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  • 101.
    Andersson, Eva
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Oddsson, Kristjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Skador, sjukdomslära samt akut omhändertagande2018In: Idrottens träning, Stockholm: SISU idrottsböcker , 2018, p. 153-181Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Ambitionen med detta kapitel är att på ett enkelt, sakligt och inspirerande sätt beskriva akuta sjukdoms- och skadetillstånd (inkl. missbruk) som kan förekomma i samband med fysisk aktivitet, och vilken eller vilka åtgärder som ska sättas in när olyckan är framme. [...]

  • 102.
    Andersson, Eva
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Laboratory of Applied Sports Science (LTIV).
    Oddsson, Kristjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Laboratory of Applied Sports Science (LTIV).
    Nilsson, Johnny
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Laboratory of Applied Sports Science (LTIV).
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Wahlgren, Lina
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Kjellman, Bengt
    Jonsson, Bo
    Taube, Jill
    Improved Physical Capacity in a Project with Guided Physical Activity for Persons with Depression or Anxiety.2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Higher physical capacity is correlated with increased health. Knowledge in this area regarding psychiatric diseases is sparse. 

    Purpose: The aim was to study aerobic and several strength capacities in a physical activity project for persons with depression or anxiety.

    Methods: Eighty-four persons (56 women and 28 men) with depression or anxiety were recruited from psychiatric out-patient clinics in Stockholm. Their mean age and BMI was 46 (21-80) years and 26 (17-41) kg/m2, respectively. 50% were sick-listed. 50% had BMI>25. Aerobic and strength tests were chosen by each subgroup´s project leaders. Directed physical activity was given, in groups 10-15, 1 hour twice/week during 8-12 weeks.

    Results: Significant changes (p<0.05, of all n=84) between pre- and post tests were seen in submaximal cycle test (11% enhanced values, n=56) and distance of 6 minutes walk test (16%, n=15) as well as in strength tests for the back for the back (i.e. time in static horizontal belly-back, 40%, n=44), abdominal and hip flexors (i.e. number of hip flexion sit-ups, 45%, n=38), leg (i.e. standing with 90O in hips and knees, 48%, n=56) and arm with shoulder muscles (i.e. number of raising weights alternately with the arms, 46%, n=32). Hand grip tests, BMI or blood pressure values did not change significantly.

    Conclusions: Directed 8-12 weeks physical activity programs can improve physical fitness in individuals with depression or anxiety.

  • 103.
    Andersson, Eva
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Oddsson, Kristjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    von Rosen, Philip
    Karolinska institutet.
    Idrottsskador: Skadeförebyggande metoder, rehabilitering och akut omhändertagande2018In: Specialidrott: Tränings- och tävlingslära, Stockholm: SISU idrottsböcker , 2018, p. 143-177Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 104.
    Andersson, Eva
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Oddsson, L
    Grundström, H
    Nilsson, Johnny
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Thorstensson, Alf
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    EMG activities of the quadratus lumborum and erector spinae muscles during flexion-relaxation and other motor tasks.1996In: Clinical biomechanics (Bristol, Avon), Vol. 11, no 7, p. 392-400Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to provide new information on the myoelectrical activation of the quadratus lumborum, the deep lateral and the superficial medial lumbar erector spinae, the psoas, and the iliacus muscles in various motor tasks. DESIGN: An intramuscular electromyographic study was performed. BACKGROUND: The contribution of individual deep trunk muscles to the stability of the lumbar spine is relatively unknown in different tasks, including the flexion-relaxation phenomenon. METHODS: Seven healthy subjects participated. Fine-wire electrodes were inserted with a needle guided by ultrasound. RESULTS: The highest activity observed for quadratus lumborum and deep lateral erector spinae occurred in ipsilateral trunk flexion in a side-lying position and for superficial medial erector spinae during bilateral leg lift in a prone position. Quadratus lumborum and deep lateral erector spinae were activated when the flexion-relaxation phenomenon was present for superficial medial erector spinae, i.e. when its activity ceased in the latter part of full forward flexion of the trunk, held relaxed and kyphotic. CONCLUSIONS: In general, the activation of the investigated muscles showed a high degree of task specificity, where activation of a certain muscle was not always predictable from its anatomical arrangement and mechanical advantage.

  • 105.
    Andersson, Eva
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Oddsson, L
    Grundström, H
    Thorstensson, Alf
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    The role of the psoas and iliacus muscles for stability and movement of the lumbar spine, pelvis and hip.1995In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 10-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The activation patterns of the psoas and iliacus muscles were investigated in 7 healthy adult subjects (4 men and 3 women) during a variety of motor tasks in standing, sitting and lying. Myoelectric activity was recorded simultaneously from the 2 muscles using thin wire electrodes inserted under guidance of high-resolution ultrasound. In general, both muscles were coactivated, albeit to different relative levels, particularly when hip flexor torque was required. Selective activation of the iliacus could, however, be seen to stabilize the pelvis in contralateral hip extension during standing. Psoas was found to be selectively involved in sitting with a straight back and in contralateral loading situations requiring stabilization of the spine in the frontal plane. During training exercises from a supine position, such as sit-ups, the contribution of the psoas and iliacus muscles could be varied by changing the range of motion as well as the position and support for the legs. Thus, the 2 anatomically different muscles of the iliopsoas complex were shown to have individual and task-specific activation patterns depending on the particular demands for stability and movement at the lumbar spine, pelvis and hip.

  • 106.
    Andersson, Eva
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Swärd, L
    Thorstensson, Alf
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Trunk muscle strength in athletes.1988In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 20, no 6, p. 587-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Maximal voluntary strength of the trunk muscles was measured in 57 male elite athletes (soccer players, wrestlers, tennis players, and gymnasts), 14 female elite gymnasts, and in a normal group of 87 conscripts. Mean ages in the different groups ranged from 18-22 yr. An isokinetic (constant velocity) technique was used to record maximal torque produced by trunk and hip muscles during flexion, extension, and lateral flexion over the range of motion. The constant angular velocities used were 15 deg.s-1 and 30 deg.s-1, respectively. Isometric strength was measured in a straight body position (0 deg. of flexion). The measurements were made with the subjects in a horizontal position with the pivot point at the hip and at the lumbar (L2-L3) level. All male athlete groups showed higher peak torque values than the normals. The differences were largest in hip extension and trunk flexion. The male gymnasts also showed significantly higher peak values in hip flexion as compared to all other categories. There was no difference in strength per kg body weight between female gymnasts and untrained males, except in trunk extension. The position for peak torque occurred earlier in the movements for the athletes, especially for the gymnasts in extension movements and for the tennis players in flexion movements. In isometric contractions essentially the same strength differences were present as in the slow isokinetic contractions. In lateral flexion wrestlers and tennis players showed significantly higher strength in movements toward the nondominant side. Thus, differences were present between the athletes and the normals, some of which appeared to be sport specific and related to long-term systematic training.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  • 107.
    Andersson, Fredrik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Idrottslärares syn på kamratbedömning inom ämnet idrott och hälsa i grundskolan2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of the study is to gain insight into how physical education teachers reflect on peerassessment in Physical Education (PE). The study was limited to investigate teachers’ conception of peer assessment. The study also examines whether teachers can describe anymethods of peer assessment that they use or have used in their teaching, and what strategic choices they talk about when they describe their methods.

    Method

    Qualitative interviews were used to collect data. The interviews can be referred to as in-depthinterviews with a particular focus on concepts. The interviews are semi-structured in nature as an interview guide was used. The study used a non-probability sample and participants were chosen based upon a subjective selection technique. Five PE teachers in Stockholm (Sweden) were interviewed and their statements were audio recorded. Their statements were transcribed to provide a valid basis for interpretation.

    Results

    The results show that the interviewed teachers associate peer assessment with feedback. Furthermore, it appears that four out of five teachers talk about methods of peer assessment. Some of the methods may serve as tools for formative peer assessment. Three out of the five teachers describe video recording when they talk about methods and two out of five teachers describe different kinds of rubric handouts. Four out of the five teachers’ response indicated that that they occupy a dualistic perspective on body and movement as they talk about peer assessment.

    Conclusions

    The study describes the diversity and complexity of the concept of peer assessment. It was possible to discern that the teachers who told that they actively use peer assessment have intended on key variables, which could be related to the diversity of peer assessment. It is clear from the teachers rubric handouts that they may have missed important variables whenthey designed their rubrics. The final conclusion is that it is important for teachers who intend to implement peer assessment to look in to the research available. This study recapitulates achecklist, a step-by-step guide and many important variables in the creation of rubric handouts.

  • 108.
    Andersson, Fredrik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Respekt i skolan: Elevers och idrottslärares syn på respekt och samarbete i grundskolans lägre åldrar2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med detta forskningsarbete är att skapa en djupare förståelse för hur elever och lärare resonerar kring respekt och samarbete.

    Forskningsfrågor:

    Hur resonerar idrottslärare kring samarbete och respekt?

    Hur resonerar elever kring samarbete och respekt?

    Till detta följde en fördjupning av fenomenet respekt.

    Metod

    Vid datainsamlingen användes tema-intervjuer av halvstrukturerad kraktär då en intervjuguide användes vid samtliga samtal. Då erhölls svar från 6 st informanter, två lärare och fyra elever, samtliga informanter var antingen lärare för- eller elever i grundskolans yngre åldrar.

    Resultat

    Resultatet visade att lärarnas resonemang om respekt handlade om att kunna lyssna på eleverna, att man visar varandra lika värde. En av lärarna uppfattade respekt sammanlänkat med beundran som något positivt och respekt sammanlänkat till rädsla som något negativt. Den andre läraren menade att respekt inte är någon obehaglig känsla men att respekt som beundran var missbruk av respekt. En av lärarna nämnde även att eleverna visade respekt då de tog hänsyn till lärarens roll och inte blev för personliga. Eleverna och lärarna hade en liknande uppfattning om samarbete, flera som jobbar eller gör något tillsammans och att någon inte gör allt. Eleverna framförde att ett respektfullt beteende kunde vara att inte handla destruktivt mot andra eller mot miljön, att hjälpa sina kompisar när de behövde och att lyssna på lärarna. Eleverna hade likväl olika resonemang om respekt om vilka beteenden som gav respekt.

    Slutsats

    I resultaten går det att urskilja att elevernas resonemang är lika på vissa punkter. Det finns även en hel del av elevernas resonemang som skiljer sig åt i kompexitet och skarpsynthet. Denna forskning visar att några elever var bättre än andra på att uttrycka sig. En av lärarna hade ett intressant resonemang kring vad detta kan innebära i verkligheten, de elever som var duktiga på att sätta ord kunde göra samma dumma grejer i alla fall. Det är alltså svårt att veta om elever och lärare verkligen agerar utifrån sina resonemangen. Det behövs troligtvis en mer djupgående forskning som tar hänsyn till kroppsliga uttryck för respekt för att få en holistisk bild av lärares och elevers förståelse av respekt och samarbete.

  • 109.
    Andersson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Hägg Sandberg, Emelie
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Höga ljudnivåer?: En undersökning av ljudnivån under lektioner i idrott och hälsa2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syftet med uppsatsen är att mäta ljudnivån under lektioner i idrott och hälsa och undersöka vilka faktorer som påverkar den samt om arbetsmiljöverkets insatsvärden överskrids.

    1. Hur ser den ekvivalenta respektive maximala momentana ljudnivån ut under en lektion i idrott och hälsa?

    2. Hur påverkas ljudnivån under en lektion i idrott och hälsa av salens storlek, gruppens storlek, årskurs, aktivitet och musik?

    Metod

    Vi har med hjälp av decibelmätare registrerat ljudnivån i två idrottssalar under pågående lektioner i ämnet idrott och hälsa. Det som i huvudsak observerades var den ekvivalenta A-vägda ljudnivån samt maximal A-respektive C-vägd ljudnivå. I kombination med dessa mätningar observerades även vilka faktorer som påverkade ljudnivån.

    Resultat

    Resultaten visar att ljudnivån är hög men utifrån underlaget vi har går det inte att påvisa om den ekvivalenta ljudnivån för en åttatimmars arbetsdag överstiger arbetsmiljöverkets insatsvärden på 80 respektive 85dB. Att döma av resultaten i den här studien är det svårt att peka på en specifik faktor som är avgörande för ljudnivån. Svårigheten i att bestämma vilken faktor som är avgörande uppstår då alla undersökta faktorer samvarierar.

    Slutsats

    Vi upplever att detta ämne är väldigt komplext och att det finns många variabler att ta hänsyn till vad gäller ljud och dess påverkan på oss människor. Mätning av ljudnivån ger inte nödvändigtvis en rättvis bild av störningseffekten.

  • 110.
    Andersson, Frida
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Vångell, Fredrika
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Vem är idrottslärarstudenten vid GIH?: en studie som jämför år 2008 med år 20112011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study was from a sociological approach examine differences and similarities between the students who started the Physical Education Teacher Program at the Swedish School of Sports and Health Sciences (GIH) in 2008 and 2011.

    • What background has the GIH-student?
    • What sport experience has the GIH-student?
    • What are the student’s perceived knowledge and skills in Physical Education?
    • What attitude towards the subject Physical Education and the Physical Education Teacher Program does the GIH-student have?

     

    Method: The method used for this study was a quantitative method and the research was carried out through a questionnaire. The questionnaire was answered by 100 students who were accepted in 2011 at the Physical Education Teacher Program (GIH).

    In 2008, data was collected through the same questionnaire answered by 77 students who started their education in 2008. The results from the questionnaire conducted in 2008 were compared with the results conducted in this study. Moreover, the responses were processed in SPSS 19.0 and then analyzed by Bourdieu's three concepts habitus, capital and field.

    Results: The results of the study showed that those students who began the Physical Education Teacher Program at GIH in 2008 and in 2011 were individuals with great interest in sport. There were more students in 2011 who grew up in Stockholm and there were also more students with a foreign background. It was also noted that it has been significantly easier to become accepted to the Physical Education Teacher Program at GIH in 2011 than in 2008. A lower amount of students had experience of competition and leadership in sport in 2011. We could also see that the spread of knowledge and skills related to Physical Education was greater among the students accepted in 2011 than in 2008. Why the students applied to GIH were because it is situated in Stockholm and because of the good reputation the school has. However we could see that this good reputation is not that strong reason for the students in 2011. The majority of the students in both 2008 and 2011 considered that their pupils’ knowledge and skills should be assessed.

     

    Conclusions: A firm conclusion could not be drawn regarding how the increased number of students who gets accepted to the Physical Education Teacher Program at GIH affects the type of students who apply to the program. The tendency found was that in 2008 the student groups were more homogeneous. In both groups there was deficient knowledge in central parts in Physical Education. Therefore it will be higher requirements on the education to make sure that the knowledge reaches an acceptable ground level in the end of the education.

  • 111. Andersson, Frida
    et al.
    Vångell, Fredrika
    Yttergren, Leif
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport History Research Group.
    Orienteringsträning i förändring: En komparativ studie av orienteringsträning på elitnivå på 1980-talet och 20102011In: Idrottsforum.org/Nordic sport science forum, ISSN 1652-7224, no 11 majArticle in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det har tagit åtta år och 137 uppdateringar innan orienteringssporten förekommer på idrottsforum.org mer än bara nämnd i förbifarten i en bisats i en text som handlar om något helt annat. Överhuvud taget har orienteringssporten inte i någon märkvärdig utsträckning väckt idrottsforskarnas intresse – med ett lysande undantag, nämligen pedagogikprofessorn vid Högskolan Kristianstad och Högskolan i Borås, Torgny Ottosson, som redan 1984 publicerade forskningsrapporten "Problemlösningsstrategier i orientering: En skiss till teoretisk ram och en metodstudie" vid Göteborgs universitet. Tre år senare kom avhandlingen Map-reading and wayfinding (Göteborg Studies in Educational Sciences, 65), och därefter har Ottosson publicerat ett flertal artiklar om orientering, bland annat i Scientific Journal of Orienteering. Om skälen till att Torgny Ottosson ensam fått föra orienteringsforskningen framåt i orienteringssportens hemland kan vi blott spekulera; möjligen kan det har att göra med att sporten till sin natur saknar viktiga förutsättningar för att bli en bred publiksport, och därmed uppvisar en markerad frånvaro av kommersiell potential. Här är dock inte sista ordet sagt; samma sak sas ju om skidskyttet innan televisionen utvecklade täckningen av tävlingar på ett sätt som gjort skidskytte till en av de främsta publiksporterna. Orienteringssporten sägs ha sitt ursprung i Sverige i slutet av 1800-talet – termen orientering användes första gången 1886, enligt engelska Wikipedia, medan SAOL refererar till Idrottsbladet från 1924. Oxford English Dictionary anger att orienteering infördes i engelskan på 1940-talet, från svenskans orientering. Ordet härstammar uppenbarligen från oriens, latin för Östern, Orienten, och definieras i orienteringssammanhang som "hitta väderstreck", med betydelsen "förflyttning från en punkt i terrängen till en annan (med hjälp av karta o. kompass)". Det började som militära övningar och därefter militära tävlingar. Den första tävlingen som var öppen för civila gick av stapeln i norska Nordmarka 1897. Sveriges första tävling för civila kom fyra år senare, i arrangemang av Sundbybergs IK. Damer släpptes in i sporten 1925 redan, och man hann med ett SM 1935, tre år innan Svenska Orienteringsförbundet bildades. 1960-talet inleddes med att Internationella Orienteringsförbundet bildades, och sporten nådde nu på allvar utanför den nordiska skogsmiljön. Frida Andersson, Fredrika Vångell och Leif Yttergren visar i sin artikel i den här uppdateringen hur orienteringssporten från och med 1980-talet genomgått en omfattande förändringsprocess, som kan sammanfattas med begreppen "miniglobalisering", det vill säga att sporten fått allt större internationell spridning; sportifiering, med innebörden att man brutit med traditionen att bara springa en enda distans; samt avskogifiering – man springer allt oftare i annan terräng än skogslandskap. Till det kan läggas att kartografitekniken har utvecklats med hjälp av datorer och GPS. Andersson, Vångell och Yttergren vill i sin studie undersöka i vilken utsträckning orienteringssportens förändringar under de senaste 30 åren lett till motsvarande förändringar i orienterarnas träningsstrategier. De kombinerar litteraturstudier och enkätintervjuer med aktiva förr och nu, och kommer fram till bitvis ganska förvånansvärda resultat, som kanske främst sätter sportifieringsbegreppets användning i samband med orientering ifråga. Traditionens makt är stor, här som i andra sammanhang.

  • 112.
    Andersson, Helena
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Krustrup, Peter
    Elite football on artificial turf versus natural grass: movement patterns, technical standards, and player impressions.2008In: Journal of Sports Sciences, ISSN 0264-0414, E-ISSN 1466-447X, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 113-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to examine the movement patterns, ball skills, and the impressions of Swedish elite football players during competitive games on artificial turf and natural grass. Time - motion analyses (36 observations) and technical analyses (16 team observations) were performed and 72 male and 21 female players completed a questionnaire. No differences were observed between artificial turf and natural grass in terms of total distance covered (mean 10.19 km, s = 0.19 vs. 10.33 km, s = 0.23), high-intensity running (1.86 km, s = 0.10 vs. 1.87 km, s = 0.14), number of sprints (21, s = 1 vs. 22, s = 2), standing tackles (10, s = 1 vs. 11, s = 1) or headers per game (8, s = 1 vs. 8, s = 1), whereas there were fewer sliding tackles (P < 0.05) on artificial turf than natural grass (2.1, s = 0.5 vs. 4.3, s = 0.6). There were more short passes (218, s = 14 vs. 167, s = 12) and midfield-to-midfield passes (148, s = 11 vs. 107, s = 8) (both P < 0.05) on artificial turf than natural grass. On a scale of 0-10, where 0 = "better than", 5 = "equal to", and 10 = "worse than", the male players reported a negative overall impression (8.3, s = 0.2), poorer ball control (7.3, s = 0.3), and greater physical effort (7.2, s = 0.2) on artificial turf than natural grass. In conclusion, the running activities and technical standard were similar during games on artificial turf and natural grass. However, fewer sliding tackles and more short passes were performed during games on artificial turf. The observed change in playing style could partly explain the male players' negative impression of artificial turf.

  • 113. Andersson, Helena
    et al.
    Raastad, Truls
    Nilsson, Johnny
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Paulsen, Gøran
    Garthe, Ina
    Kadi, Fawzi
    Neuromuscular fatigue and recovery in elite female soccer: effects of active recovery.2008In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 372-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To investigate the time course of recovery from neuromuscular fatigue and some biochemical changes between two female soccer matches separated by an active or passive recovery regime. METHODS: Countermovement jump (CMJ), sprint performance, maximal isokinetic knee flexion and extension, creatine kinase (CK), urea, uric acid, and perceived muscle soreness were measured in 17 elite female soccer players before, immediately after, 5, 21, 45, 51, and 69 h after a first match, and immediately after a second match. Eight players performed active recovery (submaximal cycling at 60% of HRpeak and low-intensity resistance training at < 50% 1RM) 22 and 46 h after the first match. RESULTS: In response to the first match, a significant decrease in sprint performance (-3.0 +/- 0.5%), CMJ (-4.4 +/- 0.8%), peak torque in knee extension (-7.1 +/- 1.9%) and flexion (-9.4 +/- 1.8%), and an increase in CK (+ 152 +/- 28%), urea (15 +/- 2), uric acid (+ 11 +/- 2%), and muscle soreness occurred. Sprint ability was first to return to baseline (5 h) followed by urea and uric acid (21 h), isokinetic knee extension (27 h) and flexion (51 h), CK, and muscle soreness (69 h), whereas CMJ was still reduced at the beginning of the second match. There were no significant differences in the recovery pattern between the active and passive recovery groups. The magnitude of the neuromuscular and biochemical changes after the second match was similar to that observed after the first match. CONCLUSION: The present study reveals differences in the recovery pattern of the various neuromuscular and biochemical parameters in response to a female soccer match. The active recovery had no effects on the recovery pattern of the four neuromuscular and three biochemical parameters.

  • 114. Andersson, Håkan
    et al.
    Johansson, Tim
    Fröjd, Kennet
    Nilsson, Johnny
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Träningslära för rullstolsåkning2007Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Spridd över hela världen finns det mycket kunskap om rullstolsträning, men det har inte tidigare funnits samlat någonstans. Samtidigt finns behov av ytterligare forskning inom området. Flera års litteraturstudier, erfarenhets – och datainsamling samt forskningsstudier har resulterat i denna bok. En stor del av utrymmet i boken ägnas åt styrketräning då detta är viktigt ur ett idrotts- rehabiliterings- och folkhälsoperspektiv. Detta gäller för såväl rullstolsidrottare som andra rullstolsbrukare. Författarkvartetten som skrivit boken är sammantaget etablerade inom såväl den paralympiska som den olympiska idrotten och också i forskarvärlden.

  • 115.
    Andersson, Jesper
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Biologisk ålder och spelarutveckling i ungdomsbasket: En kvantitativ studie på aktioner med bollen2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka om biologisk ålder påverkar manliga ungdomsspelare i baskets möjligheter att utföra aktioner med bollen vid matchspel. Studiens frågeställningar var: (1) Påverkar biologisk ålder antalet dribblingsaktioner vid matchspel i basket bland 13-14-åriga pojkar? (2) Påverkar biologisk ålder antalet passningar vid matchspel i basket bland 13-14-åriga pojkar? (3) Påverkar biologisk ålder antalet avslut vid matchspel i basket bland 13-14-åriga pojkar?

    Metod

    Studien använde en kvantitativ ansats där basketmatcher från en klubbturnering observerades. Varje spelare som deltog i studien (n=50) observerades under tre matcher, och ett genomsnitt av spelarens antal dribblingsaktioner, passningar och avslut per match beräknades. Som mått på biologisk ålder användes procent av förväntad fullvuxen längd. Sambandet mellan antalet dribblingsaktioner, passningar och avslut och biologisk ålder undersöktes på två sätt: 1. Spelarna delades in i två grupper, en med hög biologisk ålder och en med låg biologisk ålder. 2. Test av signifikansen mellan biologisk ålder och antalet dribblingsaktioner, passningar och avslut bland samtliga spelare i urvalet.

    Resultat

    Oberoende t-test mellan spelare med hög- respektive låg biologisk ålder visade ett positivt samband mellan biologisk ålder och antalet avslut vid matchspel i basket, och inget samband mellan biologisk ålder och antalet dribblingsaktioner eller passningar. Regressionsanalys av datan från samtliga spelare visade att spelare med en högre biologisk ålder hade fler avslut i matcherna, och att det inte fanns något samband mellan biologisk ålder och dribblingsaktioner eller passningar.

    Slutsats

    Bland manliga ungdomsspelare i basket gör spelare som har en högre biologisk ålder än sina jämnåriga fler avslut i matcher. Biologisk ålder påverkar inte antalet dribblingsaktioner eller passningar bland jämnåriga manliga ungdomsspelare i basket.

  • 116.
    Andersson, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Sundkvist, Erika
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Bunker eller böljande ängar?: en undersökning av den fysiska arbetsmiljön på skolor och hur denna påverkar idrottslärares undervisning2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syfte och frågeställning

    Syftet med uppsatsen var att undersöka idrottslärares fysiska arbetsmiljö på skolor med olika förutsättningar och på vilket sätt idrottsläraren uppfattar att den fysiska arbetsmiljön påverkar undervisningen. Vi har utgått från tre mer preciserade frågeställningar. Hur ser den fysiska arbetsmiljön ut på skolan? Hur upplever läraren sin arbetsmiljö? Slutligen hur påverkar arbetsmiljön undervisningen?

    Metod

    Studien har bestått av tre platsobservationer av den fysiska arbetsmiljön och av tre intervjuer med idrottslärare verksamma i den observerade miljön. De skolor vi undersökt valdes utifrån de förutsättningar vi på förhand visste om och för att dem låg i Stockholmsområdet. Idrottslärarna kontaktades via mail och telefon då lämpligt datum bestämdes. Intervjuerna skedde på skolorna och bandades för att sedan transkriberas och analyseras med hjälp av en arbetsmiljömodell kallad ISR-modellen, (Institut for Social Research at University of Michigan).

    Resultat

    De resultat som framkom var att alla tre idrottslärare, oavsett hur den fysiska arbetsmiljön såg ut när det gäller lokalerna och materialtillgångar, upplevde sin arbetsmiljö som god. Dock fanns det vissa delar som var mindre bra, hög bullernivå var något som påpekades av samtliga som negativt. När det gäller hur arbetsmiljön påverkar idrottslärarens undervisning, visar observations- och intervjustudien att arbetsmiljön inte styr undervisningens utformning. Det är snarare idrottslärarens inställning och arbetssätt som blir avgörande. Material och tillgångar ses mer som hjälpmedel än som begränsningar.

    Slutsats

    Det vi har kommit fram till i vår undersökning är att lokaler och materialtillgångar skiljer sig väldigt mycket från skola till skola. Utifrån ISR-modellen kan vi konstatera att alla de lärare vi har intervjuat har reagerat positivt på sin fysiska arbetsmiljö trots skillnader i den fysiska arbetsmiljön. Lärarna arbetar väldigt flexibelt och anpassar sig och sin undervisning efter tillgångarna. Ingen av våra respondenter ansåg att de hade en dålig arbetsmiljö, vilket vi tyckte var mycket förvånande då förutsättningarna för att bedriva skolidrott skiljde sig väldigt mycket mellan skolorna.

  • 117. Andersson, Josefine
    et al.
    Åsell, Anna
    Många beslut och kort om tid: en enkätstudie om platschefers hälsa på ett byggföretag2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Vårt syfte är att undersöka om platscheferna på ett byggföretag i Stockholm använder sig av några strategier för att kunna hantera de krav arbetet medför. Vidare vill vi ta reda på hur de beskriver och upplever sin psykiska och sociala hälsa.

    Vi utgår från följande frågeställningar:

    • Hur upplever platscheferna sin egen hälsa?

    • Gör platscheferna några medvetna hälsobringande val för att främja sin hälsa, och isåfall vad?

    • Vad använder sig platscheferna av för copingstrategier mot de krav arbetet ställer?

    Metod

    Som metod användes en enkät som bestod mestadels av öppna frågor. Efter ett bekvämlighetsurval skickades enkäten ut till 24 platschefer på ett byggföretag. Enkätsvaren sammanställdes varpå författarna analyserade och tolkade resultatet.

    Resultat

    Platscheferna i studien har till synes en god självupplevd hälsa. De flesta tar sig tid till avkoppling samt avsätter tid för hälsobringande aktiviteter så som t.ex. motion och socialt umgänge. Dessutom ser flera personer motion och arbete som hälsobringande faktorer. Resultatet visade endast platschefernas medvetna copingstrategier mot krav och stress i arbetet. Många strategier som användes var av psykologisk karaktär så som att man planerar, prestera efter bästa förmåga samt att blunda för stunden. Hög grad av socialt stöd, meningsfullhet samt hanterbarhet i arbetet upplevs av de flesta deltagarna.

    Slutsats

    Enkätsvaren ger en begränsad bild av deltagarnas hälsosituation men utifrån de områden enkätstudien täcker in ser hälsan relativt god ut i nuläget bland samtliga platschefer. I förlängningen med en fortsatt stressande och kravfylld arbetssituation finns risker för platschefernas framtida hälsa. En förklaring till att många upplever meningsfullhet i arbetet kan bero på deras chefsposition som kan medföra en ökad motivation i arbetet.

  • 118.
    Andersson, Kristian
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Rask, Mattias
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Samundervisning eller könssegregerad undervisning i ämnet idrott och hälsa?: En kvalitativ undersökning angående idrottslärares val av undervisningsform i ämnet idrott och hälsa.2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med detta examensarbete var att undersöka om det fanns någon skillnad i valet av undervisningsform mellan kommunala, invandrartäta högstadieskolor och kommunala, invandrarglesa högstadieskolor i Stockholm. Frågeställningar som söktes svar på var om kön, ålder, utbildning och tidigare arbetserfarenheter påverkar huruvida lärare väljer att använda samundervisning eller könssegregerad undervisning.

    Metod

    Bakgrunden till uppsatsen är en litteraturstudie där sam- och könssegregerad undervisning diskuteras. Den teoretiska utgångspunkten för denna uppsats är ur ett kulturellt- och könsperspektiv. I den litteratur som vi har tagit del av har vi valt att fokusera på att hitta svar på frågeställningarna för att sedan kunna jämföra dessa med vår egen studie.

    Studien har gjorts med kvalitativa intervjuer av 16 stycken idrottslärare på kommunala högstadieskolor. En kvinnlig och en manlig lärare från fyra invandrartäta skolor, respektive fyra invandrarglesa skolor har deltagit i undersökningen. Intervjuerna har haft en låg standardisering och strukturering, detta för att få ut så mycket information som möjligt från intervjuobjekten.

    Resultat och slutsats

    Resultaten som framkommer i studien är att många av idrottslärarna på de invandrartäta skolorna är styrda av aktiviteten, där simundervisning är den mest framträdande. Att hitta tydliga skillnader i om kön och utbildning påverkar valet av undervisning är svårare. Däremot ser vi tecken på att äldre lärare i högre utsträckning använder sig av könssegregerad undervisning. 

  • 119.
    Andersson Löfström, Linn
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Ejneroos, Jennie
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Tugga pressat kött eller äta ekologiskt?: En undersökning om miljömedvetenheten gällande skolmaten i tre kommuner.2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka miljömedvetenheten i tre kommuner gällande skolmaten. Våra frågeställningar: Vilka klimatsmarta val gör kommunerna när det gäller skolmaten? Vem fattar beslut huruvida skolmaten skall vara ekologisk eller inte och vilka faktorer styr dessa beslut? Vilka ekologiska val prioriteras gällande skolmaten? Vilka hinder och möjligheter finns för att öka andelen ekologisk skolmat?

    Metod

    I studien har kvalitativa intervjuer genomförts. Tre kostchefer/kostekonomer intervjuades i tre kommuner; Danderyd, Täby och Sundbyberg.

    Resultat

    I Danderyd och Sundbyberg lagas skolmaten i större utsträckning i egna tillagningskök på skolorna, vilket dels ger större andel hemlagad mat, dels färre transporter. Alla tre kommuner arbetar för att minska transporterna samt tar tillvara på matrester. I Danderyd och Täby är det upp till varje verksamhet att bestämma själva huruvida skolmaten ska vara ekologisk eller inte. I Täby är skolmaten till stor del utlagd på entreprenad. I Sundbyberg är det politikerna som fattar beslut kring hur stor andel skolmat som ska vara ekologisk. Alla tre kommunerna arbetar för att höja andelen ekologiska livsmedel. När det gäller ekologiska livsmedel är ekonomin en avgörande faktor då det ekologiska ofta är dyrare. Det finns flera olika möjligheter för samtliga kommuner att öka andelen ekologisk skolmat. Danderyd och Täby efterfrågar större engagemang från politikerna.

    Slutsats

    Vi har kommit fram till att det finns stora skillnader i de tre undersökta kommunerna. Det är endast politikerna i Sundbybergs kommun som satt upp mål för hur stor andelen ekologiska livsmedel ska vara, samt ger ekonomiska bidrag för att kunna öka andelen ekologiska livsmedel. Vi kan konstatera att skillnaderna dels ligger på politisk nivå: vilka politiska partier som styr i kommunerna, dels på individnivå: vilket engagemang kostcheferna respektive husmödrarna har. 

  • 120.
    Andersson, Malin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Ger fysisk aktivitet bättre studieresultat?: En enkätundersökning om samband mellan fysisk aktivitet och studieresultat2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka eventuella samband mellan fysisk aktivitet och studieresultat hos elever i årskurs nio i en skola utanför Stockholm. I syfte att utföra detta användes följande frågeställning:

    ● Ger en ökad mängd fysisk aktivitet ett högre meritvärde hos elever i årskurs nio?

    Metod Studien är baserad på en enkätundersökning besvarad av 71 deltagare från tre klasser i årskurs nio på en skola utanför Stockholm. Enkäten innehåller frågor om elevens mängd av fysisk träning, fysisk aktivitet och stillasittande samt en fråga om elevens totala meritvärde från terminen innan. Eleverna fick själva uppskatta mängden tid de spenderade på de olika aktiviteterna. Elevernas meritvärden kontrollerades med skolans betygskatalog för att säkerställa att rätt meritvärde var angivet.

    Resultat Resultatet visade inget samband mellan fysisk aktivitet och studieresultat i form av ökat meritvärde. Det kunde heller inte påvisas något samband mellan fysisk träning och studieresultat. Däremot upptäcktes ett medelstarkt samband mellan ett ökat stillasittande och ett ökat meritvärde.SlutsatsDenna undersökning har inte påvisat något samband mellan fysisk aktivitet och studieresultat hos den undersökta populationen.

  • 121.
    Andersson, Marcus
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Johansson, Tobias
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Ergometercykeltest visavi Steptest: Fysiologisk jämförelse mellan två skilda arbeten2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

     

    Syfte och frågeställning

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka sambandet mellan hjärtfrekvens (HF), skattad ansträngning samt syreupptag i jämförandet av två arbetsformer; ergometercykel och steplåda. Frågeställning var: hur ser sambandet ut mellan arbetseffekt och HF samt skattad ansträngning för de två arbetena på de givna submaximala effektnivåerna 75 Watt, 125 W samt 175 W. Studien har även för avsikt att jämföra den skattade ansträngningen på ergometercykel kontra den på steplåda vid försök att uppnå maxpuls. Vidare att jämföra den beräknade maximala syreupptagningsförmågan vid Rhyming & Åstrands steptest med den beräknade maximala syreupptagningsförmågan för denna studies modifierade Åstrandstest på ergometercykel. Dessa jämförs sedan med den bestämda maximala syreupptagningsförmågan på ergometercykel.

    Metod

    Datainsamlingen har skett genom att 16 testpersoner, åtta kvinnor och åtta män, utfört två maximala tester, ett On-linetest på ergometercykel Monark Ergomedic 839E där utandningsluften analyserades i blandningskammmare (Oxycon Pro, Jaeger GmbH) och ett på steplåda där enbart HF och skattad ansträngning registrerades med pulsklockan Polar Accurex plus och enligt Borgs RPE-skala, samt två submaximala tester, ett per redskap.

    Resultat

    Vid jämförelse av de två arbetena vid samma givna effekt var testpersonernas HF högre på samtliga submaximala effektnivåer. Testpersonernas upplevda ansträngning, enligt Borgs RPE-skala, var lika på både cykeln o steplådan om testpersonerna skattade 11 eller lägre. Skattade testpersonerna högre än 11 så upplevdes steplådan som mer ansträngande än arbetet på cykeln. Vid sammanställningen av resultaten för testpersonernas olika maximala test på cykel kontra steplåda var skillnaden i HF i medeltal liten.

    Diskussion och konklusion

    Möjlig orsak till att HF och skattad ansträngning var högre för arbetet på steplåda än cykel kan antas vara kraftåtgång. Arbete på steplåda sker vertikalt där acceleration krävs för varje steg upp på steplåda, och där kraft krävs vid inbromsning (excentriskt arbete) vid steg ned från steplåda. Troligtvis är detta mer energikrävande än att upprätthålla en konstant rörelse vid given belastning på cykel. På cykel sker arbetet i en stabilare position samt att energin i cykelns svänghjul hjälper testpersonen att upprätthålla den kraft som krävs för att uppnå given effekt.

     

  • 122.
    Andersson, Maria
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Holmberg, Jennifer
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Motorik i skolan: idrottslärares syn på motorisk träning för barn i åldrarna 9-12 år2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of this study has been to investigate to which extent planned motor training in physical education exists in classes for children in the age of 9-12. We were also aiming at finding out how planned motor training in physical education is valued by teachers in physical education and if they think they are qualified to teach in motor training. The questions at issue were:

    1. How important is motor training in physical education for the teachers when they plan their lessons?

    2. Are there any adjustments made for children with motor deficiencies?

    3. What kind of exercises do the teachers use to promote motor training among the pupils?

    4. What do the teachers consider the difficulties are with planned motor training in physical education?

    5. Do the teachers consider themselves qualified to teach in motor training?

    Method

    The study is a qualitative method in which we used interviews. We have interviewed seven teachers in physical education in Nacka, Värmdö and Stockholm.

    Results

    We have noticed that the teachers, at first, did not mention motor training when they freely answered the question of what they thought were important when they planned their lessons. However, when they later on were answered “motor training” as one of the given alternatives, they ranked it as one of the most important factors. Four out of seven teachers utilized individually adjusted training. Most of the teachers put forward that lack of resources were the explanation why this kind of education was not prioritised. All of the teachers agreed that motor training automatically was a part of almost every lesson. However, most of the teachers did not have motor training in their minds when they planned the lesson. The number one issue that makes it hard for the teachers to help every single pupil is the number of pupils in each class. Although the teachers thought that their own education had some deficiencies concerning motor training, the majority felt that they were qualified for the task.

    Conclusion

    Overall the teachers thought that physical activity was one of the most important issues. Motor training was also a part of almost every lesson. However, most of the teachers when asked didn´t put it forward, instead they mentioned other areas as more important.

  • 123.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Persson, Gustav
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Wii Sports och Sport: En jämförelse av fysiska och emotionella skillnader och likheter i träningsspel jämfört med riktig träning2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The purpose of this study is to compare the level of activity between playing wii Sports Tennis and wii Sports boxing, and the usual sports, and to see how the two variants are perceived.Issues:- How much strain ratio and energy consumption it gives to exercise wii sports compared with the playing of sport for real?- How do the test participants experience the different tests?- How are the two wii sports games against each other in terms of activity and fitness in the school environment?

    Method

    This is an experimental study in which 10 test participants (5 men and 5 women) have carried out four different physical tests. The tests consisted of either playing an exergame or playing a sport for 25 minutes. Physical activity was measured during the test using a heart rate monitor. All test participants completed all tests in the same order. After each test, all test participants filled out a questionnaire concerning their immediate subjective experiences of the test. The results from the questionnaire where later compiled with the results from the physical tests.

    Results

    The results showed that the physical activity of the tennis and wii tennis differed. Tennis generated in 30% higher average heart rate and 88% higher average energy expenditure. The comparison between boxing and wii boxing, gave no significant results. Wii boxing generated 32% higher average heart rate and 81% higher average energy expenditure compared to wii tennis. Test Study participants also considered wii boxing to be more suitable in physical education than wii tennis. They also felt that both wii boxing and tennis was more enjoyable than wii tennis.

    Conclusion

    Wii tennis generated the lowest physical activity as compared to the three other forms of exercise. The real sports were most suitable for school sports, however, wii boxing was more suitable than wii tennis. Test participants also considered the wii boxing as more enjoyable than wii tennis and tennis

  • 124.
    Andersson, Mattias
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Ferrada, Loreto
    Läkarprogrammet, Lunds Universitet.
    Leder självförsvarsträning till bättre fysisk form, ökad mental tuffhet och ökat självskattat hälsotillstånd?: En pilotstudie av 15 testpersoner undersökta före och efter 8 veckors Krav Maga träning2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Background: It is often suggested that martial arts is beneficial for people’s physical and mental health but few studies have been presented where this has been examined. Regarding the specific training of Krav Maga we have found none, which is why we conducted the present study. The aim was to examine if Krav Maga training would have any positive influence on physical condition, mental toughness and self rated health status.

    Method and material: We selected 20 individuals, with no previous experience of self-defense training during the last 2 years, to participate in the study where they had to train Krav Maga 2 times a week for 8 weeks. Of these, 15 completed the training program. We used a physical test for strength (sit-ups, push-ups and squats) and one for VO2max (Coopers test 2400 m). For measuring mental toughness we used the MTQ48-form and for self assessed health status EQ5D. The measurements were conducted by the same independent trainer at two occasions, before and after completion of the training program. For statistical comparisons we used paired t-tests.

    Results: The participants increased all their physical parameters and the test for push-ups, squats and VO2max showed significant statistical increase. There was also a significant increase in the total mental toughness level and in 3/4 subscales. The EQ5D showed that 11/15 participants rated their general health higher after 8 weeks of training compared to before. The self rated VAS scale was also increased significantly.

    Conclusion: Krav Maga training for 8 weeks significantly increased physical status, mental toughness and self rated health status.

  • 125.
    Andersson, Matts
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Friluftslivet i Utemagasinet "Ute eller inne": en kvantitativ studie om bilden av friluftslivet i Utemagasinet2008Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställning

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka den bild som tidskriften Utemagasinets gett oss av friluftsliv från 1990 till 2008. Frågeställningarna som jag arbetar efter är:

    1. Vilka friluftslivsaktiviteter rapporterar Utemagasinet om i sin tidskrift och har det skett någon förändring mellan 1990 och 2008?

    2. Vad är det för stilar som friluftslivet i Utemagasinet tillhör och om de skall kategoriseras enligt Sandells tre friluftsstilar som grund, syns det då någon förändring mellan 1990 - 2008?

    3. Finns det någon skillnad på synen av utrustningens betydelse för friluftslivet från 1990 till 2008?

    Metod

    Metoden som jag kommer att använda är en kvantitativ innehållsanalys där Utemagasinets tidskrifter från åren 1990, 2000 och 2008 kommer att granskas. Artiklarna delas in i grupper och ställas upp i diagram för att kunna presentera resultatet.

    Resultat

    Studien visar att de aktiviteter som Utemagasinet rapportera mest om är vandring, kajakpaddling, att gå på tur med skidor och skidor i offpist. Resultatet visar också på en minskad mångfald av aktiviteter under perioden 1990 till 2008.

    Analysen visar att det går att kategorisera in analysen av artiklarna i två av Sandells tre friluftsstilar; utrustning får ett större utrymme i tidskriften genom åren och större fokus läggs på att testa olika produkter.

    Slutsats

    Det har blivit färre artiklar som behandlar friluftsliv och större fokus läggs på resmål och utrustning. Det finns ett större antal artiklar om utrustning och resor 2008 jämfört med tidigare. Friluftsliv som beskrivs i tidskriften har gått mot Sandells passiva anpassningsstil vilket leder till att vi använder vår närmiljö mer frekvent än tidigare.

  • 126.
    Andersson, Peter
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Jag är tränare!: En studie om den professionella fotbollstränarens arbetsmiljö2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Studien skall ge en inblick i den vardag som professionella tränare verkar i, vilket kan skapa en vidare utveckling på hur man i denna yrkesroll kan förbereda sig själv och anhöriga för den framtid som väntar. Frågeställningarna är: Hur ser den professionella tränaren på sin arbetsmiljö?  Hur ser den professionella tränaren på sin yrkesroll? 

    Metod

    För att på bästa sätt få fram värdefull data till denna uppsats så valdes den kvalitativa intervjun. Däri valdes den semistrukturerade intervjumetoden, där grundbasen utgörs av fasta frågor men där följdfrågor kan skapas efterhand beroende på vad intervjupersonen kommer med för svar. Fyra manliga fotbollstränare med erfarenhet från den professionella elitnivån i Sverige valdes ut till intervjuer. Intervjuerna gjordes på överenskommen plats och pågick mellan 30 - 90 min. Intervjuerna spelades in på en digital diktafon.  

    Resultat

    Utsattheten hos tränarna har ökat. Risken för utbrändhet, våld och hot likaså. Den ekonomiska förtjänsten har stigit och kan idag likställas med en riksdagsman. Arbetsotryggheten är större då kravet på framgång ökar från media, sponsorer och supportrar. Tränarna anser att ta sig tid för anhöriga är viktigare än att ständigt se på fotboll. Passionen till idrotten är det som håller dessa tränare kvar i yrket. Samtliga anser att de har ett samhällsnyttigt värde där det agerar både tränare, lärare och ledandeförebilder för en personal av idrottsmän i skiftande åldrar 16-40.

    Slutsats

    Fotbollen har gått från en idrottsligt styrande verksamhet till en samhällsindustri där utomstående krafter har en mer betydande roll för fotbollen än tidigare. Tränarrollen har sedan 1990-talet gått från en ledande roll i idrottsklubben till en professionell position med en bredare betydelse än att bara ta hand om sina spelare. Den idrottskultur som länge stöttats av demokratiska värderingar ur folkhemmet har med den globala ekonomin skapat en tuffare arbetsmiljö. Långsiktiga satsningar blir svårare att genomföra då spelare inte längre är klubbarna trogna utan ses idag som ett säsongsprojekt. Detta gör att dagens elittränare tvingas att använda sig av pragmatiskt ledarskap.

  • 127.
    Andersson, Sophie
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Medarbetarskapets perspektiv och möjligheter ur ett hälsoperspektiv: en kvalitativ intervjustudie av medarbetare2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of this essay is to study how individuals look upon their own employeeship out of a health perspective and to study what release energy and consumes energy in the own employeeship. Following questions are the focus of the study: what importance has the following factors for an employeeship; goals, demands, control, social support, security, creativity, development possibilities, salary and compensation, relations. What sets energy free in the own employeeship? What consumes energy in the own employeeship?

    Method

    The study is based on material that was collected from interviews. Three women and three men participated in the study, all of them active workers. None of the participants were in an exceptional situation regarding family, economy nor work. The persons interviewed were contacted through mail and an up following phone call. A question schedule with opened questions was used during the interviews. The questions were connected to the aim and the questions in focus of the study. The interviews were recorded to be transcript word for word to a written text. The material were then analysed accordingly to chosen theories.

    Interview analysis and conclusions

    Despite individual differences between the interviews there is possible to spot a red thread through out the material considering the questions asked in the study. All of the persons interviewed are aware of their own employeeship and what it is that affects it, both positive and negative. There is a will to take on more responsibility in the work and as an employee. What differentiate them are the conditions to accomplish this. Factors as goals, demands, control, social support, security, creativity, development possibilities, salary and compensation and relations are all important for employeeship, but in different extent. From the analysis control is shown to be one of the more important factors to enjoy work and feel good in the own employeeship. To be given mandate and eligibility. Another factor that is raised during the interviews is relations, with both colleagues and chief. These relations together with social support, can make it possible to create an organizational interaction between individuals. To summarize the answers given to the questions about what release energy and consumes energy in the own employeeship is hard. The answers are as different as the persons given them. Yet here are some words collected from the answers; Release energy – goal achievement, ideas realized, colleagues. Consumes energy – conflicts, rejected deals, existential problems.

  • 128. Andersson, Ulrika
    et al.
    Leighton, Brendan
    Young, Martin E
    Blomstrand, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Newsholme, Eric A
    Inactivation of aconitase and oxoglutarate dehydrogenase in skeletal muscle in vitro by superoxide anions and/or nitric oxide.1998In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 249, no 2, p. 512-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Strips of rat soleus muscle were incubated in media containing a superoxide generating system and/or the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) before the maximal catalytic activities of aconitase, citrate synthase, and oxoglutarate dehydrogenase were measured. The maximal activities of aconitase and oxoglutarate dehydrogenase were both decreased by 25-30% by superoxide anions; however, only the maximal activity of aconitase was decreased, by approximately 50%, by incubation of muscles with SNP. Furthermore, when both superoxide and NO were present in the medium, aconitase activity was decreased by 70%. The maximal activity of citrate synthase was not affected by any of the treatments. This is the first time that superoxide anions or NO has been shown to inactivate aconitase and oxoglutarate dehydrogenase in skeletal muscle. It is suggested that these effects may be responsible for some alterations in skeletal muscle metabolism, and these possibilities are discussed.

  • 129. Andréll, Paulin
    et al.
    Schultz, Tomas
    Mannerkorpi, Kaisa
    Nordeman, Lena
    Börjesson, Mats
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Mannheimer, Clas
    Health-related quality of life in fibromyalgia and refractory angina pectoris: a comparison between two chronic non-malignant pain disorders.2014In: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 1650-1977, E-ISSN 1651-2081, Vol. 46, no 4, p. 341-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To compare health-related quality of life in 2 different populations with chronic pain: patients with fibromyalgia and patients with refractory angina pectoris. Previous separate studies have indicated that these patient groups report different impacts of pain on health-related quality of life.

    METHODS: The Short-Form 36 was used to assess health- related quality of life. In order to adjust for age and gender differences between the groups, both patient groups were compared with age- and gender-matched normative controls. The difference in health-related quality of life between the 2 patient groups was assessed by transforming the Short-Form 36 subscale scores to a z-score.

    RESULTS: The patients with fibromyalgia (n = 203) reported poorer health-related quality of life in all the subscale scores of Short-Form 36 (p < 0.05-0.0001) than the patients with refractory angina (n = 146) when both groups were compared with their corresponding normal population (z-score).

    CONCLUSION: Patients with fibromyalgia experience greater impairment in health-related quality of life compared with the normal population than do patients with refractory angina pectoris, despite the fact that the latter have a potentially life-threatening disease. The great impairment in health- related quality of life in patients with fibromyalgia should be taken into consideration when planning rehabilitation.

  • 130. Angenete, E
    et al.
    Angerås, U
    Börjesson, Mats
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Ekelund, J
    Gellerstedt, M
    Thorsteinsdottir, T
    Steineck, G
    Haglind, E
    Physical activity before radical prostatectomy reduces sick leave after surgery - results from a prospective, non-randomized controlled clinical trial (LAPPRO).2016In: BMC Urology, ISSN 1471-2490, E-ISSN 1471-2490, Vol. 16, no 1, article id 50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Studies have reported that early physical rehabilitation after surgical procedures is associated with improved outcome measured as shorter hospital stay and enhanced recovery. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between the preoperative physical activity level and subsequent postoperative complications, sick-leave and hospital stay after radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer in the setting of the LAPPRO trial (LAParoscopic Prostatectomy Robot Open).

    METHODS: LAPPRO is a prospective controlled trial, comparing robot-assisted laparoscopic and open surgery for localized prostate cancer between 2008 and 2011. 1569 patients aged 64 or less with an occupation were included in this sub-study. The Gleason score was <7 in 52 % of the patients. Demographics and the level of self-assessed preoperative physical activity, length of hospital stay, complications, quality of life, recovery and sick-leave were extracted from clinical record forms and questionnaires. Multivariable logistic regression, with log-link and logit-link functions, was used to adjust for potential confounding variables.

    RESULTS: The patients were divided into four groups based on their level of activity. As the group with lowest engagement of physical activity was found to be significantly different in base line characteristics from the other groups they were excluded from further analysis. Among patients that were physically active preoperativelly (n = 1467) there was no significant difference between the physical activity-groups regarding hospital stay, recovery or complications. However, in the group with the highest self-assessed level of physical activity, 5-7 times per week, 13 % required no sick leave, compared to 6.3 % in the group with a physical activity level of 1-2 times per week only (p < 0.0001).

    CONCLUSIONS: In our study of med operated with radical prostatectomy, a high level of physical activity preoperatively was associated with reduced need for sick leave after radical prostatectomy compared to men with lower physical activity.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial is registered at the ISCRTN register. ISRCTN06393679 .

  • 131.
    Aphram, Petra
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Kaldoyo, Patricia
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    "Vi kan prata om ALLT mellan himmel och jord": Elitidrottande kvinnors upplevda relation till sin manliga tränare2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka hur elitidrottande kvinnor upplevde relationen till sin tränare. Mer specifikt hur idrottarna upplever dimensionerna 1) samspel, 2) förståelse, 3) närhet och 4) engagemang till sin tränare.

    Metod

    Studien baseras på semistrukturerade intervjuer med fyra elitidrottande kvinnor i åldrarna 18-25 år. Två av idrottarna ägnade sig åt en individuell idrott (tennis) och två ägnade sig åt en lagidrott (fotboll). I studien besvarades studiens frågeställningar med hjälp av 3+1C modellen som är ett teoretiskt underlag att analysera tränar-idrottarerelationen.

    Resultat

    Samtliga idrottare upplevde att de fyra dimensionerna var viktiga för att få relationen med tränaren att fungera. Samtliga idrottare nämnde att samspel var grunden i relationen, förståelse i relationen handlade om att anpassa sig efter varandras behov, engagemang var viktig framförallt från tränarens sida och närhet byggdes upp med hjälp av att hitta förtroende och tillit för varandra.

    Slutsats Vårt resultat visar att relationen till tränaren är en viktig faktor för att båda parter ska må bra, hur relationen till tränaren är visade sig i studien vara avgörande för både den personliga och idrottsliga utvecklingen hos idrottaren. Det är inte bara upplevelsen av de fyra dimensionerna som är avgörande för hur relationen ska fungera, utan studien visade att det är många andra faktorer också som påverkar kvalitén på relationen till tränaren.

  • 132. Appelgren, Mathilda
    et al.
    Hampl, Gisela
    En kvart på en stubbe: En komparativ studie av hur hälsa förmedlas i friluftsutbildningen på svensk och norsk högskola2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte

    Studiens övergripande syfte var att studera och analysera hur friluftslärarna på en högskola i Sverige jämfört med friluftslärare på en högskola i Norge förmedlar hälsa till sina studenter i friluftsundervisningen. Följande frågeställningar har använts för att besvara syftet:

    Hur bedrivs och utformas friluftsundervisningen på Gymnastik och Idrottshögskolan i Stockholm, Sverige och på Högskolan i Telemark, Norge? Hur ser friluftslärarna på begreppet hälsa kopplat till friluftsliv? Vad vill friluftslärarna förmedla i sin friluftsutbildning?

    Metod

    Studien tar sin utgång i den kvalitativa forskningstraditionen och består av en litteraturstudie där bland annat sammanbandet mellan friluftsliv, natur och hälsa studerats. Därutöver genomfördes fyra intervjuer, två i Sverige och två i Norge.

    Resultat

    Hälsa förmedlas i friluftsundervisningen i både Sverige och i Norge. I Sverige syns detta tydligast då de svenska friluftslärarna har hälsa nedskrivet i kursplaner och i andra dokument. Hälsa är också ett begrepp som nämns mer specifikt och konsekvent. I Norge finns inte hälsa nedskrivet i någon kursplan eller i andra dokument, därför kan det upplevas att hälsa inte är en del av friluftsundervisningen. Men ser vi till det innehåll som friluftslärarna vill förmedla så kan vi tolka detta som att hälsa är en del av friluftsundervisningen.

    Slutsats

    I Sverige finns ett behov av att legitimera friluftslivet. I och med detta får friluftslivet många ambitioner. I Norge är friluftslivet själva livet. Här finns det inget behov av att legitimera friluftslivet, friluftslivet ifrågasätts inte. Denna samhällssyn på friluftslivet i respektive land avspeglar sig även på ländernas högskolor. Friluftslärarna på GIH ger en bild av att hälsa förmedlas mer tydligt i friluftsundervisningen än på HiT. Detta beror till stor del på att på GIH är hälsa ett ord som används nedskrivet. I Sverige och på GIH måste friluftslivet legitimeras och därmed sättas på pränt. Medan i Norge är friluftsliv en del av livet och behöver inte kopplas ihop med annat.

  • 133.
    Apro, William
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Moberg, Marcus
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    High intensity interval cycling performed prior to resistance exercise stimulates autophagy signaling2016In: Conference program & abstracts, 2016, p. 84-84Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 134.
    Apró, William
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Eva Blomstrand's research group. Karolinska Institutet, Inst för klinisk vetenskap, intervention och teknik / Dept of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology.
    Regulation of protein synthesis in human skeletal muscle: separate and combined effects of exercise and amino acids2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Skeletal muscle is a highly plastic tissue which has the ability to adapt to various forms of external stimuli such as diverse modes of contractile activity. Thus, performance of endurance exercise over several of weeks results in increased oxidative capacity. In contrast, prolonged performance of resistance exercise ultimately results in increased muscle mass. These adaptations are brought about by transient alterations in gene expression and mRNA translation which result in altered protein turnover, i.e. the balance between protein synthesis and protein breakdown. Protein synthesis is the major determinant of muscle growth, which at the molecular level, is regulated by the mTORC1 pathway. This pathway is potently activated by resistance exercise and amino acids, but the stimulatory role of individual amino acids in human skeletal muscle is unclear. Muscle adaptations in response to endurance exercise are largely dependent on the PGC-1 α pathway, which regulates mitochondrial biogenesis. Given the different training adaptations after resistance and endurance exercise, it has been suggested that these exercise modalities may be incompatible when combined. Such potential interference could be exerted at the molecular level between the pathways responsible for each adaptive response. AMPK, an enzyme usually activated by endurance exercise and, when pharmacologically activated in cell culture and rodent models, has been shown to inhibit mTORC1 and protein synthesis. However, it is not known if activation of AMPK by endurance exercise inhibits resistance exercise induced signaling through the mTORC1 pathway in human skeletal muscle.

    Thus, the main objective of this thesis was to examine the molecular mechanisms regulating protein synthesis in response to amino acids and various modes of exercise in human skeletal muscle.

    In study I, the role of BCAAs in stimulating the mTORC1 pathway was examined in both resting and exercising muscle. BCAA increased mTORC1 activity, as assessed by S6K1 phosphorylation, in both resting and exercising muscle, but more so when exercise and BCAA were combined. In study II, the effect of leucine was compared to that of essential amino acids with or without leucine. It was found that when leucine was combined with the remaining essential amino acids, S6K1 phosphorylation was more pronounced than when leucine was provided alone. Furthermore, when leucine was removed from the essential amino acids, the effect was equal to that of placebo. In study III, the impact of endurance exercise on resistance exercise induced mTORC1 signaling was examined. When performed after resistance exercise, endurance exercise did not inhibit S6K1 phosphorylation compared to when single mode resistance exercise was performed. In study IV, performance of high intensity endurance exercise prior to resistance exercise did not inhibit S6K1 phosphorylation compared to single mode resistance exercise, despite prior activation of AMPK.

    In conclusion, amino acids and resistance exercise activate mTORC1 signaling, as assessed by S6K1 phosphorylation, in a synergistic manner. Leucine is crucial in mediating the amino acid response, however, additional amino acids appear to be required to induce a maximal response downstream of mTORC1. Activation of the mTORC1 pathway in response to heavy resistance exercise is robust and this activation does not appear to be inhibited by prior or by subsequent endurance exercise. As such, these results do not lend support to the existence of molecular interference when resistance and endurance exercise are combined acutely.

  • 135.
    Apró, William
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Influence of supplementation with branched-chain amino acids in combination with resistance exercise on p70S6 kinase phosphorylation in resting and exercising human skeletal muscle.2010In: Acta Physiologica, ISSN 1748-1708, E-ISSN 1748-1716, Vol. 200, no 3, p. 237-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: Skeletal muscle growth is thought to be regulated by the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, which can be activated by resistance exercise and branched-chain amino acids (BCAA). The major aim of the present study was to distinguish between the influence of resistance exercise and BCAA on key enzymes considered to be involved in the regulation of protein synthesis, including p70(S6) kinase (p70(S6k)). METHODS: Nine healthy subjects (four men and five women) performed unilateral resistance exercise on two occasions separated by 1 month. Subjects were randomly supplied either a mixture of BCAA or flavoured water. Muscle biopsies were taken from both resting and exercising muscle before, after and 1 h after exercise. RESULTS: Phosphorylation of Akt was unaltered by either resistance exercise and/or BCAA supplementation whereas mTOR phosphorylation was enhanced (P<0.05) to a similar extent in both exercising and resting muscle following exercise in the absence (70-90%) and presence of BCAA supplementation (80-130%). Phosphorylation of p70(S6k) was unaffected by resistance exercise alone; however, BCAA intake increased (P<0.05) this phosphorylation in both legs following exercise. In resting muscle, a 5- and 16-fold increase in p70(S6k) was observed immediately after and 1 h after exercise, respectively, as compared to 11- and 30-fold increases in the exercising muscle. Phosphorylation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 was attenuated 1 h after exercise (P<0.05) in both resting (10-40%) and exercising muscle (30-50%) under both conditions. CONCLUSION: The present findings indicate that resistance exercise and BCAA exert both separate and combined effects on the p70(S6k) phosphorylation in an Akt-independent manner.

  • 136.
    Apró, William
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Rooyackers, Olav
    Karolinska universitetssjukhuset, Huddinge.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Is leucine induced p70S6 kinase phosphorylation following resistance exercise dependent on elevated phenylalanine levels in human skeletal muscle?2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 137.
    Apró, William
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Moberg, Marcus
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Rooyackers, O
    Holmberg, HC
    Blomstrand, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Leucine does not affect mTORC1 assembly but is required for maximal S6K1 activity in human skeletal muscle following resistance exerciseManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 138.
    Apró, William
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Moberg, Marcus
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Hamilton, D Lee
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Rooyackers, Olav
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Blomstrand, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Leucine does not affect mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 assembly but is required for maximal ribosomal protein s6 kinase 1 activity in human skeletal muscle following resistance exercise.2015In: The FASEB Journal, ISSN 0892-6638, E-ISSN 1530-6860, Vol. 29, no 10, p. 4358-4373Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined how the stimulatory effect of leucine on the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway is affected by the presence of the remaining essential amino acids. Nine male subjects performed resistance exercise on 4 occasions and were randomly supplied essential amino acids (EAAs) with or without leucine (EAA-Leu), leucine alone, or flavored water (placebo; control). Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis before and 60 and 90 min after exercise. Biopsies were analyzed for protein phosphorylation, kinase activity, protein-protein interactions, amino acid concentrations, and tracer incorporation. Leucine alone stimulated ribosomal protein s6 kinase 1 (S6K1) phosphorylation ∼280% more than placebo and EAA-Leu after exercise. Moreover, this response was enhanced by 60-75% after intake of EAAs compared with that of leucine alone (P < 0.05). Kinase activity of S6K1 reflected that of S6K1 phosphorylation; 60 min after exercise, the activity was elevated 3.3- and 4.2-fold with intake of leucine alone and with EAAs, respectively (P < 0.05). The interaction between mammalian target of rapamycin and regulatory-associated protein of mammalian target of rapamycin was unaltered in response to both resistance exercise and amino acid provision. Leucine alone stimulates mTORC1 signaling, although this response is enhanced by other EAA and does not appear to be caused by alterations in mTORC1 assembly.-Apró, W., Moberg, M., Hamilton, D. L., Ekblom, B., Rooyackers, O., Holmberg, H.-C., Blomstrand, E. Leucine does not affect mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 assembly but is required for maximal ribosomal protein s6 kinase 1 activity in human skeletal muscle following resistance exercise.

  • 139.
    Apró, William
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Moberg, Marcus
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Hamilton, L.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    van Hall, G.
    Holmberg, HC
    Blomstrand, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Resistance exercise induced S6K1 kinase activity is not inhibited in human skeletal muscle despite prior activation of AMPK by high intensity interval cycling.2015In: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0193-1849, E-ISSN 1522-1555, Vol. 308, no 6, p. E470-E481Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Combining endurance and strength training in the same session has been reported to reduce the anabolic response to the latter form of exercise. The underlying mechanism, based primarily on results from rodent muscle, is proposed to involve AMPK-dependent inhibition of mTORC1 signaling. This hypothesis was tested in eight trained male subjects who in a randomized order performed either resistance exercise only (R) or interval cycling followed by resistance exercise (ER). Biopsies taken from the vastus lateralis before and after endurance exercise and repeatedly after resistance exercise were assessed for glycogen content, kinase activity, protein phosphorylation and gene expression. Mixed muscle fractional synthetic rate was measured at rest and during 3h of recovery using the stable isotope technique. In ER, AMPK activity was elevated immediately after both endurance and resistance exercise (~90%, P<0.05) but was unchanged in R. Thr389 phosphorylation of S6K1 was increased several-fold immediately after exercise (P<0.05) in both trials and increased further throughout recovery. After 90 and 180 min recovery, S6K1 activity was elevated (~55% and ~110%, respectively, P<0.05) and eEF2 phosphorylation was reduced (~55%, P<0.05) with no difference between trials. In contrast, markers for protein catabolism were differently influenced by the two modes of exercise; ER induced a significant increase in gene and protein expression of MuRF1 (P<0.05), which was not observed following R exercise only. In conclusion, cycling-induced elevation in AMPK activity does not inhibit mTORC1 signaling after subsequent resistance exercise, but may instead interfere with the hypertrophic response by influencing key components in protein breakdown.

  • 140.
    Apró, William
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Moberg, Marcus
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Blomstrand, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Amino Acid-induced S6K1 Activity In Human Skeletal Muscle Is Mediated By Increased mTor/Rheb Interaction: 128 June 1, 11: 15 AM - 11: 30 AM.2016In: Medicine And Science In Sports And Exercise 2016 May; Vol. 48 (5S Suppl 1), pp. 17., 2016, Vol. 48, no 5S Suppl 1, p. 17-17Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cell culture studies have shown that amino acids activate mTORC1 signaling by increasing the interaction between mTOR and its essential activator Rheb. However, the existence of this mechanism in human skeletal muscle remains to be determined.

    PURPOSE: To determine if increased mTORC1 signaling in response to amino acids in human skeletal muscle is due to an increased interaction between mTOR and Rheb.

    METHODS: Eight well trained men performed resistance exercise on two separate occasions. In connection with the exercise, subjects were supplemented with flavored water (Pla) and essential amino acids (EAA) in a double-blind, randomized cross-over design. Muscle biopsies were taken in the vastus lateralis muscle before, immediately after and 90 and 180 min post exercise. Activity of the mTORC1 pathway was assessed by a radiolabeled in-vitro kinase assay for its immediate downstream target S6K1. Protein-protein interactions were determined by western blot following co-immunoprecipitation of mTOR with Rheb. Co-immunoprecipitation was performed on pooled muscle samples from three of the eight subjects.

    RESULTS: Activity of S6K1 remained unchanged immediately after exercise in both trials. However, at 90 min post exercise, S6K1 activity increased by approximately 2- and 8-fold (p<0.05) from baseline the Pla and EAA trials, respectively. At the 180 min time point, S6K1 activity remained elevated in both trials being approx. 3-fold higher in the Pla trial and 5-fold higher (p<0.05) in the EAA trial. The fold-change in mTOR and Rheb interaction largely resembled the activity pattern of S6K1 in both trials; in the Pla trial the fold-change was 0.9, 1.3 and 1.4 while in the EAA trial the fold-change was 1.6, 2.9 and 1.9 immediately after, 90 min after and 180 min after exercise, respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: The large increase in S6K1 activity following EAA intake appears to be mediated by an increased interaction between mTOR and its proximal activator Rheb. This is the first time this mechanism has been demonstrated in human skeletal muscle.

  • 141.
    Apró, William
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Tannerstedt, Jörgen
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Nutrition och muskeluppbyggnad2007Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Senare års studier har gett oss en klarare bild av hur muskeluppbyggnaden stimuleras och regleras av styrketräning och nutrition. Mycket forskning kvarstår dock innan fullständiga rekommendationer kan ges. Vad som dock är klart är att de allmänna rekommendationerna som idag uppgår till 0.8 g protein • kg-1 kroppsvikt • dag-1 i de flesta länder (Lemon, 2000) inte räcker till för fysiskt aktiva individer. Atletens ökade proteinbehov kan dock enkelt tillgodoses via ökat matintag varvid supplementering ur den aspekten inte är nödvändig.

    Vidare vet man att tillgängligheten och tillförseln av aminosyror runt träningen är avgörande för maximal stimulering av proteinsyntesen. Muskeln behöver tillgång till essentiella aminosyror när träningen påbörjas för maximal stimulering av proteinsyntesen. Huruvida aminosyrorna behöver tas i form av en dryck i kosttillskottsform eller kan intas i form av vanlig mat för att tillräckligt fort kunna förse muskeln med EAA är inte utrett.

  • 142.
    Apró, William
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Wang, Li
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Research group for Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Pontén, Marjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Sahlin, Kent
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Research group for Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Endurance Exercise Does Not Impair mTOR Signalling After Resistance Exercise: D-58 Thematic Poster - Skeletal Muscle Cell Signaling: JUNE 2, 2011 3:15 PM - 5:15 PM: ROOM: 3042011In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 43, no 5, p. 52-Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Resistance exercise is known to stimulate muscle hypertrophy and this effect is mainly mediated by the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. In contrast, endurance exercise results in a divergent phenotypic response which to a large extent is mediated by adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Research indicates that molecular interference may exist, possibly through an inhibitory effect on mTOR signalling by AMPK, when these two modes of exercise are combined.

    PURPOSE: To investigate the impact of subsequent endurance exercise on resistance exercise induced mTOR signalling.

    METHODS: In a randomized and cross-over fashion, ten male subjects performed either heavy resistance exercise (R) or heavy resistance exercise followed by endurance exercise (RE) on two separate occasions. The R protocol consisted of thirteen sets of leg press exercise with 3 minutes of recovery allowed between each set. In the RE session, resistance exercise was followed by 15 minutes recovery after which 30 min of cycling was initiated at an intensity equal to 70 % of the subjects' maximal oxygen consumption. Muscle biopsies were collected before, 1 and 3 hours after resistance exercise in both trials. Samples were analyzed for several signalling proteins in the mTOR pathway using western blot technique.

    RESULTS: Phosphorylation of mTOR increased approx. twofold at 1 h post resistance exercise and remained elevated at the 3 h time point (p< 0.01) with no difference between the two trials. Phosphorylation of p70S6k, a downstream target of mTOR, was increased about 6-and18-fold at 1 h and 3 h post resistance exercise (p< 0.01). There was no difference in p70S6k phosphorylation at any time point between the two trials. Phosphorylation of the eukaryotic elongation factor eEF2 was decreased 3- to 4-fold at both time points post resistance exercise (p< 0.01) with no difference between trials. Phosphorylation of AMPK was unchanged at the 1 h time point but decreased approximately 30 % from pre-exercise values in both trials at 3 h post resistance exercise (p< 0.01).

    CONCLUSIONS: The signalling response following heavy resistance exercise is not blunted by subsequent endurance exercise. Supported by the Swedish National Centre for Research in Sports.

  • 143.
    Apró, William
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Wang, Li
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Research group for Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Pontén, Marjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Research group for Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Sahlin, Kent
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Research group for Mitokondriell funktion och metabolisk kontroll.
    Resistance exercise induced mTORC1 signaling is not impaired by subsequent endurance exercise in human skeletal muscle.2013In: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0193-1849, E-ISSN 1522-1555, Vol. 305, no 1, p. E22-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current dogma is that the muscle adaptation to resistance exercise is blunted when combined with endurance exercise. The suggested mechanism (based on rodent experiments) is that activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) during endurance exercise impairs muscle growth through inhibition of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). The purpose of this study was to investigate potential interference of endurance training on the signaling pathway of resistance training [mTORC1 phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1)] in human muscle. Ten healthy and moderately trained male subjects performed on two separate occasions either acute high-intensity and high-volume resistance exercise (leg press, R) or R followed by 30 min of cycling (RE). Muscle biopsies were collected before and 1 and 3 h post resistance exercise. Phosphorylation of mTOR (Ser(2448)) increased 2-fold (P < 0.05) and that of S6K1 (Thr(389)) 14-fold (P < 0.05), with no difference between R and RE. Phosphorylation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2, Thr(56)) was reduced ∼70% during recovery in both trials (P < 0.05). An interesting finding was that phosphorylation of AMPK (Thr(172)) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC, Ser(79)) decreased ∼30% and ∼50%, respectively, 3 h postexercise (P < 0.05). Proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1 (PGC-1α) mRNA increased more after RE (6.5-fold) than after R (4-fold) (RE vs. R: P < 0.01) and was the only gene expressed differently between trials. These data show that the signaling of muscle growth through the mTORC1-S6K1 axis after heavy resistance exercise is not inhibited by subsequent endurance exercise. It is also suggested that prior activation of mTORC1 signaling may repress subsequent phosphorylation of AMPK.

  • 144.
    Arenander, Lovisa
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Individ eller kön?: En studie av lärares föreställningar om kvinnligt och manligt samt hur dessa avspeglas i undervisningen2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte

    Syftet med denna studie har varit att undersöka lärares föreställningar om kvinnligt och man-ligt samt hur dessa avspeglas i deras arbets- och förhållningssätt till elever. De två frågeställ-ningarna som använts har varit: uppfattar lärare elever som i huvudsak individer eller kön? Medverkar lärare till att genusmönster uppstår och/eller består?

    Metod

    Studien är kvalitativ och genomfördes i en lågstadieskola i Stockholmstrakten. Tillväga-gångssättet har varit att genom observationer av en klass, som undervisats dels av en klasslä-rare, dels av en lärare i idrott och hälsa, få fram hur lärares föreställningar om kön avspeglas i undervisningen. Lärarna meddelades att observationen gällde deras förhållnings- och arbets-sätt, inte att det var ur ett genusperspektiv. Under tre och en halv dag genomfördes observa-tionerna och efter detta genomfördes intervjuer med de berörda lärarna. Intervjuerna följde fasta frågeområden för att få fram vilka lärarnas föreställningar om manligt och kvinnligt var. Därefter sammanfördes observationer med intervjuer för att se om föreställningarna kan ha avspeglats i undervisningen. Resultatet har analyserats utifrån historikern Yvonne Hirdmans genussystemteori.

    Resultat

    Resultatet visar att lärare behandlar elever olika utifrån vilket kön de tillhör. Lärarna var till viss utsträckning medvetna om detta. Lärarnas föreställningar om manligt och kvinnligt har varit att kvinnor har mer omvårdande egenskaper, är stillsamma och fogliga medan män är fysiskt aktiva och har svårt för att visa ömhet. Det framkom att flickor och pojkar till viss del betedde sig på ett sätt som motsvarade dessa föreställningar.

    Slutsatser

    Att lärarna har föreställningar om hur flickor och pojkar ska vara och vad de förväntas göra samt att detta avspeglas i undervisningen.

  • 145.
    Arlestrand, Frida
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences. 1991.
    Vitt friluftsliv: En kvalitativ studie om undervisning i vitt friluftsliv på kommunala gymnasieskolor i Stockholms län2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The purpose of this study is to explore the occurrence of snow/ice-dependent outdoor life in local secondary schools around the Stockholm area. The research questions are:

    Is there any education of snow/ice-dependent outdoor life practiced at secondary schools around the Stockholm area? How is the education of snow/ice-dependent outdoor life practiced? Are there any factors that can affect the design of the education of snow/ice-dependent outdoor life?

    Method: The study's data collection was done by interviews. The sample consisted of eight physical education teachers at secondary schools around Stockholm. To get a spread of samples across the entire Stockholm area, Stockholm was divided into three zones: the northern side, the inner city and the southern side. Based on these zones, all local secondary schools were listed and a random sample was drawn. Three interviews each occurred on the northern and the southern side and two interviews took place in the inner city. The first physical education teacher in the staff list at the selected school was contacted, the next teacher in the list was to be contacted if no response and if no response at all, a new school was to be contacted. The results have been analyzed based on the frame-factor theory.

    Results: Five of the eight schools practices some form of education in snow/ice-dependent outdoor life. How the education is exercised differs between schools. Some teaches safety, cross country skiing and skating in class, other schools use outdoor days to teach this and some schools do longer skiing trips. There have also been a number of factors that influence the design of education. Examples of these factors are access to equipment, finances, time, student’s attitudes, underlying organization etc.

    Conclusions: What has been shown in this study is that the majority of participating schools practices some form of education in snow/ice-dependent outdoor life. How the teaching is done can vary between the different schools. The conclusion of this study is that it is possible to practice education in snow/ice-dependent outdoor life in the Stockholm area but there are a number of factors that affect the design and implementation.

  • 146.
    Arndt, Anton
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Achilles tendon biomechanics and functional anatomy2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 147.
    Arndt, Anton
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Biomechanical concepts of Achilles Tendon pathogenesis2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 148.
    Arndt, Anton
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    In vivo, intrinsic kinematics of the foot and ankle2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 149.
    Arndt, Anton
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    The evolution of running shoes2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 150.
    Arndt, Anton
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Bengtsson, Ann-Sophie
    Peolsson, Michael
    Thorstensson, Alf
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Movin, Tomas
    Non-uniform displacement within the Achilles tendon durig passive ankle joint motion.2012In: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy, ISSN 0942-2056, E-ISSN 1433-7347, Vol. 20, no 9, p. 1868-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE:

    An initial step in the understanding of Achilles tendon dynamics is to investigate the effects of passive motion, thereby minimising muscle activation and reducing internal joint forces. Internal tendon dynamics during passive ankle joint motion have direct implications for clinical rehabilitation protocols after Achilles tendon surgery. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that tendon tissue displacement is different in different layers of the Achilles tendon during controlled passive ankle joint movements.

    METHODS:

    Ultrasound imaging was conducted on the right Achilles tendon of nine healthy recreationally active males. Standardised isokinetic passive dorsi-plantar-flexion movements were performed with a total range of motion of 35°. The tendon was divided into superficial, central and deep layers in the resulting B-mode ultrasound images viewed in the sagittal plane. A block-matching speckle tracking algorithm was applied post-process, with kernels for the measurement of displacement placed in each of the layers.

    RESULTS:

    The mean (SD) displacement of the Achilles tendon during passive dorsiflexion was 8.4 (1.9) mm in the superficial layer, 9.4 (1.9) mm in the central portion and 10.4 (2.1) mm in the deep layer, respectively. In all cases, the movement of the deep layer of the tendon was greater than that of the superficial one (P < 0.01).

    CONCLUSIONS:

    These results, achieved in vivo with ultrasonographic speckle tracking, indicated complex dynamic differences in different layers of the Achilles tendon, which could have implications for the understanding of healing processes of tendon pathologies and also of normal tendon function.

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