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  • 1.
    Book, Karin
    et al.
    Malmö universitet.
    Bäckström, Åsa
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Att göra det organiserade spontant eller organisera det spontana: om lösa relationer i en flytande tid2018Inngår i: Sport management: Idrottens organisationer i en svensk kontext. Del 1 / [ed] Bäckström, Å., Book, K., Carlsson, B., & Fahlström, P., Stockholm: SISU idrottsböcker , 2018, 1, s. 190-217Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 2.
    Bäckström, Åsa
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för barn- och ungdomsvetenskap.
    Aesthetic learning processes – feelings and sensations of skate- and snowboarding2008Inngår i: Designs for learning: Defining the field, 2008, s. 1-Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Skateboarding and snowboarding are practices loaded with symbolic expressions. They are also activities profoundly understood as physical. This paper will investigate the narrated impressions of these activities – in other words the expressions of impressions. Skateboarding and snowboarding are discussed as aesthetic learning processes, which to a large extent are both bodily and informal. The paper builds on ethnographic fieldwork and cultural analysis. Kirsten Drotner’s theory of aesthetic practices is used as a starting point. Aesthetic practices/production works on three levels: the individual, the social and the cultural. The individual level is characterised in terms of emotional intensity and corporality. The sensation is described as so encompassing that it becomes ones life, ones identity. The body is acutely present in these descriptions. It is the body that experiences, and it is there that the sensation of riding comes alive.

  • 3.
    Bäckström, Åsa
    Stockholms universitet.
    Att platsa som skateboardåkare.: Om affektivt lärande i sinnliga rum.2009Inngår i: Kulturellt.: Reflektioner i Erling Bjurströms anda. / [ed] Fornäs, Johan & Harding, Tobias, Linköping University Electronic Press, 2009, s. 41-55Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 4.
    Bäckström, Åsa
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för barn- och ungdomsvetenskap.
    Balancing the senses: Experiences of learning in indoor skateboarding2010Inngår i: Designs for learning: A new conceptualization of learning, 2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Indoor skate parks are purpose built environments for physical activity and bodies in motion. These settings are designed places of learning in both social and material respects. Skate parks in Sweden are usually large halls in buildings previously used for industries, now filled with wooden and sometimes concrete constructions. The solid and rough material consolidates the environment as hard and durable. Ceilings are most often high which influence the acoustics. The sound level is elevated from the noise of board riding on the wooden constructions, besides music from loud speakers adds to the aural experience. In spite of, or thanks to, the strident soundscape it is common by skateboarders to use a personal music device such as an mp3-player or the equivalent when skateboarding. The purpose of this paper is to discuss sensory and affective learning processes in relation to indoor skateboarding. In focus is the crossroads between senses, affect, place and learning. Empirical results are drawn from an ongoing ethnographic study on predominantly female skateboarding, embodied knowledge and board sport culture. The empirical material consists of field notes (in written, auditory and visual form), interviews and examples from media such as videos, magazines and internet pages. The aural sense and its capacity to include and exclude other sensory experiences, mainly balance, is examined and associated with affective incitement. Sharing and non-sharing spaces and experiences are discussed. The paper draws theoretically in large from the anthropological research on the senses in culture, and the psychology of affect. In addition the paper pays particular interest to the idea of “the risk of experience that is learning” (Ellsworth 2005).

  • 5.
    Bäckström, Åsa
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Brädsporten drar in i den vetenskapliga världens finrum: recension av boken Skateboarding: Subcultures, sites and shifts / Kara-Jane Lombard (red), 20162016Inngår i: Idrottsforum.org/Nordic sport science forum, ISSN 1652-7224, artikkel-id 26 oktoberArtikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 6.
    Bäckström, Åsa
    Stockholms universitet, Barn- och ungdomsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Både radikal och rumsren: Om ungdomlighetskultur och samtidens semantiska omvandlingar.2012Inngår i: Senmoderna reflexioner: Festskrift till Johan Fornäs. / [ed] Erling Bjurström, Martin Fredriksson, Ulf Olsson & Ann Werner, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press , 2012, s. 137-145Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Senmoderna reflexioner. Festskrift till Johan Fornäs, är en antologi med tjugotre artiklar tillägnade Johan Fornäs på hans 60-årsdag den 7 mars 2012. Flera av artiklarna utgår från teman i Johan Fornäs böcker, medan andra på olika sätt behandlar ämnen relaterade till hans breda och mångfacetterade intresseområden. Boken är indelad i fyra tematiska delar, som behandlar olika praktiker: teoretiska, mediala, estetiska och litterära. Under rubriken ”teoretiska praktiker” diskuteras olika aspekter av hermeneutik, kulturalisering och kulturellt kapital. Under ”mediala praktiker” återfinns studier av samtida mediefenomen och deras relationer till demokrati och politik. ”Estetiska praktiker” innefattar bidrag som diskuterar kulturella praktikers funktion i den offentliga sfären. I den avslutande delen, ”litterära praktiker”, analyseras utvalda litterära texter och den diskurs som omger dem. Huvuddelen av artiklarna är skrivna på svenska, med undantag av tre engelska bidrag.

  • 7.
    Bäckström, Åsa
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för barn- och ungdomsvetenskap.
    Dialogues of Dominance and Division: Skaters and Skater Girls Juxtaposing Gender2010Inngår i: Centers and Peripheries in Sport: Part 2.The Development of Women Sport: Separate but not Equal / [ed] Aage Radmann, 2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Skateboarding is known as a predominately male activity; however, there are female skateboarders and they are growing in number internationally. The purpose of this paper is to analyse how female gender and feminist issues appear and are negotiated by female skateboarders in ethnographically documented dialogues in a local setting. The dialogues are historically, socially and culturally contextualised invoking mediated discourses on female skateboarding. My assumption is that mediated discourses interact with local practice in an intricate way. This paper will hopefully shed some light on this interaction as well as works on femininity (and masculinity) in skateboarding and other board sports. In addition how female attendance is promoted. Theoretically, the paper draws on post structurally influenced cultural studies and theories of gender. The paper discusses practices of gender division and images of girls and women in board sports and their media from a feminist perspective. In this context, inviting pain as a girl has been interpreted as a way of challenging unappreciated forms of femininity. Accidents and falls are portrayed in niche media, both in print and television programmes, as evidence of courage and authenticity. However, there are alternatives to the aggressive femininity in recent media forms, such as blogs and personal web pages. But replacing one alternative of femininity with another raises new questions. The ambiguities of discourses put girls and women in a position where they are empowered subjects using their own micro-media, and, at the same time, tend to preserve ‘the separate-and-different-cultures model’ when it comes to gender.

  • 8.
    Bäckström, Åsa
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för barn- och ungdomsvetenskap.
    Etnografi med alla sinnen2010Inngår i: Idrottsforum.org, ISSN 1652-7224Artikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 9.
    Bäckström, Åsa
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Forty Years of Transformations: Swedish Skateboarding Culture and Organisation2018Inngår i: Managing Sport in a Changing Europe: The 26th European Sport Management Conference, Book of abstracts / [ed] Bo Carlsson, Tim Breitbarth, Daniel Bjärsholm, 2018, s. 285-286Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Forty Years of Transformations - Swedish Skateboarding Culture and Organisation

    Aim

    The aim of this presentation is to sum up findings from ethnographic and historic datacollected for a period of twenty years in order to outline the transformations of skateboardingculture and organisation in Sweden from the 1970’s to present day.

    Theoretical Background and Literature Review

    Skateboarding has a celebrated subversive past claiming heritage from Californian surferssneaking into emptied backyard swimming pools during summer draught. The (hi)story hasbeen commemorated through the classic movie Dogtown and the Z-boys. Ever since, socialresistance has been part and parcel of skateboarding’s cultural image (Borden, 2001).Although stemming from subcultural and underground practices, skateboarding has nowreached worldwide audiences through X-games. In June this year, the sport’s firstinternational conference titled Pushing boarders was held in London. It gathered academicscholars, skateboarders and engaged people from the industry. Moreover, in 2020,skateboarding will be launched as a new sport in the Olympic Games. Skateboarders onceopposing the sport industry and nine-five-jobs have transformed from core practitioners toconsumers (Dinces, 2011; Dupont, 2014; Lombard, 2010). This depicts a transformation fromsubculture to a professionalised sport, at least for some and in some places. In Sweden,parallel to these trends, skateboarding contrastingly formed a national federation under theNational Sports Confederation (RF) for the first time 2013.

    Research Design and Data Analysis

    Through four ethnographic projects extending over two decades, and related historicalmaterial, this presentation draws from participant observation and multiple empiricalmaterials. Ethnography has the potential to capture “inside” views of everyday life (Atkinson,2014). The research participants are diverse in terms of age, gender and positions in the fieldetc. The data includes interviews, photographs and various media in both printed and digitalfrom. It contains both commercial and non-commercial content and spans from the late1970’s until present day. The semi-structured interviews follow thematically structured guidesand were conducted face-to-face with snowball samples. For this presentation Stamm andLamprecht’s (1998) model for describing the life cycle of trend sports is used as a startingpoint for a thematic content analysis over time. The model indicates the interrelation oftechnological innovation, marketing and socio-cultural factors.

    Findings and Discussion

    Every stage in Stamm and Lamprecht’s (1998) model is characterized by different degrees ofcommercialisation, as well as diverse types of organisation and various degrees ofrecognition. The trend sports are also pursued by different groups; in the early stages pioneersand further on by young people in subcultures, followed by athletes in the fourth stage toanybody in the final stage. Confrontation against the established sport organisations andglorification of a presumed authentic past is part of the third stage. This is followed byfashion in mainstream culture as part of the fourth stage.298It is argued that skateboarding in Sweden to some extent has followed this model. Numerousexamples point to the fourth stage characterized by maturation and diffusion. For instance it ispossible for practitioners to make a living from skateboarding in various ways; skateboardingis popular in mass media; goods are mass produces and skateboarding has been integrated incertain school forms. In short, processes of commercialisation and professionalization arepresent.The straight forward processes proposed in the model are however complicated byskateboarding in Sweden since 2013 being formally organized though the National SportsConfederation. Through this organisation some skateboarders are now part and parcel ofmainstream sports, however their subcultural ideas persist, not least when it comes toleadership and coaching. This is paradoxically partly challenging the National SportsConfederation in that funding systems are urged to be re-negotiated. Simultaneously, theSwedish skateboarding association opens up activities for inclusion and equality urged by theNational Sports Confederation.

    Conclusion and Implications

    The presentation contributes with new empirical findings on the socio-cultural developmentof skateboarding in Sweden and beyond, which confirms but also complicates the straightforward model of the life cycle of trend sports. Skateboarding has gone from innovativephysical activity recognised by few, to highly commercialised and familiar, but it is also anational association with no commercial profit promoting democratic values.

    References

    Atkinson, P. (2014). For Ethnography. London: Sage.

    Borden, I. (2001). Skateboarding, Space and the City: Architecture and the Body. New York: Berg.

    Dinces, S. (2011). ‘Flexible Opposition’: Skateboarding Subcultures under the Rubric of LateCapitalism. The International Journal of the History of Sport, 28(11), 1512-1535.

    Dupont, T. (2014). From Core to Consumer: The Informal Hierarchy of the Skateboard Scene. Journalof Contemporary Ethnography, 43(5), 556-581.

    Lombard, K. (2010). Skate and create/skate and destroy: The commercial and governmentalincorporation of skateboarding. Continuum: Journal Of Media & Cultural Studies, 24(4),475-488.

    Stamm, H-P. & Lamprecht, B. (1998) The life cycle of trend sports. In: C. Jaccoud & Y. Pedrazzini(Eds) Glisser dans la ville: les politiques sportives a` l’e’preuve des sports de rue[Gliding in the street: sporting politics related to street sports], Acts from the Neuchâtel.Colloquium of the 18th and 19th Septembre 1997 (Neuchâtel, Editions CIES).

  • 10.
    Bäckström, Åsa
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för individ, omvärld och lärande (IOL).
    Fostran och friheten.: Om skateboardkulturens informella skolning2007Inngår i: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, nr 2, s. 45-49Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 11.
    Bäckström, Åsa
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för barn- och ungdomsvetenskap.
    Från skateboard till e-sport2008Inngår i: Idrottsforum.org, ISSN 1652–7224, s. 4-Artikkel, omtale (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    I samband med att idrottsforskningen i ökande utsträckning fokuserar sportens stjärnor har ett intresse växt fram för vad som händer med elitidrottare efter det att sportkarriären är över. Det är uppenbart att övergången från kändis till föredetting är plågsamt och svårhanterbart för många. Men internationell sport erbjuder också många exempel på framgångsrika civila karriärer. Tony Hawk är ett bra exempel. Hawk var världsstjärna inom skateboard på 1980- och 90-talen, och trots dess subkulturella karaktär var hans stjärnstatus enastående där sådant räknades. Hawk drog sig tillbaka 1999 som sann legendar, och två år senare kom hans självbiografi, Hawk: Occupation Skateboarder (HarperCollins, skriven med Sean Mortimer). I Åsa Bäckströms kunniga och intresseväckande recension följer vi Tony Hawk från tiden som tanig och mobbad skolgrabb, över tiden som skateboardkung, till efterkarriären som dataspelsutvecklare – bland annat – och under tiden tvåbarnsfar med två olika fruar och gift en tredje gång. Underhållande och lärorikt, tycker vår recensent, som också följer upp historien efter det att boken publicerades. Och visst är det lite speciellt, det där amerikanska, den klassiska framgångssagan med lyckligt slut.

  • 12.
    Bäckström, Åsa
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH.
    Gender manoeuvring in Swedish skateboarding: Negotiations of femininities and the hierarchical gender structure2013Inngår i: Young - Nordic Journal of Youth Research, ISSN 1103-3088, E-ISSN 1741-3222, Vol. 21, nr 1, s. 29-53Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Nordic countries score high gender equality ratings and we have a long tradition of working with feminist agendas promising liberal futures to both young women and men. Still, today’s young women struggle to make room for female participation in male-dominated space. Based on ethnographic research, this article explores gender manoeuvring, i.e. manipulations of the relationship between masculinity and femininity in the patterned beliefs and activities of Swedish skateboarding. The three most apparent femininities in the empirical material, ‘the tomboy’, ‘the bitch’, and ‘the lesbian’, are discussed and how they sometimes give rise to gender manoeuvring and sometimes not. It is argued that the formation of a national network harnessing feminist strategies has been successful in making space for female skateboarding in local skateparks and the mainstream media. The negotiations these actions result in have the potential to transform the hierarchical gender order between and among masculinities and femininities. However, simultaneous tendencies to preserve the unequal gender structure through valuing both hegemonic masculinity and femininity become visible.

  • 13.
    Bäckström, Åsa
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för barn- och ungdomsvetenskap.
    Good ethnography smells bad: On aesthetic experience in qualitative research2008Inngår i: Sveriges antropologförbunds årliga konferens (SANT): Visuell kultur, 2008Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aesthetic learning processes are being notified in current Swedish pedagogical research. The philosophical term aesthetics is used in multiple modes, some of them borrowing an agenda from the studies of fine art, some more with inspiration from cultural studies and popular culture. In this emerging field both ethnography and every-day-aesthetics are in focus. Despite new ways of doing ethnography the results still tend to look (!) like traditional ethnography. Field-notes saturated with sensuous and stinking data; e.g. moist socks, sweaty t-shirts and car fumes, still tend to depend upon written texts and photography as scientific proof. Moreover ethnography is still judged against a positivistic framework drawing from natural science. Is a change required? And in that case, can the future of visual anthropology challenge this hegemonic scientific paradigm?

  • 14.
    Bäckström, Åsa
    Stockholms universitet, Barn- och ungdomsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Idrottsliga inkräktare: Recension av Bolin & Granskog (2003) Athletic intruders:  ethnographic research on women, culture, and exercise2011Inngår i: idrottsforum.org, ISSN 1652-7224Artikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    En djupdykning i SUNY-förlagets backlist har ådagalagt tre angelägna titlar som inte tidigare kommit med i forumets recensionsverksamhet men som trots att de fått några år på nacken av tjänstgörande recensionsredaktör bedömts som angelägna att lyfta fram. I november 2010 recenserade Ingela Kolfjord Mike Messners Out of Play, (2007), och Pirkko Markulas antologi Feminist Sport Studies från 2005 recenseras av Helena Tolvhed på annan plats i denna uppdatering. Äldst av de tre var antologin Athletic Intruders: Ethnographic Research on Women, Culture, and Exercise från 2003, med Anne Bolin och Jane Granskog som redaktörer (State University of New York Press). Vi applåderar SUNY Press för en föredömlig lagerhållningsstrategi (möjlig tack vare print on demand-tekniken), och gläds åt att vi hittade totalt rätt i val av recensent, nämligen Åsa Bäckström, som just då var redo att läsa just denna bok. I en föredömligt välskriven, initierad och intresseväckande recension ser hon bortom de lite ålderstigna referenserna och diskuterar metod, empiri och, inte minst, feminismens historia.

  • 15.
    Bäckström, Åsa
    Stockholms universitet, Barn- och ungdomsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Inkludering och exkludering2011Inngår i: Friluftssport och äventyrsidrott: utmaningar för lärare, ledare och miljö i en föränderlig värld / [ed] Klas Sandell, Johan Arnegård, Erik Backman, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2011, 1:1, s. 216-217Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 16.
    Bäckström, Åsa
    Stockholms universitet.
    Intervention Comparative Childhoods December 3, 20122012Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 17.
    Bäckström, Åsa
    Stockholms universitet, Barn- och ungdomsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Kinaesthetic detours in ethnographic representation2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In 1989 the American anthropologist Paul Stoller argued in favour of taking detours in his now classic The taste of ethnographic things, subtitled the senses in anthropology. Detours, he argued, may be theoretical, or artistic. One way is to strive for what he calls “radical empiricism”. This demands a different kind of text (or film), where the senses are given greater prominence. He writes: “This kind of respect directs writers and filmmakers onto a radically empirical detour along which we can achieve the most simple yet most allusive goal of ethnography: to give our readers or viewers a sense of what it is like to live in other worlds, a taste of ethnographic things” (1989: 156). Recently, a “sensory revolution” (Howes, 2005) has fuelled and interest in perception and the senses. This paper draws on research with a sensory ethnography (Pink, 2009) approach. It focuses the un/knowing body and deals with epistemological issues related to collecting and representing sensory ethnographic material. It is argued that scientific texts (in a wide sense) need richer sensory “data” in order to more fully understand learning and knowing in a contemporary world. Moreover, the paper problematizes the prevalent logocentrism in society.

  • 18.
    Bäckström, Åsa
    Stockholms universitet, Barn- och ungdomsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Knowing and teaching explosiveness in skateboarding: Remembrance and expressions of kinaesthetic experience2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In social sciences and humanities 'the body' is accentuated to the extent that we may even talk about a ‘corporeal turn’. Through ethnographic research on skateboarding I explore the particular corporeal practice of energy transformation and the verbal, visual and bodily expression of what can be labeled explosiveness.

    Explicitly, I use the digital audio-visual empirical material to investigate how kinaesthetic knowing is expressed and taught. The paper adds theoretically and empirically to recent arguments of a shift from embodiment to emplacement. By way of conclusion, a more elaborate focus on the sensory experiences is suggested to better understand the intersections of mind, body, place and learning.

  • 19.
    Bäckström, Åsa
    Stockholms universitet, Barn- och ungdomsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Knowing and teaching kinaesthetic experience in skateboarding: An example of sensory emplacement2014Inngår i: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243, Vol. 19, nr 6, s. 752-772Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The body has become a vital research object in several disciplines in recent years. Indeed, in the social sciences and humanities, a corporeal turn in which embodiment has become a key concept related to learning and socialisation is discussed. This cross-disciplinary paper addresses the epistemological question of how we know what we know and theoretically and empirically contributes to current arguments of a shift from embodiment to emplacement. In other words, this study strives for understanding of the intersection of mind, body and place through a focus on how bodily knowing is formed as part of a moving world. The purpose of the paper is to explore the kinaesthetic experience as bodily knowing in emplaced semi-formal teaching. Through long-term ethnography in a Swedish skateboard setting and in-depth analysis of digital visual material, this paper demonstrates how kinaesthetic experience might be viewed as knowing and how a particular type of this experience might be interpreted as explosiveness and, as such, an act of physical remembrance and energy transformation. Knowing is formed along paths of movement and rhythm, and kinaesthesia is identified as a multisensory experience. It is argued that a fruitful way of bridging the mindbody divide is to view the body as un/knowing, rendering it both knowing and not knowing simultaneously. Moreover, emplaced via its senses in a sociocultural and spatiotemporal environment, this conceptualisation of a moving body in a moving world might allow for re-thinking regarding how a body in context knows, teaches and, possibly, learns.

  • 20.
    Bäckström, Åsa
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för barn- och ungdomsvetenskap.
    Kroppen, brädan, lärandet2010Inngår i: Den lärande staden / [ed] Mats Lieberg, Suzanne de Laval, Petter Åkerblom, Umeå: Boréa , 2010, 1, s. 113-129Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    I stadslandskapet manifesteras människans makt över naturen. Staden är dynamisk; den skapas och omskapas ständigt i takt med förändrade politiska och kulturella ideal. Dess olika miljöer används – medvetet och omedvetet – för olika typer av lärande. Skolgården och slottsparken kan fungera som budbärare med pedagogiska avsikter för både barn och vuxna, gallerian kan ses som ett klassrum och detaljhandeln som kunskaps- och kulturformande faktorer.           När olika grupper intar det offentliga rummet uppstår nya mötesplatser och samspelsmönster. Ser det sociala samspelet likadant ut i förorten, på handelsgatan och i innerstaden? Hur och när tar exempelvis unga kvinnor staden i besittning?

  • 21.
    Bäckström, Åsa
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Känsla och kroppsligt kunnade inom idrott / "Känsla" and bodily knowing in sports2015Inngår i: In the flow.: People, media and materialities. / [ed] Johanna Dahlin och Tove Andersson, Linköping, 2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    Inom idrott är känsla något en har eller inte. Känsla sätts ofta som förled till idrottsliga attiraljer eller idrottsliga göranden. Bollkänsla innebär en förmåga att hantera bollar på ett skickligt sätt och matchkänsla innebär att ha en helhetssyn på matchen. Till skillnad mot teknik, som kan övas upp, är känsla en förmåga som omtalas termer av kroppslig kompetens som funnits med hela livet. Känsla har också en estetisk dimension. I detta paper diskuteras idrottens känsla i relation till fenomenologisk teori. Genom empiriska exempel från etnografiska studier om idrott, synliggörs hur känslan och dess olika dimensioner kan sägas vara betydelsefulla komponenter i konstruktionen av kunnande.

  • 22.
    Bäckström, Åsa
    Stockholms universitet, Barn- och ungdomsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Learning to see – learning to know: Transforming visual information to kinesthetic experience2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This panel/workshop presents ways that visual methods of investigation, documentation, practice and performance are used in different processes of learning.  Drawing on educational settings in journalism, media studies and art education, and also informal learning settings where visual documentation plays a central role, the panel addresses forms of knowledge that arise through visual practices. The limitations of the visual are also addressed, in particular the forms of knowledge that are precluded when visual regimes are considered primary.

    Åsa Bäckström, Senior Lecturer at the Department of Child and Youth Studies, Stockholm University, draws on her studies of skateboarders to examine the ways they transform visual documentation (both hers and their own) into kinesthetic experience as they refine their bodily knowing in order to become increasingly proficient.  An exclusive focus on the visual ignores the other sensory forms so critical to the integrated knowing which is the basis of the skateboarder’s performance.

  • 23.
    Bäckström, Åsa
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för individ, omvärld och lärande (IOL).
    Lekar för nytta och nöje: Recension av Hanran, Stephanie J. & Teresa B. Carlson, 2006, Game Skills: A Fun Approach to Learning Sport Skills.2007Inngår i: Idrottsforum.org, ISSN 1652-7224Artikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Åsa Bäckström är noga med att påpeka att hon inte är den bäst lämpade recensenten för den bok tjänstgörande redaktör valde att skicka henne, nämligen Game Skills: A Fun Approach to Learning Sport Skills av Stephanie J. Hanrahan och Teresa B. Carlson (Human Kinetics). Hon är inte idrottslärare och inte idrottsledare. Och boken avser att vara en inspirationskälla för just lärare och ledare inom idrott och fysisk aktivitet, en idébank för att hålla elever och studenter sysselsatta med lekar och spel och samtidigt ha roligt. Vår recensents specialkompetens, skriver hon, lämpar sig bättre för att göra en kulturanalys av boken. Och just en tilltalande kulturanalytisk ton är det som präglar hennes fylliga, problematiserande och intresseväckande recension. Game Skills presenterar dryga hundratalet ”lekar” för deltagare i varierande åldrar, med detaljerade instruktioner, lättfattligt, och med glimten i ögat. Boken lämpar sig väl, menar Bäckström, för blivande idrottslärare eftersom den också erbjuder en nyttig lektion i engelska. Men hon skulle nog först se vad den svenska litteraturen på området kan erbjuda innan hon själv tog in den i undervisningen.

  • 24.
    Bäckström, Åsa
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Med kultur som förstoringsglas: Anglosfäriska texter om kvinnor och ”action”-sport: recension av boken 'Women in Action Sport Cultures: Identity, Politics and Experience', red. Holly Thorpe & Rebecca Olive (2016)2017Inngår i: Idrottsforum.org/Nordic sport science forum, ISSN 1652-7224, artikkel-id 23 novemberArtikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 25.
    Bäckström, Åsa
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för barn- och ungdomsvetenskap.
    Musik kan vara sjukt bra. Alltså kan den smitta.: En ny avhandling beskriver hur musik sprids och bidrar till tonårstjejers identitetsskapande.2009Inngår i: Pedagogiska Magasinet, ISSN 1401-3320, nr 3, s. 84-85Artikkel, omtale (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 26.
    Bäckström, Åsa
    Stockholms universitet.
    Musik kan vara sjukt bra, alltså kan den smitta.: Recension av Werner, Ann, 2009, Smittsamt. En kulturstudie av musikbruk bland tjejer2009Inngår i: Pedagogiska Magasinet, ISSN 1401-3320, nr 3Artikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 27.
    Bäckström, Åsa
    Stockholms universitet, Barn- och ungdomsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Nyttig uppslagsbok om ungdom och idrott2012Inngår i: Idrottsforum.org, ISSN 1652–7224Artikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det är tveklöst så att ungdomsidrotten och skolidrotten, det vill säga idrott som utförs inom skolans ram, är problematisk; det är inget man bara kan överlämna till idrottsrörelsen respektive skolans idrottslärare att ta hand om. Bara i föreliggande uppdatering recenseras tre ungdomsidrottsböcker, dels en om coachning av barn och ungdom, dels en om sociala supportsystem för ungdomar i fysisk aktivitet, samt dels Ken Greens nya bok Key Themes in Youth Sport (Routledge). Skälen till att så mycket forskaruppmärksamhet ägnas just ungdomars idrottsdeltagande är många och synnerligen godtagbara, särskilt om man accepterar att idrott a priori betraktas som ett gott i sig och därmed något som barn och ungdomar ska dras in i; barn och ungdomar är å andra sidan, till följd av sin åldersbetingade sårbarhet, a posteriori i behov av extra omsorg – och stöd av forskning. Vi gav Ken Greens bok till Åsa Bäckström, som konstaterar att det här rör sig om något som närmast får betraktas som en uppslagsbok, med 45 nyckelteman från ability and talent till youth’s new condition. Man kan i sådana här sammanhang alltid diskutera urval, och det gör vår recensent, kritiskt och sansat, och hon kommer slutgiltigt fram till att Greens sociologiskt konstruerade teman är användbara, inte minst för att boken också pekar ut en fortsatt färdriktning i kunskapsprocessen genom dess definitioner, statistik, referenser och tankegångar.

  • 28.
    Bäckström, Åsa
    Stockholms universitet, Barn- och ungdomsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    På den postmoderna vågen2012Inngår i: Idrottsforum.org, ISSN 1652–7224Artikkel, omtale (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 29.
    Bäckström, Åsa
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    På snowboard genom teoridjungeln: recension av Snowboarding Bodies in Theory and Practice / Holly Thorpe2015Inngår i: Idrottsforum.org/Nordic sport science forum, ISSN 1652-7224, nr 12 majArtikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här boken är skriven med avgångsstudenter i åtanke. Boken ska enligt författaren locka till användande av teorier och till tänkande med hjälp av teorier. Den ska presentera teorier på ett tillgängligt sätt. Teorierna i fråga är sociologiska och angränsande till detta akademiska fält. Varje kapitel i boken tar en eller två teorier som utgångspunkt för att belysa snowboard. Studenter skulle då kunna omsätta dessa exemplifierande kapitel och inspireras till att använda teorierna i sina egna arbeten som inte nödvändigtvis behöver handla om just snowboard. Kapitlen är tematiska och handlar till exempel om genus och kropp, om representationer i medier, och om makt och politik.

  • 30.
    Bäckström, Åsa
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för barn- och ungdomsvetenskap.
    Sinnlig, skamlös och stolt - om kvinnlig svensk skateboardåkning.2009Inngår i: Kultur~Natur: Konferens för kulturstudier i Sverige 2009, Linköping: ACSIS, Linköpings universitet , 2009, s. 91-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det har skett ett antal vändningar inom samhällsvetenskaplig forskning på senare tid. En sådan vändning har beskrivits som kroppslig, och som en konsekvens därav kan vi enligt somliga idag också tala om en sinnlig revolution. Skateboardåkning är en synnerligen fysisk aktivitet där kroppens sinnen används i hög grad. Ljudet av hjulen mot underlaget indikerar till exempel materialets beskaffenhet och brädans fart för utövaren. I den här presentationen diskuteras (kvinno-)kroppens upplevelse av skateboardåkning. I kroppen omsätts omgivningens arkitektur till sinnlig upplevelse och affekt. Där möts den fysiologiska känslan och den sociokulturella. Kroppar uttrycker och gör. De lyckas och misslyckas. De strålar av lycka och böjer sig i skam. Teoretisk inspiration hämtas från Tomkins bland andra.

  • 31.
    Bäckström, Åsa
    Stockholms universitet, Barn- och ungdomsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Sinnligt kunnande och lärande: Balans och proprioception ur ett samhällsvetenskapligt perspektiv2011Inngår i: Kulturstudier, kropp och idrott: Perspektiv på fenomen i gränslandet mellan natur och kultur / [ed] Helena Tolvhed & david Cardell, Malmö: Idrottsforum , 2011, s. 193-210Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 32.
    Bäckström, Åsa
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för barn- och ungdomsvetenskap.
    Skateboard girls: On power, senses and affective embodiment.2009Inngår i: ESA 2009.: European Society or European Societies?, 2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    As one of the many claimed turns in social sciences lately, we experience (sic!) a corporeal one and as consequence we now know of a sensual revolution. Within that framework this paper discusses female skateboarding and its sensuous appearance. Female skateboarders in Sweden are using their bodies to negotiate power. In so doing their performing bodies are sensing subjects but also sensational objects. Bodies are where senses and affect meet with cultural and social assumptions. Bodies express and perform, bodies fail and succeed, bodies beam in pride and are put in place. Theoretical inspiration comes from various areas such as girlhood studies, the anthropological research on the senses in culture, and the psychology of affect.

  • 33.
    Bäckström, Åsa
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Spår: om brädsportkultur, informella lärprocesser och identitet2005Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Today's society is subject to an increased importance of aesthetics and an increasing individualism. New trends are adopted early by young people, which make it interesting to focus on how identity is formed and meanings are constructed in a youth culture context and in relation to ongoing societal processes of change.

    The purpose of this dissertation is to interpret and analyse the construction of meaning within the skateboard and snowboard communities in the social and cultural contexts. In particular, this dissertation is about the relationship between three levels, cultural, practice and individual. The title "Traces" alludes to four analytical themes taking different tracks in the book; consumption, gender, place and identity that are reflected in different chapters. However, the individual leaves traces in culture as culture does in the individual. Furthermore, skaters and snowboarders leave actual tracks in their local geography.

    Theoretically the study has a culture analysis approach with a semiotic base where five theories are intertwined. Johan Fornäs contributes with his interpretation on culture as system of signs and signifying practices, Stuart Hall adds the concept of representations, Kirsten Drotner provides her argumentation regarding aesthetic practices whilst Ulf Hannerz enriches the dissertation with his discussion on transnational culture-flows and the social diffusion of culture. Roger Säljö proposes a socio-cultural perspective of learning where learning is about participation in knowledge and skills. The method used is ethnographical. The multifaceted empirical material, from field studies and interviews, Swedish skateboard and snowboard magazines between 1978 to 2002, skateboard and snowboard videos, press articles, and websites, has been triangulated. In addition, there are three personal albums of skateboarder, snowboarder and surfer Ants Neo.

    The study shows that there are stereotyped notions about what boarding means and what it means to be a boarder. These notions both create and are created by the boarders themselves but are also used by advertisers for products not related to board sports at all. These notions, based as they are on ideas of resistance and radicalism, serve to emphasise that boarding is masculine. Resistance takes concrete form in its attitude to organized sports and to multinational brands and in the unusual use of places in the urban environment. To be a boarder is, apart form the boarding skills required, to be also part and parcel of these attitudes.

    The study explains how meaning and identity are created through informal learning processes in youth culture contexts. In these group-forming processes, both the individual and the community are formulated in social, cultural and aesthetic terms. 

  • 34.
    Bäckström, Åsa
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för barn- och ungdomsvetenskap.
    Style in physical activity2008Inngår i: Bonds and Communities. Young people and their social ties.: The 10th Nordic Youth Research Information Symposium, 2008, s. 58-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aesthetic expressions in youth culture have been studied extensively. For the British CCCS and its followers the concept of style is regularly used to explain dress codes, hair fashion and other physical appearances. Sub culture is an often-used term, which enclose these types of expressions, in addition frequently connected to certain kinds music. Lately a growing number of studies on sub culture and sport have been presented. This implies an interest in a slightly different aspect of style – the one focusing more on style in physical activity. The leaderless boarding culture revolves primarily around style and physical bodily activity, in contrast to punk for example, which is held together by style and music. Thus it can be argued that identity through board sports is more clearly incorporated through physical performance. This presentation attempts to fill some of the gap in research around style in physical activity. It focuses bodily aesthetic expressions in skateboarding and the concept of style in relation to the moving body. Style in both senses mentioned above, communicates and creates both bonds and communities. Building on empirical studies on skateboarding in Sweden between 1978-2002, it is argued that also style in physical activity is significant for the construction of cultural and social values. Moreover style in this sense has a highly performative aspect.

  • 35.
    Bäckström, Åsa
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för barn- och ungdomsvetenskap.
    Tjejskate: Om frihet, jämlikhet och systerskap2010Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 36.
    Bäckström, Åsa
    Stockholms universitet, Barn- och ungdomsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Understanding the fleshiness of knowing: Sensory ethnography as a way of examining teaching and knowing in physical education2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses research about how knowing and teaching is formed as part of the physical activity of skateboarding. Through a four-year project in educations sciences focusing on the cross-roads of mind, body, place and learning, the sensory ethnography approach (Pink 2009) made it possible to explore how knowing was expressed by skateboard coaches in their teaching. The semi-structured character of skateboarding contributed with a setting were the moving body is central, but without the formalized educational framework. To begin with, this methodological approach foregrounded how perception and the senses were involved but also showed the need to go beyond the five-sense sensorium, particularly in relation to understanding the process of teaching and knowing balance and explosiveness, which are both crucial for skateboarding proficiency. Moreover, this research revealed the implications of reflective auto-ethnographic elements in the process of field-work. As a researcher it became apparent how this sensory embeddedness not only informed the research participants’ teaching and knowing, but also my own way of understanding the fleshiness of knowing. In this paper I will explore more deeply the question of the researcher’s route to knowing. To develop this discussion I will build on two existing approaches to defining kinesthetic empathy (Sklar 1998; Parviainen 2003) to suggest how this concept might inform our understandings of how learning is sensory and emplaced (Fors, et al, forthcoming), as well as socio-affective (Tomkins, 1962). In doing so I address related epistemological issues regarding the moving, learning and un/knowing body (e.g. Moyal Sharrock, 2004).

  • 37.
    Bäckström, Åsa
    Stockholms universitet, Barn- och ungdomsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Utmanande och ungdomligt i konsumtionssamhället2011Inngår i: Friluftssport och äventyrsidrott: Utmaningar för lärare, ledare och miljö i en föränderlig värld / [ed] Klas Sandell, Johan Arnegård, Erik Backman, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2011, s. 37-61Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 38.
    Bäckström, Åsa
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Women of the wild west – skateboarding in sensorial cityscapes2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    With its prominent street style, skateboarding may be described as a fine example of urban sport. Although deriving from the culturally western world which boasts of a high level of gender equality, the representation of women in skateboarding has remained surprisingly low. In addition, urban milieus in the open and liberal European society have lately been described as places where young women may face harassments and aggression. Drawing from long term sensory ethnography and inspired by later theoretical turns in social sciences focusing the importance of the material environment, this paper discuss how women skateboarders experience the physical activity as enmeshed with the material context at the same time heavily depending on the social and cultural context. The urban environment with its smooth marble or rough asphalt surfaces, its alarming sounds and tingling smells forms the experience of skateboarding. Moreover, it forms the construction of femininity. This paper contributes with new empirical findings on what it means to practise a physical activity in urban locations as a gendered minority. In doing so, it also adds to the discussion on how a material feminist theory might be sketched and developed without overlooking the social and cultural aspects.

  • 39.
    Bäckström, Åsa
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Åsa Bäckström2014Inngår i: Skateboard: inte bara för tjejer / [ed] No limit, Årsta: Dokumentpress och No limit , 2014Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 40.
    Bäckström, Åsa
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Book, KarinMalmö universitet.Carlsson, BoLinnéuniversitetet.Fahlström, PG
    Sport management: Idrottens organisationer i en svensk kontext. Del 12018Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Idrottens landskap förändras. Två tendenser är särskilt tydliga: professionalisering och kommersialisering. I den här boken beskrivs hur dessa tendenser tar sig uttryck i relation till hur idrotten organiseras. Det handlar om nya sätt att organisera idrott, som skapar såväl nya förutsättningar som utmaningar. Inte minst utmanar dessa nya organisationsformer rådande sätt att betrakta idrott.

    Sport management handlar om att planera, organisera, leda och utvärdera idrott. Sedan drygt femton år tillbaka finns universitetsutbildningar som tar det här kunskaps- och forskningsområdet på största allvar. Författarna i den här boken har varit med och byggt upp dessa utbildningar. De har också forskat och undervisat inom området och på så vis bidragit till fältets expansion och vetenskaplighet såväl i Sverige som internationellt.

    Boken är den första i en serie om tre böcker om sport management i Sverige. Det är den enda aktuella boken om sport management på svenska. Det är också den enda boken som tar utgångspunkt i svenska förhållanden.

    För professionella inom idrottens administrativa värld är det här en oumbärlig bok. Den ger bland annat svar på frågorna: Varför ser idrottens svenska organisationer ut som de gör? Hur kommer det sig att den ideella idrottsrörelsen blivit så stark i Sverige? Varför sitter fler män än kvinnor på styrande positioner inom idrotten? Och har det någon betydelse att barngympan organiseras av ett kommersiellt företag?

  • 41.
    Bäckström, Åsa
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Fors, Vaike
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Centrum för samhällsanalys (CESAM).
    Knowing As "Känsla": Accounting For Knowing As An Outcome Of Sensory Emplaced Learning2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Within education studies there have been calls for systematic attention to how learning is situated, to the notion of context and to experiential elements of learning. In recent decades theories of situated learning and cognitive learning theories have existed in a critical relationship to each other and by the twenty first century a major debate raged between the two positions (Sfard, 1998; Säljö, 2003, Hodkinson et al 2008). At a more sophisticated level situated learning theory offers an alternative to cognitive learning theories that draw on the root metaphor of acquisition. Instead it understands thinking as embedded in social and material practices and conceptualises learning through the metaphor of participation (Lave & Wenger, 1991).

    In this context there is an on-going search for new ways to understand the situatedness of learning as well as its experiential qualities. In our recent work we have addressed this need by developing a framework that builds on Lave and Wenger’s ideas of situatedness and Hodkinssons’et. al (2008) call for moving on from the recent debate between cognitive and sociocultural theorists informed by theories of place, perception and the senses. Theories of place, perception and knowledge in human geography and anthropology, offer an ideal route through which to respond to this call. They offer accounts of place that acknowledge the relationship between spatial and temporal process (Massey 2005), and the embodied nature of learning, while advancing the agenda further to suggest that the senses and the environment are central to how we learn (e.g. Ingold 2000, Pink 2009).We call this framework sensory emplaced learning (Fors, Bäckström & Pink, 2013), through which we conceptualize how learning is situated in the dynamics between body– senses – material environments.

    In this paper we draw from our respective ethnographic research projects on social and cultural informal learning among young people in two very different, albeit Swedish, contexts. Through our field work with people on the one hand publishing and talking about images and texts on a particular website and on the other hand practicing skateboarding, we have come to question the idea of knowledge as acquisition. This mainly cognitive metaphor for learning and knowing applies poorly to the practices of learning and knowing that we have studied. Instead, we argue for a theoretical development around the Swedish term “känsla”, (pronounced shensla). This Swedish word encompasses feeling, sensation, affect, emotion and style and derives from the verb känna – to feel, to sense. Etymologically the word is closely related to one of the Swedish words for knowledge – “kännedom” (Wessén, 1982). Hence, the main objective of this paper is to develop the theoretical thinking that revolve around the Swedish conceptualisation of “känsla” which, we argue, could provide useful for analysing how we know, handle and make meaning of everyday life in and through our sensorial bodies emplaced in material contexts.

    Methodology, Methods, Research Instruments or Sources Used The empirical material analysed in this paper emanates from two different sets of data that was produced in two different research projects with a similar methodological ethnographic approach; sensory ethnography (as developed by Pink 2009/2012). A sensory ethnography approach has the advantage of focusing the experiences of lived space, i.e. the crossroads between people’s bodies, their minds and place. In other words, it may be used to describe and analyse what we have previously labelled sensory emplacement (Fors, Bäckström & Pink, 2013; Pink, 2011). The first research project focused on informal learning processes in women skateboarding contexts mainly including unregulated skateboarding, but also contests, skate camps and a skate tour at indoor and outdoor skateparks. Addressing didactic issues of verbal and non verbal expressions of teaching and learning a sensory ethnography approach made bodily un/knowing apparent. The kinesthetic experience of explosiveness, defined as enforcement and transformation of energy, was remembered and also implicitly imagined as part of movement (Bäckström, 2014). For the purpose of this paper data from the first project predominately consist of written field notes, photographs, as well as interview and video transcripts. During the second project, we spent time with the research participants sharing the same computer screen when they used the Internet to gain an appreciation of how they embed these technologies in the routines and habits of their everyday life (Fors, 2013). We were specifically inspired by the notion of how visual experience is part of the multisensory process of moving through the digital, paying attention to “the ways the body is engaged in imagining and remembering” the localities and persons that Internet content represent and there by “move beyond the notion of ‘looking at’ images on a screen” (Pink, 2012:122). The data produced for the analysis presented in this paper consist of interview transcripts, photographs and entries/comments from the photo diaries, and video-recorded interviews during the sessions when the participants guided us through their use of these digital diaries.

    Conclusions, Expected Outcomes or Findings Our analysis made clear that it is possible to deepen our understanding of how learning becomes situated in human practice through identifying alternative and multisensory categories of routes to knowing. In this research, the research participants described their learning experiences through qualities deeply embedded in embodied and emplaced practices. Through a sensory ethnographic approach we identified one specific quality that highlights both embodied and emplaced aspects of learning and may be used to move further sensory emplaced implications on theories of situated learning. We call this quality “känsla”. As mentioned above, this Swedish word includes multiple meanings where feeling, sensation, affect, emotion and style are the most important. Moreover, our analysis shows that “känsla” is a concept that is constituted of multiple aspects of knowing. It engages the senses, it unfolds in the interface between body and the material environment, it engages the body through affect, and it is situated within, and thereby characterized by, distinct social and cultural settings. It is also a concept that becomes evident in both material and digital contexts, and both embodied, emplaced and virtual practices.

    References Ingold, Tim. 2000. The Perception of the Environment: Essays on Livelihood, Dwelling and Skill. London: Routledge. Lave, Jean and Wenger, Etienne. 1991. Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Marchand, Trevor. 2007. “Crafting Knowledge: The Role of ‘Parsing and Production of Skill-Based Knowledge among Masons.” In: M. Harris (ed.), Ways of Knowing: New Approaches in the Anthropology of Knowledge and Learning. New York: Berghahn Books. Pink, Sarah. 2009. Doing Sensory Ethnography. London: Sage.

    Intent of Publication This is an original paper which will be submitted to the Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research.

  • 42.
    Bäckström, Åsa
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur. Stockholms universitet.
    Hellström, John
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Idrottshistoriska forskningsgruppen.
    Successfully profiling cultural studies and social responsibility in sport management education2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 43.
    Bäckström, Åsa
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Isakson, Fredrik
    Stockholms universitet.
    Coola idoler och hjälpsamma förebilder2014Inngår i: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 23, nr 1, s. 35-39Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bland skejtare har både förebilder och idoler hög status. Det höga anseendet får de genom sin kompetens, men det är olika slags kunnande som ligger bakom. Idoler bygger sin ställning på teknisk skicklighet. Förebilderna ska vara pedagogiskt kompetenta och schyssta personer.

  • 44.
    Bäckström, Åsa
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Nairn, Karen
    University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
    Skateboarding beyond the limits of gender?: Strategic interventions in Sweden2018Inngår i: Leisure Studies, ISSN 0261-4367, E-ISSN 1466-4496, Vol. 37, nr 4, s. 24-439Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden prides itself as a country where young women can enjoy gender equality. Yet many young women skateboarders still experience discomfort when skateboarding in public spaces. We argue that diverse strategies are required to intervene in the intransigent problem of gender inequality in the male-dominated sport of skateboarding. We discuss two intertwined strategies adopted in Swedish skateboarding contexts, strategic visibility and strategic entitlement. Strategic visibility is premised on making girls a special case, separated from the boys, and therefore highly visible. The other intervention goes beyond the limits of gender, aiming to achieve strategic entitlement, which takes-for-granted girls’ participation and competence. Drawing from ethnographic data, we explore the paradoxical spaces of these interventions, identifying the benefits and risks of each strategy. We conclude that both strategies are important, yet the latter breaks new ground. Strategic entitlement, which constructs skateboarding girls as ordinary and indistinguishable from boys, no longer constructs gender as a limiting factor. Interventions to promote gender equality should include strategies that seek to go beyond gender and strategies that acknowledge the significance of gender. We need to keep experimenting with and researching the unintended consequences of all strategies for challenging and changing male dominance in sport and leisure.

  • 45.
    Bäckström, Åsa
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Nairn, Karen
    Otago University.
    Sweden’s gender (in)equalities: How young women skateboarders materialise femininity in public space2016Inngår i: Crossroads in Cultural Studies, 2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden prides itself as a country where young women can enjoy gender equality. Yet many young women skateboarders experience harassment in public spaces. Drawing from a sensory ethnography, and inspired by the material turn in the social sciences, we analyse how women skateboarders experience the material environments of urban public space, while paying attention to the social and cultural context of Sweden. The urban environment with its smooth marble or rough asphalt surfaces, its alarming sounds and tingling smells, shapes the experience of skateboarding and the construction of femininity. The construction of femininity is also shaped by a social and cultural context that assumes ‘gender equality’ is secure. This paper contributes new empirical findings on what it means to skateboard in public spaces as a gendered minority, and adds to the debate on how a material feminist theory might be developed without overlooking the significance of social and cultural contexts.

  • 46.
    Bäckström, Åsa
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Sand, Anne-Lene
    University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Imagining and Making Material Encounters: Skateboarding, Emplacement, and Spatial Desire2019Inngår i: Journal of Sport and Social Issues, ISSN 0193-7235, E-ISSN 1552-7638, Vol. 43, nr 2, s. 122-142Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we draw from and develop existing ideas of spatial desire and emplacement to explore skateboarders? skilful mobility and perceptive competence. By combining findings from Swedish and Danish ethnographic studies, we illustrate how skateboarders imagine and make new material encounters both in urban environments not originally built for skateboarding and in skateparks. These imaginations and makings include memories of previous material encounters and are a part of ongoing social negotiations, but they also have a component of imaginary novelty. Making and imagining are discussed as materialization and formation, which include the idea of active materials and sentient practitioners. Two types of material encounters were imagined and made: transitions and smooth lines. Subsequently, two characteristics of these types of encounters were described: ?kind? and challenging. The processes of imagination and making took a mutual understanding for granted and deeply engaged the body in the ever-changing material environment. We argue that a conceptualization of spatial desire as emplaced and highly imaginable is fruitful for research on skateboarding and other movement cultures where engagements with materials come to the fore.

  • 47.
    Carlsson, Bo
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Bäckström, Åsa
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Fahlström, PG
    Book, Karin
    Malmö universitet.
    Introduktion2018Inngår i: Sport management: Idrottens organisationer i en svensk kontext. Del 1 / [ed] Bäckström, Å., Book, K., Carlsson, B., & Fahlström, P., Stockholm: SISU idrottsböcker , 2018, s. 5-13Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 48.
    Efverström, Anna
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Ahmadi, Nader
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Bäckström, Åsa
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Hoff, David
    Lunds universitet.
    Anti-doping and legitimacy: An international survey of elite athletes’ perceptions2014Inngår i: Performance Enhancement & Health, ISSN 2211-2669, 2014, Vol. 3, s. 115-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 49.
    Efverström, Anna
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Ahmadi, Nader
    Hoff, David
    Bäckström, Åsa
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Anti-doping and legitimacy: an international survey of elite athletes’ perceptions2016Inngår i: International Journal of Sport Policy and Politics, ISSN 1940-6940, E-ISSN 1940-6959, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. 491-514Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Anti-doping work is a comprehensive enterprise that entails control and governance of elite athletes? everyday lives. However, in policy-making regarding doping and anti-doping in elite sports, the athletes? perspective has not been considered adequately. Focusing on elite athletes? perceptions of anti-doping as both principle and praxis, the study aimed to analyse how these perceptions can be understood from a legitimacy perspective. A survey study involving 261 elite athletes from 51 different countries and four international sports federations was conducted. The results showed that the athletes did not question the legitimacy of the rules, but had concerns about the legitimacy of the way the rules and principles are enforced in practice, specifically with regard to matters of privacy, lack of efficiency and equal conditions as well as athletes? involvement in the anti-doping work. The article describes how athletes? perceptions of the legitimacy of anti-doping work constitute the basis for their willingness to follow regulations as well as a precondition for the work?s functionality and stability. In light of this finding, the article calls for the empowerment of athletes in anti-doping work.

  • 50.
    Efverström, Anna
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning. Högskolan i Gävle.
    Bäckström, Åsa
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Different socities, different conditions: Lessons from anti-doping in elite-sport on a global level2017Inngår i: Doping in sport, doping in society - Lessons, themes and connections: Book of abstracts, Aarhus University, Department of Public Health , 2017, s. 7-8Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Justice and fairness in sport is fundamental for its legitimate existence. On a global level, the creation of the World Anti-Doping Agency and the regulatory framework World Anti-Doping Code was formed largely as a consequence of the need for a coordination of the work against performance enhancing drugs in sports. Today, the anti-doping system often means application of rules and "best practice" developed in the cultural West for the cultural rest. Research on anti-doping policy or practice not only tends to be based on deductive models, these models may also assumingly be culturally biased. Moreover, we have relatively little knowledge of the practical conditions for individual athletes concerning implementation of the rules in different contexts around the world. This presentation, however, adds to the existing research with new empirical findings from interview data on diverging conditions for elite athletes in different social, cultural and geographical contexts. Through exploring how 13 elite athletes from five continents and three different sports federations perceived the anti-doping programme, we were able to show that global anti-doping policy was implemented in different contexts under different conditions. These differences included infrastructure, knowledge and support. How participation in anti-doping procedures on an everyday basis is endorsed may thus vary around the world.

    By examining our interview data on the athletes’ perceptions and experiences in relation to theories of procedural justice, we were able to analyse the legitimacy of anti-doping in practice. These findings suggest that inequities and structural injustice emerge on an individual level because of the varying contexts and conditions. In turn, the consequences may have implications for the legitimacy of the anti-doping work. In order to understand implementation processes of regulations, we propose that anti-doping policy-making pay attention to differences that may exist on an individual and practical level. Perspectives that underpin regulations applied globally should in other words be sensitive to varying contexts and conditions.

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