitimate knowledge in relation to movement and physical culture. Accordingly, the social construction of movement ability through assessment tools is far from a neutral concept and could affect how children see themselves and their 'ability'.

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