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  • 1.
    Altmann, Viola C
    et al.
    Peter Harrison Centre for Disability Sport, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom..
    Mason, Barry S
    Peter Harrison Centre for Disability Sport, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom..
    Geurts, Tijmen
    Department of Rehabilitation, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    van de Camp, Sanne A J H
    Department of Rehabilitation, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    Vanlandewijck, Yves
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Katholieke Universiteit (KU) Leuven, Leuven, Belgium..
    Objective Measurement of Ball-Handling Proficiency in Wheelchair Sports: A Systematic Review.2021In: Frontiers in rehabilitation sciences, ISSN 2673-6861, Vol. 2, article id 798675Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In Paralympic sports, classification of athletes based on the impact of impairments on the ability to perform is needed, to prevent a one-sided and predictable outcome of the competition in which the least impaired athlete has the best chance to win. Classification is developing from expert opinion based to evidence based. In wheelchair court sports, there is evidence to support the impact of impairment on wheeled mobility, but not on ball handling. To assess the impact of impairment on the ability to perform ball-handling activities, standardised tests for ball handling are needed.

    Purpose: To assess if reliable and valid standardised tests for the measurement of ball-handling proficiency in a wheelchair or able-bodied court sports exist; to assist in the development of Evidence-Based Classification (EBC) in wheelchair court sports according to the guidelines of the International Paralympic Committee (IPC).

    Methods: The review was conducted according to the Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) statement. Search terms used were "wheelchair," "ball," "ball sports," "test," and "performance." Databases searched were Medline, Embase, PubMed, and Sport Discus. Study quality was assessed using the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology checklist.

    Results: Twenty-two articles were included. Foundational Movement Skills in ball-handling proficiency were assessed. Tests for throwing maximal distance showed sufficient reliability and validity. Precision in throwing showed low-to-moderate reliability and conflicting results in validity. Throwing techniques differed between studies. Dribbling the ball showed high reliability, but conflicting results in validity.

    Conclusions: Tests for throwing maximal distance, throwing precision, and dribbling the ball can be used in standardised tests for activity limitation in wheelchair court sports. However, tests need to be adapted and standardised and then reassessed for reliability and validity in athletes with and without arm impairment.

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  • 2.
    Fliess Douer, Osnat
    et al.
    KU, Leuven, Belgium; Israel Paralympic Committee, Tel Aviv, Israel; The Academic College at Wingate Institute, Israel.
    Koseff, Davidah
    Israel Paralympic Committee, Tel Aviv, Israel..
    Tweedy, Sean
    University of Queensland, St Lucia, Australia.
    Molik, Bartosz
    Jozef Pilsudski University of Physical Education, Warsaw, Poland..
    Vanlandewijck, Yves
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. KU, Leuven, Belgium.
    Challenges and opportunities in wheelchair basketball classification - A Delphi study.2021In: Journal of Sports Sciences, ISSN 0264-0414, E-ISSN 1466-447X, Vol. 39, no Sup1, p. 7-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The International Paralympic Committee (IPC) mandates Paralympic Sports to develop evidence-based classification systems that allocate athletes into 'classes' according to the impact of their impairment on sport-specific performance. In wheelchair-basketball, a panel of classifiers assesses athlete's performance through observation. One key barrier to evidence-based classification is the absence of defined eligible impairments, including clear guidelines on how to assess them and their impact on wheelchair basketball performance. This study aims to reach expert consensus on issues specific to wheelchair basketball that can benefit from evidence-based classification. It offers recommendations for refining the classification manual, thus improving adherence to the IPC classification code. A three-round Delphi study was conducted with 29 experts in wheelchair basketball. The experts agreed with the new definition for the aim of wheelchair basketball classification, which is in line with the IPC code. Cases identified as having the highest risk for disagreement between classifiers included classifying players with upper limb deficiency or with impaired coordination. The panel failed to agree on changing the classification procedures and on defining the eligible impairment list. This study identifies issues specific to wheelchair basketball classification to be addressed in future research. Additional discussions need to take place to promote further resolution.

  • 3.
    Ho-A-Tham, N
    et al.
    Anton de Kom University of Suriname, Paramaribo, Suriname; KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Ting-A-Kee, B
    Anton de Kom University of Suriname, Paramaribo, Suriname.
    Struyf, N
    Anton de Kom University of Suriname, Paramaribo, Suriname; KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    de Almeida Mello, J
    KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Dankaerts, W
    KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Vanlandewijck, Yves
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints and health-related quality of life in a Maroon and Kalinya Indigenous rural village in Suriname.2023In: Quality of Life Research, ISSN 0962-9343, E-ISSN 1573-2649, Vol. 32, no 7, p. 1955-1970Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: Musculoskeletal complaints (MSCs), a leading contributor to disability worldwide, have a major impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Poor general health related to lifestyle factors such as smoking, alcohol consumption and physical inactivity can lead to a higher risk to suffer MSCs. For minority groups in Suriname such as the Maroons and the Indigenous peoples no research has been conducted regarding prevalence of MSCs, HRQoL and various lifestyle factors. The aims were to determine the prevalence of MSCs and HRQoL in two rural tribal villages in the forested interior of Suriname and to identify various lifestyle factors associated with HRQoL in these communities.

    METHOD: This was a cross-sectional community-based study using the Community Oriented Program for the Control of Rheumatic Diseases stage 1, phase 1 & 2 methodology in Goejaba, a Maroon village and Galibi, an Indigenous rural village. Sociodemographic data, self-reported comorbidities, past MSCs (for longer than seven days), lifestyle factors including smoking, alcohol use, body mass index (BMI) and physical activity (PA), and HRQoL (using the 36-item Short Form Survey (SF-36)) data were gathered among 153 Indigenous individuals in Galibi, and 516 Maroons in Goejaba. Regression models were constructed to explore associations between presence of MSCs, lifestyle factors and HRQoL.

    RESULTS: High prevalence rates for past MSCs were reported in Galibi (72.4%) and Goejaba (58.3%). In both communities, respondents with MSCs reported significantly worse HRQoL than persons without MSCs. MSCs and the presence of comorbidities had a strong negative association with HRQoL, whereas PA positively influenced the physical and mental health domains of the SF-36. Smoking, alcohol use and BMI showed no association with HRQoL.

    CONCLUSIONS: In this first study, a high prevalence for MSCs was reported in an Indigenous and Maroon rural community in Suriname. MSCs and comorbidities had a significant negative impact on HRQoL. PA was associated with higher self-reported HRQoL.

  • 4.
    Ho-A-Tham, Nancy
    et al.
    Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Anton de Kom University of Suriname, Paramaribo, Suriname; Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Research Group for Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation, Faculty of Movement and Rehabilitation Sciences, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium..
    Struyf, Niels
    Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Anton de Kom University of Suriname, Paramaribo, Suriname; Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Research Group for Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation, Faculty of Movement and Rehabilitation Sciences, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium..
    Ting-A-Kee, Beverly
    Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Anton de Kom University of Suriname, Paramaribo, Suriname..
    de Almeida Mello, Johanna
    LUCAS, Center for Care Research and Consultancy, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium..
    Vanlandewijck, Yves
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Research Group of Adapted Physical Activity and Psychomotor Rehabilitation, Faculty of Movement and Rehabilitation Sciences, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium..
    Dankaerts, Wim
    Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Research Group for Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation, Faculty of Movement and Rehabilitation Sciences, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium..
    Physical activity, fear avoidance beliefs and level of disability in a multi-ethnic female population with chronic low back pain in Suriname: A population-based study.2022In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 17, no 10, article id e0276974Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is an important cause for reduced daily physical activity (PA) and loss of quality of life, especially in women. In Suriname, a middle-income country in South America, the relationship between PA and CLBP is still unknown.

    AIMS: To assess the level of PA in women with CLBP of different ethnicity, and to identify whether fear avoidance beliefs (FAB), disability, co-occurring musculoskeletal pain sites and various sociodemographic and lifestyle factors were associated with self-reported PA.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional community-based house-to-house survey was conducted between April 2016 and July 2017. The survey followed the Community Oriented Program for Control of Rheumatic Diseases methodology. Selection criteria were being female of Asian-Surinamese, African-Surinamese or of Mixed ethnicity and aged 18 or older, living in an urban area, and reporting CLBP. Data was collected on PA, FAB, disability, co-occurring musculoskeletal pain sites, CLBP intensity and sociodemographic and lifestyle factors.

    RESULTS: Urban adult women with current CLBP (N = 210) were selected. Nearly 57% of the population met the WHO recommendation on PA, with work-related PA as the largest contributor to total self-reported PA. Most women showed low FAB scores (FABQ-Work ≤34 (96.2%) and FABQ-PA ≤14 (57.6%)) and low disability levels (Oswestry Disability Index ≤20 (62.4%)). An inverse association between total PA and FABQ-Work (OR = 0.132, CI: 0.023; 0.750) was found. In contrast, total PA had a significant, positive association with disability (OR = 2.154, CI: 1.044; 4.447) and workload (OR = 2.224, CI: 1.561; 3.167). All other variables showed no association with total PA.

    CONCLUSION: This was the first study in Suriname reporting that 43.3% of urban adult women with CLBP were physically inactive. Total self-reported PA is influenced by FABQ-Work, average to heavy workload and moderate to severe disability. In this study, PA-Work was the major contributor to total PA. Therefore, future longitudinal studies should evaluate different types and aspects of PA in relation to CLBP management.

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  • 5.
    Ho-A-Tham, Nancy
    et al.
    University of Suriname, Paramaribo, Suriname; KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium..
    Ting-A-Kee, Beverly
    University of Suriname, Paramaribo, Suriname.
    Struyf, Niels
    iname, Paramaribo, Suriname; KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium..
    Vanlandewijck, Yves
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Dankaerts, Wim
    KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Low back pain prevalence, beliefs and treatment-seeking behaviour in multi-ethnic Suriname.2021In: Rheumatology: Advances in Practice, E-ISSN 2514-1775, Vol. 5, no 3, article id rkab074Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The aims were to determine, for the first time, the prevalence of low back pain (LBP) in urban and rural communities and to assess back beliefs and treatment-seeking behaviour in Suriname, a multi-ethnic country in the Caribbean community.

    Methods: A cross-sectional community-based survey using the Community Oriented Program for the Control of Rheumatic Diseases methodology was performed between April 2016 and July 2017. Information was collected on LBP prevalence and LBP-related treatment seeking, beliefs about LBP [Back Beliefs Questionnaire (BBQ)], level of disability (Oswestry Disability Index) and the risk of developing persistent disabling pain (Start Back Screening Tool).

    Results: A total of 541 out of 2902 individuals reported current acute or chronic LBP. It was more prevalent in urban (20.2%) than in rural (13.7%) communities, especially in females and older adults (>55 years of age). Individuals from rural areas [median BBQ = 18.00 (14.00-22.00)] had significantly more negative beliefs than the urban population [median BBQ = 25.00 (19.00-31.00); P < 0.001]. Maroons displayed more negative beliefs than Creole (P = 0.040), Hindustani (P < 0.001), Javanese (P < 0.001) and mixed ethnicity (P < 0.001) groups. At least 75% of the LBP population sought care, especially from a western health-care practitioner. Seeking treatment and having a higher risk of developing persistent disabling pain was significantly associated with more disability (P < 0.001). Age ≥45 years (P < 0.001), Indigenous ethnicity (P < 0.05) and functional disability (P < 0.001) were factors influencing treatment seeking.

    Conclusion: Low back pain is a prevalent health problem in the Surinamese urban community, especially in older adults and among females. Most individuals experiencing LBP visited a western health-care practitioner and had more negative beliefs compared with other communities.

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  • 6.
    Karczewska-Lindinger, Magdalena
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Linnamo, Vesa
    University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Rosso, Valeria
    Politecnico Di Torino, Turin, Italy.
    Gastaldi, Laura
    Politecnico Di Torino, Turin, Italy.
    Rapp, Walter
    Olympic Training Centre Freiburg, Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany.
    Vanlandewijck, Yves
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Lindinger, Stefan
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Force Generation Profiles of Para-Nordic Sit-Skiers Representing Different Physical Impairments2021In: Journal of Science in Sport and Exercise, ISSN 2662-1371, Vol. 3, p. 281-291Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    To biomechanically profile force generation connected to the complex role of the trunk in double poling in a representative sample of Para-Nordic sit-skiers.

    Methods

    Twelve male World Cup Para-Nordic sit-skiers (sport classes: LW10–12) were skiing on flat snow terrain at submaximal speed of 4.5 m/s (~ 73% maximum speed). 2D video (50 Hz) and pole force analyses (1000 Hz) were performed synchronously, examining angle, force and cycle characteristics to analyse the role of the trunk in generating propulsion.

    Results

    LW10–11.5 skiers lost between 21% and 4% propulsive force versus LW12 athletes only due to different geometrics of the trunk and pole angle at an equal axial pole force. While LW10–11 skiers indicated trunk extension or position maintenance during pole thrust, LW11.5–12 skiers showed strong trunk flexion combined with smaller pole angles to the ground. Hence, LW11.5–12 skiers could create larger propulsive forces and therefore greater cycle lengths at lower cycle rates at the same speed. Maximum speed increased from LW10 to LW12 and was significantly correlated to trunk flexion range of motion (r = 0.63) and cycle length (r = 0.59). Trunk flexion ROM showed a significant relationship to the impulse of propulsive force (r = 0.63) and pole angle to the ground (r = − 0.76) (all P < 0.05).

    Conclusion

    The impact of impairment on the force production profiles and its physiological-biomechanical consequences need further investigation also in other terrains and at wider spectrums of skiing speeds. The evident problem of low numbers of LW10–11 skiers in World Cup needs creative future solutions for research.

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  • 7.
    Kraaijenbrink, Cassandra
    et al.
    University of Münster, Münster, Germany; University of Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.
    Vegter, Riemer J K
    University of Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands; Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom.
    Ostertag, Nils
    University of Münster, Münster, Germany.
    Janssens, Luc
    KULeuven, Leuven, Belgium..
    Vanlandewijck, Yves
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. KULeuven, Leuven, Belgium..
    van der Woude, Lucas H V
    University of Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands; Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom; .
    Wagner, Heiko
    University of Münster, Münster, Germany.
    Steering Does Affect Biophysical Responses in Asynchronous, but Not Synchronous Submaximal Handcycle Ergometry in Able-Bodied Men.2021In: Frontiers in Sports and Active Living, E-ISSN 2624-9367, Vol. 3, article id 741258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Real-life daily handcycling requires combined propulsion and steering to control the front wheel. Today, the handcycle cranks are mostly mounted synchronously unlike the early handcycle generations. Alternatively, arm cycle ergometers do not require steering and the cranks are mostly positioned asynchronously. The current study aims to evaluate the effects of combining propulsion and steering requirements on synchronous and asynchronous submaximal handcycle ergometry. We hypothesize that asynchronous handcycling with steering results in the mechanically least efficient condition, due to compensation for unwanted rotations that are not seen in synchronous handcycling, regardless of steering. Sixteen able-bodied male novices volunteered in this lab-based experiment. The set-up consisted of a handcycle ergometer with 3D force sensors at each crank that also allows "natural" steering. Four submaximal steady-state (60 rpm, ~35 W) exercise conditions were presented in a counterbalanced order: synchronous with a fixed steering axis, synchronous with steering, asynchronous with a fixed axis and asynchronous with steering. All participants practiced 3 × 4 mins with 30 mins rest in between every condition. Finally, they did handcycle for 4 mins in each of the four conditions, interspaced with 10 mins rest, while metabolic outcomes, kinetics and kinematics of the ergometer were recorded. The additional steering component did not influence velocity, torque and power production during synchronous handcycling and therefore resulted in an equal metabolically efficient handcycling configuration compared to the fixed condition. Contrarily, asynchronous handcycling with steering requirements showed a reduced mechanical efficiency, as velocity around the steering axis increased and torque and power production were less effective. Based on the torque production around the crank and steering axes, neuromuscular compensation strategies seem necessary to prevent steering movements in the asynchronous mode. To practice or test real-life daily synchronous handcycling, a synchronous crank set-up of the ergometer is advised, as exercise performance in terms of mechanical efficiency, metabolic strain, and torque production is independent of steering requirements in that mode. Asynchronous handcycling or arm ergometry demands a different handcycle technique in terms of torque production and results in higher metabolic responses than synchronous handcycling, making it unsuitable for testing.

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  • 8.
    Mann, David L
    et al.
    Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Tweedy, Sean M
    University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia..
    Jackson, Robin C
    Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK.
    Vanlandewijck, Yves
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Classifying the evidence for evidence-based classification in Paralympic sport.2021In: Journal of Sports Sciences, ISSN 0264-0414, E-ISSN 1466-447X, Vol. 39, no sup1, p. 1-6Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 9.
    McNamee, Mike
    et al.
    KU Leuven, Belgium; Swansea University, UK.
    Parnell, Richard
    Swansea University, UK.
    Vanlandewijck, Yves
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. KU Leuven, Belgium.
    "Fairness, Technology and the Ethics of Paralympic Sport Classification".2021In: European Journal of Sport Science, ISSN 1746-1391, E-ISSN 1536-7290, Vol. 21, no 11, p. 1510-1517Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fairness in sport is a widely shared meritocratic norm. Its application is usually restricted to equality of opportunity to compete for victory. Paralympic sports lay down a further challenge in that equality of opportunity must be shaped by considerations of fairness, evidenced by the development of discrete competition categories to construct fair and meaningful contests. In this article we extend these philosophical ideas to consider how Fair Equality of Opportunity might operate in the context of Paralympic sports classification. We articulate three conceptions of fairness relevant to these sports: (i) background fairness; (ii) procedural fairness; and (iii) stakes fairness. We critically review the International Paralympic Committee's Policy on Sport Equipment in relation to the first two conceptions and argue that greater clarification, theorization and rule modification is required if physical prowess, as opposed to equipment technology, is to be assured as the dominant determinant of Paralympic athletic success.Bullet points: Fair equality of opportunity in sport is applied to disability or Paralympic sportConceptual and ethical review of IPC sport equipment policyGreater theorization and rule modification required to preserve the principle that physical prowess as opposed to equipment technology is the dominant determinat of athletic success.

  • 10.
    Pineda, Roi Charles
    et al.
    Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Faculty of Movement and Rehabilitation Sciences, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium..
    Krampe, Ralf Th
    Brain & Cognition Group, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium..
    Vanlandewijck, Yves
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Faculty of Movement and Rehabilitation Sciences, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium..
    Van Biesen, Debbie
    Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Faculty of Movement and Rehabilitation Sciences, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium..
    Athletes with intellectual disability: The effects of cognitive deficits and sports practice on bipedal standing balance.2023In: JARID: Journal of applied research in intellectual disabilities, ISSN 1360-2322, E-ISSN 1468-3148, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 96-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Athletes with intellectual disability represent a unique population who experiences the contrasting effects of cognitive deficits and benefits of sports on balance. This study investigated the combined impact of intellectual disability and sport practice on balance.

    METHOD: Center-of-pressure excursion in bipedal stance of 2 disability (with and without intellectual disability) × 2 sport practice (athlete and novice) participant groups was measured in several balance conditions.

    RESULTS: Sport practice exerted no significant effect on any of the center-of-pressure measures used. In contrast, intellectual disability's effects on balance, which were most apparent in challenging balance conditions, were significant (p < .05) and had large effect sizes (ηp 2  > 0.13).

    CONCLUSION: The negative effects of cognitive deficits on the balance of young adults with intellectual disability underscore the need for effective interventions. Although findings did not support sports' balance-remediating potential, the value of sport participation for individuals with intellectual disability cannot be fully dismissed just yet.

  • 11.
    Pineda, Roi Charles
    et al.
    Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Faculty of Movement and Rehabilitation Sciences, Leuven, Belgium.
    Krampe, Ralf Th
    Brain & Cognition Group, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Leuven, Belgium..
    Vanlandewijck, Yves
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Faculty of Movement and Rehabilitation Sciences, Leuven, Belgium.
    Van Biesen, Debbie
    Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Faculty of Movement and Rehabilitation Sciences, Leuven, Belgium.
    Cognitive-motor multitasking in athletes with and without intellectual impairment.2022In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 424-434Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: We investigated cognitive-motor multitasking in 29 top athletes with intellectual impairment (II) recruited during the European Championship Games organized by Virtus (World Intellectual Impairment Sports) and 29 control (CT) athletes matched for age, sex, sports practiced, and lifetime accumulated practice hours.

    METHODS: Participants performed a cognitive task that required recognizing previously displayed visual objects among distractors. The motor task required maintaining a stable upright posture balancing on a rocking board placed atop a force plate which assessed center-of-pressure (COP) movement. Both tasks were performed separately (with participants seated for the cognitive single task) and concurrently under dual-task conditions, wherein participants memorized objects while balancing. We analyzed recognition accuracy, COP path length, and sample entropy of the COP trajectory as a measure for automaticity of postural control.

    RESULTS: As expected, CT-athletes outperformed II-athletes in the cognitive task but the two groups have comparable performance in the postural task under single- and dual-task conditions. When multitasking, CT-athletes switched to more automatic postural control and maintained their postural sway at single-task levels. II-athletes prioritized balance thereby successfully keeping COP excursion comparable to single-task conditions. However, this came with pronounced costs for memory performance, which was unaffected by multitasking in CT-athletes.

    CONCLUSION: The adaptive capacity observed in control athletes was not at the disposal of II-athletes who revealed pronounced sensitivities to multitasking interference. This sensitivity obviously was not compensated for by either athletic competence or potential transfer of athletic skill to domain-general cognitive functions.

  • 12.
    Pineda, Roi Charles
    et al.
    Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium..
    Krampe, Ralf Th
    Brain and Cognition Group, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium..
    Vanlandewijck, Yves
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics. Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium..
    Van Biesen, Debbie
    Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.; Virtus Academy, Virtus World Intellectual Impairment Sport, Sheffield, United Kingdom..
    Scoping review of dual-task interference in individuals with intellectual disability.2023In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 14, article id 1223288Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dual-task paradigms can provide insights on the structures and mechanisms underlying information processing and hold diagnostic, prognostic, and rehabilitative value for populations with cognitive deficits such as in individuals with intellectual disability (ID). In this paradigm, two tasks are performed separately (single-task context) and concurrently (dual-task context). The change in performance from single- to dual-task context represents dual-task interference. Findings from dual-task studies have been largely inconsistent on whether individuals with ID present with dual-task-specific deficits. The current review aimed to map the published literature on dual-task methods and pattern of dual-task interference in individuals with ID. A scoping review based on Arksey and O'Malley's five-stage methodological framework was performed. Seventeen electronic databases and registries were searched to identify relevant studies, including gray literature. Charted data from included studies were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. PRISMA guidelines informed the reporting of this review. Twenty-two studies involving 1,102 participants (656 with ID and 446 without ID) met the review's inclusion criteria. Participants in the included studies were heterogeneous in sex, age (range 3-59 years), etiology and ID severity. Included studies characterized their ID-sample in different ways, most commonly using intelligence quotient (IQ) scores. Other measures of intellectual function (e.g., mental age, ID severity, verbal and/or visuospatial ability scores) were also used, either solely or in combination with IQ. Methods of dual-task testing varied across studies, particularly in relation to dual-task combinations, equation of single-task performance between groups, measurement and reporting of dual-task performance for each single-task, and task priority instructions. Thematic content of the included studies were: (1) structural interference to dual-tasking; (2) etiology-based differences in dual-tasking; (3) gait and balance dual-task performance; (4) testing executive function using dual-task paradigms; and (5) training effect on dual-task performance. Although the evidence consistently supported the intact dual-tasking ability of individuals with ID, the pattern of dual-task interference was inconsistent. Likewise, the evidence was inconclusive regarding dual-task deficit specific to individuals with ID because of heterogeneity in dual-task study designs among included studies.

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  • 13.
    Rebai, Malek
    et al.
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Tan, Rin
    Vanlandewijck, Yves
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics.
    Derman, Wayne
    Webborn, Nick
    Fagher, Kristina
    Lund University, Sweden.
    The Underlying Mechanisms of Sports Injuries in Paralympic Goalball: A Mixed-Method Study.2023In: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, ISSN 0894-9115, E-ISSN 1537-7385, Vol. 102, no 8, p. 746-753Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Data from the Paralympic Games indicate a fluctuating injury incidence in the Paralympic sport goalball, but the mechanisms behind have not been explored. The aims of this study are to (1) quantitatively analyze goalball injuries reported in the London 2012 and Rio 2016 Paralympic Games, (2) qualitatively explain the differences between both games, and (3) qualitatively assess general injury mechanisms and prevention opportunities of injuries in Goalball.

    DESIGN: This is a mixed-method study. Injury incidence rates were analyzed from data collected during the 2012 and 2016 Paralympic Games. Then, semistructured interviews of games participants qualitatively explored injury mechanisms and prevention opportunities.

    RESULTS: A reduction of injuries occurred from 2012 (incidence rate, 19.5; 95% confidence interval, 12.5-26.5) to 2016 (incidence rate: 5.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.7-9.5). In both games, acute traumatic injuries were most common. Female athletes reported higher rate of injuries compared with males ( P = 0.05). Qualitative data revealed that causes of injuries were collisions, overuse, and poor physical conditioning. The differences between the two games were explained by equipment, environment, and preparations.

    CONCLUSIONS: The result from this study indicates that injuries in goalball are multifactorial. Ultimately, the mixed-method data from this study can help the sports context develop prevention measures.

  • 14.
    Thompson, Walter R
    et al.
    Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA.
    Vanlandewijck, Yves C
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Perspectives on research conducted at the Paralympic Games.2021In: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165, Vol. 43, no 24, p. 3503-3514Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In 1994, the International Paralympic Committee (IPC) established the IPC Sport Science Committee in an effort to bring Paralympic Movement relevant research questions to the academic world. In 1996, the IPC Sport Science Committee put an application system in place, allowing scholars to conduct research at the Paralympic Games. The aim of this perspective paper is to overview the main outcomes of the fifty-six research projects conducted from Atlanta 1996 until PyeongChang 2018 during Paralympic Games' time; and to discuss the state-of-the-art of the IPC Research Strategic Goals.

    METHODS: Research projects conducted at the Paralympic Games from Atlanta 1996 to PyeongChang 2018 were clustered according to the IPC Research Strategic Goals (publications retrieved through the following procedure: analyzing the IPC Medical & Scientific Department project file; systematic search of Pubmed and SportDiscus with "Name Principal Investigator" and "Paralympic" as search terms; email to principal investigator if no outcome retrieved).

    RESULTS: Games-time projects targeted Paralympic research strategic goals, such as athletes' health, athletes' performance, evidence-based classification, participation, Paralympic legacy, and education.

    CONCLUSION: Some of the projects proved high relevance and became standard Games' operations; however, generally, projects operate in isolation and could benefit from collaboration with expert-stakeholders (e.g., athletes, coaches, governing International Sport Federations, relevant IPC departments, network of academic scholars). Sport science research in the Paralympic Movement should move fast and collaborative to catch up on evolution. IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATION From a health perspective, fine-tuning of the patient/athlete-equipment interface to optimize function/performance is a challenge for the rehabilitation specialist/coach. The musculoskeletal balance of the shoulder joints is a lifelong concern for permanent wheelchair users, especially those involved in dynamic wheelchair sports. Education about autonomic dysreflexia and boosting in patients/athletes with spinal cord injury is an integral part of the rehabilitation process. Rehabilitation experts have an ideal educational profile to contribute to evidence-based classification, as a para-sports classifier, or as a researcher.

  • 15.
    Vanlandewijck, Yves
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. Faculty of Kinesiology and Rehabilitation Sciences, KU Leuven, Belgium.
    Perspectives on adapted physical activity formation in Europe2021In: European Journal of Adapted Physical Activity, E-ISSN 1803-3857, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 1-1Article in journal (Other academic)
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