Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH

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  • 1.
    Andermo, Susanne
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet.
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Kjellenberg, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Extra schemalagd fysisk aktivitet i högstadiet: en väg framåt?2021In: Svensk idrottsmedicin 2021:3, 2021Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Fernström, Maria
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Heiland, Emerald G
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. Department of Surgical Sciences, Medical Epidemiology, Uppsala University Uppsala Sweden.
    Kjellenberg, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Pontén, Marjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics.
    Tarassova, Olga
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. Department of Global Public Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Effects of prolonged sitting and physical activity breaks on measures of arterial stiffness and cortisol in adolescents2023In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 112, no 5, p. 1011-1018Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    In adults, prolonged periods of sitting have been linked to acute negative effects on vascular structure and function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the acute effects of physical activity (PA) breaks during prolonged sitting on arterial stiffness, cortisol and psychological factors in adolescents.

    Methods

    Adolescents underwent different short (3-min) breaks starting every 20 min, during 80 min of sitting on three separate days. Breaks were (A) social seated breaks (SOC), (B) low-intensity simple resistance activity PA breaks (SRA) and (C) moderate-intensity step-up PA breaks (STEP). The arterial stiffness measures were augmentation index (AIx), AIx@75 and pulse wave velocity (PWV). Cortisol was measured from saliva. Psychological factors were self-reported.

    Results

    Eleven girls and six boys (average age 13.6 ± 0.7 years) participated, with average baseline heart rates of 72 ± 11 bpm, systolic/diastolic blood pressure 111 ± 7/64 ± 6 mmHg and cortisol 10.9 ± 5.8 nmoL/L. PWV, cortisol and psychological factors did not change after any of the conditions. AIx@75 increased significantly (4.9 ± 8.7–9.2 ± 13.2) after the STEP intervention compared with SOC and SRA (time × condition p < 0.05).

    Conclusion

    Arterial stiffness increased after prolonged sitting with frequent, short step-up activity breaks. The results indicate potential important intensity-dependent effects of physical activity on vascular regulation in youth.

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  • 3.
    Fröberg, Andreas
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kjellenberg, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Lindroos, Anna Karin
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Self-reported physical activity and sedentary behaviour among adolescents in Sweden vary depending on sex, age and parental education.2021In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 110, no 11, p. 3097-3104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate self-reported physical activity and sedentary behaviour by sex, age and parental education in a large representative sample of Swedish adolescents.

    METHODS: This study is based on data from the national dietary survey Riksmaten Adolescents that was conducted by the Swedish Food Agency in 2016-2017. In total, 3477 students in grade five (11-12 years), eight (14-15 years), and eleven (17-18 years) were included. A web questionnaire was used to collect information about physical activity and sedentary behaviour.

    RESULTS: In total, 53% reported active transport to and from school, 93% that they usually participate in the physical education, 76% reported a physically active leisure time, and 66% that they participated in organised physical activities. In addition, 12% and 6% reported two hours or less of screen time on weekdays and weekends, respectively. Participation in physical activity was generally lower among girls, older adolescents and for those from families with low parental education.

    CONCLUSION: This study provide reference values for self-reported physical activities and sedentary behaviours among adolescents in Sweden. Strategies to increase physical activity and reduce screen time are needed, particularly among girls, older adolescents and among those with low parental education.

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  • 4.
    Heiland, Emerald G
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Kjellenberg, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Tarassova, Olga
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics.
    Fernström, Maria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. Karolinska institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. Karolinska institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. Karolinska institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    ABBaH teens: Activity Breaks for Brain Health in adolescents2022In: Trials, E-ISSN 1745-6215, Vol. 23, no 1, article id 22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Physical activity breaks are widely being implemented in school settings as a solution to increase academic performance and reduce sitting time. However, the underlying physiological mechanisms suggested to improve cognitive function from physical activity and the frequency, intensity, and duration of the breaks remain unknown. This study will investigate the effects of frequent, short physical activity breaks during prolonged sitting on task-related prefrontal cerebral blood flow, cognitive performance, and psychological factors. Additionally, the moderating and mediating effects of arterial stiffness on changes in cerebral blood flow will be tested.

    METHODS: This is a protocol for a randomized crossover study that will recruit 16 adolescents (13-14 years old). Participants will undergo three different conditions in a randomized order, on three separate days, involving sitting 80 min with a different type of break every 17 min for 3 min. The breaks will consist of (1) seated social breaks, (2) simple resistance activities, and (3) step-up activities. Before and after the 80-min conditions, prefrontal cerebral blood flow changes will be measured using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (primary outcome), while performing working memory tasks (1-, 2-, and 3-back tests). Arterial stiffness (augmentation index and pulse wave velocity) and psychological factors will also be assessed pre and post the 80-min interventions.

    DISCUSSION: Publication of this protocol will help to increase rigor in science. The results will inform regarding the underlying mechanisms driving the association between physical activity breaks and cognitive performance. This information can be used for designing effective and feasible interventions to be implemented in schools.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: www.ClinicalTrials.gov , NCT04552626 . Retrospectively registered on September 21, 2020.

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  • 5.
    Heiland, Emerald G.
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Kjellenberg, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Tarassova, Olga
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Acute effects of nitrate and breakfast on working memory and cerebral blood flow in adolescents: a randomized crossover trial2023Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Beneficial acute effects of dietary nitrate have been demonstrated on working memory in adults, with changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) being a potential mechanism. However, these effects have not been studied in adolescents. Moreover, having breakfast compared to skipping may also exhibit positive effects on working memory. Therefore, this randomized crossover trial investigated the acute effects of nitrate and breakfast on working memory and changes in task-related CBF in adolescents.  Methods: This trial will recruit at least 43 adolescents (13–15 years old). There were three experimental breakfast conditions: (1) none, (2) regular, and (3) regular breakfast with high nitrate in the form of concentrated beetroot juice. Working memory (1-, 2-, 3-back tests) and task-related CBF (prefrontal cortex oxygenated and deoxygenated-hemoglobin changes estimated using functional near-infrared spectroscopy) were measured immediately after breakfast and 130 min later. The data collection for this study is ongoing, thus results for 35 adolescents are presented here and due to blinding of the researcher we are unable to report at this time in which condition these effects occurred, but will be revealed by the time of the conference, as well as for the results on changes in CBF.  Results: Preliminary results from the ongoing study showed that from pretest to posttest there was a statistically significant improvement in reaction time in all three conditions for all three n-back tests, but no intervention effects. Accuracy, however, improved from pretest to posttest in only one condition, for all three nback tests (β [95% confidence interval] from linear mixed-effects models with subject as random effect: 1-back 2.8[1.2-4.3], 2-back 2.6[0.9-4.2], 3-back 3.6[2.2-5.0]), and there was a tendency towards an intervention effect between this breakfast condition and another on the accuracy of the 3-back test (P for time-by-condition interaction 0.07).   Conclusions: The results from this study will increase our understanding into the effects of breakfast and its composition (i.e., nitrate-rich) on acutely improving working memory in adolescents and the potential mechanisms. In turn, the results will inform on whether policies on providing breakfast in schools should be considered to improve students' cognitive performance.

  • 6.
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Baurén, Hanna
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kjellenberg, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Breakfast Habits and Associations with Fruit and Vegetable Intake, Physical Activity, Sedentary Time, and Screen Time among Swedish 13–14-Year-Old Girls and Boys2021In: Nutrients, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 13, no 12, article id 4467Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explored whether breakfast habits were associated with intake of fruits and vegetables, minutes in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), minutes spent sedentary, and screen time among adolescents. Cross-sectional data were collected among 13&ndash;14-year-old boys and girls (n = 1139). Breakfast habits and screen time were determined via questionnaire, fruit and vegetable intake were determined through dietary recall, and physical activity and sedentary time were determined via accelerometers. Multilevel mixed models and general estimation equation models were applied. Almost 40% of participants skipped breakfast at least one day of the week. Participants with irregular breakfast habits on weekdays had lower fruit and vegetable consumption by 26.7 g (95% CI = &minus;49.3, &minus;5.9) while irregular breakfast habits during the whole week were associated with higher levels of screen time (OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.1, 2.1) compared to regular breakfast habits. Girls with irregular breakfast habits on weekdays had 7.7 min more sedentary time (95% CI = 0.8, 15.7) than girls with regular breakfast habits, while the opposite was found in boys (&beta; = &minus;13.3, 95% CI = &minus;25.3, &minus;2.6)). No significant associations were found for MVPA. Regular breakfast habits should be encouraged, as they might contribute to a higher intake of fruit and vegetables and are associated with lower levels of screen time, although further studies are necessary to establish causation.

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  • 7.
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Insurance Medicine, Karolinska Instituten, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fröberg, Andreas
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kjellenberg, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. Department of Global Public Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    COVID-19 induced changes in physical activity patterns, screen time and sleep among Swedish adolescents - a cohort study.2023In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 23, no 1, article id 380Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic had a huge impact on daily life, even in countries such as Sweden where the restrictions were relatively mild. This paper assesses the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic restrictions on physical activity (PA) patterns, screen time, and sleep among Swedish adolescents. The exposures explored include gender, parental education, anthropometrics, and cardiovascular fitness (CVF).

    METHODS: Cohort data were collected from September 26th to December 6th, 2019, and from April 12th to June 9th, 2021. Participants were 13-14 years-old (7th graders) at baseline with 585 participating at both baseline and follow-up. At both baseline and follow-up PA and sedentary time were measured with accelerometers, and sleep and screen time with questionnaires. The exposure variables (gender, parental education, anthropometrics and CVF) were collected at baseline. Multilevel linear regression analyses were performed.

    RESULTS: Moderate-to-vigorous-physical activity (MVPA) remained unchanged while light physical activity (LiPA) decreased and sedentary time increased. Sleep duration decreased and screen time increased. Girls, adolescents with overweight/obesity (BMI and percent body fat), and those with lower CVF at baseline had less favourable changes in PA patterns, sleep and screen time.

    CONCLUSIONS: Although no significant (α = 0.05) changes were seen in MVPA, both LiPA and sedentary time as well as sleep and screen time changed in unfavourable ways. More intense activities are often organised and seem to have withstood the pandemic, while less intense activities decreased. Some groups were more vulnerable and will need directed intervention in the post-pandemic period as well as when future pandemics hit.

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  • 8.
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Fröberg, Andreas
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Kjellenberg, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Has COVID-19 led to changes in physical activity patterns, screen time and sleep among Swedish adolescents?: A cohort study2023Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The COVID-19 pandemic has had an impact on daily life around the world though in Sweden the restrictions have been rather mild. The aim is to explore whether the pandemic has led to changes in physical activity (PA) patterns, including sedentary time, Light Physical Activity (LiPA) and Moderate-to-Vigorous-Physical Activity (MVPA) during weekdays and weekends, as well as screen time and sleep. The potential predictors explored include gender, parental education, anthropometrics, and cardiovascular fitness (CVF).

    Methods: Data were collected in the fall of 2019 and the spring of 2021. The participants were 13-14 years-old at baseline and lived in the Stockholm area. In total 585 participated at both baseline and follow-up. PA and sedentary time were measured with accelerometers and sleep and screen time with questionnaires at baseline and follow-up. The exposure variables were collected at baseline: gender and parental education via questionnaire, anthropometrics (BMI and body fat percentage measured with standard methods by researchers) and CVF with a submaximal test. Multilevel linear regression analyses were performed.

    Results: MVPA remained unchanged while LiPA decreased by 25.5 minutes on weekdays and 10.3 minutes on weekends (both p<0.001) and sedentary time increased by 9.4 minutes on weekdays (p=0.023). Sleep duration decreased by 27.4 minutes on weekdays and 19.1 minutes on weekends (both p<0.001) and screentime increased by around 45 minutes both on weekdays and weekends (p<0.001). Girls, adolescents with overweight/obesity (BMI and percent body fat), and those with lower CVF at baseline had less favourable changes in PA patterns, sleep and screen time.

    Conclusions: Previous self-reported data seems to suggest a decrease in physical activity due to the pandemic; this study only found such changes to be present in the lower intensity levels of physical activity but not in the MVPA. It is possible that more strenuous physical activity is more often part of organized sport which seems to have prevailed in Sweden despite the pandemic while habitual less intense activity decreased. Some groups were found to be more vulnerable and might need more support to maintain their physical activity levels, both now in the post-pandemic periods and during future pandemics.

  • 9.
    Hoy, Sara
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Movement, Culture and Society.
    Larsson, Håkan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Movement, Culture and Society. Department of Teacher Education and Outdoor Studies, The Norwegian School of Sport Sciences (NIH), Oslo, Norway.
    Kjellenberg, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. Department of Global Public Health, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gendered relations? Associations between Swedish parents, siblings, and adolescents' time spent sedentary and physically active2024In: Frontiers in Sports and Active Living, E-ISSN 2624-9367, Vol. 6, article id 1236848Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    The family is assumed to be fundamental in youth socialization processes and development, connected to social and cultural practices such as healthy lifestyles and physical activity. However, gender patterns in physical activity among adolescents and the structural drivers of gender inequality (e.g., parentage and siblingship) are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to explore further how gender structures relate to adolescents' time spent being sedentary and physically active, using contemporary gender theory.

    Methods

    This cross-sectional study involved 1,139 adolescents aged 13-14 and their parents, including 815 mothers and 572 fathers. Physical activity and time spent sedentary were assessed through accelerometry among adolescents and through a self-report questionnaire for parents validated against accelerometry.

    Results

    The results showed significant relationships between mothers' moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and girls' MVPA on weekdays and weekends, and fathers' MVPA was significantly related to girls' MVPA on weekdays. Our results imply that the relationship between Swedish parents' and adolescent girls' physical activity in higher intensities are to some extent gendered practices. However, time spent sedentary does not seem to show any patterns of being performed according to binary ideas of gender. Further, our exploratory analyses suggest that these results somewhat intersect with parents' educational level and relate to intra-categorical aspects of doing gender. The results also indicate slight gendered patterns in the “doing” of brotherhood for time spent sedentary, however, for boys only on weekends.

    Discussion 

    The study contributes to the understanding of gender norms as constraints and enablers for adolescents' participation in physical activity. The results can spur public health and physical activity research to apply a contemporary gender theory approach, and to expand the research agenda connected to what relates to gender inequalities in physical activity practices.

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  • 10.
    Kjellenberg, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Screen use limitation increases physical activity.2023In: The Journal of Pediatrics, ISSN 0022-3476, E-ISSN 1097-6833, Vol. 253, p. 310-311Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Kjellenberg, Karin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. Fysisk aktivitet och hjärnhälsa.
    Ahlen, Johan
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. Department of Global Public Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Cross-sectional associations between physical activity pattern, sports participation, screen time and mental health in Swedish adolescents.2022In: BMJ Open, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 12, no 8, article id e061929Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the associations between physical activity pattern, sports participation, screen time and mental health in Swedish adolescents.

    DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1139 Swedish adolescents (mean age 13.4) from 34 schools participated in the cross-sectional study 'Physical Activity for Healthy Brain Functions in School Youth' in 2019.

    METHODS: Time spent sedentary and in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was measured using accelerometers for seven consecutive days. Screen time and sports participation were self-reported. Anxiety and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) were assessed using a Short version of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale and Kidscreen-10.

    RESULTS: MVPA was positively associated (95% CI 0.01 to 0.05 in girls and 0.02 to 0.07 in boys) whereas screen time on weekdays was inversely associated with HRQoL (-4.79 to -2.22 in girls and -2.66 to -0.41 in boys). The largest effect sizes were observed between the high/low MVPA group in boys (Cohen's d=0.51) and screen time groups in girls (Cohen's d=0.59 on weekdays). With regards to anxiety, high compared with lower time spent in MVPA during leisure time on weekdays was associated with lower anxiety scores (95% CI -0.13 to -0.05 in girls and -0.07 to -0.01 in boys). Gender differences were observed, boys who participated in organised sports had low anxiety scores (95% CI -3.49 to -0.13) whereas girls who reported 5 hours or more of screen time had high scores (95% CI 1.94 to 6.18 on weekdays and 1.39 to 5.29 on weekend days).

    CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that MVPA was associated with better mental health, whereas the opposite was seen for screen time. These associations were not consistently significant throughout all time domains, between the genders and mental health outcomes. Our results could create a paradigm for future studies to decide which types of PA patterns and time domains to target in intervention studies with the aim improve mental health among adolescents.

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  • 12.
    Kjellenberg, Karin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Ahlen, Johan
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Global Publ Hlth, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. Karolinska Inst, Dept Global Publ Hlth, Stockholm, Sweden..
    P03-09 Cross-sectional associations between physical activity pattern, sports participation, screen time and mental health in Swedish adolescents2022In: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH, vol. 32, S2, Oxford University Press, 2022, Vol. 32Conference paper (Other academic)
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  • 13.
    Kjellenberg, Karin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Stålman, Cecilia
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Movement, Culture and Society.
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Associations between Physical Activity Patterns, Screen Time and Cardiovascular Fitness Levels in Swedish Adolescents2021In: Children, E-ISSN 2227-9067, Vol. 8, no 11, article id 998Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cardiovascular fitness (CVF) has been associated with cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents. CVF levels are determined by non-modifiable and modifiable factors; one modifiable factor is physical activity (PA). There is a lack of studies investigating the associations between PA patterns and CVF and how gender, parental education, BMI status and country of birth are associated with CVF. The aim of this study was to explore the cross-sectional associations between PA patterns and CVF in Swedish 13–14-year-old adolescents. CVF was estimated using the Ekblom-Bak submaximal test, data on PA patterns were collected using hip-worn accelerometers and a questionnaire. The mean CVF was 44.8 mL/kg/min in girls (n = 569) and 55.5 mL/kg/min in boys (n = 451) p < 0.01. The results showed a significant association between participation in organised sports (β = 3.32 CI: 2.14, 4.51, β = 4.38, CI: 2.80, 5.96), MVPA (β = 0.07, CI: 0.04, 0.11, β = 0.07, CI: 0.03, 0.11), a high proportion of SED (β = −0.47, CI: −0.70, −0.25, β = −0.41, CI: −0.64, −0.18) and CVF in girls and boys, respectively. More than five hours of screen time on weekdays was associated with lower CVF (β = −2.32 CI: −3.92, −0.71 in girls and boys β = −2.82, CI: −5.14, −0.50). While causal relations remain unknown, these findings could be relevant when designing future interventions with the aim to improve CVF.

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  • 14.
    Kjellenberg, Karin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Åhlen, Johan
    Karolinska institutet.
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    High levels of physical activity were associated with better mental health in Swedish adolescents2021In: Svensk idrottsmedicin 2021:3, 2021, p. 43-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Kjellenberg, Karin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Heiland, Emerald G.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Tarassova, Olga
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics.
    Fernström, Maria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Effects of physical activity breaks on working memory and oxygenated hemoglobin in adolescents: Results from the AbbaH teen study2023Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Kjellenberg, Karin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Heiland, Emerald G.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Tarassova, Olga
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics.
    Fernström, Maria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Short, frequent physical activity breaks improve working memory in adolescents during prolonged sitting (AbbaH teen study)2023Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Physical activity breaks in schools have been suggested as a promising strategy to acutely improve cognitive performance in children and adolescents. Most previous studies have explored the effects of single physical activity bouts, but they are infeasible in a school setting (e.g. long duration/high-intensity or requiring equipment/space). Further, studies investigating the underlying physiological mechanisms in adolescents arel acking. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of short, frequent physical activity breaks of different intensities on adolescents’ working memory (WM) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) during prolonged sitting.

    Methods: This randomized crossover study was performed in adolescents (13-15 years of age). In 80-minute sessions, one of the following types of breaks was performed four times in three minutes durations on three different days: simple resistance training (SRA), step-up at a pre-determined pace (STEP), or remaining seated (SOCIAL). Before and after each session, WM (accuracy and reaction time during the 1,2,3-back test) were measured, with simultaneous measurement of task-related CBF (assessed by prefrontal oxygenation using functional near-infrared spectroscopy). Analysis of CBF is ongoing and will be presented at the conference.

    Results: A total of 17 students participated (mean age 13.6 years, 11 girls). In the most demanding task (3-back) the following results were seen: improvement in reaction time following SRA (-30.1, p=0.04) and STEP (-34.3 ms, p=0.05) and no improvement following prolonged sitting. We also found a moderating effect (p <0.01) of WM performance at baseline (using a mean split), such that students with poor WM significantly improved their accuracy and reaction time following the higher-intensity breaks (STEP) while students with high performance did not.

    Conclusion: We found that implementing physical activity breaks of both moderate and high intensities was beneficial for WM performance. For students with low WM performance, high-intensity breaks were more beneficial. Implementing physical activity breaks during periods of prolonged sitting, such as long school classes could improve the students’ cognitive performance. However, future studies should investigate if these breaks are feasible, acceptable, and beneficial to implement in the school setting.

  • 17.
    Norman, Åsa
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kjellenberg, Karin
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Torres Aréchiga, Diana
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Löf, Marie
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Patterson, Emma
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    "Everyone can take photos." Feasibility and relative validity of phone photography-based assessment of children's diets - a mixed methods study.2020In: Nutrition Journal, ISSN 1475-2891, E-ISSN 1475-2891, Vol. 19, no 1, article id 50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Dietary assessment methods that are user-friendly, simple, yet valid are of interest to both researchers and participants, particularly for use in disadvantaged settings, where language barriers and low levels of education are often present. We tested if parents taking photos of what children ate, using mobile phones, would be a feasible, acceptable method that could still provide information with adequate relative validity.

    METHODS: We used a mixed-methods design, with parents of 21 5- to 7-year-olds from disadvantaged areas in Sweden. Parents reported all dietary intake, during non-school hours, on three days (two weekdays) using a photo method (PM). The PM consisted of simple instructions and a fiduciary card, but no training, equipment or software. Text messages could be sent if necessary. As a reference method, parents completed three 24-h recalls (24HRs) with an interviewer each following day. The next week, parents completed a 9-item semi-FFQ regarding the preceding week. The outcomes were intakes (in dl) of 9 food groups, categorised as fruits and vegetables, energy-dense sweet/salty foods, and sweet drinks. Agreement with the reference 24HRs was assessed using correlations, median differences and Bland-Altman plots. Parents completed an open-ended questionnaire on barriers and facilitators. Data collectors provided complementary information. Qualitative data was analysed using qualitative manifest analysis.

    RESULTS: Nineteen parents (90%) provided complete data. The majority (n = 13) spoke Swedish as a second language, few (n = 4) were proficient. Compared to 24HRs, intakes measured by PM correlated well for all categories (Spearman's rho = 0.609-0.845). However, intakes were underreported, significantly so for fruits and vegetables; Bland-Altman plots indicated that the underestimation was fairly constant across intake levels. When the FFQ was compared to the 24HRs, parameters of agreement were generally inferior than for the PM. Parents found the PM a positive experience, primarily facilitated by its simplicity and familiarity. Barriers, mainly related to time and logistics, can inform further methodological refinements.

    CONCLUSIONS: The PM was an acceptable and feasible way to measure children's diet outside of school hours in this population of parents from disadvantaged areas. While the absolute validity should be evaluated further, this relatively simple method has potential for assessing intakes of well-defined foods at group level.

  • 18.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Kjellenberg, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Wang, Rui
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Larsson, Håkan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Movement, Culture and Society.
    Thedin Jakobsson, Britta
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Movement, Culture and Society.
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Associations between the School Environment and Physical Activity Pattern during School Time in Swedish Adolescents2021In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 18, no 19, article id 10239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge about associations between school-based initiatives and physical activity patterns is limited. The purpose of this paper was to examine associations between factors in the school environment, physical activity and sedentary time during school time. The cross-sectional study included 1139 adolescents aged 13–14 from 34 schools. Physical activity and sedentary time were measured using hip-worn accelerometers. Factors in the school environment included health policy, a mobile phone ban during breaks, organized physical activities during breaks and activity breaks during lessons reported by teachers. The frequency and duration of breaks and physical education (PE) lessons were collected from school schedules. The results showed significant associations between health policy (β = 3.87, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.37, 5.23), the mobile phone ban (β = 2.51, 95% CI: 1.29, 3.94) and PE; total duration (β = 0.08, 95% CI: 0.05, 0.11), average duration (β = 0.08, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.13) and frequency (β = 1.73, 95% CI: 0.50, 3.04) and moderate-vigorous physical activity. There were negative associations between health policy (β = −6.41, 95% CI: −10.24, −2.67), the mobile phone ban (β = −3.75, 95% CI: −7.25, −0.77) and PE; total duration (β = −0.15, 95% CI: −0.23, −0.08) and average duration (β = −0.14, 95% CI: −0.27, −0.03) and time spent sedentary. Adolescents attending schools with health policies, mobile phone bans and more time for PE showed higher levels of physical activity and lower sedentary time.

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  • 19.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Kjellenberg, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Wang, Rui
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Larsson, Håkan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Movement, Culture and Society.
    Thedin Jakobsson, Britta
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Movement, Culture and Society.
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Skolbaserade policyer för fysisk aktivitet samvarierar med fysisk aktivitet och minskat stillasittande hos skolungdomar2021In: Svensk idrottsmedicin 2021:3, 2021Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. Department of Global Public Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Insurance Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kjellenberg, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    COVID-19 and unfavorable changes in mental health unrelated to changes in physical activity, sedentary time, and health behaviors among Swedish adolescents: A longitudinal study.2023In: Frontiers In Public Health, ISSN 2296-2565, Vol. 11, article id 1115789Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has had major impact on the daily lives of adolescents. This study examined whether mental health outcomes had changed over the pandemic, and if such changes were related to changes in physical activity (PA), sedentary time, sleep, screen time, and participation in organized sports.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this longitudinal study, data were collected in autumn 2019 with follow-up measurements in spring 2021. In total, 558 schools were invited and 34 schools around Stockholm with a variation in socioeconomic background were included. Physical activity and sedentary time were measured for seven consecutive days by accelerometry (Actigraph). Anxiety, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), psychosomatic health, stress, sleep duration, screen time, and organized sports participation were self-reported in questionnaires. Linear models were applied to estimate associations between changes in mental health outcomes and exposures.

    RESULTS: From the baseline sample of 1,139 participants, 585 (55% girls), mean (SD) age 14.9 (0.3) years, participated in the follow-up. Between 2019 and 2021, there was a decrease in HRQoL [mean difference -1.7 (-2.3, -1.2), p < 0.001], increase in psychosomatic health problems [mean difference 1.8 (1.3, 2.3), p < 0.001], and an increase in the number of participants with high stress [from 94 (28%) to 139 (42%), p < 0.001]. Weekly light PA and sleep duration decreased and weekly sedentary time and screen time increased unrelated to changes in mental health outcomes. An increase in sleep duration during weekdays was significantly related to both a decrease in anxiety (B = -0.71, CI: -1.36, -0.06) and an increase in HRQoL (B = 1.00, CI: 0.51, 1.49).

    CONCLUSION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, mental health appears to have been impaired in Swedish adolescents, but unrelated to changes in PA, sedentary time, screen time, or participation in organized sports. However, increased sleep duration on weekdays was related to less anxiety and better HRQoL. The results may help policy makers and other stakeholders comprehend the differential effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health outcomes and help guiding the planning of policy actions.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN15689873.

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  • 21.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kjellenberg, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Fröberg, Andreas
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindroos, Anna Karin
    Swedish Food Agency, Uppsala, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    A national survey showed low levels of physical activity in a representative sample of Swedish adolescents.2020In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 109, no 11, p. 2342-2353Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: This study investigated objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time by sex, age and socioeconomic status in a large representative sample of Swedish adolescents.

    METHODS: In this cross-sectional national survey between 2016 and 2017, students aged 11-12, 14-15 and 17-18 years from 131 schools were invited to participate. Physical activity and sedentary time were measured objectively with accelerometers for seven consecutive days. Socioeconomic status (parental education) and country of birth were self-reported in a questionnaire. Weight and height were measured by trained staff.

    RESULTS: A total of 3477 adolescents participated in the study, and 2419 (73%) had at least 3 days of valid accelerometer data. The results showed that 43% of boys and 23% of girls reached the recommendation of 60 minutes of daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Boys were more physically active than girls in all age groups. Girls with high socioeconomic status were more physically active than girls with low socioeconomic status (P < .001), and this difference was not found in boys.

    CONCLUSION: The majority of Swedish adolescents did not reach the physical activity recommendation, and boys were more active than girls. Effective strategies to increase physical activity, especially among girls with low socioeconomic status, are urgently needed.

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  • 22.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. Department of Global Public Health, Karolinska Institutet , Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kjellenberg, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    P05-10 Changes in mental health and physical activity patterns before and during the covid-19 pandemic in Swedish adolescents - a longitudinal study2022In: European Journal of Public Health, Supplement 2, 2022, Vol. 32, no Supplement_2, article id ckac095.077Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The covid-19 pandemic has had a large impact on the daily lives of adolescents, even in Sweden where the restrictions were relatively mild. The aim of this study was to examine if there had been a change in mental health outcomes and if these changes were related to changes in physical activity patterns before and during the pandemic.

    Methods

    In this longitudinal study, data were collected in the autumn 2019 and in follow-up measurements in the spring 2021. Physical activity and sedentary time were measured for seven consecutive days by accelerometry (Actigraph). The mental health outcomes, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and psychosomatic health were measured with questionnaires (KIDSCREEN-10 and PSP). ANCOVA analyses were applied to estimate the associations between change in physical activity patterns and mental health outcomes.

    Results

    In total, 585 boys (45%) and girls (55%), aged 13-14 years (baseline) from 34 schools around Stockholm, were included in the study. Between 2019-2021 there was a decrease in HRQoL (p > 0.001) and increase in psychosomatic problems (p > 0.001) among both boys and girls. There was a significant positive relationship between change in MVPA and change in HRQoL (β = 0.02, CI: 0.00, 0.05).

    Conclusions

    The results suggest that the COVID-19 pandemic has impaired the mental health of Swedish adolescents but increased physical activity was related to positive changes in the mental health outcome HRQoL.

    Funding: The Public Health Authority and Skandia

  • 23.
    Regan, Callum
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden..
    Heiland, Emerald G.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Tarassova, Olga
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics.
    Kjellenberg, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Larsen, Filip J
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics.
    Walltott, Hedda
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Fernström, Maria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden.
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden.
    Acute effects of nitrate and breakfast on working memory, cerebral blood flow, arterial stiffness, and psychological factors in adolescents: Study protocol for a randomised crossover trial.2023In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 18, no 5, article id e0285581Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Inorganic nitrate has been shown to acutely improve working memory in adults, potentially by altering cerebral and peripheral vasculature. However, this remains unknown in adolescents. Furthermore, breakfast is important for overall health and psychological well-being. Therefore, this study will investigate the acute effects of nitrate and breakfast on working memory performance, task-related cerebral blood flow (CBF), arterial stiffness, and psychological outcomes in Swedish adolescents.

    METHODS: This randomised crossover trial will recruit at least 43 adolescents (13-15 years old). There will be three experimental breakfast conditions: (1) none, (2) low-nitrate (normal breakfast), and (3) high-nitrate (concentrated beetroot juice with normal breakfast). Working memory (n-back tests), CBF (task-related changes in oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobin in the prefrontal cortex), and arterial stiffness (pulse wave velocity and augmentation index) will be measured twice, immediately after breakfast and 130 min later. Measures of psychological factors and salivary nitrate/nitrite will be assessed once before the conditions and at two-time points after the conditions.

    DISCUSSION: This study will provide insight into the acute effects of nitrate and breakfast on working memory in adolescents and to what extent any such effects can be explained by changes in CBF. This study will also shed light upon whether oral intake of nitrate may acutely improve arterial stiffness and psychological well-being, in adolescents. Consequently, results will indicate if nitrate intake from beetroot juice or if breakfast itself could acutely improve cognitive, vascular, and psychological health in adolescents, which can affect academic performance and have implications for policies regarding school meals.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial has been prospectively registered on 21/02/2022 at https://doi.org/10.1186/ISRCTN16596056. Trial number: ISRCTN16596056.

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  • 24.
    Regan, Callum
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Walltott, Hedda
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Kjellenberg, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. Karolinska institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. Karolinska institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Investigation of the Associations between Diet Quality and Health-Related Quality of Life in a Sample of Swedish Adolescents.2022In: Nutrients, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 14, no 12, article id 2489Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most adolescents do not consume a high-quality diet, while self-reported mental health problems within this group are increasing. This study aimed to investigate the association between diet quality and health-related quality of life, and to explore the differences in diet quality and health-related quality of life between gender and parental education status. In this cross-sectional study, a detailed web-based recall method was implemented to determine dietary intake, which was analysed using the newly developed Swedish Healthy Eating Index for Adolescents 2015 (SHEIA15) and the Riksmaten Adolescents Diet Diversity Score (RADDS), to determine diet quality. The KIDSCREEN-10 questionnaire was used to measure health-related quality of life, and parental education was self-reported through questionnaires. Parental education was divided into two groups: ≤12 years or &gt;12 years. The study included 1139 adolescents from grade 7 (13-14 years old), 51% were girls. The results showed that girls had higher scores for healthy eating and diet diversity but lower scores for health-related quality of life. A positive association was found between diet diversity and health-related quality of life (Adj R2 = 0.072, p = 0.001), between vegetable/fruit consumption and health-related quality of life (Adj R2 = 0.071, p = 0.002), and between healthy eating and diet diversity (Adj R2 = 0.214, p &lt; 0.001). No association was found between healthy eating and health-related quality of life for all participants. The mean scores for healthy eating and diet diversity were significantly higher in the higher education parental group. In conclusion, higher diet diversity and increased fruit and vegetable consumption could be a strategy to improve health-related quality of life among adolescents. There is a need to promote better diet quality, especially in households of low parental education. In addition, there is a further need to investigate the potential benefits of improved diet quality on mental health and overall well-being.

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  • 25.
    Yman, Josefin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. Department of Food and Nutrition and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Kjellenberg, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. Department of Global Public Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Associations between organised sports participation, general health, stress, screen-time and sleep duration in adolescents.2023In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 112, no 3, p. 452-459Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: Physical activity patterns in adolescents have been associated with general health. Stress, screen-time and sleep are other factors associated with physical activity that influence health in adolescents. Physical activity accounts for several health benefits; however, the impact of organised sports participation to achieve the same health benefits are less explored. This study explored the associations of organised sports participation with general health, stress, screen-time and sleep-duration in adolescents.

    METHODS: For this cross-sectional study, data from 1139 adolescents (age 13-14 years) from 34 schools were analysed. Data were collected during autumn 2019. Data collection consisted of self-reported questionnaires and standard methods for height and weight measurements.

    RESULTS: Adolescents with organised sports participation ≥3 times/week were twice as likely to report better general health (OR: 2.11, CI: 1.45-3.07) and lower screen-time (OR: 1.98, CI: 1.43-2.74). Adolescents with organised sports participation ≥3 times/week were less likely to meet the recommended sleep-duration on weekdays (OR: 0.43, 95% CI: 0.29-0.65).

    CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents with frequent organised sports participation had better general health, lower amounts of screen-time and shorter sleep-duration on weekdays than those with no participation. Although the causal relationships remain unknown, these results can be relevant when developing strategies promoting physical activity and health in adolescents.

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