Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH

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  • 1.
    Blom, Victoria
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Lönn, Amanda
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. Karolinska University Hospital, Solna, Sweden.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics.
    Kallings, Lena
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Väisänen, Daniel
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Hemmingsson, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    HPI Health Profile Institute, Danderyd, Sweden.
    Wallin, Peter
    HPI Health Profile Institute, Danderyd, Sweden.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Salier Eriksson, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Holmlund, Tobias
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Lifestyle Habits and Mental Health in Light of the Two COVID-19 Pandemic Waves in Sweden, 20202021In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 18, no 6, article id 3313Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The COVID-19 pandemic has become a public health emergency of international concern, which may have affected lifestyle habits and mental health. Based on national health profile assessments, this study investigated perceived changes of lifestyle habits in response to the COVID-19 pandemic and associations between perceived lifestyle changes and mental health in Swedish working adults. Among 5599 individuals (50% women, 46.3 years), the majority reported no change (sitting 77%, daily physical activity 71%, exercise 69%, diet 87%, alcohol 90%, and smoking 97%) due to the pandemic. Changes were more pronounced during the first wave (April–June) compared to the second (October–December). Women, individuals <60 years, those with a university degree, white-collar workers, and those with unhealthy lifestyle habits at baseline had higher odds of changing lifestyle habits compared to their counterparts. Negative changes in lifestyle habits and more time in a mentally passive state sitting at home were associated with higher odds of mental ill-health (including health anxiety regarding one’s own and relatives’ health, generalized anxiety and depression symptoms, and concerns regarding employment and economy). The results emphasize the need to support healthy lifestyle habits to strengthen the resilience in vulnerable groups of individuals to future viral pandemics and prevent health inequalities in society.

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  • 2.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Väisänen, Daniel
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics.
    Blom, Victoria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Kallings, Lena
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Hemmingsson, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    HPI Health Profile Institute, Sweden.
    Wallin, Peter
    HPI Health Profile Institute, Sweden.
    Salier Eriksson, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Holmlund, Tobias
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Sweden; University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Lönn, Amanda
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. Women's Health and Allied Health Professionals Theme Medical Unit Occupational Therapy and Physiotherapy, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Cardiorespiratory fitness and lifestyle on severe COVID-19 risk in 279,455 adults: a case control study.2021In: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, E-ISSN 1479-5868, Vol. 18, no 1, article id 135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The impact of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and other lifestyle-related factors on severe COVID-19 risk is understudied. The present study aims to investigate lifestyle-related and socioeconomic factors as possible predictors of COVID-19, with special focus on CRF, and to further study whether these factors may attenuate obesity- and hypertension-related risks, as well as mediate associations between socioeconomic factors and severe COVID-19 risk.

    METHODS: Out of initially 407,131 participants who participated in nationwide occupational health service screening between 1992 and 2020, n = 857 cases (70% men, mean age 49.9 years) of severe COVID-19 were identified. CRF was estimated using a sub-maximum cycle test, and other lifestyle variables were self-reported. Analyses were performed including both unmatched, n = 278,598, and sex-and age-matched, n = 3426, controls. Severe COVID-19 included hospitalization, intensive care or death due to COVID-19.

    RESULTS: Patients with more severe COVID-19 had significantly lower CRF, higher BMI, a greater presence of comorbidities and were more often daily smokers. In matched analyses, there was a graded decrease in odds for severe COVID-19 with each ml in CRF (OR = 0.98, 95% CI 0.970 to 0.998), and a two-fold increase in odds between the lowest and highest (< 32 vs. ≥ 46 ml·min-1·kg-1) CRF group. Higher BMI (per unit increase, OR = 1.09, 1.06 to 1.12), larger waist circumference (per cm, OR = 1.04, 1.02 to 1.06), daily smoking (OR = 0.60, 0.41 to 0.89) and high overall stress (OR = 1.36, 1.001 to 1.84) also remained significantly associated with severe COVID-19 risk. Obesity- and blood pressure-related risks were attenuated by adjustment for CRF and lifestyle variables. Mediation through CRF, BMI and smoking accounted for 9% to 54% of the associations between low education, low income and blue collar/low skilled occupations and severe COVID-19 risk. The results were consistent using either matched or unmatched controls.

    CONCLUSIONS: Both lifestyle-related and socioeconomic factors were associated with risk of severe COVID-19. However, higher CRF attenuated the risk associated with obesity and high blood pressure, and mediated the risk associated with various socioeconomic factors. This emphasises the importance of interventions to maintain or increase CRF in the general population to strengthen the resilience to severe COVID-19, especially in high-risk individuals.

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  • 3.
    Holmlund, Tobias
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Blom, Victoria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Hemmingsson, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    HPI Health Profile Institute, Sweden.
    Wallin, Peter
    HPI Health Profile Institute, Sweden.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Change in cardiorespiratory fitness on self-rated health: prospective cohort study in 98 718 Swedish adults.2023In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 51, no 4, p. 542-551Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To study how change in cardiorespiratory fitness over time is associated with the development of poor self-rated health in healthy Swedish adults, and whether this association varies with sex, age, body mass index and cardiorespiratory fitness at baseline. A secondary aim was to study the influence of other predictors of self-rated health. Methods: A total of 98,718 participants (45% women, mean age 42.2 years) with two assessments from occupational health service screenings between 1988 and 2019 (mean duration 4.3 years), with good self-rated health at baseline were included. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed as estimated maximal oxygen consumption using submaximal cycle testing. Change in cardiorespiratory fitness was expressed as percentage annual change. Poor self-rated health at follow-up was defined as percieving self-rated health as 'poor' or 'very poor'. Results: A large decrease in cardiorespiratory fitness (⩾-3%) was associated with a 34% higher risk of poor self-rated health compared to maintainers (-1 to +1%) after multi-adjustment including change in body mass index, back/neck pain, stress, exercise habits and sleep quality or sleep problems. The associations for decreasers were stronger with longer follow-up time (>10 years). Preserving, or changing to, risk level for body mass index, back/neck pain, stress, exercise and sleep quality/problems were associated with a higher risk of poor self-rated health. Conclusions: Preserving or increasing cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with a lower risk of poor self-rated health, independently of change in other health-related variables, which may act as a protection against future poor self-rated health. This is of high clinical value, and strategies for maintaining or improving cardiorespiratory fitness have the potential to influence both disease and mortality.

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  • 4.
    Holmlund, Tobias
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics.
    Börjesson, Mats
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    HPI Health Profile Institute, Sweden.
    Wallin, Peter
    HPI Health Profile Institute, Sweden.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Association between change in cardiorespiratory fitness and incident hypertension in Swedish adults.2021In: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, ISSN 2047-4873, E-ISSN 2047-4881, Vol. 28, no 13, p. 1515-1522Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS: To explore how change in cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with incident hypertension in adults, and whether the association varies between sex, age, body mass index, cardiorespiratory fitness at baseline and follow-up time. A second aim is to study how change in other lifestyle-related variables affects the results.

    METHODS: A total of 91,728 participants (48% women), normotensive at baseline, with two examinations from occupational health service screenings between 1982 and 2019 (mean duration 4.3 years) were included. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed as estimated maximal oxygen consumption using submaximal cycle testing. Change in cardiorespiratory fitness was expressed as the percentage change per year. Incident hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure of 140 mmHg or greater or diastolic blood pressure of 90 mmHg or greater, or self-reported physician-diagnosed hypertension, at second examination.

    RESULTS: A large increase (≥3% annual change) in cardiorespiratory fitness was associated with a 11% lower risk of incident hypertension compared with maintainers (-1 to +1%), after multi-adjustment including change in smoking, body mass index, diet, stress and exercise habits. On the contrary, a small (-1 to -<3%) and large (≥-3%) decrease in cardiorespiratory fitness associated with a 21% and 25% higher risk compared with maintainers. Longer duration between the examinations was associated with stronger risk associations. Preserving, or changing to, risk level for the other lifestyle variables was associated with a higher risk of incident hypertension. However, a simultaneous maintenance of or increase in cardiorespiratory fitness attenuated the risk associated with smoking, and stress.

    CONCLUSION: Preserving or increasing cardiorespiratory fitness should be part of any long-term strategy to decrease the risk of incident hypertension.

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  • 5.
    Holmlund, Tobias
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    P05-01 Change in cardiorespiratory fitness in midlife and incident hypertension2022In: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH, vol. 32, S2, Oxford University Press, 2022, Vol. 32Conference paper (Other academic)
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  • 6.
    Kallings, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Blom, Victoria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics.
    Holmlund, Tobias
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Salier Eriksson, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    HPI, Health Profile Institute, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wallin, Peter
    HPI, Health Profile Institute, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Workplace sitting is associated with self-reported general health and back/neck pain: a cross-sectional analysis in 44,978 employees.2021In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 21, no 1, article id 875Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Total sitting time is associated with a higher risk for cardio metabolic disease and mortality, while breaks in prolonged sitting attenuate these effects. However, less is known about associations of different specific domains and breaks of sitting on general health, back/neck pain and if physical activity could influence these associations. The aim was to investigate how workplace sitting and frequency of breaking up workplace sitting is associated with self-reported general health and self-reported back/neck pain.

    METHODS: 44,978 participants (42% women) from the Swedish working population, who participated in a nationwide occupational health service screening 2014-2019, were included in this cross-sectional study. Self-reported sitting duration and frequency of breaks from sitting at work, general health, back/neck pain, exercise, leisure time sitting, diet, smoking, stress and body mass index were assessed. Occupation was classified as requiring higher education qualifications or not. Logistic regression modelling was used to assess the association between workplace sitting/frequency of breaks in workplace sitting and poor general health and back/neck pain, respectively.

    RESULTS: Compared to sitting all the time at work, sitting ≤75% of the time showed significantly lower risks for poor general health (OR range 0.50-0.65), and sitting between 25 and 75% of the time showed significantly lower risks (OR 0.82-0.87) for often reported back/neck pain. For participants reporting sitting half of their working time or more, breaking up workplace sitting occasionally or more often showed significantly lower OR than seldom breaking up workplace sitting; OR ranged 0.40-0.50 for poor health and 0.74-0.81 for back/neck pain.

    CONCLUSIONS: Sitting almost all the time at work and not taking breaks is associated with an increased risk for self-reported poor general health and back/neck pain. People sitting almost all their time at work are recommended to take breaks from prolonged sitting, exercise regularly and decrease their leisure time sitting to reduce the risk for poor health.

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