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  • 1.
    Andersen Eikje, Cleng
    et al.
    Department of Sports, physical education and outdoor Studies, University college of Southeast Norway, Bø, Norway.
    Horgen, André
    Department of Sports, physical education and outdoor Studies, University college of Southeast Norway, Bø, Norway.
    Arnegård, Johan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    The organizing and regulation of mountain guiding in Scandinavia 1820–2016, with a glance at the Alps2019In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 22, no 4, SI, p. 555-572Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we study how mountain guiding was organized and regulated in Scandinavia and the Alps between 1820 and 2015 and focus on the most important di erences and similarities in Scandinavia, and between Scandinavia and the Alps. We conclude that Switzerland and Chamonix (France) represent two di erent systems in the Alps during the nineteenth century. However, through the emergence of national and international guide unions the regulation of mountain guiding in the Alps today appears uni ed, with a close connection between national regulation and mountain guide unions. In Scandinavia, Norway and Sweden historically had similar practices organizing and regulating mountain guiding, where a relatively strong layman tradition emerged during the 1960s and 1970s. In 2008, legal decisions led Sweden to change its system to match the Alp model, while Norway held on to the layman tradition. This leaves mountain guiding in Norway as a distinctly less regulated eld than in France, and Switzerland, as in and Sweden. 

  • 2.
    Arnegård, Johan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Bergsguide2011In: Friluftssport och äventyrsidrott: Utmaningar för lärare, ledare och miljö i en föränderlig värld / [ed] Sandell, Klas; Arnegård, Johan & Backman, Erik, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2011, p. 106-Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 3.
    Arnegård, Johan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Friluftssport som spänningsfält och professionsarena2011In: Friluftssport och äventyrsidrott: Utmaningar för lärare, ledare och miljö i en föränderlig värld / [ed] Sandell, Klas; Arnegård, Johan & Backman, Erik, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2011, p. 89-115Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Arnegård, Johan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur. Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för samhälle, kultur och lärande (SKL).
    Upplevelser och lärande i äventyrssport och skola2006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The physicality of sports and outdoor life offers great opportunities for intensive experiences – participants ”feel” the happening in their bodies. As well as looking upon physical activity mainly as something instrumental, as for example in competitive sports and exercise culture, other aspects can also be central, for instance the pure joy of movement. The existential or expressive side of physical activity is examined in this doctoral thesis.

    In order to study such experiential quality more thoroughly, the author’s attention turns to adventure sports participants, as they appear to have a capacity for becoming highly involved and seeking very intense experiences. Who is involved in adventure sports? Why are they engaged in a sport that demands such great hardships and risk-taking? What do they get out of it? The overall objective of the thesis is to shed light on adventure sports as a practice and to discuss the educational significance of flow and other experiential qualities in adventure sports and in schools.

    The analyses are based on three empirical sub-studies. The first began with a questionnaire that 161 adventure sports participants responded to. This was followed by an interview study of eleven men and three women, all of whom had extensive experience in adventure sports. The categories of sport were evenly divided between climbing, off-piste skiing and hang gliding.

    In the second sub-study a detailed investigation of climbing was carried out. A notable sportification has brought about a very clear and interesting change in parts of this activity. Six traditional/adventure climbers and six sport climbers were interviewed, of which half were men and half women. All the climbers were experienced and very much involved in their sport.

    The aim of the third sub-study was to seek an answer as to whether pupils have experiences in their daily school life that are similar to those of adventure sports participants. An ESM (Experience Sampling Method) investigation was carried out with 60 pupils in compulsory school year nine (corresponding to UK schools’ year eleven) from four different schools. The pupils’ parents answered a special parent questionnaire including questions about academic and professional backgrounds, living conditions, habits, interests, attitudes and leisure time activities.

    The results were analysed taking into consideration the phenomenological perspective and structuralistic or more correctly expressed the cultural sociological perspective. Mihály Csikszentmihályi’s theoretical argument on optimal experiences, which in turn is based on the flow concept, constitutes the phenomenological foundation. Pierre Bourdieu’s concept apparatus and theories were used to closely examine the participants’ backgrounds, life histories and current living situations.

    The study shows that a preference for adventure sports is clearly linked to the participants’ backgrounds and earlier life experiences. A behavioural pattern is incorporated and developed into an embodied capacity to master a practice, a result of a long learning process. Participants were clearly concordant in these respects. Participants emphasise the abundant opportunities for intensive experiences that arise from adventure sports. It is a matter of something multidimentional: the active body, outdoor life in natural surroundings, exacting and clear goals, total focus, and about exercising control. This approach presents a model for identification of content qualities, which together create the dynamics that form the meaningful rewards that result from participation in adventure sports. The dimensions include flow experiences, but also go beyond them.

    The deep sense of presence, the physical involvement, the fact that they can choose the path and increase the degree of difficulty themselves – and simultaneously counter this new challenge with increased capacity so that they are engaged at the ”right level” – also provide favourable conditions for a stimulating and successful learning experience.

    The observation was made that it was primarily in the practical and aesthetic subjects that school pupils had the same deep feeling of presence together with a meaningful and pleasurable holistic experience as the adventure sports participants had. Here they were actively involved with their hands or with their whole bodies, and they could make their own choices and be in control of the activity, which for most pupils led to a strong feeling of satisfaction.

  • 5.
    Arnegård, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Persson, Christian
    Certifiering och auktorisation2011In: Friluftssport och äventyrsidrott: Utmaningar för lärare, ledare och miljö i en föränderlig värld / [ed] Sandell, Klas; Arnegård, Johan & Backman, Erik, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2011, p. 112-Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 6.
    Arnegård, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Sandell, Klas
    Idrottens gränstrakter – Om äventyrsidrott och friluftssport2011In: Kulturstudier, kropp och idrott: Perspektiv på fenomen i gränslandet mellan natur och kultur / [ed] Tolvhed, Helena & Cardell, David, Malmö: Idrottsforums förlag , 2011, p. 127-145Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Backman, Erik
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Arnegård, JohanSwedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH.Sandell, KlasKarlstad Universitet.
    Friluftssport och äventyrsidrott - utmaningar för lärare, ledare och miljö i en föränderlig värld2011Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vandra, klättra eller paddla i naturpräglade landskap blir tävlingar i multisport. Samtidigt blir sådant som kiting och brädsporter upplevelseorienterade och tävlingskritiska.

    Aktiviteter friställs också alltmer från landskapet genom äventyrsbad och klätterväggar, skidåkning inomhus och forspaddlingsbanor med vattenpumpar.

    Håller friluftslivet och naturen – som i skidåkning på natursnö, skogsvandringar och paddling på forsens och havets villkor – att helt tappa sin betydelse?

    Eller är det i stället en nytändning för friluftslivets lekfullhet och en väg till nya naturmöten som vi ser i trendiga aktiviteter och uppbyggda miljöer?

    Boken vänder sig till blivande och verksamma idrottslärare, entreprenörer och ledare i idrott, friluftsliv, fritid och turism. Den kan dessutom med fördel rekommenderas som inspirerande läsning för den breda allmänheten med intresse för friluftslivets varierande möjligheter.

     

  • 8.
    Backman, Erik
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Arnegård, Johan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Sandell, Klas
    Karlstad universitet.
    Outdoor adventure and lifestyle sports2012In: The 6th International Conferenceon Monitoring and Management of Visitorsin Recreational and Protected Areas: Outdoor Recreation in Change – Current Knowledge and Future Challenges. Stockholm, Sweden, August 21–24, 2012. Proceedings / [ed] Edited by Peter Fredman, Marie Stenseke, Hanna Liljendahl, Anders Mossing and Daniel Laven, 2012, p. 370-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent decades there has been an increasing dynamic interplay in the “borderlands” of sport between closely related phenomena like outdoor recreation and nature tourism (see e.g. Bale 2006, Fredman et al. 2008a and Wheaton 2007). Two trends within these “borderlands” are explored in this study: the sportification of traditional outdoor activities and the liberation of outdoor activities from the landscapes in which they were originally performed. From a perspective of modernization, the following questions are addressed:

     

    1.          What is the state of knowledge regarding trends within outdoor adventure- and lifestyle sports?

    2.          How are examples of activities, places and perspectives within outdoor adventure- and lifestyle sports expressed?

     

    To answer these questions, conventional literature studies of, firstly, academic journals and, secondly; magazines, photographs and commercials, have been conducted. The result shows that tendencies towards the sportification of outdoor adventure- and lifestyle sports (see e.g. Breivik 2010 and Wheaton 2004) and the liberation of these activities from their “original” landscape (see e.g. Daniel 2007 and Bottenburg & Salome 2010) are significant. Of importance from a practitioner perspective is that a “grey-zone” containing several new activities and dynamics is being established in the “borderlands” between sport and outdoor recreation (Sandell, Arnegård & Backman 2011). From an academic perspective, the identified intersection between the climate debate and the nature-related activities that can now be performed indoors is important (see e.g. Sandell 2011 and Sandell & Öhman 2010). Another result that indicates a need for further research is that issues of accessibility, especially for young people, should be considered in relation to the increasing certification and specialization that characterizes the development of outdoor activities (see e.g. Bäckström 2011, Fredman et al. 2008b, Lundvall 2011 and Odden 2008). The current renegotiation of ideals, activities, places and environments related to the traditions of outdoor recreation and sport is discussed, most notably regarding:

     

    a)         Constructions and environments for activities previously performed in “natural” landscapes.

    b)         Accessibility to outdoor adventure- and lifestyle sports for young people.

    c)          The health aspect of traditional and sportified outdoor activities.

    d)         Inclusion and exclusion in relation to outdoor adventure- and lifestyle sports.

    e)         Physical planning and sustainable development in relation to outdoor adventure- and lifestyle sports.

  • 9.
    Backman, Erik
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Arnegård, Johan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH.
    Sandell, Klas
    Karlstads universitet.
    Slutsatser och framåtblick2011In: Friluftssport och äventyrsidrott - utmaningar för lärare, ledare och miljö i en föränderlig värld. / [ed] Sandell, Arnegård, Backman, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2011, p. 203-218Chapter in book (Other academic)
1 - 9 of 9
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  • nn-NO
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