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  • 1.
    Andermo, Susanne
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet.
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Kjellenberg, Karin
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Extra schemalagd fysisk aktivitet i högstadiet: en väg framåt?2021Ingår i: Svensk idrottsmedicin 2021:3, 2021Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 2.
    Farias, Lisette
    et al.
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Nursing, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Department of Global Public Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andermo, Susanne
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Nursing, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden; Department of Global Public Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Adolescents' experiences of a school-based health promotion intervention in socioeconomically advantaged and disadvantaged areas in Sweden: a qualitative process evaluation study.2023Ingår i: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 23, nr 1, artikel-id 1631Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Adolescence is a transition period in which positive experiences of physical activity have the potential to last into later adulthood. These experiences are influenced by socioeconomic determinants, leading to health inequalities. This study aims to explore adolescents' experiences and participation in a multi-component school-based intervention in schools located in socioeconomically advantaged and disadvantaged areas in Sweden.

    METHODS: A qualitative design was used to evaluate how participants experienced the intervention. The intervention was a multi-component school-based intervention. It was conducted in six schools (four control and two intervention schools) with a total of 193 students and lasted one school year. It was teacher-led and consisted of three 60-minute group sessions per week: varied physical activities, homework support with activity breaks, and walks while listening to audiobooks. In total, 23 participant observations were conducted over eight months and 27 students participated in focus groups. A content analysis was conducted.

    RESULTS: The results describe a main category 'Engaging in activities depending on socioeconomic status' and three generic categories: 1. Variations in participation in PA together with classmates and teachers; 2. Variations in engagement in PA after school; and 3. Differences in time and place allocated to do homework and listen to audiobooks. These categories illustrate how participants looked forward to the physical activities but used the time spent during the walks and homework support differently depending on how busy they were after school. Frequently, those who were busiest after school were also those from the advantaged area, and those who had little to do after school were from the disadvantaged area.

    CONCLUSION: Socioeconomic factors influence participants' possibilities to engage in the intervention activities as well as how they use their time in the activities. This study showed that it is crucial to support adolescents' participation in physical activities by providing structure and engaging well-known teachers in the activities, especially in schools located in disadvantaged areas.

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  • 3.
    Fernström, Maria
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Heiland, Emerald G
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Department of Surgical Sciences, Medical Epidemiology, Uppsala University Uppsala Sweden.
    Kjellenberg, Karin
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Pontén, Marjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysiologi, nutrition och biomekanik.
    Tarassova, Olga
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysiologi, nutrition och biomekanik.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Department of Global Public Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Effects of prolonged sitting and physical activity breaks on measures of arterial stiffness and cortisol in adolescents2023Ingår i: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 112, nr 5, s. 1011-1018Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    In adults, prolonged periods of sitting have been linked to acute negative effects on vascular structure and function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the acute effects of physical activity (PA) breaks during prolonged sitting on arterial stiffness, cortisol and psychological factors in adolescents.

    Methods

    Adolescents underwent different short (3-min) breaks starting every 20 min, during 80 min of sitting on three separate days. Breaks were (A) social seated breaks (SOC), (B) low-intensity simple resistance activity PA breaks (SRA) and (C) moderate-intensity step-up PA breaks (STEP). The arterial stiffness measures were augmentation index (AIx), AIx@75 and pulse wave velocity (PWV). Cortisol was measured from saliva. Psychological factors were self-reported.

    Results

    Eleven girls and six boys (average age 13.6 ± 0.7 years) participated, with average baseline heart rates of 72 ± 11 bpm, systolic/diastolic blood pressure 111 ± 7/64 ± 6 mmHg and cortisol 10.9 ± 5.8 nmoL/L. PWV, cortisol and psychological factors did not change after any of the conditions. AIx@75 increased significantly (4.9 ± 8.7–9.2 ± 13.2) after the STEP intervention compared with SOC and SRA (time × condition p < 0.05).

    Conclusion

    Arterial stiffness increased after prolonged sitting with frequent, short step-up activity breaks. The results indicate potential important intensity-dependent effects of physical activity on vascular regulation in youth.

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  • 4.
    Hallgren, Mats
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Herring, Matthew P
    University of Limerick, Ireland.
    Zeebari, Zangin
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindefors, Nils
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Öjehagen, Agneta
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Forsell, Yvonne
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Exercise and internet-based cognitive-behavioural therapy for depression: multicentre randomised controlled trial with 12-month follow-up.2016Ingår i: British Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0007-1250, E-ISSN 1472-1465, Vol. 209, nr 5, s. 414-420Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Evidence-based treatment of depression continues to grow, but successful treatment and maintenance of treatment response remains limited.

    AIMS: To compare the effectiveness of exercise, internet-based cognitive-behavioural therapy (ICBT) and usual care for depression.

    METHOD: A multicentre, three-group parallel, randomised controlled trial was conducted with assessment at 3 months (post-treatment) and 12 months (primary end-point). Outcome assessors were masked to group allocation. Computer-generated allocation was performed externally in blocks of 36 and the ratio of participants per group was 1:1:1. In total, 945 adults with mild to moderate depression aged 18-71 years were recruited from primary healthcare centres located throughout Sweden. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three 12-week interventions: supervised group exercise, clinician-supported ICBT or usual care by a physician. The primary outcome was depression severity assessed by the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS).

    RESULTS: The response rate at 12-month follow-up was 84%. Depression severity reduced significantly in all three treatment groups in a quadratic trend over time. Mean differences in MADRS score at 12 months were 12.1 (ICBT), 11.4 (exercise) and 9.7 (usual care). At the primary end-point the group × time interaction was significant for both exercise and ICBT. Effect sizes for both interventions were small to moderate.

    CONCLUSIONS: The long-term treatment effects reported here suggest that prescribed exercise and clinician-supported ICBT should be considered for the treatment of mild to moderate depression in adults.

  • 5. Hallgren, Mats
    et al.
    Herring, Matthew P
    Owen, Neville
    Dunstan, David
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    Karolinska institute, Sweden.
    Nakitanda, Olivia Aya
    Forsell, Yvonne
    Exercise, Physical Activity, and Sedentary Behavior in the Treatment of Depression: Broadening the Scientific Perspectives and Clinical Opportunities.2016Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychiatry, E-ISSN 1664-0640, Vol. 7, artikel-id 36Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Research exploring links between exercise and depression now span several decades, yet several clinically relevant research questions remain unanswered. This opinion article briefly describes the status of selected research issues from the exercise depression literature and offer insights into research areas that are currently lacking. We draw particular attention to the potential of research exploring links between sedentary behavior and depression.

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  • 6. Hallgren, Mats
    et al.
    Nakitanda, Olivia Aya
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Herring, Matthew P
    Owen, Neville
    Dunstan, David W
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    Karolinska institutet, Sweden.
    Forsell, Yvonne
    Habitual physical activity levels predict treatment outcomes in depressed adults: A prospective cohort study.2016Ingår i: Preventive Medicine, ISSN 0091-7435, E-ISSN 1096-0260, Vol. 88, s. 53-58Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Exercise is an efficacious stand-alone therapy for mild-to-moderate depression, but little is known about the influence of physical activity levels on responses to depression treatment. This study aimed to prospectively assess the association between self-reported habitual physical activity levels and depression severity following a 12-week intervention.

    METHOD: 629 adults (75% women; aged 18-71years) with mild-to-moderate depression were recruited from primary care centres across Sweden and treated for 12weeks. The interventions included internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (ICBT) and 'usual care' (CBT or supportive counselling). One third of all participants were taking anti-depressant medication. The primary outcome was the change in depression severity assessed using the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). Habitual physical activity levels were self-rated and based on the estimated frequency, duration and intensity of total physical activity, including planned exercise, 'during a typical week'. Prospective associations were explored using linear regression models (percentage change) with 95% confidence intervals (CI's).

    RESULTS: Following adjustment for relevant covariates, high levels of habitual physical activity were associated with larger relative reductions in depression severity compared to low physical activity (β=-9.19, 95% CI=-18.46, -0.09, p=0.052) and moderate physical activity (β=-10.81, 95% CI=-21.09, -0.53, p<0.05), respectively.

    CONCLUSION: Adults who routinely engage in high levels of physical activity respond more favourably to CBT-focused depression treatments than adults who engage in low-to-moderate levels of activity. The optimal level of physical activity associated with reductions in depression severity corresponds to consensus recommendations for maximizing general health. One limitation is the use of self-reported physical activity data.

  • 7.
    Heiland, Emerald G
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Kjellenberg, Karin
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Tarassova, Olga
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysiologi, nutrition och biomekanik.
    Fernström, Maria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Karolinska institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Karolinska institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Karolinska institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    ABBaH teens: Activity Breaks for Brain Health in adolescents2022Ingår i: Trials, E-ISSN 1745-6215, Vol. 23, nr 1, artikel-id 22Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Physical activity breaks are widely being implemented in school settings as a solution to increase academic performance and reduce sitting time. However, the underlying physiological mechanisms suggested to improve cognitive function from physical activity and the frequency, intensity, and duration of the breaks remain unknown. This study will investigate the effects of frequent, short physical activity breaks during prolonged sitting on task-related prefrontal cerebral blood flow, cognitive performance, and psychological factors. Additionally, the moderating and mediating effects of arterial stiffness on changes in cerebral blood flow will be tested.

    METHODS: This is a protocol for a randomized crossover study that will recruit 16 adolescents (13-14 years old). Participants will undergo three different conditions in a randomized order, on three separate days, involving sitting 80 min with a different type of break every 17 min for 3 min. The breaks will consist of (1) seated social breaks, (2) simple resistance activities, and (3) step-up activities. Before and after the 80-min conditions, prefrontal cerebral blood flow changes will be measured using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (primary outcome), while performing working memory tasks (1-, 2-, and 3-back tests). Arterial stiffness (augmentation index and pulse wave velocity) and psychological factors will also be assessed pre and post the 80-min interventions.

    DISCUSSION: Publication of this protocol will help to increase rigor in science. The results will inform regarding the underlying mechanisms driving the association between physical activity breaks and cognitive performance. This information can be used for designing effective and feasible interventions to be implemented in schools.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: www.ClinicalTrials.gov , NCT04552626 . Retrospectively registered on September 21, 2020.

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  • 8.
    Heiland, Emerald G.
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Kjellenberg, Karin
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Tarassova, Olga
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysiologi, nutrition och biomekanik.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Acute effects of nitrate and breakfast on working memory and cerebral blood flow in adolescents: a randomized crossover trial2023Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Beneficial acute effects of dietary nitrate have been demonstrated on working memory in adults, with changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) being a potential mechanism. However, these effects have not been studied in adolescents. Moreover, having breakfast compared to skipping may also exhibit positive effects on working memory. Therefore, this randomized crossover trial investigated the acute effects of nitrate and breakfast on working memory and changes in task-related CBF in adolescents.  Methods: This trial will recruit at least 43 adolescents (13–15 years old). There were three experimental breakfast conditions: (1) none, (2) regular, and (3) regular breakfast with high nitrate in the form of concentrated beetroot juice. Working memory (1-, 2-, 3-back tests) and task-related CBF (prefrontal cortex oxygenated and deoxygenated-hemoglobin changes estimated using functional near-infrared spectroscopy) were measured immediately after breakfast and 130 min later. The data collection for this study is ongoing, thus results for 35 adolescents are presented here and due to blinding of the researcher we are unable to report at this time in which condition these effects occurred, but will be revealed by the time of the conference, as well as for the results on changes in CBF.  Results: Preliminary results from the ongoing study showed that from pretest to posttest there was a statistically significant improvement in reaction time in all three conditions for all three n-back tests, but no intervention effects. Accuracy, however, improved from pretest to posttest in only one condition, for all three nback tests (β [95% confidence interval] from linear mixed-effects models with subject as random effect: 1-back 2.8[1.2-4.3], 2-back 2.6[0.9-4.2], 3-back 3.6[2.2-5.0]), and there was a tendency towards an intervention effect between this breakfast condition and another on the accuracy of the 3-back test (P for time-by-condition interaction 0.07).   Conclusions: The results from this study will increase our understanding into the effects of breakfast and its composition (i.e., nitrate-rich) on acutely improving working memory in adolescents and the potential mechanisms. In turn, the results will inform on whether policies on providing breakfast in schools should be considered to improve students' cognitive performance.

  • 9.
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Baurén, Hanna
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kjellenberg, Karin
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Breakfast Habits and Associations with Fruit and Vegetable Intake, Physical Activity, Sedentary Time, and Screen Time among Swedish 13–14-Year-Old Girls and Boys2021Ingår i: Nutrients, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 13, nr 12, artikel-id 4467Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explored whether breakfast habits were associated with intake of fruits and vegetables, minutes in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), minutes spent sedentary, and screen time among adolescents. Cross-sectional data were collected among 13&ndash;14-year-old boys and girls (n = 1139). Breakfast habits and screen time were determined via questionnaire, fruit and vegetable intake were determined through dietary recall, and physical activity and sedentary time were determined via accelerometers. Multilevel mixed models and general estimation equation models were applied. Almost 40% of participants skipped breakfast at least one day of the week. Participants with irregular breakfast habits on weekdays had lower fruit and vegetable consumption by 26.7 g (95% CI = &minus;49.3, &minus;5.9) while irregular breakfast habits during the whole week were associated with higher levels of screen time (OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.1, 2.1) compared to regular breakfast habits. Girls with irregular breakfast habits on weekdays had 7.7 min more sedentary time (95% CI = 0.8, 15.7) than girls with regular breakfast habits, while the opposite was found in boys (&beta; = &minus;13.3, 95% CI = &minus;25.3, &minus;2.6)). No significant associations were found for MVPA. Regular breakfast habits should be encouraged, as they might contribute to a higher intake of fruit and vegetables and are associated with lower levels of screen time, although further studies are necessary to establish causation.

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  • 10.
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Forsell, Yvonne
    Karolinska Insitutet.
    Impact of expectations on the effects of exercise on psychological distress2014Ingår i: American Journal of Health Behavior, ISSN 1087-3244, E-ISSN 1945-7359, Vol. 38, nr 5, s. 560-565Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE:

    To evaluate the influence of expectations on effectiveness of exercise in reducing psychological distress.

    METHOD:

    Data came from a Swedish longitudinal population-based study consisting of 4631 people aged 20-64 years. Psychological distress was measured with the Major Depressive Inventory. Expectations (positive expectations or indifference) towards exercise were combined with exercise (regular exercise: yes or no).

    RESULTS:

    Indifferent non-exercisers had increased risk of psychological distress. Regular exercisers who were indifferent towards exercise as a self-help method were less likely to be psychologically distressed compared to exercisers with positive expectations.

    CONCLUSION:

    The results encourage systematic use of exercise in prevention and rehabilitation of persons suffering from psychological distress. People's personal expectations might not be needed for treatment effect.

  • 11.
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    et al.
    PHS, EPHIR Karolinska Institutet.
    Forsell, Yvonne
    PHS, EPHIR Karolinska Institutet.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Physical activity patterns of people affected by depressive and anxiety disorders as measured by accelerometers: a cross-sectional study2015Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, nr 1, s. e0115894-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Exercise can relieve both depressive and anxiety disorders and it is therefore of importance to establish movement patterns of mildly to moderately affected sufferers to estimate the treatment potential. The aim is to describe the physical activity patterns of people affected by mild to moderate depressive and/or anxiety symptoms using objective measures of physical activity.

    METHODS:

    The design of the study was cross-sectional using data from 165 people aged 18-65 years, with mild to moderate depressive and/or anxiety disorder symptoms (scoring ≥10 on the PHQ-9). Diagnoses were made using Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and symptom severity was measured with the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). The participants wore accelerometers for a week to evaluate physical activity patterns.

    RESULTS:

    No statistically significant differences were detected between different diagnoses, though depressed participants tended to be less active and more sedentary. Only one-fifth of the sample followed public health guidelines regarding physical activity. Each one point increase in MADRS was associated with a 2.4 minute reduction in light physical activity, independent of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary time. MADRS was positively associated with number of sedentary bouts.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    The physical activity pattern of people with depressive and/or anxiety disorders was characterized by large amounts of sedentary time and low fulfillment of physical activity guidelines. There is therefore a large treatment potential for this group by increasing exercise. The results suggest that instead of focusing exclusively on high intensity exercise for treating depressive and anxiety disorders, health care providers might encourage patients to reduce sedentary time by increasing light physical activity and decreasing the number of sedentary bouts, though further studies are needed that can determine directionality.

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  • 12.
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Forsell, Yvonne
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hallgren, Mats
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Möller, Jette
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet, Björn Ekbloms forskningsgrupp.
    Long-term effects of exercise at different intensity levels on depression: A randomized controlled trial.2017Ingår i: Preventive Medicine, ISSN 0091-7435, E-ISSN 1096-0260, Vol. 105, s. 37-46, artikel-id S0091-7435(17)30294-3Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown positive effects of exercise on depression but studies have mainly focused on the short-term effects; few have examined the long-term effect, especially with regard to differences in intensity. The aim of this study was to examine the long-term effects of prescribed exercise on depression, performed at three intensity levels. People aged 18-67years with mild to moderate depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9 score of ≥10) participated in a single-blind, parallel randomized control trial lasting 12weeks (Sweden 2011-2013). Four arms were included: Treatment as usual (TAU, n=310), light (n=106), moderate (n=105) and vigorous exercise (n=99). Severity of depression was measured at baseline, post-treatment and 12-month follow-up using the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). Coefficients (β) and odds ratios were estimated using linear mixed models with time×group interactions. The results showed that at the 12month follow-up the light exercise group had significantly lower depression severity scores than the TAU (-1.9, 95% CI: -3.7, -0.04) and the moderate exercise group (-2.94 95% CI: -5.2, -0.7). The vigorous exercise group had significantly lower scores than the moderate exercise group only (-2.7, 95% CI: -4.9, -0.4). In conclusion, compared to usual care for depression, only light exercise resulted in significantly lower depression severity at 12-month follow-up. Both light and vigorous exercise was more effective than moderate exercise.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was registered with the German Clinical Trial Register (DRKS study ID: DRKS00008745).

  • 13.
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Insurance Medicine, Karolinska Instituten, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fröberg, Andreas
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kjellenberg, Karin
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Department of Global Public Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    COVID-19 induced changes in physical activity patterns, screen time and sleep among Swedish adolescents - a cohort study.2023Ingår i: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 23, nr 1, artikel-id 380Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic had a huge impact on daily life, even in countries such as Sweden where the restrictions were relatively mild. This paper assesses the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic restrictions on physical activity (PA) patterns, screen time, and sleep among Swedish adolescents. The exposures explored include gender, parental education, anthropometrics, and cardiovascular fitness (CVF).

    METHODS: Cohort data were collected from September 26th to December 6th, 2019, and from April 12th to June 9th, 2021. Participants were 13-14 years-old (7th graders) at baseline with 585 participating at both baseline and follow-up. At both baseline and follow-up PA and sedentary time were measured with accelerometers, and sleep and screen time with questionnaires. The exposure variables (gender, parental education, anthropometrics and CVF) were collected at baseline. Multilevel linear regression analyses were performed.

    RESULTS: Moderate-to-vigorous-physical activity (MVPA) remained unchanged while light physical activity (LiPA) decreased and sedentary time increased. Sleep duration decreased and screen time increased. Girls, adolescents with overweight/obesity (BMI and percent body fat), and those with lower CVF at baseline had less favourable changes in PA patterns, sleep and screen time.

    CONCLUSIONS: Although no significant (α = 0.05) changes were seen in MVPA, both LiPA and sedentary time as well as sleep and screen time changed in unfavourable ways. More intense activities are often organised and seem to have withstood the pandemic, while less intense activities decreased. Some groups were more vulnerable and will need directed intervention in the post-pandemic period as well as when future pandemics hit.

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  • 14.
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Fröberg, Andreas
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Kjellenberg, Karin
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Has COVID-19 led to changes in physical activity patterns, screen time and sleep among Swedish adolescents?: A cohort study2023Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The COVID-19 pandemic has had an impact on daily life around the world though in Sweden the restrictions have been rather mild. The aim is to explore whether the pandemic has led to changes in physical activity (PA) patterns, including sedentary time, Light Physical Activity (LiPA) and Moderate-to-Vigorous-Physical Activity (MVPA) during weekdays and weekends, as well as screen time and sleep. The potential predictors explored include gender, parental education, anthropometrics, and cardiovascular fitness (CVF).

    Methods: Data were collected in the fall of 2019 and the spring of 2021. The participants were 13-14 years-old at baseline and lived in the Stockholm area. In total 585 participated at both baseline and follow-up. PA and sedentary time were measured with accelerometers and sleep and screen time with questionnaires at baseline and follow-up. The exposure variables were collected at baseline: gender and parental education via questionnaire, anthropometrics (BMI and body fat percentage measured with standard methods by researchers) and CVF with a submaximal test. Multilevel linear regression analyses were performed.

    Results: MVPA remained unchanged while LiPA decreased by 25.5 minutes on weekdays and 10.3 minutes on weekends (both p<0.001) and sedentary time increased by 9.4 minutes on weekdays (p=0.023). Sleep duration decreased by 27.4 minutes on weekdays and 19.1 minutes on weekends (both p<0.001) and screentime increased by around 45 minutes both on weekdays and weekends (p<0.001). Girls, adolescents with overweight/obesity (BMI and percent body fat), and those with lower CVF at baseline had less favourable changes in PA patterns, sleep and screen time.

    Conclusions: Previous self-reported data seems to suggest a decrease in physical activity due to the pandemic; this study only found such changes to be present in the lower intensity levels of physical activity but not in the MVPA. It is possible that more strenuous physical activity is more often part of organized sport which seems to have prevailed in Sweden despite the pandemic while habitual less intense activity decreased. Some groups were found to be more vulnerable and might need more support to maintain their physical activity levels, both now in the post-pandemic periods and during future pandemics.

  • 15.
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Hallgren, Mats
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Forsell, Yvonne
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Training fast or slow? Exercise for depression: A randomized controlled trial2016Ingår i: Preventive Medicine, ISSN 0091-7435, E-ISSN 1096-0260, Vol. 91, s. 123-131Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Exercise can be used to treat depression but there is a lack of evidence regarding the optimal intensity and mode. Our aim was to compare the effects of different exercise intensities on post-treatment depression severity. People aged 18–67years with mild-to-moderate depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9 score of ≥10) participated in a single-blind, parallel randomized control trial lasting 12-weeks (Sweden 2011–2013). Four treatment arms were included: treatment as usual (TAU) (n=310), light exercise (yoga or similar n=106), moderate exercise (aerobic conditioning, n=105) and vigorous exercise (aerobic conditioning, n=99). Depression severity was measured at baseline and post-treatment using the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). Differences between the groups in depression severity at post-treatment were analysed using linear regression. Differences in exercise intensity were confirmed by heart rate monitoring. At post-treatment, the light (−4.05 Confidence Interval (CI)=−5.94, −2.17), moderate (−2.08 CI=−3.98, −0.18) and vigorous exercise groups (−3.13 CI=−5.07, −1.19) had reduced their MADRS scores significantly more than TAU. No significant differences were found between the exercise groups, and no significant interaction effect was observed between group and gender. In conclusion, exercise, whether performed at a low (yoga or similar), moderate or vigorous intensity (aerobic training) is effective in treating mild-to-moderate depression and is at least as effective as treatment as usual by a physician.

  • 16.
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Laflamme, Lucie
    Monárrez-Espino, Joel
    Möller, Jette
    Medication and fall injury in the elderly population; do individual demographics, health status and lifestyle matter?2014Ingår i: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 14, artikel-id 92Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The simultaneous use of several medications is an important risk factor for injurious falls in older people. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the number of medications dispensed to elderly persons on fall injuries and to assess whether this relationship is explained by individual demographics, health habits and health status.

    METHODS: A population-based, nested, case-control study on people 65 years and older (N = 20.906) was conducted using data from the Stockholm Public Health Cohort (SPHC) derived from self-administered surveys and linked at the individual level with various Swedish health registers. Fall injuries leading to hospitalization recorded in the Swedish National Patient Register (NPR) were considered as the outcome. The main exposure, obtained from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register (SPDR), was the number of medications dispensed within 90 days prior to the injurious fall. The injury risk was estimated using adjusted odds ratios (ORs) from logistic regression. Results were adjusted by selected demographic, social circumstances, lifestyle and health status data extracted from the SPHC.

    RESULTS: After adjusting for common risk factors within demographics, lifestyle, social circumstances and health status, using more than one medication increased the risk of fall injury but no clear dose-response relationship was observed, with point estimates ranging from 1.5-1.7 for the use of two, three, four or five or more medications as compared to using none. An increased risk remained, and was even elevated, after adjusting for the use of fall-risk-increasing drugs (FRIDs).

    CONCLUSIONS: Using more than one medication affects the risk of injurious falls among older people. The effect of any given number of medications studied remains and is even strengthened after adjusting for individual demographics, health habits, health conditions and the use of FRIDs.

  • 17.
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mather, Lisa
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Narusyte, Jurgita
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ropponen, Annina
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Blom, Victoria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för idrottspsykologi.
    Svedberg, Pia
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Transitioning from sickness absence to disability pension - the impact of poor health behaviours: a prospective Swedish twin cohort study.2019Ingår i: BMJ Open, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 9, nr 11, artikel-id e031889Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between three poor health behaviours (current smoker, high consumption of alcohol and low physical activity levels) and the transition to disability pension (DP) among individuals who have recently been sickness absent. Furthermore, we aimed to explore whether having multiple poor health behaviours increased the risk of transitioning from sickness absence (SA) to DP.

    DESIGN: Prospective twin cohort study.

    SETTING: Sweden.

    PARTICIPANTS: Twins aged 20-46 who had participated in a survey and been on SA (>14 days) in the year preceding baseline (date of answering the questionnaire).

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Incident DP during the follow-up which ended on 31 December 2012 (mean 5.2 years). A national register with full coverage provided data on DP.

    RESULTS: The Cox proportional-hazards regression analyses showed that current smokers had a higher risk of transitioning from SA to DP compared with never smokers (HR 1.76; 95% CI 1.08 to 2.84). Alcohol use and lack of physical activity as well as poor health behaviour sum score showed no significant associations.

    CONCLUSIONS: Being a current smoker influences the transition from SA to DP. Although non-significant, there were indications that more physical activity and fewer poor health behaviours could reduce the risk of exiting the labour market through DP. Improving health behaviours among people on SA could be a valuable tool for preventing the transition to DP.

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  • 18.
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Moller, Jette
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Laflamme, Lucie
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Patterns in health-related behaviours and fall injuries among older people: a population-based study in Stockholm County, Sweden.2015Ingår i: Age and Ageing, ISSN 0002-0729, E-ISSN 1468-2834, Vol. 44, nr 4, s. 604-10Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: we identified clusters of older people with similar health-related behaviours and assessed the association between those clusters and the risk of injurious fall.

    METHODS: we linked self-reported and register-based data on the over-65s from the Stockholm public health cohort (N = 20,212). Groups of people with similar health-related behaviours were identified by cluster analysis using four measures of physical activity, two of smoking and alcohol habits and two individual attributes (age and type of housing). The association between clusters and falls leading to hospitalisation (422 cases) was studied using a nested case-control design. Odds ratios (ORs), crude and adjusted for health status, were compiled by cluster using the one with the most 'protective' health behaviour profile as the reference.

    RESULTS: five clusters were identified revealing a variety of combinations of health-related behaviours, all linked to specific age groups and types of housing and with a tendency towards higher levels of physical activity among the younger ones. The risk of injurious falls differed across clusters, and for three out of four, it was significantly higher than in the comparison cluster. Adjusting for health status only partially reduced the ORs for those clusters and this was observed both in men and women.

    CONCLUSION: health-related behaviours aggregate in different manners among older people. Some health-related profiles are associated with an excess risk of falls leading to hospitalisation. Although this is partly a reflection of age differences across clusters, health status alone cannot fully explain the association.

  • 19.
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Narusyte, Jurgita
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ropponen, Annina
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Mather, Lisa
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Blom, Victoria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för idrottspsykologi. Karolinska Institutet.
    Svedberg, Pia
    Karolinska Institutet.
    The role of occupational class on the association between sickness absence and disability pension: A Swedish register-based twin study.2019Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 45, nr 6, s. 622-630, artikel-id 3816Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the association between long-term sickness absence (LTSA) due to mental disorders and musculoskeletal disorders and all-cause disability pension (DP) among blue- and white-collar workers. A secondary objective was to examine the influence of familial factors on the associations. Methods This was a prospective twin cohort study of 42 984 individuals (21-64 years at baseline), 3017 of whom had a new LTSA spell (>14 days) due to mental or musculoskeletal disorders in 2005-2006. Average follow-up time was 5.4 years. Survey data on occupational class and register data on LTSA and DP were used. Cox proportional hazards regression was applied to calculate hazards ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results During follow-up, 989 participants went on disability. LTSA due to mental disorders and musculoskeletal disorders led to similar HR for DP among both white- and blue-collar workers when compared to white-collar workers not on LTSA (reference group). LTSA ≥6 months due to musculoskeletal disorders was associated with a higher risk of DP for white-collar (HR 31.50, 95% CI 20.45-48.52) than blue-collar (HR 17.64, 95% CI 13.08-23.78) workers when compared to the reference group. HR were lower in the discordant twin pair models for LTSA due to mental disorders than in the whole cohort. Conclusions White-collar workers on LTSA due to musculoskeletal disorders are especially vulnerable to all-cause DP. This pattern was not present for LTSA due to mental disorders. Familial factors seem to influence the association between LTSA due to mental disorders and all-cause DP.

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  • 20.
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Svedberg, Pia
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Mather, Lisa
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Karolinska Institutet, University of Gävle.
    Blom, Victoria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för idrottspsykologi. Karolinska Institutet.
    The association between part-time and temporary employment and sickness absence: a prospective Swedish twin study.2019Ingår i: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 9, nr 1, s. 147-153Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Sickness absence (SA) is becoming a major economic problem in many countries. Our aim was to investigate whether type of employment, including temporary employment or part-time employment, is associated with SA while controlling for familial factors (genetic and shared environment). Differences between men and women and across employment sectors were explored.

    Methods: This is a prospective twin study based on 21 105 twins born in Sweden 1959-85. The participants completed a survey in 2005 with follow-up of SA (≥15 days), using register data, until end of 2013. The data were analyzed with logistic regression, with results presented as odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI).

    Results: Temporary employment involved higher odds of SA (OR=1.21 95% CI=1.04-1.40) compared to full-time employment. Both part-time workers (OR=0.84 95% CI=0.74-0.95) and the self-employed (OR=0.77 95%CI=0.62-0.94) had lower odds of SA. Stratifying by sex showed lower odds for part-timers (OR=0.82 95% CI=0.73-0.94) and self-employed women (OR=0.65 95% CI=0.47-0.90), but higher odds for men in temporary employment (OR=1.33 95% CI=1.03-1.72). Temporary employees in county councils (OR=1.73 95% CI=1.01-2.99) and municipalities (OR=1.41 95% CI=1.02-1.96) had higher odds while part-timers employed in the private sector had lower odds (OR=0.77 95% CI=0.64-0.93). Familial factors did not confound the association between employment type and SA.

    Conclusions: Employment type is associated with SA, with temporary employment involving a higher risk compared to permanent full-time employment while both part-time employment and self-employment involved a lower risk. The associations vary between women and men and across sectors.

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  • 21. Helgadóttir, Björg
    et al.
    Vilhjálmsson, Rúnar
    Gunnarsdóttir, Thóra Jenný
    [Utilization of complimentary and alternative health services in Iceland].2010Ingår i: Laeknabladid: The icelandic medical journal, ISSN 0023-7213, E-ISSN 1670-4959, Vol. 96, nr 4, s. 267-73Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Westerners increasingly use complimentary and alternative (CAM) methods for curing illness and promoting health. The central ideas of CAM appear to resonate with large segments of the general public. Little is known about CAM use in Iceland. The purpose of the study was to assess the scope of utilization of CAM providers and the likely explanatory factors.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: The data come from a national postal health survey that took place during the Fall of 2006. A sample of Icelandic adults, age 18-75, was randomly drawn from the National Register. 1532 individuals responded to the survey yielding a 60% response rate.

    RESULTS: Almost 32% of the respondents had used a CAM provider in the past 12 months, an estimated increase of 6% since 1998. Women and high income individuals were more likely to use a CAM provider than men and lower income individuals. Physical and mental distress was also related to the likelihood of CAM use. Individuals having negative or positive attitude toward physician services were more likely to use a CAM provider than those expressing a neutral attitude. Finally, repeated physician visits were related to an increased likelihood of CAM use.

    CONCLUSIONS: Icelanders use CAM providers to a considerable degree, and CAM use has increased in recent years. It appears that some clients regard the care they receive in the general health system as insufficient. Most CAM users appear to use CAM treatments as a supplement to the care received in the general health system.

  • 22.
    Hoy, Sara
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för rörelse, kultur och samhälle.
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Tomtebodavägen 18A, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Norman, Åsa
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Tomtebodavägen 18A, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Quantitative Measurements for Factors Influencing Implementation in School Settings: Protocol for A Systematic Review and A Psychometric and Pragmatic Analysis.2022Ingår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 19, nr 19, artikel-id 12726Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: In order to address the effectiveness and sustainability of school-based interventions, there is a need to consider the factors affecting implementation success. The rapidly growing field of implementation-focused research is struggling to determine how to assess and measure implementation-relevant constructs. Earlier research has identified the need for strong psychometric and pragmatic measures. The aims of this review are therefore to (i) systematically review the literature to identify measurements of the factors influencing implementations which have been developed or adapted in school settings, (ii) describe each measurement's psychometric and pragmatic properties, (iii) describe the alignment between each measurement and the corresponding domain and/or construct of the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR).

    METHODS: Six databases (Medline, ERIC, PsycInfo, Cinahl, Embase, and Web of Science) will be searched for peer-reviewed articles reporting on school settings, published from the year 2000. The identified measurements will be mapped against the CFIR, and analyzed for their psychometric and pragmatic properties.

    DISCUSSION: By identifying measurements that are psychometrically and pragmatically impactful in the field, this review will contribute to the identification of feasible, effective, and sustainable implementation strategies for future research in school settings.

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  • 23.
    Hoy, Sara
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för rörelse, kultur och samhälle.
    Larsson, Håkan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för rörelse, kultur och samhälle. Department of Teacher Education and Outdoor Studies, The Norwegian School of Sport Sciences (NIH), Oslo, Norway.
    Kjellenberg, Karin
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Department of Global Public Health, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gendered relations? Associations between Swedish parents, siblings, and adolescents' time spent sedentary and physically active2024Ingår i: Frontiers in Sports and Active Living, E-ISSN 2624-9367, Vol. 6, artikel-id 1236848Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    The family is assumed to be fundamental in youth socialization processes and development, connected to social and cultural practices such as healthy lifestyles and physical activity. However, gender patterns in physical activity among adolescents and the structural drivers of gender inequality (e.g., parentage and siblingship) are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to explore further how gender structures relate to adolescents' time spent being sedentary and physically active, using contemporary gender theory.

    Methods

    This cross-sectional study involved 1,139 adolescents aged 13-14 and their parents, including 815 mothers and 572 fathers. Physical activity and time spent sedentary were assessed through accelerometry among adolescents and through a self-report questionnaire for parents validated against accelerometry.

    Results

    The results showed significant relationships between mothers' moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and girls' MVPA on weekdays and weekends, and fathers' MVPA was significantly related to girls' MVPA on weekdays. Our results imply that the relationship between Swedish parents' and adolescent girls' physical activity in higher intensities are to some extent gendered practices. However, time spent sedentary does not seem to show any patterns of being performed according to binary ideas of gender. Further, our exploratory analyses suggest that these results somewhat intersect with parents' educational level and relate to intra-categorical aspects of doing gender. The results also indicate slight gendered patterns in the “doing” of brotherhood for time spent sedentary, however, for boys only on weekends.

    Discussion 

    The study contributes to the understanding of gender norms as constraints and enablers for adolescents' participation in physical activity. The results can spur public health and physical activity research to apply a contemporary gender theory approach, and to expand the research agenda connected to what relates to gender inequalities in physical activity practices.

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  • 24.
    Kjellenberg, Karin
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Fysisk aktivitet och hjärnhälsa.
    Ahlen, Johan
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Department of Global Public Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Cross-sectional associations between physical activity pattern, sports participation, screen time and mental health in Swedish adolescents.2022Ingår i: BMJ Open, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 12, nr 8, artikel-id e061929Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the associations between physical activity pattern, sports participation, screen time and mental health in Swedish adolescents.

    DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1139 Swedish adolescents (mean age 13.4) from 34 schools participated in the cross-sectional study 'Physical Activity for Healthy Brain Functions in School Youth' in 2019.

    METHODS: Time spent sedentary and in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was measured using accelerometers for seven consecutive days. Screen time and sports participation were self-reported. Anxiety and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) were assessed using a Short version of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale and Kidscreen-10.

    RESULTS: MVPA was positively associated (95% CI 0.01 to 0.05 in girls and 0.02 to 0.07 in boys) whereas screen time on weekdays was inversely associated with HRQoL (-4.79 to -2.22 in girls and -2.66 to -0.41 in boys). The largest effect sizes were observed between the high/low MVPA group in boys (Cohen's d=0.51) and screen time groups in girls (Cohen's d=0.59 on weekdays). With regards to anxiety, high compared with lower time spent in MVPA during leisure time on weekdays was associated with lower anxiety scores (95% CI -0.13 to -0.05 in girls and -0.07 to -0.01 in boys). Gender differences were observed, boys who participated in organised sports had low anxiety scores (95% CI -3.49 to -0.13) whereas girls who reported 5 hours or more of screen time had high scores (95% CI 1.94 to 6.18 on weekdays and 1.39 to 5.29 on weekend days).

    CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that MVPA was associated with better mental health, whereas the opposite was seen for screen time. These associations were not consistently significant throughout all time domains, between the genders and mental health outcomes. Our results could create a paradigm for future studies to decide which types of PA patterns and time domains to target in intervention studies with the aim improve mental health among adolescents.

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  • 25.
    Kjellenberg, Karin
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Ahlen, Johan
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Global Publ Hlth, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Karolinska Inst, Dept Global Publ Hlth, Stockholm, Sweden..
    P03-09 Cross-sectional associations between physical activity pattern, sports participation, screen time and mental health in Swedish adolescents2022Ingår i: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH, vol. 32, S2, Oxford University Press, 2022, Vol. 32Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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  • 26.
    Kjellenberg, Karin
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Stålman, Cecilia
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för rörelse, kultur och samhälle.
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Associations between Physical Activity Patterns, Screen Time and Cardiovascular Fitness Levels in Swedish Adolescents2021Ingår i: Children, E-ISSN 2227-9067, Vol. 8, nr 11, artikel-id 998Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cardiovascular fitness (CVF) has been associated with cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents. CVF levels are determined by non-modifiable and modifiable factors; one modifiable factor is physical activity (PA). There is a lack of studies investigating the associations between PA patterns and CVF and how gender, parental education, BMI status and country of birth are associated with CVF. The aim of this study was to explore the cross-sectional associations between PA patterns and CVF in Swedish 13–14-year-old adolescents. CVF was estimated using the Ekblom-Bak submaximal test, data on PA patterns were collected using hip-worn accelerometers and a questionnaire. The mean CVF was 44.8 mL/kg/min in girls (n = 569) and 55.5 mL/kg/min in boys (n = 451) p < 0.01. The results showed a significant association between participation in organised sports (β = 3.32 CI: 2.14, 4.51, β = 4.38, CI: 2.80, 5.96), MVPA (β = 0.07, CI: 0.04, 0.11, β = 0.07, CI: 0.03, 0.11), a high proportion of SED (β = −0.47, CI: −0.70, −0.25, β = −0.41, CI: −0.64, −0.18) and CVF in girls and boys, respectively. More than five hours of screen time on weekdays was associated with lower CVF (β = −2.32 CI: −3.92, −0.71 in girls and boys β = −2.82, CI: −5.14, −0.50). While causal relations remain unknown, these findings could be relevant when designing future interventions with the aim to improve CVF.

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  • 27.
    Kjellenberg, Karin
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Åhlen, Johan
    Karolinska institutet.
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    High levels of physical activity were associated with better mental health in Swedish adolescents2021Ingår i: Svensk idrottsmedicin 2021:3, 2021, s. 43-Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 28.
    Kjellenberg, Karin
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Heiland, Emerald G.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Tarassova, Olga
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysiologi, nutrition och biomekanik.
    Fernström, Maria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Effects of physical activity breaks on working memory and oxygenated hemoglobin in adolescents: Results from the AbbaH teen study2023Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 29.
    Kjellenberg, Karin
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Heiland, Emerald G.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Tarassova, Olga
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysiologi, nutrition och biomekanik.
    Fernström, Maria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Short, frequent physical activity breaks improve working memory in adolescents during prolonged sitting (AbbaH teen study)2023Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Physical activity breaks in schools have been suggested as a promising strategy to acutely improve cognitive performance in children and adolescents. Most previous studies have explored the effects of single physical activity bouts, but they are infeasible in a school setting (e.g. long duration/high-intensity or requiring equipment/space). Further, studies investigating the underlying physiological mechanisms in adolescents arel acking. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of short, frequent physical activity breaks of different intensities on adolescents’ working memory (WM) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) during prolonged sitting.

    Methods: This randomized crossover study was performed in adolescents (13-15 years of age). In 80-minute sessions, one of the following types of breaks was performed four times in three minutes durations on three different days: simple resistance training (SRA), step-up at a pre-determined pace (STEP), or remaining seated (SOCIAL). Before and after each session, WM (accuracy and reaction time during the 1,2,3-back test) were measured, with simultaneous measurement of task-related CBF (assessed by prefrontal oxygenation using functional near-infrared spectroscopy). Analysis of CBF is ongoing and will be presented at the conference.

    Results: A total of 17 students participated (mean age 13.6 years, 11 girls). In the most demanding task (3-back) the following results were seen: improvement in reaction time following SRA (-30.1, p=0.04) and STEP (-34.3 ms, p=0.05) and no improvement following prolonged sitting. We also found a moderating effect (p <0.01) of WM performance at baseline (using a mean split), such that students with poor WM significantly improved their accuracy and reaction time following the higher-intensity breaks (STEP) while students with high performance did not.

    Conclusion: We found that implementing physical activity breaks of both moderate and high intensities was beneficial for WM performance. For students with low WM performance, high-intensity breaks were more beneficial. Implementing physical activity breaks during periods of prolonged sitting, such as long school classes could improve the students’ cognitive performance. However, future studies should investigate if these breaks are feasible, acceptable, and beneficial to implement in the school setting.

  • 30.
    Mather, Lisa
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Narusyte, J
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ropponen, A
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Bergström, G
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Blom, Victoria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för idrottspsykologi. Karolinska Institutet.
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Svedberg, P
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Sick leave due to mental disorders, morbidity and mortality: a prospective study of discordant twin pairs.2020Ingår i: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, ISSN 0933-7954, E-ISSN 1433-9285, Vol. 55, nr 1, s. 25-32Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To investigate if sick leave due to mental disorders increases the risk of morbidity measured by inpatient and specialized outpatient care, and mortality among women and men, independent of familial factors.

    METHODS: An open cohort study of 4979 twin pairs discordant for sick leave due to mental disorders was conducted in 2005-2013. Twins were followed up in the cause of death and national patient registries until the end of study, emigration, death, and inpatient and specialized outpatient care. Conditional Cox proportional hazard regression, adjusting for the familial factors shared by the twins, was used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). In case of non-proportional hazards, time-varying covariates were used.

    RESULTS: Sick leave due to mental disorders increased the risk for inpatient care among men (HR: 1.90, CI 1.66-2.17) and women (HR: 1.39, CI 1.27-1.51). For men, the risk of outpatient care was higher the first 2 years (HR: 2.08, CI 1.87-2.31), after which it was attenuated (HR: 1.32, CI 1.02-1.70). For women, the HR was 1.57 (CI 1.47-1.68) for the whole study time. There was an increased risk of death among men (HR: 2.91, CI 1.70-4.99), but not among women (HR: 0.84, CI 0.53-1.35).

    CONCLUSIONS: Sick leave due to mental disorders was a risk factor for mortality for men only, and increased the risk of inpatient and specialized outpatient care among both women and men, but the risks were higher for men when stratifying for sex.

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  • 31.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Kjellenberg, Karin
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Wang, Rui
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Larsson, Håkan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för rörelse, kultur och samhälle.
    Thedin Jakobsson, Britta
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för rörelse, kultur och samhälle.
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Associations between the School Environment and Physical Activity Pattern during School Time in Swedish Adolescents2021Ingår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 18, nr 19, artikel-id 10239Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge about associations between school-based initiatives and physical activity patterns is limited. The purpose of this paper was to examine associations between factors in the school environment, physical activity and sedentary time during school time. The cross-sectional study included 1139 adolescents aged 13–14 from 34 schools. Physical activity and sedentary time were measured using hip-worn accelerometers. Factors in the school environment included health policy, a mobile phone ban during breaks, organized physical activities during breaks and activity breaks during lessons reported by teachers. The frequency and duration of breaks and physical education (PE) lessons were collected from school schedules. The results showed significant associations between health policy (β = 3.87, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.37, 5.23), the mobile phone ban (β = 2.51, 95% CI: 1.29, 3.94) and PE; total duration (β = 0.08, 95% CI: 0.05, 0.11), average duration (β = 0.08, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.13) and frequency (β = 1.73, 95% CI: 0.50, 3.04) and moderate-vigorous physical activity. There were negative associations between health policy (β = −6.41, 95% CI: −10.24, −2.67), the mobile phone ban (β = −3.75, 95% CI: −7.25, −0.77) and PE; total duration (β = −0.15, 95% CI: −0.23, −0.08) and average duration (β = −0.14, 95% CI: −0.27, −0.03) and time spent sedentary. Adolescents attending schools with health policies, mobile phone bans and more time for PE showed higher levels of physical activity and lower sedentary time.

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  • 32.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Kjellenberg, Karin
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Wang, Rui
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Larsson, Håkan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för rörelse, kultur och samhälle.
    Thedin Jakobsson, Britta
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för rörelse, kultur och samhälle.
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Skolbaserade policyer för fysisk aktivitet samvarierar med fysisk aktivitet och minskat stillasittande hos skolungdomar2021Ingår i: Svensk idrottsmedicin 2021:3, 2021Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 33.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Department of Global Public Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Insurance Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kjellenberg, Karin
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    COVID-19 and unfavorable changes in mental health unrelated to changes in physical activity, sedentary time, and health behaviors among Swedish adolescents: A longitudinal study.2023Ingår i: Frontiers In Public Health, ISSN 2296-2565, Vol. 11, artikel-id 1115789Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has had major impact on the daily lives of adolescents. This study examined whether mental health outcomes had changed over the pandemic, and if such changes were related to changes in physical activity (PA), sedentary time, sleep, screen time, and participation in organized sports.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this longitudinal study, data were collected in autumn 2019 with follow-up measurements in spring 2021. In total, 558 schools were invited and 34 schools around Stockholm with a variation in socioeconomic background were included. Physical activity and sedentary time were measured for seven consecutive days by accelerometry (Actigraph). Anxiety, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), psychosomatic health, stress, sleep duration, screen time, and organized sports participation were self-reported in questionnaires. Linear models were applied to estimate associations between changes in mental health outcomes and exposures.

    RESULTS: From the baseline sample of 1,139 participants, 585 (55% girls), mean (SD) age 14.9 (0.3) years, participated in the follow-up. Between 2019 and 2021, there was a decrease in HRQoL [mean difference -1.7 (-2.3, -1.2), p < 0.001], increase in psychosomatic health problems [mean difference 1.8 (1.3, 2.3), p < 0.001], and an increase in the number of participants with high stress [from 94 (28%) to 139 (42%), p < 0.001]. Weekly light PA and sleep duration decreased and weekly sedentary time and screen time increased unrelated to changes in mental health outcomes. An increase in sleep duration during weekdays was significantly related to both a decrease in anxiety (B = -0.71, CI: -1.36, -0.06) and an increase in HRQoL (B = 1.00, CI: 0.51, 1.49).

    CONCLUSION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, mental health appears to have been impaired in Swedish adolescents, but unrelated to changes in PA, sedentary time, screen time, or participation in organized sports. However, increased sleep duration on weekdays was related to less anxiety and better HRQoL. The results may help policy makers and other stakeholders comprehend the differential effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health outcomes and help guiding the planning of policy actions.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN15689873.

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  • 34.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Department of Global Public Health, Karolinska Institutet , Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kjellenberg, Karin
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    P05-10 Changes in mental health and physical activity patterns before and during the covid-19 pandemic in Swedish adolescents - a longitudinal study2022Ingår i: European Journal of Public Health, Supplement 2, 2022, Vol. 32, nr Supplement_2, artikel-id ckac095.077Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The covid-19 pandemic has had a large impact on the daily lives of adolescents, even in Sweden where the restrictions were relatively mild. The aim of this study was to examine if there had been a change in mental health outcomes and if these changes were related to changes in physical activity patterns before and during the pandemic.

    Methods

    In this longitudinal study, data were collected in the autumn 2019 and in follow-up measurements in the spring 2021. Physical activity and sedentary time were measured for seven consecutive days by accelerometry (Actigraph). The mental health outcomes, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and psychosomatic health were measured with questionnaires (KIDSCREEN-10 and PSP). ANCOVA analyses were applied to estimate the associations between change in physical activity patterns and mental health outcomes.

    Results

    In total, 585 boys (45%) and girls (55%), aged 13-14 years (baseline) from 34 schools around Stockholm, were included in the study. Between 2019-2021 there was a decrease in HRQoL (p > 0.001) and increase in psychosomatic problems (p > 0.001) among both boys and girls. There was a significant positive relationship between change in MVPA and change in HRQoL (β = 0.02, CI: 0.00, 0.05).

    Conclusions

    The results suggest that the COVID-19 pandemic has impaired the mental health of Swedish adolescents but increased physical activity was related to positive changes in the mental health outcome HRQoL.

    Funding: The Public Health Authority and Skandia

  • 35.
    Projektet Fysisk aktivetet för hälsosamma hjärnfunktioner bland skolungdomar,
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Kjellenberg, Karin
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Balansen mellan skärmtid, rörelse och hjärnhälsa hos unga2024Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan (GIH) har sedan 2017 arbetat i en serie forskningsstudier finansierade av Stiftelsen för kunskaps- och kompetensutveckling, KKS. Studierna har fokuserat på både barn, vuxna och äldre. Sedan 2021 finns vid GIH ett forskningscentrum med fokus på fysisk aktivitet och hjärnhälsa, det vill säga goda kognitiva funktioner och god psykisk hälsa, kallat E-PABS (Center of Excellence in Physical Activity, Healthy Brain Functions and Sustainability). Forskningen inom E-PABS täcker många ämnesområden och innefattar epidemiologi, beteendeförändring, kognitiv neurovetenskap, fysiologi och molekylär biokemi.

    Denna rapport bygger på studier inom projektet ”Fysisk aktivitet och hälsosamma hjärnfunktioner hos skolungdomar”, som genomfördes under 2017–2023. Projektet hade tre delar, en epidemiologisk, en fysiologisk och en etnografisk del som tillsammans syftade till att svara på frågorna ”Vilket är sambandet mellan fysisk aktivitet, stillasittande beteende, kost och hälsosamma hjärnfunktioner hos barn och ungdomar, och hur kan fysisk aktivitet som främjar sunda hjärnfunktioner långsiktigt hållbart implementeras i skolor?”

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  • 36.
    Projektet Fysisk aktivetet för hälsosamma hjärnfunktioner bland skolungdomar,
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Kjellenberg, Karin
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Stillasittande och rörelsemönster i högstadiet2023Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan (GIH) har sedan 2017 arbetat i en serie forskningsstudier finansierade av Stiftelsen för kunskaps- och kompetensutveckling, KKS. Studierna har fokuserat på både barn, vuxna och äldre. Sedan 2021 finns vid GIH ett forskningscentrum med fokus på fysisk aktivitet och hjärnhälsa, det vill säga goda kognitiva funktioner och god psykisk hälsa, kallat E-PABS (Center of Excellence in Physical Activity, Healthy Brain Functions and Sustainability). Forskningen inom E-PABS täcker många ämnesområden och innefattar epidemiologi, beteendeförändring, kognitiv neurovetenskap, fysiologi och molekylär biokemi.

    Denna rapport bygger på studier inom projektet ”Fysisk aktivitet och hälsosamma hjärnfunktioner hos skolungdomar”, som genomfördes under 2017–2023. Projektet hade tre delar, en epidemiologisk, en fysiologisk och en etnografisk del som tillsammans syftade till att svara på frågorna ”Vilket är sambandet mellan fysisk aktivitet, stillasittande beteende, kost och hälsosamma hjärnfunktioner hos barn och ungdomar, och hur kan fysisk aktivitet som främjar sunda hjärnfunktioner långsiktigt hållbart implementeras i skolor?”

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  • 37.
    Projektet Fysisk aktivetet för hälsosamma hjärnfunktioner bland skolungdomar,
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Kjellenberg, Karin
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Vikten av rörelse för ökat välbefinnande på högstadiet2023Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan (GIH) har sedan 2017 arbetat i en serie forskningsstudier finansierade av Stiftelsen för kunskaps- och kompetensutveckling, KKS. Studierna har fokuserat på både barn, vuxna och äldre. Sedan 2021 finns vid GIH ett forskningscentrum med fokus på fysisk aktivitet och hjärnhälsa, det vill säga goda kognitiva funktioner och god psykisk hälsa, kallat E-PABS (Center of Excellence in Physical Activity, Healthy Brain Functions and Sustainability). Forskningen inom E-PABS täcker många ämnesområden och innefattar epidemiologi, beteendeförändring, kognitiv neurovetenskap, fysiologi och molekylär biokemi.

    Denna rapport bygger på studier inom projektet ”Fysisk aktivitet och hälsosamma hjärnfunktioner hos skolungdomar”, som genomfördes under 2017–2023. Projektet hade tre delar, en epidemiologisk, en fysiologisk och en etnografisk del som tillsammans syftade till att svara på frågorna ”Vilket är sambandet mellan fysisk aktivitet, stillasittande beteende, kost och hälsosamma hjärnfunktioner hos barn och ungdomar, och hur kan fysisk aktivitet som främjar sunda hjärnfunktioner långsiktigt hållbart implementeras i skolor?”

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  • 38.
    Projektet Fysisk aktivetet för hälsosamma hjärnfunktioner bland skolungdomar,
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Kjellenberg, Karin
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Vikten av sunda matvanor för hjärnhälsa bland ungdomar2024Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan (GIH) har sedan 2017 arbetat i en serie forskningsstudier finansierade av Stiftelsen för kunskaps- och kompetensutveckling, KKS. Studierna har fokuserat på både barn, vuxna och äldre. Sedan 2021 finns vid GIH ett forskningscentrum med fokus på fysisk aktivitet och hjärnhälsa, det vill säga goda kognitiva funktioner och god psykisk hälsa, kallat E-PABS (Center of Excellence in Physical Activity, Healthy Brain Functions and Sustainability). Forskningen inom E-PABS täcker många ämnesområden och innefattar epidemiologi, beteendeförändring, kognitiv neurovetenskap, fysiologi och molekylär biokemi.

    Denna rapport bygger på studier inom projektet ”Fysisk aktivitet och hälsosamma hjärnfunktioner hos skolungdomar”, som genomfördes under 2017–2023. Projektet hade tre delar, en epidemiologisk, en fysiologisk och en etnografisk del som tillsammans syftade till att svara på frågorna ”Vilket är sambandet mellan fysisk aktivitet, stillasittande beteende, kost och hälsosamma hjärnfunktioner hos barn och ungdomar, och hur kan fysisk aktivitet som främjar sunda hjärnfunktioner långsiktigt hållbart implementeras i skolor?”

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  • 39.
    Rahman, Md Shafiqur
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Hallgren, Mats
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Forsell, Yvonne
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Stubbs, Brendon
    King's College London, UK..
    Vancampfort, Davy
    KU Leuven, Belgium.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Åstrandlaboratoriet.
    Cardiorespiratory fitness and response to exercise treatment in depression.2018Ingår i: BJPsych open, ISSN 2056-4724, Vol. 4, nr 5, s. 346-351Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Exercise improves cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and reduces depressive symptoms in people with depression. It is unclear if changes in CRF are a predictor of the antidepressant effect of exercise in people with depression.

    Aims: To investigate whether an increase in CRF is a predictor of depression severity reduction after 12 weeks of exercise (trial registration: DRKS study ID, DRKS00008745).

    Method: The present study includes participants who took part in vigorous (n = 33), moderate (n = 38) and light (n = 39) intensity exercise and had CRF information (as predicted maximal oxygen uptake, O2max) collected before and after the intervention. Depression severity was measured with the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). O2max (L/min) was assessed with the Åstrand-Rhyming submaximal cycle ergometry test. The main analysis was conducted pooling all exercise intensity groups together.

    Results: All exercise intensities improved O2max in people with depression. Regardless of frequency and intensity of exercise, an increase in post-treatment O2max was significantly associated with reduced depression severity at follow-up (B = -3.52, 95% CI -6.08 to -0.96); adjusting for intensity of exercise, age and body mass index made the association stronger (B = -3.89, 95% CI -6.53 to -1.26). Similarly, increased O2max was associated with higher odds (odds ratio = 3.73, 95% CI 1.22-11.43) of exercise treatment response (≥50% reduction in MADRS score) at follow-up.

    Conclusions: Our data suggest that improvements in O2max predict a greater reduction in depression severity among individuals who were clinically depressed. This finding indicates that improvements in O2max may be a marker for the underpinning biological pathways for the antidepressant effect of exercise.

    Declaration of interest: None.

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  • 40.
    Regan, Callum
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden..
    Heiland, Emerald G.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Tarassova, Olga
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysiologi, nutrition och biomekanik.
    Kjellenberg, Karin
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Larsen, Filip J
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysiologi, nutrition och biomekanik.
    Walltott, Hedda
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Fernström, Maria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden.
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden.
    Acute effects of nitrate and breakfast on working memory, cerebral blood flow, arterial stiffness, and psychological factors in adolescents: Study protocol for a randomised crossover trial.2023Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 18, nr 5, artikel-id e0285581Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Inorganic nitrate has been shown to acutely improve working memory in adults, potentially by altering cerebral and peripheral vasculature. However, this remains unknown in adolescents. Furthermore, breakfast is important for overall health and psychological well-being. Therefore, this study will investigate the acute effects of nitrate and breakfast on working memory performance, task-related cerebral blood flow (CBF), arterial stiffness, and psychological outcomes in Swedish adolescents.

    METHODS: This randomised crossover trial will recruit at least 43 adolescents (13-15 years old). There will be three experimental breakfast conditions: (1) none, (2) low-nitrate (normal breakfast), and (3) high-nitrate (concentrated beetroot juice with normal breakfast). Working memory (n-back tests), CBF (task-related changes in oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobin in the prefrontal cortex), and arterial stiffness (pulse wave velocity and augmentation index) will be measured twice, immediately after breakfast and 130 min later. Measures of psychological factors and salivary nitrate/nitrite will be assessed once before the conditions and at two-time points after the conditions.

    DISCUSSION: This study will provide insight into the acute effects of nitrate and breakfast on working memory in adolescents and to what extent any such effects can be explained by changes in CBF. This study will also shed light upon whether oral intake of nitrate may acutely improve arterial stiffness and psychological well-being, in adolescents. Consequently, results will indicate if nitrate intake from beetroot juice or if breakfast itself could acutely improve cognitive, vascular, and psychological health in adolescents, which can affect academic performance and have implications for policies regarding school meals.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial has been prospectively registered on 21/02/2022 at https://doi.org/10.1186/ISRCTN16596056. Trial number: ISRCTN16596056.

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  • 41.
    Regan, Callum
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Walltott, Hedda
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Kjellenberg, Karin
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Karolinska institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Karolinska institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Investigation of the Associations between Diet Quality and Health-Related Quality of Life in a Sample of Swedish Adolescents.2022Ingår i: Nutrients, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 14, nr 12, artikel-id 2489Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Most adolescents do not consume a high-quality diet, while self-reported mental health problems within this group are increasing. This study aimed to investigate the association between diet quality and health-related quality of life, and to explore the differences in diet quality and health-related quality of life between gender and parental education status. In this cross-sectional study, a detailed web-based recall method was implemented to determine dietary intake, which was analysed using the newly developed Swedish Healthy Eating Index for Adolescents 2015 (SHEIA15) and the Riksmaten Adolescents Diet Diversity Score (RADDS), to determine diet quality. The KIDSCREEN-10 questionnaire was used to measure health-related quality of life, and parental education was self-reported through questionnaires. Parental education was divided into two groups: ≤12 years or &gt;12 years. The study included 1139 adolescents from grade 7 (13-14 years old), 51% were girls. The results showed that girls had higher scores for healthy eating and diet diversity but lower scores for health-related quality of life. A positive association was found between diet diversity and health-related quality of life (Adj R2 = 0.072, p = 0.001), between vegetable/fruit consumption and health-related quality of life (Adj R2 = 0.071, p = 0.002), and between healthy eating and diet diversity (Adj R2 = 0.214, p &lt; 0.001). No association was found between healthy eating and health-related quality of life for all participants. The mean scores for healthy eating and diet diversity were significantly higher in the higher education parental group. In conclusion, higher diet diversity and increased fruit and vegetable consumption could be a strategy to improve health-related quality of life among adolescents. There is a need to promote better diet quality, especially in households of low parental education. In addition, there is a further need to investigate the potential benefits of improved diet quality on mental health and overall well-being.

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  • 42.
    Svedberg, Pia
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet.
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    Karolinska institutet.
    Mather, L.
    Karolinska institutet.
    Narusyte, J.
    Karolinska institutet.
    Ropponen, A.
    Karolinska institutet.
    Blom, Victoria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för idrottspsykologi. Karolinska institutet.
    Do poor health behaviors have an impact on the transition from sick leave to disability pension?2019Ingår i: European Journal of Public Health: Volume 29, Supplement 4, November 2019, Oxford University Press, 2019, Vol. 29, s. 66-66Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: High age, being a woman, and having low socioeconomic status are among the important risk factors for transitioning from sickness absence (SA) to disability pension (DP). But, little is known about the effect of poor health behaviors, although there are indications that poor health behaviors increase the risk of both SA and DP. The aims were to study the associations between three poor health behaviors (current smoking, high alcohol consumption and low physical activity levels) and DP among individuals who recently been sickness absent, and to explore whether having multiple poor health behaviors increased the risk of transitioning from SA to DP. Methods: This prospective cohort study included 1991 twin individuals aged 20-46 who participated in a survey in 2005 and who had been on long-term SA in the two years preceding baseline (date of answering the survey) data collection of health behaviors (smoking, alcohol and physical activity) and relevant covariates. The participants were followed up for incident all-cause DP until the 31st of December 2012 (mean follow-up 5.2 years). National register data of SA and DP were used, and the association between each health behavior and DP was estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression analyses. The results are presented as Hazard Ratios (HR) with 95% Confidence Intervals (CI). Results: Results showed that compared to never smoking, current smoking was associated with a higher risk of transitioning from SA to DP (HR 1.76, 95%CI 1.08-2.84). Alcohol use, lack of physical activity or having several poor health behaviors showed no significant associations. Conclusions: Being a current smoker influences the risk of transitioning from SA to DP. Poor health behaviors are well established risk factors for poor physical and mental health. Hence, from a public health perspective it is important to emphasize the value of improving health behaviors in general but also among people with a history of SA. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

  • 43.
    Wang, Mo
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ropponen, Annina
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Narusyte, Jurgita
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Blom, Victoria
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för idrottspsykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Svedberg, Pia
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Adverse outcomes of chronic widespread pain and common mental disorders in individuals with sickness absence - a prospective study of Swedish twins.2020Ingår i: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 20, nr 1, artikel-id 1301Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Chronic widespread pain (CWP) and common mental disorders (CMDs) are common public health problems, but little is known about the role of CWP and CMDs on future adverse outcomes among work disabled individuals. The aims of the study were to investigate the associations between CWP and CMDs with subsequent disability pension (DP), long-term unemployment (> 90 days) and all-cause mortality in individuals with sickness absence (SA) and whether the associations were explained by familial factors.

    METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, 7884 Swedish twins born between 1933 and 1985 were included and baseline data were gathered from a questionnaire in 1998 to 2006. Register data were used for obtaining information regarding demographics, SA, DP, unemployment and mortality. Cox proportional hazards regressions were used to calculate Hazard Ratios (HR) with 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) for the associations between CWP and/or CMDs with DP, unemployment and mortality, while conditional Cox models for twin pairs provided control for familial confounding.

    RESULTS: Having either CWP or CMDs among those with a history of SA was associated with a higher risk of DP and all-cause mortality than individuals without CWP and CMDs after controlling for socio-demographic and health factors. Moreover, sick-listed individuals with both CWP and CMDs had a higher risk of DP while those who only had CMDs had a higher risk of long-term unemployment compared to those without CWP and CMDs. The association between CMDs with DP and long-term unemployment was no longer significant when controlling for familial factors.

    CONCLUSIONS: CMDs was a risk factor for DP, unemployment and mortality among individuals with SA, while CWP seems to be important in relation to future DP and mortality. Familial factors played a role in the associations between CMDs and DP and CMDs and unemployment.

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  • 44.
    Yman, Josefin
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Department of Food and Nutrition and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Kjellenberg, Karin
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för fysisk aktivitet och hälsa. Department of Global Public Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Associations between organised sports participation, general health, stress, screen-time and sleep duration in adolescents.2023Ingår i: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 112, nr 3, s. 452-459Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: Physical activity patterns in adolescents have been associated with general health. Stress, screen-time and sleep are other factors associated with physical activity that influence health in adolescents. Physical activity accounts for several health benefits; however, the impact of organised sports participation to achieve the same health benefits are less explored. This study explored the associations of organised sports participation with general health, stress, screen-time and sleep-duration in adolescents.

    METHODS: For this cross-sectional study, data from 1139 adolescents (age 13-14 years) from 34 schools were analysed. Data were collected during autumn 2019. Data collection consisted of self-reported questionnaires and standard methods for height and weight measurements.

    RESULTS: Adolescents with organised sports participation ≥3 times/week were twice as likely to report better general health (OR: 2.11, CI: 1.45-3.07) and lower screen-time (OR: 1.98, CI: 1.43-2.74). Adolescents with organised sports participation ≥3 times/week were less likely to meet the recommended sleep-duration on weekdays (OR: 0.43, 95% CI: 0.29-0.65).

    CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents with frequent organised sports participation had better general health, lower amounts of screen-time and shorter sleep-duration on weekdays than those with no participation. Although the causal relationships remain unknown, these results can be relevant when developing strategies promoting physical activity and health in adolescents.

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