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  • 1.
    Bojsen-Møller, Emil
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Movement Behaviors and Cognitive Health for Office Workers2022Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Utvecklingen genom livet av såväl kognitiv förmåga som fysiskt aktivitetsmönster beror på en komplex interaktion mellan arv och miljö. Det finns stark evidens för att fysisk aktivitet kan förbättra kognitiv förmåga, men vi saknar kunskap om hur stillasittande och det sammansatta fysiska aktivitetsmönstret (omfattande sömn, fysiskt aktivitet och stillasittande) påverkar kognition.

    Observationsstudier på äldre har visat att mer stillasittande tid är relaterat till sämre kognitiv prestation, men de flesta av dessa studier har utgått från självskattat stillasittande. Självskattningar av fysisk aktivitet och stillasittande är ofta ganska svagt associerade till uppmätt fysiskt aktivitetsmönstret. Emedan träning har visat sig ha en skyddande effekt på äldres kognition, så vet man fortfarande väldigt lite om hur det fysiska aktivitetsmönstret i den arbetsföra befolkningen relaterar till och påverkar kognition. Därför behövs det kunskap om hur fysiskt aktivitetsmönster i medelåldern påverkar kognition och vilka mekanismer som ligger till grund för denna effekt.       

    Avhandlingen är en del av ett större forskningsprojekt som syftar till att undersöka hur kontorsarbetares fysiska aktivitetsmönster relaterar till och påverkar kognition, psykisk hälsa och neurofysiologiska mekanismer för dessa. Kunskapen samproduceras med arbetsgivare och friskvårdsföretag.

    Syftet med denna avhandling var att belysa hur kontorsarbetares fysiska aktivitetsmönster relaterar till och påverkar kognition och neuroplasticitet.

    Avhandlingens första studie undersökte sambandet mellan fysiska aktivitetsmönster och kognitiva förmågor bland 334 kontorsarbetare. Studien visade inga samband mellan total tid i medel-till-högintensiv fysisk aktivitet eller stillasittande och prestationen på kognitiva tester. Detta tyder på att sambandet som tidigare påvisats i äldre mellan fysiskt aktivitetsmönster och kognitiva funktioner inte går att generalisera till medelåldern.    

    Den andra studien undersökte omedelbara effekter av tre timmars stillasittande uppbrutet av tre olika rörelseinterventioner på kortikospinal neuroplasticitet. Sexton inaktiva kontorsarbetare i medelåldern deltog i tre separata interventioner, genomförda i randomiserad ordning, separerade av minst 7 dagar. Effekter av tre timmars stillasittande jämfördes med tre timmars stillasittande uppbrutet med korta rörelsepauser eller 2,5 timmars stillasittande följt av 25 minuters medelintensiv träning. Transkraniell magnetstimulation användes för att utvärdera kortikospinal retbarhet och svaret på ett neuroplasticitetsinducerande protokoll. Studien fann inga statistiskt säkerställda skillnader mellan de tre experimentella interventionerna. Detta tyder på att ett enskilt träningspass eller uppbrutet stillasittande inte är mer fördelaktigt än långvarigt stillasittande för kortikospinal neuroplasticitet eller retbarhet bland inaktiva kontorsarbetare.     

    Vi genomförde sedan en sex månaders ekologisk klusterrandomiserad multikomponent intervention med stöd till mer fysisk aktivitet eller minskat stillasittande bland 263 friska kontorsarbetare i syfte att främja hälsosamma hjärnfunktioner. Stödet gavs på individ, miljö och organisationsnivå. Den tredje studien undersökte hur effektiva interventionerna var på att ändra sammansättningen av det fysiska aktivitetsmönstret från studiens start till sex-månaders-uppföljningen. Den fjärde studien undersökte hur interventionerna påverkade kognition. Varken fysiska aktivitetsmönster, kondition eller kognitiva funktioner påverkades av interventionerna. Ändringar i fysiska aktivitetsmönster och kondition var inte relaterade till ändringar i kognition. Relationen mellan förändringar i sammansättningen av fysiskt aktivitetsmönster och kognition modererades till viss del av kön, ålder och kondition.

    Denna avhandling fann sammanfattningsvis inga stöd för samband mellan fysiskt aktivitetsmönster och kognition bland friska kontorsarbetare, inga omedelbara effekt av ett träningspass eller uppbrutet stillasittande på kortikospinal neuroplasticitet bland inaktiva kontorsarbetare och inget stöd för att de utvärderade ekologiska klusterrandomiserade interventionerna med stöd på individ, miljö och organisationsnivå hade effekter på fysiskt aktivitetsmönster eller kognition bland friska kontorsarbetare. Sammantaget tyder fynden på att stillasittande nog inte är så negativt för kognitionen och neuroplasticiteten bland friska, fysiskt aktiva kontorsabetare som tidigare föreslagits. Dessutom belyser resultaten svårigheten med att stödja hållbara förändringar i fysiskt aktivitetsmönster via arbetsplatsen.

    Vi kan inte utesluta möjligheten att ändringar i fysiskt aktivitetsmönster kan leda till förbättringar i kognition för fysiskt inaktiva kontorsarbetare med risk för kardiovaskulär sjukdom, lägre kondition och/eller lägre daglig kognitiv stimulation. Framtida interventioner skulle kunna utformas med en mer avgränsad målgrupp i fokus. 

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  • 2.
    Bojsen-Møller, Emil
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Blom, Victoria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för idrottspsykologi.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC). Karolinska institutet.
    Relationships between Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour and Cognitive Functions in Office Workers.2019Ingår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, nr 23, artikel-id E4721Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing evidence from animal experiments suggests that physical activity (PA) promotes neuroplasticity and learning. For humans, most research on the relationship between PA, sedentary behaviour (SB), and cognitive function has relied on self-reported measures of behaviour. Office work is characterised by high durations of SB combined with high work demands. While previous studies have shown that fitter office workers outperform their less fit colleagues in cognitive tests, the importance of PA and SB remains unknown. This study investigated associations between objectively measured PA and SB, using hip-worn accelerometers, and cognitive functions in 334 office workers. Time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) was not associated with any cognitive outcome. However, time spent in SB tended to be positively associated with words recalled in free recall (β = 0.125). For the least fit participants, the average length of MVPA bouts was favourably related to Stroop performance (β = -0.211), while for the fitter individuals, a longer average length of MVPA bouts was related to worse recognition (β = -0.216). While our findings indicate that the length of MVPA bouts was associated with better Stroop performance in the least fit participants, our findings do not support the notion that more time spent in MVPA or less time in SB is associated with better cognitive function.

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  • 3.
    Bojsen-Møller, Emil
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Tarassova, Olga
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Dunstan, D W
    Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    The effect of breaking up prolonged sitting on paired associative stimulation-induced plasticity.2020Ingår i: Experimental Brain Research, ISSN 0014-4819, E-ISSN 1432-1106, Vol. 238, s. 2497-2506Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Paired associative stimulation (PAS) can induce plasticity in the motor cortex, as measured by changes in corticospinal excitability (CSE). This effect is attenuated in older and less active individuals. Although a single bout of exercise enhances PAS-induced plasticity in young, physically inactive adults, it is not yet known if physical activity interventions affect PAS-induced neuroplasticity in middle-aged inactive individuals. Sixteen inactive middle-aged office workers participated in a randomized cross-over design investigating how CSE and short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) were affected by PAS preceded by 3 h of sitting (SIT), 3 h of sitting interrupted every 30 min by 3 min of frequent short bouts of physical activity (FPA) and 2.5 h of sitting followed by 25 min of moderate-intensity exercise (EXE). Transcranial magnetic stimulation was applied over the primary motor cortex (M1) of the dominant abductor pollicis brevis to induce recruitment curves before and 5 min and 30 min post-PAS. Linear mixed models were used to compare changes in CSE using time and condition as fixed effects and subjects as random effects. There was a main effect of time on CSE and planned within-condition comparisons showed that CSE was significantly increased from baseline to 5 min and 30 min post-PAS, in the FPA condition, with no significant changes in the SIT or EXE conditions. SICI decreased from baseline to 5 min post-PAS, but this was not related to changes in CSE. Our findings suggest that in middle-aged inactive adults, FPAs may promote corticospinal neuroplasticity. Possible mechanisms are discussed.

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  • 4.
    Bojsen-Møller, Emil
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Tarassova, Olga
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysiologi, nutrition och biomekanik.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Activity breaks during prolonged sitting enhance responses to paired associative stimulation2019Ingår i: Brain Stimulation: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation, Volume 12, Issue 2, 466, Elsevier, 2019, Vol. 12, nr 2Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 5.
    Bojsen-Møller, Emil
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Heiland, Emerald
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Kallings, Lena
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Nilsson, Jonna
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Wang, Rui
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå universitet.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Effects of two multicomponent behavior change interventions on cognitive functionsManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 6.
    Bojsen-Møller, Emil
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Wang, Rui
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Nilsson, Jonna
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Heiland, Emerald G
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Department of Surgical Sciences, Medical Epidemiology, University of Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance (DRCMR), Centre for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hospital - Amager and Hvidovre, Copenhagen, Denmark.; Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.; Institute of Sports Medicine Copenhagen (ISMC) and Department of Neurology, Copenhagen University Hospital Bispebjerg, Copenhagen, Denmark.; Institute for Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Kallings, Lena
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The effect of two multi-component behavior change interventions on cognitive functions.2022Ingår i: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 22, nr 1, artikel-id 1082Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: We previously reported the effects of two cluster-randomized 6-month multi-component workplace interventions, targeting reducing sedentary behavior or increasing physical activity among office workers, on movement behaviors and cardiorespiratory fitness. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effects of these interventions on cognitive functions compared to a wait-list control group. The secondary aims were to examine if changes in cognition were related to change in cardiorespiratory fitness or movement behaviors and if age, sex, or cardiorespiratory fitness moderated these associations.

    METHODS: Both interventions encompassed multi-components acting on the individual, environmental, and organizational levels and aimed to change physical activity patterns to improve mental health and cognitive function. Out of 263 included participants, 139 (mean age 43 years, 76% females) completed a neuropsychological test battery and wore accelerometers at baseline and 6-month follow-up. The intervention effect (aim 1) on cognitive composite scores (i.e., Executive Functions, Episodic Memory, Processing Speed, and Global Cognition) was investigated. Additionally, associations between changes in movement behaviors and cardiorespiratory fitness, and changes in cognition were examined (aim 2). Moreover, age, sex, and cardiorespiratory fitness level were investigated as possible moderators of change associations (aim 3).

    RESULTS: Overall, cognitive performance improved from baseline to follow-up, but the change did not differ between the intervention groups and the control group. Changes in cardiorespiratory fitness or any movement behavior category did not predict changes in cognitive functions. The association between changes in time in bed and changes in both Executive Function and Global Cognition were moderated by age, such that a more positive relation was seen with increasing age. A less positive association was seen between changes in sedentary behavior and Processing Speed for men vs. women, whereas higher cardiorespiratory fitness was related to a more positive association between changes in moderate-intensity physical activity and Global Cognition.

    CONCLUSION: The lack of an intervention effect on cognitive functions was expected since the intervention did not change movement behavior or fitness. Age, sex, and cardiorespiratory fitness level might moderate the relationships between movement behaviors and cognitive functions changes.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN92968402 . Registered 09/04/2018.

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  • 7.
    Bolam, Kate
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Bojsen-Møller, Emil
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Wallin, Peter
    Research Department, HPI Health Profile Institute, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Paulsson, Sofia
    Research Department, HPI Health Profile Institute, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Goteborg, Sweden..
    Rundqvist, Helene
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Association between change in cardiorespiratory fitness and prostate cancer incidence and mortality in 57 652 Swedish men.2024Ingår i: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 58, nr 7, s. 366-372Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the associations between changes in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in adulthood and prostate cancer incidence and mortality.

    METHODS: In this prospective study, men who completed an occupational health profile assessment including at least two valid submaximal CRF tests, performed on a cycle ergometer, were included in the study. Data on prostate cancer incidence and mortality were derived from national registers. HRs and CIs were calculated using Cox proportional hazard regression with inverse probability treatment weights of time-varying covariates.

    RESULTS: During a mean follow-up time of 6.7 years (SD 4.9), 592 (1%) of the 57 652 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer, and 46 (0.08%) died with prostate cancer as the primary cause of death. An increase in absolute CRF (as % of L/min) was associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer incidence (HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.96 to 0.99) but not mortality, in the fully adjusted model. When participants were grouped as having increased (+3%), stable (±3%) or decreased (-3%) CRF, those with increased fitness also had a reduced risk of prostate cancer incidence compared with those with decreased fitness (HR 0.65, 95% CI 0.49 to 0.86), in the fully adjusted model.

    CONCLUSION: In this study of employed Swedish men, change in CRF was inversely associated with risk of prostate cancer incidence, but not mortality. Change in CRF appears to be important for reducing the risk of prostate cancer.

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  • 8.
    Ekblom Bak, Elin
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Bojsen-Møller, Emil
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Wallin, Peter
    Research Department, HPI Health Profile Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Paulsson, Sofia
    Research Department, HPI Health Profile Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rundqvist, Helene
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bolam, Kate
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Association Between Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Cancer Incidence and Cancer-Specific Mortality of Colon, Lung, and Prostate Cancer Among Swedish Men.2023Ingår i: JAMA Network Open, E-ISSN 2574-3805, Vol. 6, nr 6, artikel-id e2321102Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    IMPORTANCE: Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) levels appear to be an important risk factor for cancer incidence and death.

    OBJECTIVES: To examine CRF and prostate, colon, and lung cancer incidence and mortality in Swedish men, and to assess whether age moderated any associations between CRF and cancer.

    DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A prospective cohort study was conducted in a population of men who completed an occupational health profile assessment between October 1982 and December 2019 in Sweden. Data analysis was performed from June 22, 2022, to May 11, 2023.

    EXPOSURE: Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed as maximal oxygen consumption, estimated using a submaximal cycle ergometer test.

    MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Data on prostate, colon, and lung cancer incidence and mortality were derived from national registers. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression.

    RESULTS: Data on 177 709 men (age range, 18-75 years; mean [SD] age, 42 [11] years; mean [SD] body mass index, 26 [3.8]) were analyzed. During a mean (SD) follow-up time of 9.6 (5.5) years, a total of 499 incident cases of colon, 283 of lung, and 1918 of prostate cancer occurred, as well as 152 deaths due to colon cancer, 207 due to lung cancer, and 141 deaths due to prostate cancer. Higher levels of CRF (maximal oxygen consumption as milliliters per minute per kilogram) were associated with a significantly lower risk of colon (HR, 0.98, 95% CI, 0.96-0.98) and lung cancer (HR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.96-0.99) incidence, and a higher risk of prostate cancer incidence (HR, 1.01; 95% CI, 1.00-1.01). Higher CRF was associated with a lower risk of death due to colon (HR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.96-1.00), lung (HR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.95-0.99), and prostate (HR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.93-0.97) cancer. After stratification into 4 groups and in fully adjusted models, the associations remained for moderate (>35-45 mL/min/kg), 0.72 (0.53-0.96) and high (>45 mL/min/kg), 0.63 (0.41-0.98) levels of CRF, compared with very low (<25 mL/min/kg) CRF for colon cancer incidence. For prostate cancer mortality, associations remained for low (HR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.45-1.00), moderate (HR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.34-0.97), and high (HR, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.10-0.86) CRF. For lung cancer mortality, only high CRF (HR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.17-0.99) was significant. Age modified the associations for lung (HR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.99-0.99) and prostate (HR, 1.00; 95% CI, 1.00-1.00; P < .001) cancer incidence, and for death due to lung cancer (HR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.99-0.99; P = .04).

    CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In this cohort of Swedish men, moderate and high CRF were associated with a lower risk of colon cancer. Low, moderate, and high CRF were associated with lower risk of death due to prostate cancer, while only high CRF was associated with lower risk of death due to lung cancer. If evidence for causality is established, interventions to improve CRF in individuals with low CRF should be prioritized.

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  • 9.
    Ekblom, Maria
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC). Karolinska Institutet.
    Bojsen-Möller, Emil
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Tarassova, Olga
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Day-to day variations in physical activity patterns affect corticospinal excitability on the following day2019Ingår i: Brain Stimulation March-April 2019, vol 12, issue 2, Elsevier, 2019, Vol. 12, nr 2, s. 468-, artikel-id 437Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 10.
    Ekblom, Maria
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Bojsen-Møller, Emil
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Blom, Victoria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Tarassova, Olga
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysiologi, nutrition och biomekanik.
    Moberg, Marcus
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysiologi, nutrition och biomekanik.
    Pontén, Marjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysiologi, nutrition och biomekanik.
    Wang, Rui
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Acute effects of physical activity patterns on plasma cortisol and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in relation to corticospinal excitability.2022Ingår i: Behavioural Brain Research, ISSN 0166-4328, E-ISSN 1872-7549, Vol. 430, artikel-id 113926Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and cortisol are both capable of modulating synaptic plasticity, but it is unknown how physical activity-induced changes in their plasma levels relate to corticospinal plasticity in humans. Sixteen inactive middle-aged men and women participated in three separate interventions consisting of 3hours prolonged sitting (SIT); 3hours sitting interrupted every 30minutes with frequent short physical activity breaks (FPA); and 2.5hours prolonged sitting followed by 25minutes of moderate intensity exercise (EXE). These 3hour sessions were each followed by a 30min period of paired associative stimulation over the primary motor cortex (PAS). Blood samples were taken and corticospinal excitability measured at baseline, pre PAS, 5min and 30min post PAS. Here we report levels of plasma BDNF and cortisol over three activity conditions and relate these levels to previously published changes in corticospinal excitability of a non-activated thumb muscle. There was no interaction between time and condition in BDNF, but cortisol levels were significantly higher after EXE compared to after SIT and FPA. Higher cortisol levels at pre PAS predicted larger increases in corticospinal excitability from baseline to all subsequent time points in the FPA condition only, while levels of BDNF at pre PAS did not predict such changes in any of the conditions. Neither BDNF nor cortisol modified changes from pre PAS to the subsequent time points, suggesting that the increased corticospinal excitability was not mediated though an augmented effect of the PAS protocol. The relationship between cortisol and plasticity has been suggested to be U-shaped. This is possibly why the moderately high levels of cortisol seen in the FPA condition were positively associated with changes AURC, while the higher cortisol levels seen after EXE were not. A better understanding of the mechanisms for how feasible physical activity breaks affect neuroplasticity can inform the theoretical framework for how work environments and schedules should be designed. DATA AVAILABILITY: Data are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.

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  • 11.
    Hallgren, Mats
    et al.
    Department of Global Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition (IPAN), Faculty of Health, Deakin University, Melbourne, Australia..
    Bojsen-Møller, Emil
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Andreasson, Sven
    Department of Global Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden..
    Dunstan, David W
    Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition (IPAN), Faculty of Health, Deakin University, Burwood, Australia; Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute, Melbourne, Australia..
    Vancampfort, Davy
    Research Group for Adapted Physical Activity and Psychomotor Rehabilitation, University of Leuven, Belgium..
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Nursing, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Associations of device-measured and self-reported physical activity with alcohol consumption: Secondary analyses of a randomized controlled trial (FitForChange).2024Ingår i: Drug And Alcohol Dependence, ISSN 0376-8716, E-ISSN 1879-0046, Vol. 259, artikel-id 111315Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) is increasingly used as an adjunct treatment for alcohol use disorder (AUD). Previous studies have relied on self-report measures of PA, which are prone to measurement error. In the context of a randomized controlled trial of PA for AUD, we examined: (1) associations between device-measured and self-reported PA, (2) associations between PA measurements and alcohol use, and (3) the feasibility of obtaining device-measured PA data in this population.

    METHOD: One-hundred and forty individuals with clinician-diagnosed AUD participated in a 12-week intervention comparing usual care (phone counselling) to yoga-based exercise and aerobic exercise. Device-measured PA (Actigraph GT3x), self-reported PA (International Physical Activity Questionnaire) and alcohol consumption (Timeline Follow Back Method) were assessed before and after the trial. Effects of the interventions on PA levels were assessed using linear mixed models.

    RESULTS: In total, 42% (n=59) of participants returned usable device-measured PA data (mean age= 56±10 years, 73% male). Device-measured and self-reported vigorous-intensity PA were correlated (β= -0.02, 95%CI= -0.03, -0.00). No associations were found for moderate-intensity PA. Compared to usual care, time spent in device-measured light-intensity PA increased in the aerobic exercise group (∆= 357, 95%CI= 709, 5.24). Increases in device-measured light-intensity PA were associated with fewer standard drinks (∆= -0.24, 95%CI= -0.03, -0.44), and fewer heavy drinking days (∆= -0.06, 95%CI=-0.01, -0.10).

    CONCLUSION: Increases in light-intensity/habitual PA were associated with less alcohol consumption in adults with AUD. Self-reported PA data should be interpreted with caution. Incentives are needed to obtain device-measured PA data in AUD populations.

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  • 12.
    Heiland, Emerald G
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Bojsen-Møller, Emil
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Larisch, Lisa-Marie
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Blom, Victoria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Bi-Directional, Day-to-Day Associations between Objectively-Measured Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Sleep among Office Workers.2021Ingår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 18, nr 15, artikel-id 7999Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The bi-directional, day-to-day associations between daytime physical activity and sedentary behavior, and nocturnal sleep, in office workers are unknown. This study investigated these associations and whether they varied by weekday or weekend day. Among 324 Swedish office workers (mean age 42.4 years; 33.3% men), moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and sedentary behaviors and sleep (total sleep time (TST) and sleep efficiency (SE)) were ascertained by using accelerometers (Actigraph GT3X) over 8 days. Multilevel linear mixed models were used to assess the bi-directional, day-to-day, within-person associations. Additional analyses stratified by weekend/weekday were performed. On average, participants spent 6% (57 min) of their day in MVPA and 59% (9.5 h) sedentary, and during the night, TST was 7 h, and SE was 91%. More daytime sedentary behavior was associated with less TST that night, and reciprocally, more TST at night was associated with less sedentary behavior on the following weekday. Greater TST during the night was also associated with less MVPA the next day, only on weekdays. However, daytime MVPA was not associated with TST that night. Higher nighttime SE was associated with greater time spent sedentary and in MVPA on the following day, regardless if weekday or weekend day. Sleep may be more crucial for being physically active the following day than vice versa, especially on weekdays. Nevertheless, sedentary behavior's relation with sleep time may be bi-directional. Office workers may struggle with balancing sleep and physical activity time.

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  • 13.
    Larisch, Lisa-Marie
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Bojsen-Møller, Emil
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Nooijen, Carla F J
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Blom, Victoria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Karolinska institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Arvidsson, Daniel
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Fridolfsson, Jonatan
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Hallman, David M
    University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Wang, Rui
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Karolinska institutet, Stockholm, Sweden ; University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, USA..
    Kallings, Lena
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Effects of Two Randomized and Controlled Multi-Component Interventions Focusing On 24-Hour Movement Behavior among Office Workers: A Compositional Data Analysis.2021Ingår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 18, nr 8, artikel-id 4191Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Intervention studies aiming at changing movement behavior have usually not accounted for the compositional nature of time-use data. Compositional data analysis (CoDA) has been suggested as a useful strategy for analyzing such data. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of two multi-component interventions on 24-h movement behavior (using CoDA) and on cardiorespiratory fitness among office workers; one focusing on reducing sedentariness and the other on increasing physical activity. Office workers (n = 263) were cluster randomized into one of two 6-month intervention groups, or a control group. Time spent in sedentary behavior, light-intensity, moderate and vigorous physical activity, and time in bed were assessed using accelerometers and diaries, both for 24 h in total, and for work and leisure time separately. Cardiorespiratory fitness was estimated using a sub-maximal cycle ergometer test. Intervention effects were analyzed using linear mixed models. No intervention effects were found, either for 24-h behaviors in total, or for work and leisure time behaviors separately. Cardiorespiratory fitness did not change significantly. Despite a thorough analysis of 24-h behaviors using CoDA, no intervention effects were found, neither for behaviors in total, nor for work and leisure time behaviors separately. Cardiorespiratory fitness did not change significantly. Although the design of the multi-component interventions was based on theoretical frameworks, and included cognitive behavioral therapy counselling, which has been proven effective in other populations, issues related to implementation of and compliance with some intervention components may have led to the observed lack of intervention effect.

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  • 14.
    Nooijen, Carla F J
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Blom, Victoria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för idrottspsykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Heiland, Emerald G
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Larisch, Lisa-Marie
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Bojsen-Møller, Emil
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC). Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kallings, Lena
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    The effectiveness of multi-component interventions targeting physical activity or sedentary behaviour amongst office workers: a three-arm cluster randomised controlled trial.2020Ingår i: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 20, nr 1, artikel-id 1329Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Interventions to increase physical activity or reduce sedentary behaviour within the workplace setting have shown mixed effects. This cluster randomised controlled trial assessed whether multi-component interventions, focusing on changes at the individual, environmental, and organisational levels, either increased physical activity or reduced sedentary behaviour, compared to a passive control group.

    METHODS: Teams of office-workers from two companies participated in one of two interventions (iPA: targeting physical activity; or iSED: targeting sedentary behaviour), or wait-list control group (C). Exclusion criterion was very high physical activity level (MVPA ≥30 min/day in ≥10 min bouts every day). Randomisation occurred at the level of workplace cluster, and groups were randomly allocated (1:1) with stratification for company and cluster size. Personnel involved in data collection and processing were blinded to group allocation. Both interventions included five sessions of cognitive behavioural therapy counselling for 6 months. iPA included counselling focused on physical activity, access to a gym, and encouragement to exercise, and go for lunch walks. iSED included counselling on sedentary behaviour and encouragement to reduce sitting and increase engagement in standing- and walking-meetings. At baseline and the 6-month mark accelerometers were worn on the hip and thigh for 7 days. The primary outcomes were group differences in time spent in moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (%MVPA) and in sedentary behaviour (%), analysed using Bayesian multilevel modelling for those with complete data.

    RESULTS: Two-hundred and sixty three office workers (73% women, mean age 42 ± 9 years, education 15 ± 2 years) were randomised into 23 cluster teams (iPA n = 84, 8 clusters; iSED n = 87, 7 clusters; C n = 92, 7 clusters). No significant group differences (posterior mean ratios: 95% credible interval) were found after the intervention for %MVPA or for %Sedentary. %MVPA: iPA vs C (0·04: - 0·80-0·82); iSED vs C (0·47: - 0·41-1·32); iPA vs iSED (0·43: - 0·42-1·27). %Sedentary: iPA vs C (1·16: - 1·66-4·02); iSED vs C (- 0·44: - 3·50-2·64); iPA vs iSED (- 1·60: - 4·72-1·47).

    CONCLUSIONS: The multi-component interventions focusing on either physical activity or sedentary behaviour were unsuccessful at increasing device-measured physical activity or reducing sedentary behaviour compared to a control group.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN, ISRCTN92968402 . Registered 27/2/2018, recruitment started 15/03/2018.

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