Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH

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  • 1.
    Agahi, Neda
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kelfve, Susanne
    Karolinska institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Hassing, Linda B
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Alcohol Consumption Over the Retirement Transition in Sweden: Different Trajectories Based on Education2022In: Work, Aging and Retirement, ISSN 2054-4642, E-ISSN 2054-4650, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 74-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Retirement is a major life transition that involves changes to everyday routines, roles, and habits. Previous studies suggest that retirement may influence drinking habits. Many natural inhibitors of alcohol consumption disappear with the removal of work constraints. The potential impact depends on both individual and contextual factors. Women in the cohorts undergoing retirement now have been more active on the labor market, including the occupation of higher status jobs, which indicates more financial resources as well as a larger role loss after retirement. Also, the current cohorts who retire have had more liberal drinking habits throughout their lives compared to previous cohorts. We therefore examined changes in alcohol consumption surrounding retirement in different education groups among women and men undergoing retirement using annual data from the Health, Aging and Retirement Transitions in Sweden (HEARTS) study, a longitudinal national study of 60- to 66-year-olds (n = 5,913), from 2015 to 2018. Latent growth curve models were used to estimate trajectories of alcohol consumption. Results showed that those who retired during the follow-up increased their usual weekly alcohol consumption while those who worked or were retired throughout the period had stable drinking habits. Those who were retired reported the highest alcohol consumption. The increase surrounding retirement was driven by people with higher education. Women with tertiary education and men with intermediate or tertiary education increased their weekly alcohol intake after retirement, while those with low education had unchanged drinking habits. Mechanisms and motivations that may fuel increased alcohol intake among people with higher education should be further investigated.

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  • 2.
    Blom, Victoria
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Lönn, Amanda
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. Karolinska University Hospital, Solna, Sweden.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics.
    Kallings, Lena
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Väisänen, Daniel
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Hemmingsson, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    HPI Health Profile Institute, Danderyd, Sweden.
    Wallin, Peter
    HPI Health Profile Institute, Danderyd, Sweden.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Salier Eriksson, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Holmlund, Tobias
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Lifestyle Habits and Mental Health in Light of the Two COVID-19 Pandemic Waves in Sweden, 20202021In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 18, no 6, article id 3313Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The COVID-19 pandemic has become a public health emergency of international concern, which may have affected lifestyle habits and mental health. Based on national health profile assessments, this study investigated perceived changes of lifestyle habits in response to the COVID-19 pandemic and associations between perceived lifestyle changes and mental health in Swedish working adults. Among 5599 individuals (50% women, 46.3 years), the majority reported no change (sitting 77%, daily physical activity 71%, exercise 69%, diet 87%, alcohol 90%, and smoking 97%) due to the pandemic. Changes were more pronounced during the first wave (April–June) compared to the second (October–December). Women, individuals <60 years, those with a university degree, white-collar workers, and those with unhealthy lifestyle habits at baseline had higher odds of changing lifestyle habits compared to their counterparts. Negative changes in lifestyle habits and more time in a mentally passive state sitting at home were associated with higher odds of mental ill-health (including health anxiety regarding one’s own and relatives’ health, generalized anxiety and depression symptoms, and concerns regarding employment and economy). The results emphasize the need to support healthy lifestyle habits to strengthen the resilience in vulnerable groups of individuals to future viral pandemics and prevent health inequalities in society.

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  • 3.
    Bolam, Kate
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Bojsen-Møller, Emil
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Wallin, Peter
    Research Department, HPI Health Profile Institute, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Paulsson, Sofia
    Research Department, HPI Health Profile Institute, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Goteborg, Sweden..
    Rundqvist, Helene
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Association between change in cardiorespiratory fitness and prostate cancer incidence and mortality in 57 652 Swedish men.2024In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the associations between changes in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in adulthood and prostate cancer incidence and mortality.

    METHODS: In this prospective study, men who completed an occupational health profile assessment including at least two valid submaximal CRF tests, performed on a cycle ergometer, were included in the study. Data on prostate cancer incidence and mortality were derived from national registers. HRs and CIs were calculated using Cox proportional hazard regression with inverse probability treatment weights of time-varying covariates.

    RESULTS: During a mean follow-up time of 6.7 years (SD 4.9), 592 (1%) of the 57 652 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer, and 46 (0.08%) died with prostate cancer as the primary cause of death. An increase in absolute CRF (as % of L/min) was associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer incidence (HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.96 to 0.99) but not mortality, in the fully adjusted model. When participants were grouped as having increased (+3%), stable (±3%) or decreased (-3%) CRF, those with increased fitness also had a reduced risk of prostate cancer incidence compared with those with decreased fitness (HR 0.65, 95% CI 0.49 to 0.86), in the fully adjusted model.

    CONCLUSION: In this study of employed Swedish men, change in CRF was inversely associated with risk of prostate cancer incidence, but not mortality. Change in CRF appears to be important for reducing the risk of prostate cancer.

  • 4.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Bojsen-Møller, Emil
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Wallin, Peter
    Research Department, HPI Health Profile Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Paulsson, Sofia
    Research Department, HPI Health Profile Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rundqvist, Helene
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bolam, Kate
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Association Between Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Cancer Incidence and Cancer-Specific Mortality of Colon, Lung, and Prostate Cancer Among Swedish Men.2023In: JAMA Network Open, E-ISSN 2574-3805, Vol. 6, no 6, article id e2321102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    IMPORTANCE: Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) levels appear to be an important risk factor for cancer incidence and death.

    OBJECTIVES: To examine CRF and prostate, colon, and lung cancer incidence and mortality in Swedish men, and to assess whether age moderated any associations between CRF and cancer.

    DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A prospective cohort study was conducted in a population of men who completed an occupational health profile assessment between October 1982 and December 2019 in Sweden. Data analysis was performed from June 22, 2022, to May 11, 2023.

    EXPOSURE: Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed as maximal oxygen consumption, estimated using a submaximal cycle ergometer test.

    MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Data on prostate, colon, and lung cancer incidence and mortality were derived from national registers. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression.

    RESULTS: Data on 177 709 men (age range, 18-75 years; mean [SD] age, 42 [11] years; mean [SD] body mass index, 26 [3.8]) were analyzed. During a mean (SD) follow-up time of 9.6 (5.5) years, a total of 499 incident cases of colon, 283 of lung, and 1918 of prostate cancer occurred, as well as 152 deaths due to colon cancer, 207 due to lung cancer, and 141 deaths due to prostate cancer. Higher levels of CRF (maximal oxygen consumption as milliliters per minute per kilogram) were associated with a significantly lower risk of colon (HR, 0.98, 95% CI, 0.96-0.98) and lung cancer (HR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.96-0.99) incidence, and a higher risk of prostate cancer incidence (HR, 1.01; 95% CI, 1.00-1.01). Higher CRF was associated with a lower risk of death due to colon (HR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.96-1.00), lung (HR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.95-0.99), and prostate (HR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.93-0.97) cancer. After stratification into 4 groups and in fully adjusted models, the associations remained for moderate (>35-45 mL/min/kg), 0.72 (0.53-0.96) and high (>45 mL/min/kg), 0.63 (0.41-0.98) levels of CRF, compared with very low (<25 mL/min/kg) CRF for colon cancer incidence. For prostate cancer mortality, associations remained for low (HR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.45-1.00), moderate (HR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.34-0.97), and high (HR, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.10-0.86) CRF. For lung cancer mortality, only high CRF (HR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.17-0.99) was significant. Age modified the associations for lung (HR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.99-0.99) and prostate (HR, 1.00; 95% CI, 1.00-1.00; P < .001) cancer incidence, and for death due to lung cancer (HR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.99-0.99; P = .04).

    CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In this cohort of Swedish men, moderate and high CRF were associated with a lower risk of colon cancer. Low, moderate, and high CRF were associated with lower risk of death due to prostate cancer, while only high CRF was associated with lower risk of death due to lung cancer. If evidence for causality is established, interventions to improve CRF in individuals with low CRF should be prioritized.

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  • 5.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Salier Eriksson, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment.
    Hemmingsson, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Kallings, Lena
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    HPI Health Profile Institute, Danderyd, Sweden.
    Wallin, Peter
    HPI Health Profile Institute, Danderyd, Sweden.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Latent profile analysis patterns of exercise, sitting and fitness in adults - Associations with metabolic risk factors, perceived health, and perceived symptoms.2020In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 15, no 4, article id e0232210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: To identify and describe the characteristics of naturally occurring patterns of exercise, sitting in leisure time and at work and cardiorespiratory fitness, and the association of such profiles with metabolic risk factors, perceived health, and perceived symptoms.

    METHODS: 64,970 participants (42% women, 18-75 years) participating in an occupational health service screening in 2014-2018 were included. Exercise and sitting were self-reported. Cardiorespiratory fitness was estimated using a submaximal cycle test. Latent profile analysis was used to identify profiles. BMI and blood pressure were assessed through physical examination. Perceived back/neck pain, overall stress, global health, and sleeping problems were self-reported.

    RESULTS: Six profiles based on exercise, sitting in leisure time and at work and cardiorespiratory fitness were identified and labelled; Profile 1 "Inactive, low fit and average sitting in leisure, with less sitting at work"; Profile 2 "Inactive, low fit and sedentary"; Profile 3 "Active and average fit, with less sitting at work"; Profile 4 "Active, average fit and sedentary in leisure, with a sedentary work" (the most common profile, 35% of the population); Profile 5 "Active and fit, with a sedentary work"; Profile 6 "Active and fit, with less sitting at work". Some pairwise similarities were found between profiles (1 and 2, 3 and 4, 5 and 6), mainly based on similar levels of exercise, leisure time sitting and fitness, which translated into similar dose-response associations with the outcomes. In general, profile 1 and 2 demonstrated most adverse metabolic and perceived health, profile 4 had a more beneficial health than profile 3, as did profile 6 compared to profile 5.

    CONCLUSIONS: The present results implies a large variation in exercise, sitting, and fitness when studying naturally occurring patterns, and emphasize the possibility to target exercise, sitting time, and/or fitness in health enhancing promotion intervention and strategies.

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  • 6.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Väisänen, Daniel
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics.
    Blom, Victoria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Kallings, Lena
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Hemmingsson, Erik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    HPI Health Profile Institute, Sweden.
    Wallin, Peter
    HPI Health Profile Institute, Sweden.
    Salier Eriksson, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health.
    Holmlund, Tobias
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Sweden; University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Lönn, Amanda
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. Women's Health and Allied Health Professionals Theme Medical Unit Occupational Therapy and Physiotherapy, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Cardiorespiratory fitness and lifestyle on severe COVID-19 risk in 279,455 adults: a case control study.2021In: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, E-ISSN 1479-5868, Vol. 18, no 1, article id 135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The impact of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and other lifestyle-related factors on severe COVID-19 risk is understudied. The present study aims to investigate lifestyle-related and socioeconomic factors as possible predictors of COVID-19, with special focus on CRF, and to further study whether these factors may attenuate obesity- and hypertension-related risks, as well as mediate associations between socioeconomic factors and severe COVID-19 risk.

    METHODS: Out of initially 407,131 participants who participated in nationwide occupational health service screening between 1992 and 2020, n = 857 cases (70% men, mean age 49.9 years) of severe COVID-19 were identified. CRF was estimated using a sub-maximum cycle test, and other lifestyle variables were self-reported. Analyses were performed including both unmatched, n = 278,598, and sex-and age-matched, n = 3426, controls. Severe COVID-19 included hospitalization, intensive care or death due to COVID-19.

    RESULTS: Patients with more severe COVID-19 had significantly lower CRF, higher BMI, a greater presence of comorbidities and were more often daily smokers. In matched analyses, there was a graded decrease in odds for severe COVID-19 with each ml in CRF (OR = 0.98, 95% CI 0.970 to 0.998), and a two-fold increase in odds between the lowest and highest (< 32 vs. ≥ 46 ml·min-1·kg-1) CRF group. Higher BMI (per unit increase, OR = 1.09, 1.06 to 1.12), larger waist circumference (per cm, OR = 1.04, 1.02 to 1.06), daily smoking (OR = 0.60, 0.41 to 0.89) and high overall stress (OR = 1.36, 1.001 to 1.84) also remained significantly associated with severe COVID-19 risk. Obesity- and blood pressure-related risks were attenuated by adjustment for CRF and lifestyle variables. Mediation through CRF, BMI and smoking accounted for 9% to 54% of the associations between low education, low income and blue collar/low skilled occupations and severe COVID-19 risk. The results were consistent using either matched or unmatched controls.

    CONCLUSIONS: Both lifestyle-related and socioeconomic factors were associated with risk of severe COVID-19. However, higher CRF attenuated the risk associated with obesity and high blood pressure, and mediated the risk associated with various socioeconomic factors. This emphasises the importance of interventions to maintain or increase CRF in the general population to strengthen the resilience to severe COVID-19, especially in high-risk individuals.

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  • 7.
    Gerber, Markus
    et al.
    University of Basel, Switzerland.
    Börjesson, Mats
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Association of change in physical activity associated with change in sleep complaints: results from a six-year longitudinal study with Swedish health care workers.2020In: Sleep Medicine, ISSN 1389-9457, E-ISSN 1878-5506, Vol. 69, p. 189-197, article id S1389-9457(18)30304-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To increase our understanding of patterns of change in physical activity and sleep complaints and to test whether intra-individual changes in physical activity are correlated with intra-individual changes in sleep complaints across four measurement time-points over six years, adopting both a between-person and within-person perspective.

    METHODS: Data from a longitudinal cohort study were used in this research. At baseline, 3187 participants took part in the study (86% women, Mage = 46.9 years). The response rate was 84% (n = 3136) after two years, 60% (n = 2232) after four years, and 40% (n = 1498) after six years. Physical activity was assessed with the [51] widely used 4-level physical activity scale (SGPALS), and sleep complaints with three items from the Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire (KSQ). Patterns and correlations of change between physical activity and sleep complaints were examined with latent growth curve modeling.

    RESULTS: Changes in physical activity were associated with changes in sleep complaints across the six years. More specifically, significant associations occurred between baseline levels, correlated (between-person) change, and coupled (within-person change). These associations indicate that higher physical activity levels are not only cross-sectionally linked with fewer sleep complaints, but that increases in physical activity over time (either in comparison to others or to oneself) are paralleled by decreases in sleep complaints.

    CONCLUSIONS: Given that changes in physical activity and sleep are correlated, our findings indicate that it is worthwhile to initiate more physically active lifestyles in physically inactive individuals; and to ensure that those who are already physically active maintain their physical activity levels over longer periods.

  • 8.
    Henning, Georg
    et al.
    German Centre of Gerontology (DZA), Berlin, Germany.
    Johansson, Boo
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Huxhold, Oliver
    German Centre of Gerontology (DZA), Berlin, Germany.
    Retirement Adjustment in Germany From 1996 to 20142022In: Work, Aging and Retirement, ISSN 2054-4642, E-ISSN 2054-4650, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 304-321Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The context of retirement has changed over the last decades, but there is little knowledge on whether the quality of retirement adjustment has changed as well. Changes in retirement regulations and historical differences in resources may affect the quality of adjustment and increase inequalities between different socioeconomic groups. In the present study, we investigated historical differences in retirement adjustment by comparing cross-sectional samples of retirees from 1996, 2002, 2008, and 2014, based on the population-based German Ageing Survey. Adjustment was measured with three different indicators (perceived change in life after retirement, retirement satisfaction, adjustment difficulties). Retirement satisfaction was higher in later samples, but for the other two outcomes, there was no evidence for systematic increases or decreases in levels of retirement adjustment with historical time over the studied period. White-collar workers reported better adjustment than blue-collar workers did, and for two of three outcomes, this effect was stable over time. The white-collar workers’ advantage concerning retirement satisfaction, however, increased. We conclude that in Germany, at least for those who retire within the usual time window, adjustment quality has not changed systematically over the examined 18-year period. We only found mixed evidence for a growing social inequality in the retirement adjustment. However, as individual agency in choosing one’s retirement timing and pathway is increasingly restricted, social inequalities in well-being before retirement may increase.

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  • 9.
    Henning, Georg
    et al.
    German Centre of Gerontology, Berlin, Germany..
    Stenling, Andreas
    University of Umeå, Umeå, Sweden..
    Bielak, Allison A M
    Colorado State University, Fort Collins, USA.
    Bjälkebring, Pär
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gow, Alan J
    Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, UK.
    Kivi, Marie
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Muniz-Terrera, Graciela
    University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
    Johansson, Boo
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences. University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Towards an active and happy retirement? Changes in leisure activity and depressive symptoms during the retirement transition.2021In: Aging & Mental Health, ISSN 1360-7863, E-ISSN 1364-6915, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 621-631Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Retirement is a major life transition in the second half of life, and it can be associated with changes in leisure activity engagement. Although theories of retirement adjustment have emphasized the need to find meaningful activities in retirement, little is known about the nature of changes in leisure activity during the retirement transition and their association with mental health.

    Methods: Based on four annual waves of the 'Health, Aging and Retirement Transitions in Sweden' study, we investigated the longitudinal association of leisure activity engagement and depressive symptoms using bivariate dual change score models. We distinguished intellectual, social, and physical activity engagement.

    Results: We found increases in all three domains of activity engagement after retirement. Although level and change of activity and depressive symptoms were negatively associated, the coupling parameters were not significant, thus the direction of effects remains unclear.

    Conclusion: The results highlight the need to consider the role of lifestyle changes for retirement adjustment and mental health.

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  • 10.
    Henning, Georg
    et al.
    German Ctr Gerontol, Manfred von Richthofen Str 2, D-12101 Berlin, Germany..
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå Univ, Umeå, Sweden.;Univ Agder, Kristiansand, Norway..
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    Umeå Univ, Umeå, Sweden..
    Ebener, Melanie
    Univ Wuppertal, Wuppertal, Germany..
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. Univ Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Levels and change in autonomous and controlled work motivation in older workers: The role of proximity to retirement and sense of community at work2023In: Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, ISSN 0963-1798, E-ISSN 2044-8325, Vol. 96, no 1, p. 33-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies suggest a preretirement disengagement process from work, which includes reduced work motivation. In this study, we investigated changes in autonomous and controlled work motivation over two years among participants of the Health, Aging and Retirement Transition in Sweden (HEARTS) study. We found stability in both types of motivation; however, those who retired after the study period showed more distinct declines in autonomous motivation. A stronger sense of community at work was related to level, but not change in autonomous motivation. Intra-individual fluctuations in the expected retirement age did not predict work motivation or vice versa. Future studies are needed to better understand the antecedents and consequences of preretirement declines in autonomous work motivation.

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  • 11.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Weman Josefsson, Karin
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Höglind, Sten
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Associations between physical activity and core affects within and across days: a daily diary study.2021In: Psychology and Health, ISSN 0887-0446, E-ISSN 1476-8321, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 43-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The objective of the present study was to investigate (a) if daily physical activity at the within-person level is related to four different core affects the same evening, (b) if core affects in the evening predict physical activity the following day, and (c) if physical activity predicts core affects the following day.

    Design: A total of 166 university students were asked to complete the affect and physical activity measures once a day (in the evening), for seven days. Bivariate unconditional latent curve model analyses with structured residuals were performed to investigate the relations within days and across days between the core affects and physical activity.

    Main outcome measures: Core affects and physical activity.

    Results: Physical activity had positive within-day associations with pleasant-activated and pleasant-deactivated core affects and a negative within-day association with unpleasant-deactivated affective responses. There were, however, no statistically significant relations between core affects and physical activity across days.

    Conclusion: These results highlight that the measurement interval might be an important factor that influences the association between core affects and physical activity behaviors.

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  • 12.
    Kalén, Anton
    et al.
    University of Vigo, Spain; University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Bisagno, Elisa
    University of Modena & Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    Musculus, Lisa
    German Sport University, Cologne, Germany.
    Raab, Markus
    German Sport University, Cologne, Germany; London South Bank University, London, England.
    Pérez-Ferreirós, Alexandra
    University of Vigo, Spain; University of Santiago Compostela, Spain.
    Williams, A. Mark
    University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT USA.
    Araújo, Duarte
    University of Lisbon, Portugal.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, Sweden; University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    The role of domain-specific and domain-general cognitive functions and skills in sports performance: A meta-analysis2021In: Psychological bulletin, ISSN 0033-2909, E-ISSN 1939-1455, Vol. 147, no 12, p. 1290-1308Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cognition plays a key role in sports performance. This meta-analytic review synthesizes research that examined the relationship between cognitive functions, skills, and sports performance. We identified literature by searching Cochrane Library, APA PsycINFO, PubMed, and Web of Science. We included studies conducted on competitive athletes, assessed cognitive prerequisites, and included performance measures related to the sport. Of the 9,433 screened records, 136 reports were included, containing 142 studies, 1,227 effect sizes, and 8,860 participants. Only 11 studies used a prospective study design. The risk of bias was assessed using the Risk of Bias Assessment Tool for Nonrandomized Studies. The multilevel meta-analysis showed a medium effect size for the overall difference in cognitive functions and skills, with higher skilled athletes scoring better than lower skilled athletes (Hedges' g = 0.59, 95% CI [0.49, 0.69]). The moderator analysis showed larger effect size for tests of cognitive decision-making skills (g = 0.77, 95% CI [0.6, 0.94]) compared to basic (g = 0.39, 95% CI [0.21, 0.56]) and higher cognitive functions (g = 0.44, 95% CI [0.26, 0.62]), as well as larger effect for sport-specific task stimuli compared to general ones. We report that higher skilled athletes perform better on cognitive function tests than lower skilled athletes. There was insufficient evidence to determine whether cognitive functions and skills can predict future sport performance. We found no evidence to support claims that tests of general cognitive functions, such as executive functioning, should be used by practitioners for talent identification or player selection.

    Public Significance Statement This meta-analysis indicates that testing cognitive functions or skills using sport-specific stimuli has the potential to differentiate between elite and nonelite athletes. There is, however, no evidence for the usefulness of using general, non-sport-specific cognitive function tests to predict future sport performance.

  • 13.
    Kelfve, Susanne
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Kivi, Marie
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Johansson, Boo
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Going web or staying paper? The use of web-surveys among older people.2020In: BMC Medical Research Methodology, E-ISSN 1471-2288, Vol. 20, no 1, article id 252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Web-surveys are increasingly used in population studies. Yet, web-surveys targeting older individuals are still uncommon for various reasons. However, with younger cohorts approaching older age, the potentials for web-surveys among older people might be improved. In this study, we investigated response patterns in a web-survey targeting older adults and the potential importance of offering a paper-questionnaire as an alternative to the web-questionnaire.

    METHODS: We analyzed data from three waves of a retirement study, in which a web-push methodology was used and a paper questionnaire was offered as an alternative to the web questionnaire in the last reminder. We mapped the response patterns, compared web- and paper respondents and compared different key outcomes resulting from the sample with and without the paper respondents, both at baseline and after two follow-ups.

    RESULTS: Paper-respondents, that is, those that did not answer until they got a paper questionnaire with the last reminder, were more likely to be female, retired, single, and to report a lower level of education, higher levels of depression and lower self-reported health, compared to web-respondents. The association between retirement status and depression was only present among web-respondents. The differences between web and paper respondents were stronger in the longitudinal sample (after two follow-ups) than at baseline.

    CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that a web-survey might be a feasible and good alternative in surveys targeting people in the retirement age range. However, without offering a paper-questionnaire, a small but important group will likely be missing with potential biased estimates as the result.

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  • 14.
    Stenling, Andreas
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden;Department of Sport Science and Physical Education, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    Department of Health, Education, and Technology, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. Department of Psychology & AgeCap, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Machado, Liana
    Department of Psychology and Brain Health Research Centre, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand;Brain Research New Zealand, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Bidirectional Within- and Between-Person Relations Between Physical Activity and Cognitive Function2022In: The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences, ISSN 1079-5014, E-ISSN 1758-5368, Vol. 77, no 4, p. 704-709Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To examine bidirectional within- and between-person relations between physical activity and cognitive function across 15 years.

    Methods: Participants (N = 1722, age range 40-85 years, 55% women) were drawn from the Betula prospective cohort study. We included four waves of data. Bivariate latent curve models with structured residuals were estimated to examine bidirectional within- and between-person relations between physical activity and cognitive function (episodic memory recall, verbal fluency, visuospatial ability).

    Results: We observed no statistically significant bidirectional within-person relations over time. Higher levels of physical activity at baseline were related to less decline in episodic memory recall. Positive occasion-specific within- and between-person relations were observed, with the most consistent being between physical activity and episodic memory recall.

    Discussion: The lack of bidirectional within-person relations indicate that shorter time lags may be needed to capture time-ordered within-person relations. The link between higher physical activity at baseline and less decline in episodic memory recall over time may indicate a protective effect of physical activity on episodic memory recall.

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  • 15.
    Stenling, Andreas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Sweden..
    Henning, Georg
    German Ctr Gerontol, Berlin, Germany..
    Bjalkebring, Par
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    Umeå University, Sweden..
    Kivi, Marie
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Johansson, Boo
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. University of Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Basic psychological need satisfaction across the retirement transition: Changes and longitudinal associations with depressive symptoms2021In: Motivation and Emotion, ISSN 0146-7239, E-ISSN 1573-6644, Vol. 45, p. 75-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on self-determination theory, the present study examined how satisfaction of the basic psychological needs (autonomy, competence, and relatedness) changes across the retirement transition and how need satisfaction was related to depressive symptoms across the retirement transition. Participants (N = 2655) were drawn from the HEalth, Ageing and Retirement Transitions in Sweden (HEARTS) study. Latent growth curve modeling showed that autonomy need satisfaction increased across the retirement transition, whereas competence and relatedness remained relatively stable. Higher need satisfaction was related to less depressive symptoms at baseline, however, pre-retirement need satisfaction was not a statistically significant predictor of subsequent changes in depressive symptoms (or vice versa) across the retirement transition. At the within-person level, higher than usual need satisfaction at a specific time point was related to less than usual depressive symptoms. Need satisfaction may be an important factor to consider across the retirement transition and need satisfying activities prior, during, and after the transition may ease peoples' adjustment to retirement.

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  • 16.
    Stenling, Andreas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Sörman, Daniel Eriksson
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hansson, Patrik
    Umeå university, Sweden.
    Körning Ljungberg, Jessica
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Machado, Liana
    University of Otago , Dunedin, New Zealand.
    Physical activity and cognitive function: between-person and within-person associations and moderators.2021In: Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition, ISSN 1382-5585, E-ISSN 1744-4128, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 392-417Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study, we decomposed between- and within-person effects and examined moderators of the longitudinal physical activity-cognition association. Participants (N = 1722) were drawn from the Betula study and we included four waves of data across 15 years. Bayesian multilevel modeling showed that self-reported physical activity did not predict changes in cognitive function. Physical activity positively predicted cognitive performance at baseline, and the relations were stronger for more active (compared to less active) older adults. Physical activity had a positive within-person effect on cognitive function. The within-person effect of physical activity on episodic memory recall was stronger for participants who on average engaged in less physical activity. The within-person effect on verbal fluency was stronger for participants with more education. Our results suggest that preserving cognitive functioning in old age might be more a matter of what you do in old age than reflecting what you did earlier in life.

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