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  • 1.
    Backman, Erik
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Larsson, Håkan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Nyberg, Marie
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Redelius, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Tidén, Anna
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Bedömningsstöd i ämnet Idrott och hälsa: gymnasiet2014Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2.
    Backman, Erik
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Tidén, Anna
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Pihl, Lars
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Svanström, Fredrik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Wiorek, Dan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences. The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Peer-assessment of technical and tactical skills in invasion games - possibilities and limitations?2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Inom idrottslärarutbildning har det utbildningsinnehåll som handlar om att utveckla studenters ämneskunskaper i idrott kraftigt reducerats under de senaste decennierna. Inte minst har den delav ämneskunskapen som handlar om studenters förmåga att delta i och undervisa om idrottsliga praktiker drabbats (Kirk 2010). När utrymmet för ett ämnesområde begränsas aktualiseras frågor om innehåll och bedömning. Alltmedan de flesta inom fältet är eniga om betydelsen för studenter att få erfarenheter av rörelse och idrott under sin utbildning finns olika uppfattningar om huruvida man ska bedöma studenters förmåga att praktiskt utöva idrott. Hur man förhåller sig denna fråga har i hög grad visat sig vara kulturellt betingat (Backman & Pearson submitted, Herold & Waring 2009, Siedentop 2009, Tinning 2010). I svensk idrottslärarutbildning har just den idrottsliga bedömningens vara eller inte vara visat på en komplexitet och ambivalens (Backman & Pearson 2016).I en tid av alltmer begränsade resurser har problematiken delvis handlat om huruvida man ska bedöma (och därigenom värdera) studentens förmåga att delta i idrott som ett mål i sig eller om man ska bedöma studentens förmåga att undervisa i och om idrott (Backman & Larsson 2016, Maivorsdotter et al 2014). I de studier som belyst den idrottsliga färdighetens position ochbetydelse inom idrottslärarutbildning har studenters röst varit sparsamt förekommande. I denna studie vill vi därför, genom en implementering av en internationellt etablerad modell för studentmedbedömning i bollspel (Games Performance Assessment Instrument, GPAI) (Oslin et al 1998) i kurser för blivande idrottslärare, ge röst åt studenters syn på studentbedömning av förmågan att spela bollspel. I studien har 140 studenter (N=140) på lärarprogrammet vid Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan i Stockholm deltagit. Studien är genomförd inom ramen för en ordinarie bollspelskurs om 3 hp som motsvarar 18 lektionstillfällen med 90 minuters undervisning vid varje tillfälle. Till detta lades två extra lektioner om 90 min för att genomföra studien/datainsamlingen. Studenterna har under och efter kursen bidragit till datainsamlingen i kursen genom ifyllande av etablerade bedömningsformulär där de analyserat varandras spelförmåga. Vidare har studenterna svarat på en utvärdering av hur GPAI implementerats i kursen med hjälp av ett enkätverktyg. Syftet med kursen som studenterna deltagit i är att studenterna ska utveckla sin spelförmåga, leda målspel i skolan samt didaktiska aspekter på målspel i skolan. Studien har omfattat studentmedbedömning i spelen handboll, basket och fotboll som inte enbart ska ses som en utbildning i dessa spel utan som representation för bollspel i allmänhet. Deltagarna i studien representerar alla studenter som hösten 2016 läste den beskrivna kursen. Alla studenter fick information om att deltagandet var frivilligt och att de kunde avbryta när som helst utan att det skulle på verka deras betyg eller vara negativt för dem på något annat sätt. Alla studenter ville vara med i studien. I vår preliminära analys har vi funnit att studenternas observationer av varandra visade på stor variation avseende spelförmåga. I utvärderingen av GPAI-projektet har studenterna uttryckt att de visserligen förstod syftet med GPAI-projektet, och att de förstod hur de skulle bidra till datainsamlingen genom att analysera varandras spelförmåga, men att de var tveksamma till relevansen av GPAI i en bedömningskontext i skolan. Resultaten kommer att analyseras vidare och diskuteras i relation till Shulmans begrepp ämneskunskap (Content Knowledge) och ämnesdidaktisk kunskap (Pedagogical Content Knowledge) samt i relation till teorier om bedömning. I en diskussion där perspektiven ofta begränsas till forskarens och/eller idrottslärarutbildarens kan studenter bidra med viktig kunskap om vad de ser som relevant kunskap för sin kommande yrkesroll.

     

    Referenser

    Backman, E & Pearson, P (submitted) Is movement knowledge common, specialized or pedagogic? Voices of teacher educators on assessment of movement and sport courses in the preparation of Australian HPE teachers. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy

    Backman, E & Pearson, P (2016) “We should assess the students in more authentic situations”. Swedish PE teacher educators’ views of the meaning of movement skills for future PE teachers. European Physical Education Review. 22(1), 47-64.

    Backman, E & Larsson, H (2016) What should a Physical Education teacher know? An analysis of learning outcomes for future Physical Education teachers in Sweden. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy. 21(2), 185-200.

    Herold F and Waring M (2009) Pre-service physical education teachers’ perceptions of subject knowledge: Augmenting learning to teach. European Physical Education Review 15(3): 337–364.

    Kirk D (2010) Physical Education Futures. Abingdon: Routledge.

    Oslin, J.L., S.A. Mitchell, & L.L. Griffin. (1998). The Game Performance Assessment Instrument (GPAI): Development and preliminary validation. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education 17(2) p. 231–243.

    Siedentop D (2009) Content Knowledge for Physical Education. In: Bailey R and Kirk D (eds) The Routledge Physical Education Reader. Abingdon: Routledge, pp. 243-253.

    Tinning R (2010) Pedagogy and human movement: theory,practice, research. Abingdon: Routledge.

  • 3.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Kraepelien Strid, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Tidén, Anna
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Nyberg, Marie
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Sundblad, Gunilla Brun
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Predictors of adolescent fitness levels among Swedish adolescents, a longitudinal study2012In: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 2012, Vol. 15, no Supplement 1, p. S185-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: It has been consistently demonstrated that low aerobic fitness is causally linked to increased cardio-metabolic risk. Aerobic fitness has also been causally related to cognitive function. From adolescence and onwards, the inter-individual stability ("tracking") in fitness is fairly high. An individual's fitness level in adolescence is therefore a central determinant for future health. However, childhood predictors of adolescent fitness levels are largely unknown. The present study aimed at identifying personal, school-specific and structural determinants in childhood (age 10 yrs) for adolescent aerobic fitness (at age 16 yrs).

    Methods: Body mass index-based overweight status (normal weight vs overweight/obese, according to Cole et al.) and gross motor skills (based on the Tidén-Nyberg test) were measured at baseline in 209 Swedish children (mean [SD] age 9.8 [0.60] yrs) from randomly selected schools on Sweden. Immigration status (self-report) and average household income in quartiles on community level (register obtained) were used as possible structural confounders. Data on educational status of the PE teacher and lesson structure (gender-separated vs mixed classes) was obtained from the PE teacher. At the reexamination (at age 15.8 [0.33] yrs), aerobic fitness was estimated using the Åstrand-Ryhming nomogram. Low aerobic fitness was defined as below the first quartile (29.7 mL x min-1 x kg-1). Risk for low aerobic fitness was assessed using logistic regression

    Results: Risk for low aerobic fitness at follow-up was lower in children who were normal weight (OR: 0.23.95% CI: 0.10 to 0.49) and in children with trained PE-teachers (OR: 0.40, 95% CI: 0.17 to 0.93), but higher among children with poor gross motor skills (OR:1.84, 95% CI 1.08 to 3.13) at baseline. Gender, immigration history, neighborhood economical status and lesson structure were all non-significant predictors of low adolescent fitness.

    Discussion: The results stress the importance for early overweight prevention and treatment and for professional identification and treatment of children with impaired gross motor skills at young ages. In Sweden, a lagre proportion of PE-teachers in lower grades lack formal PE-teacher education, which according to the present study poses a threat to children's future health. Early screening and treatment of children with limited motor proficiencies seems may help children adapting a physically active lifestyle and avoiding low fitness levels in adolescence and young adulthood.

  • 4.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's and Mats Börjesson's research group.
    Kraepelien Strid, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Tidén, Anna
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Nyberg, Marie
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Sundblad, Gunilla Brun
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Predictors of perceived competence in physical activities (PCPA) among Swedish adolescents, a longitudinal study2012In: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 2012, Vol. 15, no Supplement 1, p. S113-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: An individual's perceived competence in physical activities (PCPA) has been proven a powerful predictor for future physical activity. However, the perception of one¥s competence may differ over time, especially during childhood and adolescence but also between types of physical activities or tasks. Further, the predictors for PCPA are largely unknown, but overweight status and gross motor skills have been proposed as candidates. We sought to identify predictors for general PCPA in Swedish adolescents, and PCPA in three highly prevalent forms of physical activities in Swedish physical education (PE), namely swimming, aerobics and soccer.

    Methods: Body mass index-based overweight status (normal weight vs overweight/obese, according to Cole et al.) and gross motor skills (based on the TidÈn-Nyberg test) were measured in 352 Swedish children (160 girls and 192 boys) at baseline (age 10). Immigration status (self-report) and average community household income level (quartiles, register obtained) at 10 yrs were used as possible socio-cultural confounders. Data on educational status of the PE teacher responsible for education at age 10 yrs was obtained by self-report from the teachers. Self reported data on general PCPA and PCPA in soccer, swimming and aerobics at 16 yrs was obtained at follow-up and predictors for PCPA was identified using logistic regression.

    Results: Being overweight or obese (OR: 2.27, 95% CI: 1.18–4.38) and attending PE classes with unqualified teachers (OR: 2.41, 95% CI: 1.36–4.27) at age 10 yrs were both risk factors for low general PCPA a age 16 yrs. Concerning the selected activities, being overweight or obese at age 10 yrs predicted low PCPA in swimming (OR: 2.67, 95% CI:1.31–5.46) but not in the other activities at age 16 yrs. Poor gross motor skills at age 10 yrs predicted low PCPA at 16 yrs only in soccer (OR:1.48, 95% CI: 1.02–2.13). Female gender (OR: 0.21, 95% CI: 0.13–0.38), and higher socioeconomic status (OR: 0.71 per quartile, 95% CI: 0.55–0.92)at age 10 yrs were both found to be associated to lower risk for low PCPA in aerobics.

    Discussion: Overweight status and educational status of the PE teacher both affect the risk of having low general PCPA. The effect of gender, overweight status, gross motor skill and socio-economy seem to differ between specific activities, indicating that PCPA may be task specific in adolescents. These results may serve as background when planning physical activity interventions. Further, they stress the need for professional PE teachers to teach in younger classes.

  • 5.
    Larsson, Håkan
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Nyberg, Marie
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Redelius, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Tiden, Anna
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Thedin Jakobsson, Britta
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Bedömningsstöd idrott och hälsa årskurs 4-62014Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Som stöd för bedömning i idrott och hälsa i årskurs 6 finns ett material som ger tydliga exempel på bedömningar av de kunskaper som eleverna visar upp utifrån kunskapskraven. Bedömningsstödet syftar till att konkretisera delar av kunskapskraven genom elevexempel och lärares samtal kring bedömning.

  • 6.
    Larssson, Håkan
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Tidén, Anna
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Bedömning och betyg i Idrott och hälsa2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Tidén, Anna
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Assessing Embodied Knowledge in Swedish PEH: the Influence of Physical Literacy2013In: ICSSPE Bulletin, ISSN 1563-3632, no 65Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is internationally a growing interest in the concept physical literacy and how it can be used in educational contexts. The aim of this contribution is to illustrate and describe how and in which way Swedish PEH has been influenced by physical literacy in the context of learning outcomes and assessment. The empirical material consists of the PEH curricula and the official supplementary material for qualitative assessment. Tensions between curricula, pedagogy, and assessment are discussed as physical literacy is linked to an individual’s potential and being in the world and not related to assessment of what separates people.

  • 8.
    Nyberg, Marie
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Tidén, Anna
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Allsidig rörelsekompetens hos barn och ungdomar: En kartläggning av skolelevers funktionella motorik2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Gross motor skills among Swedish pupils. An overview of functional motor abilities among Swedish children and adolescents.

    Introduction

    Physical Education (PE) teachers in Sweden have noticed that pupils are getting worse in their ability to manage gross motor skills and in their aerobic practice. The gross motor skills and coordinative skills are the solid ground for sports and other health activities. If not developing their gross motor skill children tends to avoid taking part in games and sports. The benefits of sports and outdoor activities such as social and health benefits can therefore be missed. In the spring 2001, a multidisciplinary study started: School, Sports & Health. The aim of the study was to investigate 2000 pupils in school year 3, 6 and 9 concerning their: physical and health status, the level of physical activity and conception of the subject “PE and health”. The selection of pupils was based on randomly chosen schools and classes from Sweden. The aim of this part of the study, the motor skills test, was to make a survey of what Swedish pupils can manage in gross motor skills today. Based upon these results we can in the future tell whether the pupils are maintaining today’s level of gross motor skills or not. The Swedish curriculum for “sports and health” states that pupils should manage gross motor skills in the 5th year of school. Can they manage to do that?

    Method

    The study started with the construction of the gross motor and coordinative skill tests. The movements selected for the test were based on gross motor skills, coordinative skills and combinations of these skills. The test included 16 movements measured on a scale from 1 to 4. The levels of the scale have a written description to support the ocular observations. The highest score to achieve was 64 and the lowest was 16. Examples of skills tested were; skipping, jumping, crawling, rolling, being upside down, bouncing and throwing balls. The pupils were not able to practice on the test before the test situation. The results have been analyzed using SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences).

    Results

    The results are analyzed both on an aggregated level here referred to as gross motor skills profile, as well as on a single movement level. The results indicate that 29% of the pupils in the 6th school year are not able to manage the gross motor skill tests without remarks. The pupils with the lowest scores can be found among young female children with low strength and overweight. The test also shows that in the 9th school year boys are stronger than girls. Boys and girls in the lower ages (school year 3 and 6) are more similar in the gross motor skills profile but not on the single movement level. It can also be noted that girls are better in skipping and some of the movements of more gymnastic character whereas boys are better in throwing balls and beanbags. Boys and girls have nearly identical results in the test of balance, walking on a balance beam where gender or age does not seem to have any affect.

    Discussion/Conclusion

    From the main findings of the tests we can observe that the younger pupils have not yet developed the gross motor skills. It is also noticeable that many of the pupils in the 6th school year are achieving poor results in the tests even though the Swedish curriculum for “sports and health” states that the pupils should have achieved these skills already in the 5th school year. Many of the girls in the 9th school year are very poor in the movements that included some strength ability. This weakness is important for PE teachers to pay attention to, at an early stage of the girl’s physical development when girls do not develop the same strength as boys during their puberty.

    If children do not have the gross motor skill and some strength it is more likely that they will choose other activities or have other interest then physical activities and sports on their leisure time. This may in the future give them health problems because we know from fact that physical inactivity is one of the main causes to bad health.

  • 9.
    Nyberg, Marie
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Tidén, Anna
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Alltsidig rörelseförmåga - ett kroppsligt abc2012In: Idrottsdidaktiska utmaningar / [ed] Larsson, H. & Meckbach, J, Stockholm, Stockholm: Liber, 2012, 2, p. 70-86Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Nyberg, Marie
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Tidén, Anna
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Att kunna – en förutsättning för att vilja?!2004In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, no 4, p. 57-60Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Har barns möjligheter att träna och befästa motoriska grundformer minskat i skolan och på fritiden? Det kan man fråga sig då resultaten från SIH-projektets motorikstudie analyseras. Många barn och ungdomar brister i sin motoriska förmåga. Exempelvis kan 40% av eleverna i år sex inte utföra motoriska grundformer såsom att balansera, kasta, stödja och rulla på ett tillfredsställande sätt.

  • 11.
    Tidén, Anna
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH.
    Assessing Movement Skills in Children and Adolescents: How and Why?2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessing Movement Skills in Children and Adolescents: How and Why?

    BACKGROUND

    To master a wide range of skills seems to contribute to better self-esteem and represent a ground for sports and other physical activities. Motor development has often been studied in research and practise. Over the past 20-30 years there have been many tests developed in different contexts and addressing various questions.

    OBJECTIVES

    The overall aim of this study is to explore the purposes of common motor skills tests used in research and practice. Questions of interest are; what is the purpose of the test? What skills are in focus in the tests? In which context does the test occur? 

    METHOD

    To over view common motor skills tests which often are referred to in International research journals. Examine the tests and the contexts in which they occur.

    FINDINGS

    Some preliminary findings are; there have been many different reasons to study children’s motor skills. One question of interest has been if the child is behind their peers in their motor development or if the child suffers from any disease or impairment. Other questions addressed are if a child or student has reached the objectives in the Physical Education in terms of mastering the (FMS) Fundamental Movement Skills. Most of the tests are assessed in a quantitative way but there are some that uses both quantitative and qualitative assessment. Rare are the tests that only use qualitative assessment. Some tests are developed to clinical research when other tests are towards “movement skills as a ground for physical activity and a healthy lifestyle”.

    DISUSSION

    It looks as if there is a change in the purposes in the motor skills testing the last ten-fifteen years. The tests has change in a way from mainly identifying deficiencies or motor impairments to screening children with the purpose to get “all on the right track”, to be physically active and to live a healthy lifestyle. The study is ongoing and there will be more interesting knowledge to discuss further on.

     

  • 12.
    Tidén, Anna
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Bedömningar av ungas rörelseförmåga: En idrottsvetenskaplig problematisering och validering2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall purpose of this thesis is to investigate, discuss and problematise different aspects of movement ability. The four sub-studies of the thesis deal with various issues concerning assessment of movement ability. First, the focus is on how the concept of physical literacy has influenced the steering document of the subject physical education and health (PEH) in Sweden. The question is: What kind of tensions and conflicts arise when different approaches and interpretations of movement ability are used in an educational context? Second, a structural validation is conducted of the NyTid test, an assessment tool developed to assess basic and complex movement skills at the ages of 12-16 years. The question is: Which categories of movement skills are identified through the validation of the NyTid test? Third, the study examines how ‘ability’ is conceptualised, configured and produced in movement tests and movement assessment tools. Finally, an investigation of how or whether an assessed low or high movement ability at the age of 15 matters for developing an interest in, or taste for, sport and physical activities nine years later, in young adulthood.

    Movement ability is studied from different perspectives, including a multidisciplinary sport science approach using mixed methods. The theoretical standpoint in the sociocultural analyses is inspired by Bourdieu’s theories and concepts of habitus, capital, field and doxa, which are used as analytical tools. Different theories relating to the evaluation of movement abilities as product- or process oriented assessment are also made use of.

    Movement abilities tests and assessment tools are also found to construct a specific and narrow form of physical capital strongly related to traditional sports. Accordingly, the social construction of movement ability through assessment tools is far from neutral and could affect how children see themselves and their sense of ‘ability’. Furthermore, the assumption that an acquired high level of movement ability plays a central role for being physically active is challenged in the thesis. Even though pupils at the age of 15 had a low level of assessed movement ability, it did not prevent them from acquiring a taste for sport and physical activity later in life. However, more studies on movement ability and the underlining mechanisms and factors for engaging in physical activities are necessary.

  • 13.
    Tidén, Anna
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH.
    Movement Skills Assessment Tools: Aims, Content and Context2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Movement Skills Assessment Tools: Aims, Content and Context

    Introduction and Topic

    To master a broad repertoire of gross movement skills in the early school years seems to contribute to better physical self-esteem and represents a basis for engagement in physical activity and an active lifestyle later in life (Haywood & Getchell, 2005; Stodden, Langendorfer & Robertsson, 2009; Oakley, Booth & Patterson, 2001; Barnett, Van Beurden, Morgan, Brooks & Beard, 2009). Motor development in children has been of interest both in research and in practice. Over the last three to four decades, many motor development assessment tools have been developed to address various questions and for different contexts (Cools, De Martealer, Samaey & Andries, 2008). The overall aim of this study is to explore the purposes of different movement assessment tools used in research and practice. Questions of interest are; what is the purpose of the tool? In which context is the assessment tool employed? Which movement skills are in focus? Are the movements assessed in a quantitative or a qualitative way?

    Method

    Methods To examine 10-15 movement skills tools which often are referred to in research. Investigate the settings and contexts in which they are used. Examine the assessment tools in terms of aims, number and character of the selected items, reference system and measure structure. The tools and tests will be selected by review articles, research articles in the areas of physical education, physical activity, health, motor and movement skills and sport.

    Expected Outcomes

    There appears to be a change in the purposes of motor skills testing in the last ten to fifteen years. The tests have changed from mainly identifying deficiencies or motor impairments to screening children with the purpose to get “all on the right track”, to be physically active. The study is ongoing and there will be additional findings to discuss further on. Preliminary findings indicate that there have been many different reasons to study children’s movement skills. One question of interest has been to examine if the child is behind their peers in their motor development or if the child suffers from any disease or impairment. (Davis, 2003; Cools et. al., 2008) Other questions addressed are whether a child or student has reached the objectives in the Physical Education curriculum in terms of mastering movement skills (Tidén & Nyberg, 2004). Most of the tests are quantitative but some use a combination of both quantitative and qualitative assessment (Cools et. al., 2008; Tidén & Nyberg, 2004). Purely qualitative assessments are rare. Still most of the assessment tools are developed to be used for detection of irregular motor behavior (e.g. BOT-2 and KTK; Bruininks & Bruininks, 2005; Kiphard & Shilling, 2007).

    References

    Barnett, L.M., Van Beurden, E., Morgan, P.J., Brooks, L.O. and Beard, J.R. (2009) Childhood Motor Skill Proficiency as a Predictor of Adolescent Physical Activity Journal of Adolescent Health, 44, 252–259 Bruininks, R.H. and Bruininks, B.D. (2005) Test of Motor Proficiency. 2nd edition. Manual.: AGS Publishing. Circle Pines. Cools, W., De Martealer, K., Samaey, C. and Andries, C. (2008) Movement skill assessment of typically developing preschool children: A Review of seven movement skill assessment tools Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, (2008) 8, 154-168. Davis, M. (2003). Movement and dance in early childhood, second edition. Paul Chapman Publishing, London Haywood, K. M. and Getchell, N. (2005) Life span motor development, 4th edition. Human Kinetics, Champaign. Kiphard, E.J. and Shilling, F. (2007) Körperkoordinationtest für Kinder 2, überarbeitete und ergänzte Auflage. Beltz test, Weinheim Oakley, A.D., Booth, M.L. and Patterson J.W. (2001) Relationship of physical activity to fundamental movement skills among adolescents. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 33(11), 1899-1904. Stodden, D.F, Goodway, J.D., Langendorfer, S.J., Roberton, M.A., Rudisill, M.E., Garcia, C. and Garcia, L.E., (2008) A Developmental Perspective on the Role of Motor Skill Competence in Physical Activity: An Emergent Relationship Quest, 60, 290-306. Stodden,D.F, Langendorfer, S. J. & Roberton, M.A. (2009) The association between motor skill competence and physical fitness in young adults. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 80(2), 223-229. Tidén, A. and Nyberg. M. (2004) A study of gross motor skills of 2000 pupils in Swedish Schools. Book of Abstracts , 9th Annual Congress of European College of Sport Science, 3-6 July, 2004, Clermont-Ferrand, France

    This proposal is part of a master or doctoral thesis.

     

  • 14.
    Tidén, Anna
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Movment assessment tools - still gender biased?2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Movement skills assessment tools - still gender biased?!

    In 1997 Antony Okely and Jan Wright argued that fundamental movement skills test are gender biased and most assessment tools are strongly related to the skills integral to traditional male sports. From these test results it is deduced that girls are poorly skilled. How does it look today, 15 years later? Have girls’ results in movement skills assessments increased during the last decade?  Have the assessment tools been revised in terms of adding skills which are essential to female activities e.g. balance and rhythm, which were proposed by Okely and Wright in 1997? 

             Several studies conducted in the last ten years have shown that the boys still are outperforming girls in movements skills tests (e.g. Barnett et al., 2008; Hands et. al., 2009; Okely et al., 2001ab; Reed et al., 2004; Robinson, 2010; Stodden et al., 2009). A few studies show some skillsto girls'advantage. Hands and colleges (2009) have shown that girls outperform boys in skills which include flexibility and Jaakkola and colleges (2009) indicate that girls perform better than boys in balance skill. In most of the studies boys still are assessed to perform better the girls in object control skills e.g. Barnett et al. (2010).

    It is also discussed that boys perform better than girls in tests that use a quantity approach, results in terms of speed or distance, instead of a qualitative approach, focused on how the skill is performed. The qualitative approach has been suggested to provide a more accurate and gender neutral assessment of the skill level (Okely & Wright 1997).

               The presentation will include discussions about how to provide assessment of movement skills in a gender-neutral way. Is it as possible as just adding some skills that usually girls are good at or is the question greater than that?  Shouldn’t girls and boys develop the same skills? Is a test gender- neutral if it assesses a number of classic masculine or feminine skills?

  • 15.
    Tidén, Anna
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Qualitative movement skill assessment in a learning context2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Qualitative movement skill assessment in a learning context

    The aim of this paper is to discuss process orientated movement skill assessment tools in relation to development of Physical Literacy. In the last decade there has been a change towards quality in movement assessments, particularly when speaking in terms of grading in Physical education and health (PEH) in Sweden. Quality is often expressed in either technical features or in combination with descriptions of how the movements are performed with words as; balance, precision, confidence, rhythm, fluency and stability. Can the qualitative assessment tools be used in a broader educational context as a formative method to develop versatile movement repertoire using the criteria for the tasks? The use of the assessment tools in pedagogical work may enhance the cognitive understanding of and the movement competence and involving the pupils in their learning. Motivation, confidence and self perception are important parts of one’s preference to physical activity. Engaging pupils in their learning process have been recommended and will strengthen their achievements. How can self- and peer assessment engage the pupils in their learning process of movement skills? Developing pupils’ movement quality through self reflection and self knowledge can contribute to their development of Physical Literacy and lifelong learning. 

    References:

    Burton, A.W., & Miller, D.E. (1998). Movement Skill Assessment. Champaign. IL: Human Kinetics.

    Chapel, S. & Whitehead, M. (2013). Debates in Physical education. Routledge: Abingdon: Oxon.

    Department of Education, Victoria. (1996). Fundamental movement skills: A manual for classroom teachers. Melbourne: Community Information Service, Department of Education, Victoria: Author.

    Nyberg, M., & Tidén. A. (2006). Allsidig rörelseförmåga hos barn och ungdomar: En kartläggning av skolelevers funktionella motorik, Rapport nr 5 i serien Skola-Idrott-Hälsa. [Versatile movement ability in children and adolescents: A screening of student’s functional movement skills, Report no. 5 in School- Sport- Health] Stockholm: The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences.

    Safrit, M.J., Baumgartner, T.A., Jackson, A.S., & Stamm, C.L. (1980).  Issues in setting performance standards. Quest, 32, 152-162.

    Ulrich, D.A. (2000). Test of Gross Motor Development, (2nd ed.) Examiner´s manual. Pro-ED. Inc., Austin, Texas.

    Whitehead, M. (2010). Physical Literacy throughout the lifecourse. Routledge: Abingdon: Oxon

     

  • 16.
    Tidén, Anna
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Vad är rörelseförmåga? Att kunna rulla och rotera eller att kunna slå en "kullerbytta"!2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vad är rörelseförmåga? Att kunna rulla och rotera eller att kunna slå en ”kullerbytta” !

    Rörelseförmåga antas ofta vara något som både kan mätas, observeras och dokumenteras. En väl utvecklad rörelseförmåga anses av många vara en viktig del av hur fysiskt aktivt ett barn är och en grund för fortsatt fysiskt aktivet längre fram i livet (Barnett, van Beurden, Morgan, Brooks, & Beard, 2009; Nyberg & Tidén, 2004; 2008; Okely, Booth, & Patterson, 2001; Stodden, Langendorfer, & Roberton, 2009; Wrotniak, Epstein, Dorn, Jones, & Kondilis, 2006). Till följd har det utvecklats ett antal tester för utvärdering av barns rörelsekunnande och barns motoriska utveckling. Några exempel är motoriska tester som Movement ABC, NyTidstestet, TGMD-2, FMS- a manual for classroorm teachers (Burton & Miller, 1998; Department of Education, Victoria, 1996; Henderson, Sugden, & Barnett, 2007;Nyberg & Tidén, 2006; Ulrich, 2000). Många forskare anser dock att rörelseförmåga både är svår att definiera och långt ifrån är ett neutralt begrepp (Evans, 2004; Evans & Penney, 2008; Hay & Macdonald, 2013; Wright & Burrows, 2006; Wellard, 2006; Larsson & Quennerstedt 2013). Syftet meddennastudieärattundersöka hurförmåga konstrueras och kan förstås iettantalrörelsetester som används i forskning och inom idrottsämnet i skolan. Testerna analyserasurettsociokulturellt perspektivutifrånBernsteinspedagogiska modeller (performance code och competence code) ochBourdieusbegreppfysiskkapital(Bernstein, 1990, 2000, 2003; Bourdieu, 1998). Preliminära resultat tyder på attden typ avförmågor ellerfysiskt kapitalsomgörhöga poäng vid testning ofta är relaterad till traditionella idrotter. Rytmoch danstill exempel,utvärderas sällaneller aldrig, inte heller rörelser sett ur ett bredare perspektiv. Vad förmåga är eller blir i testerna verkar vara mer relaterat till Bernsteins hierarkiska pedagogiska begrepp ”performance code”, än till det mer holistiska, begreppet ”competence code” som omfattar ett mer holistiskt perspektiv, i det här fallet på rörelser. Studien visar även på vilka rörelser och förmågor som värdesätts vid testning och reser frågor om vilka barn som gynnas av testningen och vilket fysiskt kapital de har med sig. Studien reser även frågor kring hur dessa tester påverkar barns intresse för rörelseaktiviteter i bredare perspektiv (än idrott) och för deras vilja och lust till rörelse.

    Barnett, L.M., van Beurden, E., Morgan, P.J., Brooks, L.O., & Beard, J.R. (2009). Childhood motor skill proficiency as a predictor of adolescent physical activity. Journal of Adolescent Health, 44, 252–259.

    Bernstein, B. (1990). The Structuring of Pedagogic Discourse. London: Routledge.

    Bernstein, B. (2000). Pedagogy, symbolic control and identity. Theory, research, critique Revised edn. Oxford: Roman & Littlefield.

    Bernstein, B. (2003). Class, codes and control, vol. IV: the structuring of pedagogic discourse. London: Routledge.

    Bourdieu, P. (1988). Program for Sociology of Sport. Sociology of Sport Journal.5, 153-161.

    Burton, A. W., & Miller, D. E. (1998). Movement Skill Assessment. Champaign. IL: Human Kinetics.

    Department of Education, Victoria (1996). Fundamental movement skills: A manual for classroom teachers. Melbourne: Community Information Service, Department of Education, Victoria.

    Evans, J. (2004). Making a difference? Education and ‘ability’ in physical education. European Physical Education Review, 10, 95-108.

    Evans, J., & Penney, D. (2008). Levels on the playing field: The social construction of physical ‘ability’ in physical education curriculum. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 13(1), 31-47.

  • 17.
    Tidén, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Brun Sundblad, Gunilla
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Does Movement Ability in Adolescence Matter in Young Adulthood?: A Longitudinal Study of Taste for Sport and Physical ActivityManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Tidén, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Lundqvist, Carolina
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Nyberg, Marie
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Development and Initial Validation of the NyTid Test: A Movement Assessment Tool for Compulsory School Pupils.2015In: Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science, ISSN 1091-367X, E-ISSN 1532-7841, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 34-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents the development process and initial validation of the NyTid test, a process-oriented movement assessment tool for compulsory school pupils. A sample of 1,260 (627 girls and 633 boys; mean age of 14.39) Swedish school children participated in the study. In the first step, exploratory factor analyses (EFAs) were performed in Sample 1, consisting of one third of the participants. The EFA indicated that the 17 skills in the test could be reduced to 12 and divided into four factors. In the second step, the suggested factor structure was cross-validated with confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) in the larger Sample 2. The NyTid test adopts a holistic perspective in which qualitative criteria offer an alternative approach to product-oriented measurement. The study confirms that the NyTid test is a valid process-oriented assessment tool designed for typically developed children aged 12 and 16. ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR

  • 19.
    Tidén, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Meckbach, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Tränarprogrammet: från idrottslärarlinje till tränarprogram2014In: Från Kungl. Gymnastiska Centralinstitutet till Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan: en betraktelse av de senaste 25 åren som del av en 200-årig historia / [ed] Suzanne Lundvall, Stockholm: Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH , 2014, p. 117-122Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 20.
    Tidén, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH.
    Nyberg, Marie
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH.
    Development of movement skills among Swedish children and adolescents – a longitudinal study2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Development of movement skills among Swedish children and adolescents – a longitudinal study

    Anna Tidén, Marie Nyberg

    The Swedish School of Sport and health sciences

    To develop a broad repertoire of gross motor skill in the early school years seams important. Children’s movements and play contributes to both social and physical development. To develop and to master a wide range of movements skills seams also contribute to better self-esteem and a higher physical self worth. The gross motor skills and coordinative skills are also a solid ground for sports and other physical and health activities.

    The Swedish curriculum for PE stipulates that the students should master the gross motor skills in the 5th school year.

    The motor skill study is a part of a Swedish multi-disciplinary project called School- Sport-Health and started in 2001 and data has been gathered 2001, 2004, 2007 and 2010. The aim of motor skill study in 2001 was to investigate how students in the age of 10, 13 and 16 managed in 16 different motor skills such as skipping, jumping, crawling, rolling, balancing, bouncing, throwing and catching a ball and also combination of these skills.

    The results have been analyzed using SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) and results from 2001 indicate that 29% of the pupils in the 6th school year are not able to manage the gross motor skill tests without remarks. The pupils with the lowest scores can be found among young female children with low strength and overweight. The test also shows that in the 9th school year boys are stronger than girls. Boys and girls in the lower ages (school year 3 and 6) are more similar in the gross motor skills profile but not on the single movement level. It can also be noted that girls are better in skipping and some of the movements of more gymnastic character whereas boys are better in throwing balls and beanbags. Boys and girls have nearly identical results in the test of balance, walking on a balance beam where gender or age does not seem to have any affect. In the following up study of the 10 year old students in 2007 the results shows that if a student mastered the motor skills in 2001 they also did it six years later (there where only 10% risk to lower the score). The scores do also correlate with the student’s strength, the stronger they are the higher scores on the skills test. Among the students who had a high BMI in 2001 only 20% had developed their motor skills to a sufficient level.

    The study is ongoing and during 2010 the participants from 2001 and 2007 have answered a questionnaire relating to social background, physical education, sports and leisure time activities and perceived health. The incoming results from the questionnaires will be discussed in relation to the motor skills results in a socio-cultural perspective.

  • 21.
    Tidén, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH.
    Nyberg, Marie
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH.
    Screening of gross motor skills among Swedish children and adolescents2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Screening of gross motor skills among Swedish children and adolescents

    Anna Tidén, Marie Nyberg

    Stockholm University College of Physical Education and Sports, Sweden

    Physical Education (PE) teachers in Sweden have noticed that pupils are getting worse in their ability to manage gross motor skills. The gross motor skills and coordinative skills are the solid ground for sports and other health activities. If not developing their gross motor skill children tends to avoid taking part in games and sports. The benefits of sports and outdoor activities such as social and health benefits can therefore be missed. The aim of the study was to investigate 2000 pupils in school year 3, 6 and 9 concerning their: physical and health status, the level of physical activity and conception of the subject “PE and health”. The selection of pupils was based on randomly chosen schools and classes from Sweden. The aim of  the motor skills test, was to make a survey of what Swedish pupils can manage in gross motor skills today. Based upon these results we can in the future tell whether the pupils are maintaining today’s level of gross motor skills or not. The Swedish curriculum for “sports and health” states that pupils should manage gross motor skills in the 5th year of school. Can they manage to do that?

    The study started with the construction of the gross motor and coordinative skill tests. The movements selected for the test were based on gross motor skills, coordinative skills and combinations of these skills. The test included 16 movements measured on a scale from 1 to 4. The levels of the scale have a written description to support the ocular observations. The highest score to achieve was 64 and the lowest was 16. Examples of skills tested were; skipping, jumping, crawling, rolling, being upside down, bouncing and throwing balls. The results are analyzed both on an aggregated level here referred to as gross motor skills profile, as well as on a single movement level. The results indicate that 29% of the pupils in the 6th school year are not able to manage the gross motor skill tests without remarks. The pupils with the lowest scores can be found among young female children with low strength and overweight. The test also shows that in the 9th school year boys are stronger than girls. Boys and girls in the lower ages (school year 3 and 6) are more similar in the gross motor skills profile but not on the single movement level. It can also be noted that girls are better in skipping and some of the movements of more gymnastic character whereas boys are better in throwing balls and beanbags. Boys and girls have nearly identical results in the test of balance, walking on a balance beam where gender or age does not seem to have any affect.

    From the main findings of the tests we can observe that the younger pupils have not yet developed the gross motor skills. It is also noticeable that many of the pupils in the 6th school year are achieving poor results in the tests even though the Swedish curriculum for “sports and health” states that the pupils should have achieved these skills already in the 5th school year. Many of the girls in the 9th school year are very poor in the movements that included some strength ability. This weakness is important for PE teachers to pay attention to, at an early stage of the girl’s physical development when girls do not develop the same strength as boys during their puberty.

    If children do not have the gross motor skill and some strength it is more likely that they will choose other activities or have other interest then physical activities and sports on their leisure time. This may in the future give them health problems because we know from fact that physical inactivity is one of the main causes to bad health.

  • 22.
    Tidén, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Redelius, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Movement Assessment Tools: A Critical Examination2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    In contemporary society there are calls to increase young people’s physical activity. In the wake of this concern we find a growing interest in studying and assessing children’s and adolescents’ movement abilities. Consequently, there are a number of tools developed for assessing children’s movement abilities. However, many scholars have suggested that ability is far from a neutral concept and the notion of ability is often taken for granted as simply a measureable and observable capacity. The aim with this study is to critically examine assessment tools used for healthy and typically developed children. (Evans, 2004; Hay & Macdonald, 2013; Wright & Burrows, 2006).

    Methods

    The examination comprises ten tools from six different countries. In the study we pay special attention to selected movement tasks in the tools and the evaluation methods. The theoretical framework is inspired by Bourdieu’s concepts of habitus and capital, (Bourdieu, 1988) which are used as analytical tools. The analysis explores and discusses what kind of movement ability the tools may construct.

    Results

    The findings show both a great variation of concepts and evaluation methods and a narrow view of what is regarded as valuable to assess. The assessment tools are strongly related to traditional sports and represent a specific form of physical capital. Rhythm and dance, for example, are never or seldom assessed, neither movements in a broader perspective as open skills or movement tasks taking place in an outdoor environment. The examined tools and tests assess a limited number of decontextualised movements and produce a narrow view of movement ability.

    Discussion

    The study gives an overview of what kind of movements and abilities that is valued and promoted in movement assessment. Evaluation processes often promotes a child who is physically mature and benefits those who have experience of traditional sports. In other words, the assessed ‘taste for sport’ and the ‘embodied physical capital’ construct what is considered to be legitimate knowledge in relation to movement culture. Accordingly, the construction of movement ability through assessment tools could affect how children see themselves and their ‘ability’. The results raises questions about how the assessments influence children’s desire to move or their interest for physical activity in broader perspectives.

    References

    Bourdieu, P. (1988). Program for Sociology of Sport. Sociology of Sport Journal, 5, 153-161.

    Evans, J. (2004). Making a difference? Education and ‘ability’ in physical education. European Physical Education Review, 10, 95-108.

    Hay, P.J., & Macdonald, D. (2013). Evidence for the social construction of ability in physical education. Sport Education and Society, 15, 1-18.

    Wright, J. & Burrows, L. (2006). Re-conceiving ability in physical education: a social analysis. Sport Education and Society, 11, 275-291.

  • 23.
    Tidén, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Redelius, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    The social construction of ability in movement assessment tools2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    THE SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION OF ABILITY IN MOVEMENT ASSESSMENT TOOLS

    Anna Tidén

    Karin Redelius

    Suzanne Lundvall

    The Swedish School of Sport and Health Studies, Stockholm, Sweden (GIH)

    The notion of ability is often taken for granted as simply a measureable and observable capacity. Consequently, there is a number of assessment tools developed for evaluation children’s movement abilities. However, many scholars have suggested that ability is far from a neutral concept. The aim with this study is to investigate how ability is conceptualized and socially configured in a number of movement tests. Questions of particular interest are: What are the purposes of the tests? What kinds of evaluation methods are used and what movement ‘abilities’ are valued? Different assessment tools used in research and education have been examined regarding purpose, content, and assessment orientation. The tests have been analyzed from a sociocultural perspective and Bernstein’s models of pedagogies and Bourdieu’s concept of physical capital have been used. Preliminary findings indicate that the kind of abilities or physical capital that renders high scores on many tests is integral to traditional sports. Rhythm and dance, for example, are never or seldom assessed, neither movements in a broader perspective. The construction of ability in the tests seems to be related to Bernstein’s hierarchical model of pedagogy, performance codes, rather than to competence codes which relates to a more holistic perspective on human movement. The study gives a picture about what kind of movements and abilities that is valued in movement assessment. It raises question about which child benefits from the testing and which child does not. How will the testing influence children’s desire to move or their interest for physical activity in a broader perspective?

    References

    Burton, A. W., & Miller, D. E. (1998). Movement Skill Assessment. Champaign. IL: Human Kinetics.

    Bernstein, B. (1990). The Structuring of Pedagogic Discourse. London: Routledge.

    Bourdieu, P. (1988). Program for Sociology of Sport. Sociology of Sport Journal.5, 153-161.

    Evans, J. (2004). Making a difference? Education and ‘ability’ in physical education. European Physical Education Review, 10, 95-108.

    Evans, J., & Penney, D. (2008). Levels on the playing field: The social construction of physical ‘ability’ in physical education curriculum. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 13(1), 31-47.

    Hay, P.J., & Macdonald, D. (2013). Evidence for the social construction of ability in physical education. Sport Education and Society, 15(1), 1-18.

    Wright, J. & Burrows, L. (2006). Re-conceiving ability in physical education: a social analysis. Sport Education and Society, 11(3), 275-291.

    Anna Tidén – anna.tiden@gih.se

  • 24.
    Tidén, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Redelius, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    The social construction of ability in movment assessment tools.2017In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243, Vol. 22, no 6, p. 697-709Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on how 'ability' is conceptualised, configured and produced in movement assessment tools. The aim of the study was to critically analyse assessment tools used for healthy and typically developed children. The sample consists of 10 tools from 6 different countries. In the study, we pay special attention to content and evaluation methods. The theoretical analysis explores and discusses what kind of movement ability the tools construct. The theoretical framework is inspired by Bourdieu's concepts of habitus, capital and field which are used as analytical tools to explore how the testing processes and content shape what is regarded as ability. Our findings show both a great variation of concepts and evaluation methods and a narrow view of what is regarded as valuable to assess. The assessed movements are strongly related to traditional sports and construct a specific form of physical capital. None of the tasks assessed take place in natural outdoor environments. Open skills, rhythmical movements to music or tasks including a wider range of flexibility are also absent in the assessment tools. The explored tools and tests assess a limited number of decontextualised movements and produce a narrow view of 'ability'. Hence, the testing process itself often promotes a child who is physically mature and benefits those who have experience of traditional sports. In other words, the assessed 'taste for sport' and the 'embodied physical capital' construct what is considered to be legitimate knowledge in relation to movement and physical culture. Accordingly, the social construction of movement ability through assessment tools is far from a neutral concept and could affect how children see themselves and their 'ability'.

1 - 24 of 24
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