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  • 1.
    Andersson, Dan
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Wahlgren, Lina
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Schantz, Peter
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Pedestrians' perceptions of route environments in relation to deterring or facilitating walking2023Ingår i: Frontiers In Public Health, ISSN 2296-2565, Vol. 10, artikel-id 1012222Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Every walk takes place in a route environment, and it can play an important role in deterring or facilitating walking, and will always affect the environmental unwell – wellbeing of pedestrians. The aim of this study is to illuminate which the important route environmental variables are in this respect. The focus is therefore on pedestrians´ perceptions of route environmental variables and how they relate to overall appraisals of route environments as hindering – stimulating for walking and unsafe – safe for reasons of traffic. 

     

    Methods

    Commuting pedestrians in the inner urban area of Stockholm, Sweden (n = 294, 49.5 ± 10.4 years, 77% women), were recruited via advertisements. They evaluated their own commuting route environments using a self-report tool, the Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES). Correlation, multiple regression, and mediation analyses were used to study the relationships between the variables and the outcome variables.

     

    Results

    Aesthetics and greenery appear to strongly stimulate walking, whereas noise, a proxy for motorized traffic, hinders it. Furthermore, aesthetics is positively related to traffic safety, whereas conflicts have the opposite role. Conflicts is an intermediate outcome, representing several basic environmental variables, whereof some were directly and negatively related to unsafe – safe traffic.

     

    Conclusion 

    Route environmental variables appear to be potent factors in deterring or facilitating walking. This knowledge is of importance for policymakers and urban planners when designing route environments with the aim of attracting new pedestrians, and simultaneously stimulating those who already walk to keep on.

     

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  • 2.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Department of Global Public Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Insurance Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kjellenberg, Karin
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    COVID-19 and unfavorable changes in mental health unrelated to changes in physical activity, sedentary time, and health behaviors among Swedish adolescents: A longitudinal study.2023Ingår i: Frontiers In Public Health, ISSN 2296-2565, Vol. 11, artikel-id 1115789Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has had major impact on the daily lives of adolescents. This study examined whether mental health outcomes had changed over the pandemic, and if such changes were related to changes in physical activity (PA), sedentary time, sleep, screen time, and participation in organized sports.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this longitudinal study, data were collected in autumn 2019 with follow-up measurements in spring 2021. In total, 558 schools were invited and 34 schools around Stockholm with a variation in socioeconomic background were included. Physical activity and sedentary time were measured for seven consecutive days by accelerometry (Actigraph). Anxiety, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), psychosomatic health, stress, sleep duration, screen time, and organized sports participation were self-reported in questionnaires. Linear models were applied to estimate associations between changes in mental health outcomes and exposures.

    RESULTS: From the baseline sample of 1,139 participants, 585 (55% girls), mean (SD) age 14.9 (0.3) years, participated in the follow-up. Between 2019 and 2021, there was a decrease in HRQoL [mean difference -1.7 (-2.3, -1.2), p < 0.001], increase in psychosomatic health problems [mean difference 1.8 (1.3, 2.3), p < 0.001], and an increase in the number of participants with high stress [from 94 (28%) to 139 (42%), p < 0.001]. Weekly light PA and sleep duration decreased and weekly sedentary time and screen time increased unrelated to changes in mental health outcomes. An increase in sleep duration during weekdays was significantly related to both a decrease in anxiety (B = -0.71, CI: -1.36, -0.06) and an increase in HRQoL (B = 1.00, CI: 0.51, 1.49).

    CONCLUSION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, mental health appears to have been impaired in Swedish adolescents, but unrelated to changes in PA, sedentary time, screen time, or participation in organized sports. However, increased sleep duration on weekdays was related to less anxiety and better HRQoL. The results may help policy makers and other stakeholders comprehend the differential effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health outcomes and help guiding the planning of policy actions.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN15689873.

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  • 3.
    Schantz, Peter
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Olsson, Karin Sofia Elisabeth
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Salier Eriksson, Jane
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Rosdahl, Hans
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysiologi, nutrition och biomekanik.
    Perspectives on exercise intensity, volume, step characteristics and health outcomes in walking for transport2022Ingår i: Frontiers In Public Health, ISSN 2296-2565, s. 1-19, artikel-id 911863Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Quantification of movement intensity and energy utilization, together with frequency of trips, duration, distance, step counts and cadence, is essential for interpreting the character of habitual walking for transport, and its potential support of health. The purpose of the study is to illuminate this with valid methods and novel perspectives, and to thereby provide a new basis for characterizing and interpreting walking in relation to health outcomes.

    Methods: Habitual middle-aged commuting pedestrians (males = 10, females= 10) were investigated in the laboratory at rest and with maximal treadmill and cycle ergometer tests. Thereafter, levels of oxygen uptake, energy expenditure, ventilation, heart rate, blood lactate, rated perceived exertion, cadence, number of steps, duration, distance, and speed were recorded during the normal walking commute of each participant in Greater Stockholm, Sweden. The number of commutes per week over the year was self-reported.

    Results: Walking in the field demanded about 30% more energy per km compared to level treadmill walking. For both sexes, the walking intensity in field was about 46% of maximal oxygen uptake, and energy expenditure amounted to 0.96 kcal · kg−1 · km−1. The MET values (males: 6.2; females:6.5) mirrored similar levels of walking speed (males: 5.7; females: 5.9 km · h−1) and levels of oxygen uptake (males: 18.6; females: 19.5mL · kg−1 · min−1). The average number of MET-hours per week in a typical month was 22 for males and 20 for females. This resulted in a total weekly energy expenditure of∼1,570 and 1,040 kcal for males and females, respectively. Over the year, the number of walking commutes and their accumulated distance was ∼385 tripsand 800 km for both sexes.

    Conclusion: Walking in naturalistic field settings demands its own studies. When males and females walk to work, their relative aerobic intensities and absolute energy demands for a given distance are similar. It is equivalent to the lower part of the moderate relative intensity domain.The combination of oxygen uptake, trip duration and frequency leads to high and sustained levels of MET-hours as well as energy expenditure per week over the year, with a clear health enhancing potential. Based on this study we recommend 6000 transport steps per day, or equivalent, during five weekdays, over the year, in order to reach optimal health gains.

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  • 4.
    Wang, Rui
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institute, Solna, Sweden; Wisconsin Alzheimer's Disease Research Center, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, United States.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. The Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Solna, Sweden.
    Arvidsson, Daniel
    Center for Health and Performance, Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, Faculty of Education, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Fridolfsson, Jonatan
    Center for Health and Performance, Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, Faculty of Education, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Börjesson, Mats
    Center for Health and Performance, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Sahlgrenska University Hospital/Östra, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    The interrelationship between physical activity intensity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and executive function in middle-aged adults: An observational study of office workers.2022Ingår i: Frontiers In Public Health, ISSN 2296-2565, Vol. 10, artikel-id 1035521Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Previous evidence supports a beneficial effect of physical activity on executive function across the whole lifespan. Yet, the interrelationships of the intensities of physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and executive function require further investigation in adults.

    AIM: Using unfiltered accelerometry data and high-resolution intensity classification, we sought to estimate the associations of physical activity with cardiorespiratory fitness and executive function in adult office workers.

    METHODS: We included 343 full-time office workers (mean age: 42.41 years, range of age: 36-49 years). Executive function was assessed using Stroop, Trail making tests (part-B), and 2-back tests, and a composite score was produced to reflect the general executive function performance. Physical activity was assessed using the Actigraph GT3X+-monitor, worn by each participant for seven days at the hip. Raw accelerometry data were processed by the 10 Hz frequency extended method and divided into 22 intensity bins and sleep time. Cardiorespiratory fitness was estimated using the submaximal Ekblom-Bak cycle ergometer test. Data were analyzed using partial least squares regressions.

    RESULTS: In adults, cardiorespiratory fitness was closely correlated with a wide range of absolute physical activity intensity patterns. A higher level of executive function in adults was associated with both higher absolute physical activity intensities and cardiorespiratory fitness, which was independent of age, sex, and education levels. A very weak association between intensities, fitness, and executive function was observed in high-fit adults. Among low-fit adults, although a positive association started already toward the upper end of moderate intensity, there still appeared to be an association between intensities, cardiorespiratory fitness, and executive function. That is, cardiorespiratory fitness may mediate the association between absolute physical activity intensities and executive function up to a certain level.

    CONCLUSION: The maintenance of executive function in adulthood was related to both physical activity intensities and cardiorespiratory fitness, while their interrelationship was not equal across fitness levels. It is highly recommended to consider the cardiorespiratory fitness level in future studies that focus on executive functions in aging as well when designing individualized physical activity training programs.

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