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  • 1.
    Johansson, Susanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    ‘Am I sexually abused?’: Consent in a coach-athlete lesbian relationship2018In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 11-323Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Elite-athlete Karin was 17 years old when the considerably older team coach Selma became her girlfriend. Responding to calls to prevent harm and sexual abuse in sport, this study represents Karin’s story, investigates how she makes sense of her coach-athlete sexual relationship, and analyses what can be learnt about consent. Although sexual consent is often the defining criterion of sexual abuse, consent is rarely explicitly defined or its social implications examined. Moreover, there are no studies on coach-athlete lesbian or gay relationships despite sexual minority vulnerability. The interview with Karin was analysed using narrative case study methods; represented as a short story and discussed in reference to sexual consent theory. The analysis outlines contextual factors conditioning the negotiation of consent and problematizes heteronormative, gendered perpetrator and victim stereotypes. Secrecy, alienation, and isolation is recognised, extending into additional vulnerability inflicted on socially problematic and atypical coach-athlete relationships. In conclusion, social implications of consent are more complex than yes/no to sex or inherent incapability to consent. Consent is multi-layered, alternately absent and present; an ongoing process that includes compromises, contradictions, and (re)negotiations influenced by structure and agency. Further research examining a diversity of sexual experiences among majorities and minorities is proposed.

  • 2.
    Johansson, Susanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Coach-Athlete Sexual Relationships: if no means no does yes mean yes?2013In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243, Vol. 18, no 5, p. 678-693Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coach-athlete romantic relationships and consensual sexual relations are commonly accepted among coaches and athletes, although a growing number of sport organisations discourage or prohibit such relationships. In research, coach-athlete sexual relationships are lumped together with sexual abuse, suggested to harm athletes’ well-being, performance, athletic career and team dynamics, and to inherently constitute an abuse of power, trust and ethics. In addition, mistrust of coaches’ motives, related to physical touch and fear of sexual misconduct, has resulted in a growing anxiety among coaches. This paper highlights and critically discusses research conceptualisations, contextual understandings and critical issues surrounding coach-athlete sexual relationships, on which there is no comprehensive research outside the sexual abuse context. Studies of authority-subordinate romantic relationships in other social settings have reported that such relationships facilitate both positive and negative characteristics and outcomes. To prevent and reduce harm and to promote well-being, functionality and safe practice in coach-athlete sexual and non-sexual relationships, I suggest that comprehensive research outside the sexual abuse context is required. In addition to the previous research focus on harmful and abusive relationships, coach-athlete sexual relationships that are experienced as consenting and mutually fulfilling by the involved parties need further examination.

  • 3.
    Johansson, Susanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Kunskapsöversikt: Sexuella övergrepp: i relationen mellan tränare och idrottsaktiv2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sexuella övergrepp är ett samhälleligt fenomen som idrotten inte är befriad ifrån. Det är något som å ena sidan är känsligt, tabubelagt och mestadels osynligt. Å andra sidan kan enstaka fall få stor uppmärksamhet då sexuella övergrepp ses på med avsky, rädsla och förakt. Under 2011 fick svensk föreningsidrott sitt första högprofilerade fall i och med Patrik Sjöbergs  uppmärksammade vittnesmål. Samtidigt blev det tydligt att det saknas kunskap och etablerade rutiner för att förebygga och hantera sexuella övergrepp i idrotten.

    Syftet med den här kunskapsöversikten är att bidra med kunskap som kan svara mot både långsiktiga målsättningar och behovet av att agera här och nu mot sexuella övergrepp i idrotten. Två centrala utgångspunkter står i fokus: För det första det tvådelade problemet att sexuella övergrepp förekommer och att det förekommer utan att uppdagas. För det andra att det är nödvändigt att utgå från ett helhetsperspektiv på frågor om och kring sexuella övergrepp i tränare-aktivrelationen.

    I kunskapsöversikten beskrivs hur sexuella övergrepp formellt definieras respektive upplevs och tolkas subjektivt, om omständigheter som bl a otydliga gränser, kroppskontakt, intimitet och makt som präglar tränareaktivrelationen samt om de mörkertal som är förknippade med sexuella övergrepp. Genom att sammanfatta resultat från nationell och internationell forskning omfattas kunskap om sexuella övergrepp i allmänhet samt mer specifikt kring vanligt förekommande frågor om sexuella övergrepp i idrotten. Därtill beskrivs s k riskfaktorer med fokus på relationen tränare – idrottsaktiv. Utifrån det nuvarande kunskapsläget beskrivs även åtgärder och förebyggande arbete, vilket behöver bedrivas parallellt på flera nivåer genom praktiska insatser med idé- och policydokument som utgångspunkt.

    Tidigare forskning kompletteras med resultat från den första svenska studien om sexuella övergrepp i relationen mellan tränare och idrottsaktiv. Denna enkätstudie genomfördes i samverkan med Statistiska Centralbyrån (SCB) bland 25-åriga män och kvinnor över hela Sverige. Enkäten besvarades av 477 personer som samtliga är eller tidigare har varit aktiva i föreningsidrotten. Av dessa informanter hade några även varit tränare, vilka besvarade kompletterande enkätfrågor ur ett tränarperspektiv. Bland de idrottsaktiva angav fem procent att de blivit utsatta för sexuella övergrepp i föreningsidrotten.

  • 4.
    Johansson, Susanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Sexual Relationships between Athletes and Coaches: Love, Sexual Consent, and Abuse2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Coach-athlete sexual relationships (CASR) and sexual harassment and abuse (SHA) in sport can profoundly impact athletes’ welfare and performance. Yet, it is often ignored due to sensitivity, secrecy, and lack of knowledge. There is no previous research on SHA in sport in Sweden, and legal, consensual, same-sex CASR is under-researched. The overall purpose of this doctoral thesis is to examine CASR in competitive sport in Sweden. More specifically: a) athletes’ experiences of CASR; b) prevalence of SHA in coach-athlete relationships; c) conceptual and theoretical issues to broaden the understanding of CASR and SHA, will be examined.

    Survey methodology is employed in Article I to explore the prevalence of SHA, coach-athlete relationship factors, and association between relationship factors and SHA. A random sample of current and former male and female Swedish athletes (n=477) aged 25 participated. Article II outlines critical issues of CASR, and theories and conceptualisations of romantic love, sexual consent, and female athlete sexual agency is further developed in the thesis research summary. Drawing on interviews with five female elite athletes aged 23-30, experiences of CASR are analysed in-depth using discourse analyses in Article III and narrative case study design in Article IV.

    Results show that athletes’ experiences of CASR are positively and negatively diverse but potentially problematic because boundary ambiguity, secrecy, and isolation are common. Social and ethical dilemmas may also occur because CASR intersect contrasting discourses regarding elite sport, coach–athlete relationships, and romantic love. Moreover, CASR integrate professional and private contexts in which equality and power deviate. The research illustrates empirically and theoretically how female elite athletes exercise agency and recognise consensual, mutually desired CASR where romantic love is priority. However, sexual consent can be ambivalent rather than a mutually exclusive yes/no dualism. Socially, consent is a process of negotiation informed by contextual factors, sexual agency, and social structure. In addition, 5.5% prevalence of SHA perpetrated by male coaches is reported, distributed throughout the sampled athletes’ gender, age, sport performance levels, and individual/team sports in the sample.

    In conclusion, this thesis expands knowledge of athletes’ experiences of love, sexual consent, and abuse in CASR. Previous evidence of SHA in sport is confirmed to include sport in Sweden. Implications for sport and sport sciences are offered. 

  • 5.
    Johansson, Susanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Sju viktiga steg för att förebygga och hantera sexuella övergrepp inom idrotten2018In: Idrottsforskning.se, ISSN 2002-3944, article id 16 augustiArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 6.
    Johansson, Susanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    “Sports don't last a lifetime, but I want to live with him forever”: Functions and Dysfunctions of Sexual Relationships between Female Elite-Athletes and Coaches2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Coach-athlete sexual relationships (CASR) have been suggested to harm athlete welfare, sport performance, and to inherently constitute an abuse of power, trust and professional ethics by coaches (e.g. Brake & Burton Nelson, 2012; Toftegaard-Nielsen, 2001). However, very little is known about CASR, especially consensual romantic relationships between athletes and coaches of legal age (Johansson, 2013). The purpose with this research is to explore female elite-athletes' stories of CASR, emphasizing functional and dysfunctional aspects associated to athlete wellbeing and sport performance.

    Methods

    In-depth interviews included five female elite-athletes aged 23-30 with experience of CASR, i.e., boyfriend/girlfriend relationships and unattached sexual relations. Readings of interview transcripts and coding into functional and dysfunctional themes were conducted to generate the stories. Storying the athletes’ experiences thus served to contextualise functions and dysfunctions on a within-case basis.

    Results

    The athlete’s stories yield insights of qualitatively different functions and dysfunctions of CASR. Functional elements include specific components such as care, trust, sense of value and security, and a unique support and understanding. These elements were described to have a positive effect on the athletes’ wellbeing and performance. Dysfunctional elements found in the athletes’ stories comprised e.g., a need for secrecy in fear of negative reactions causing unhealthy restraints, career disruption due to break-ups and dependency tied to the partner/coach synthesis.

    Discussion

    The diversity of functions and dysfunctions of CASR addressed in this study dispute the assumptions and normative notions that CASR are inherently harmful and abusive. The stories illustrate that female athletes can recognise consensual, mutually desired CASR. Importantly, functions and dysfunctions are not necessarily distinct, uniform or constant, but can transform and differ before, during and after the sexual relationship. This study emphasise the need to further examine how CASR can affect athlete wellbeing and sport performance in both functional and dysfunctional senses.

    References

    Brake D, Burton Nelson M (2012). Staying in bounds. Kansas City: National Association of Collegiate Women Athletic Administrators.

    Johansson S (2013). Coach–athlete sexual relationships: if no means no does yes mean yes? Sport, Education and Society, 18, 678-693.

    Toftegaard Nielsen J (2001). The Forbidden Zone. Intimacy, Sexual Relations and Misconduct in the Relationship between Coaches and Athletes. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 36, 165-182.

  • 7.
    Johansson, Susanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    ‘Two girls; that must be okay, right’: Sexual Consent and Abuse in Karin’s Coach-Athlete Lesbian Relationship2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Female elite-athlete Karin* was 17 years old when the considerably older, team coach Selma* became her girlfriend. Five years later Karin contacted me, offering to share her story. To date there are no studies on coach-athlete lesbian or gay relationships and literature on legal coach-athlete sexual relationships is sparse. Although sexual consent is often the defining characteristic of sexual abuse, the meanings of consent are rarely explicitly defined, problematized or comprehensively investigated (Beres, 2007). The current study investigates how Karin makes sense of her coach-athlete lesbian relationship and what can be learnt about sexual consent from this story.

     

    Methodology

    Drawing on qualitative methodology, the study uses a narrative case study design. First, a loosely-structured interview was performed, inductively analysed within-case, and presented in form of a literary short story. Second, the story was analysed and discussed in reference to literature on sexual consent, abuse, gender, and sexuality.

     

    Findings and discussion

    Karin’s story gives a rare insight to a lesbian coach-athlete sexual relationship that unfolded in a consent and abuse grey-area. Social and sexual conventions, normative notions, and corresponding regulations to protect athletes can (unintentionally) result in stigmatisation and isolation that facilitate abusive, harmful coach-athlete relationships. For example, heteronormativity and predominant male perpetrator – female victim stereotypes (Johansson & Larsson, 2016). Karin’s story moreover illustrates that socially and relationally, consent is not necessarily amenable to a mutually exclusive yes or no answer to sexual relations (Beres, 2007). Sometimes consent is alternately absent and present during events and phases; before, during and after a coach-athlete sexual relationship. This negotiation and renegotiation depends on contextual factors both within and outside of the relationship. Karin’s negotiation of consent circled primarily around her need for friendship. Sharing stories like Karin’s breaks the prevailing silence and marginalisation. Further research into the contextual, complex, and sometimes contradictive negotiations of sexual consent, that intersect both structure and agency, and needs to regard gender, sexuality, athlete empowerment, and preventing sexual abuse among sexual majorities and minorities is proposed.

     

    * Pseudonyms

     

    References

    Beres M (2007). Spontaneous sexual consent: An analysis of sexual consent literature. Feminism and Psychology, 17(1), 93-108.

    Johansson S & Larsson H (2016). ‘This might be him; the guy I'm gonna marry’: Love and sexual relationships between female elite-athletes and male coaches. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, DOI: 10.1177/1012690215626593.

  • 8.
    Johansson, Susanne
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Coach-Athlete Sexual Relationships: Passionate about athletes and coaching is great, but love should be forbidden? 2015In: Proceedings of the 10th ICCE Global Coach Conference – Coach and Athlete Empowerment: A Winning Combination, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Coach-athlete sexual relationships (CASR) tend to be sensitive, complex and problematic as they intersect professional and private spheres. Moreover, they are surrounded by ambiguous boundaries and taboos, and profoundly relates to the welfare, safety, sport performance, power, ethics, trust, sexual desire and love of coaches and athletes (Bringer et al., 2002; Johansson, 2013). In this paper we aim to highlight and critically discuss legal CASR by adopting a coach perspective.

    Argumentation

    Overall, CASR is a neglected issue, constituting an ethical and emotional minefield that is rarely addressed openly (Johansson, 2013). In contrast, athlete and child protection have intensified as a response to resent high-profile cases of sexual abuse in sport (Brackenridge & Rhind, 2014; DSJ, 2012, IOC, 2007). In some sport organisations this implies prohibiting CASR for athlete protection purposes (cf. Brake & Burton Nelson, 2012; Safe4athletes, 2013). The current body of research focuses on the sexual abuse of athletes (e.g., DSJ, 2012; Toftegaard-Nielsen, 2001; Toftegaard-Støckel, 2010) and is often driven by theories of structural power and gender order (e.g., Brake, 2012; Kirby et al., 2000; Tomlinson & Yorganci, 1997). As a consequence, male coaches tends to be cast as potential perpetrators of SA in relation to subordinate female (or child) athlete victims (cf. Hartill, 2009; Johansson, 2013). Recent literature gives examples on how moral panic and fear of sexual abuse resulting in suspicion towards coaches can hamper coach motivation and coach-athlete interaction (e.g., Piper et al., 2012; Taylor et al., 2014). Drawing on literature into teacher-student and superior-employee sexual relationships (e.g., Sikes, 2006; Williams, 1999), we problematise dichotomous right/wrong edicts and discuss additional ways to understand CASR, gendered sexual agency, sexual consent, and coaches' power.

    Implications

    Our discussion raises implications for further research and questions on how to prevent harmful, abusive and dysfunctional CASR without casting (male) coaches as perpetrators of sexual abuse. Our suggestions are: 1) Initiate comprehensive research exploring positive and negative characteristics and effects of legal CASR to expand the knowledge of CASR beyond the sexual abuse context. 2) Facilitate transparency, a climate of open discussion and coach education about CASR and related ethical dilemmas. 3) Develop, examine and carefully implement scientifically and ethically sound policy and codes of practice to prevent and manage harmful CASR and sexual abuse.

    References

    Brackenridge, C.H. & Rhind, D. (2014). Child Protection in Sport: Reflections on Thirty Years of Science and Activism. Social Sciences, 3, 326-340.

    Brake, D. (2012). Going outside title IX to keep coach-athlete relationships in bounds. Marquette Sports Law Review, 22, 394-425.

    Brake, D.L. & Burton-Nelson, M. (2012). Staying in bounds––An NCAA model policy to prevent inappropriate relationships between student-athletes and athletics department personnel. Kansas City: National Association of Collegiate Women Athletic Administrators.

    Bringer, J.D. Brackenridge, C.H. & Johnston, L.H. (2002). Defining appropriateness in coach-athlete sexual relationships: The voice of coaches. Journal of Sexual Aggression, 8(2), 83-98.

    Deutsche Sport Jugend, DSJ. (2012). Prevention of sexual and gender harassment and abuse in sports: Initiatives in Europe and beyond. Available at: http://www.dsj.de/fileadmin/user_upload/Bilder/Handlungsfelder/Europa/europ_PSG_Projekt_2012/Catalogue_Initiatives_in_Europe_and_beyond__2012_2.pdf

    Hartill, M. (2009). The Sexual abuse of Boys in Organized Male Sports. Men and Masculinities, 2, 225-249.

    International Olympic Committee, IOC. (2007). Consensus statement on sexual harassment and abuse in sport. Available at: http://www.olympic.org/documents/reports/en/en_report_1125.pdf

    Johansson, S. (2013). Coach–athlete sexual relationships: if no means no does yes mean yes? Sport, Education and Society, 18, 678-693.

    Kirby, S., Greaves, L. & Hankivsky, O. (2000). The dome of silence. Sexual harassment and abuse in sport. Halifax: Fernwood Publishing.

    Piper, H. Taylor, B. & Garratt, D. (2012). Sports coaching in risk society: No touch! No trust! Sport, Education and Society, 17, 331-345.

    Safe4Athltetes. (2013). Handbook. Available at: http://safe4athletes.org/component/k2/item/31-safe4athletes-handbook

    Sikes, P. (2006). Scandalous stories and dangerous liaisons: when female pupils and male teachers fall in love. Sex Education: Sexuality, Society and Learning, 6, 265-280.

    Taylor, W.G. Piper, H. & Garratt, D. (2014). Sports coaches as 'dangerous individuals'—practice as governmentality. Sport, Education and Society, Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13573322.2014.899492.

    Toftegaard Nielsen, J. (2001). The Forbidden Zone. Intimacy, Sexual Relations and Misconduct in the Relationship between Coaches and Athletes. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 36, 165-182.

    Toftegaard Støckel, J. (2010). Athlete perceptions and experiences of sexual abuse in intimate coach-athlete relationships. In Brackenridge, C.H. & Rhind, D. (eds.). Elite Child Athlete Welfare: International perspectives. London: Brunel University Press.

    Tomlinson, A. & Yorganci, I. (1997). Male coach/female athlete relations: Gender and power relations in competitive sport. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 21, 134-155.

    Williams, C.L. Giuffre, P.A. & Dellinger, K. (1999). Sexuality in the workplace: Organizational control, sexual harassment, and the pursuit of pleasure. Annual Review of Sociology, 25(1), 73-93.

  • 9.
    Johansson, Susanne
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Dags att prata om sex i elitidrotten2013In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, no 2, p. 15-18Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sexuella övergrepp förekommer inom idrotten. Samtidigt finns det många idrottare som är tillsammans med sin tränare i en kärleksrelation. Inom elitidrotten behövs en diskussion om de etiska dilemman som är förknippade med sexuella relationer mellan aktiva och deras tränare.

  • 10.
    Johansson, Susanne
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Andersen, Mark
    Halmstad universitet.
    Desires and taboos: Sexual relationships between coaches and athletes2016In: International journal of sports science & coaching, ISSN 1747-9541, E-ISSN 2048-397X, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 589-598Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coach–athlete sexual relationships constitute ethical, behavioral, social, and emotional quandaries that are rarely addressed openly. Most of the current body of research in this area focuses on coaches’ sexual harassment and abuse of children and female athletes. In the present article, we discuss legal coach–athlete sexual relationships and adopt a coach perspective. As dual relationships, coach–athlete sexual relationships blur the boundaries between professional roles circumscribed (usually) by ethical codes of conduct and private spheres of love and desire. We explore the problems associated with the limitations of dichotomous right/wrong ethical decision making and discuss additional ways to understand these relationships, accounting for coaches’ and athletes’ well-being, performance, gendered sexual agency, power, ethical dilemmas, sport policy, and legal implications. Our discussion raises questions about how to open up dialogue and transparency regarding coach–athlete sexual relationships and how to facilitate functional, healthy coach–athlete relationships. Finally, we provide implications for future research that include legal and consensual coach–athlete sexual relationships and advocate transparency, open discussion, and coach education about coach–athlete sexual relationship dilemmas.

  • 11.
    Johansson, Susanne
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Larsson, Håkan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    ‘This might be him; the guy I’m gonna marry’: Love and sexual relationships between female elite-athletes and male coaches2017In: International Review for the Sociology of Sport, ISSN 1012-6902, E-ISSN 1461-7218, Vol. 52, no 7, p. 819-838Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Infatuation, love and sexual relationships exist virtually anywhere. Coach–athlete sexualrelationships (CASR), however, are overlooked and under-researched. Within sport sociology, CASR have been framed predominantly by a sexual abuse discourse. Informed by Foucault’s discourse analysis, this study explores how discourses regarding performance enhancement in elite-sport and coaching, and romantic love, frame female elite-athletes’ experiences with CASR. Interviews with four female elite-athletes aged 26–30 were conducted. The results indicate that CASR are potentially problematic because they intersect and challenge discourses comprising elite-sports, coach–athlete relationships, female sexual agency, and love. Moreover, discourses of power differ between the professional and private contexts. While the athletes expect their coaches to exert dominance and control in the elite-sport context, love relationships are about equally and mutually giving away power and control. Although CASR can facilitate motivation and performance, framing CASR as inherently unequal and abusive can contribute to stigmatisation, secrecy and athlete disempowerment.

  • 12.
    Johansson, Susanne
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Lundqvist, Carolina
    Karlstads universitet .
    Sexual harassment and abuse in coach–athlete relationships in Sweden2017In: European Journal for Sport and Society, ISSN 1613-8171, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 117-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sexual harassment and abuse (SHA) can have a profound negative impact, but research on SHA in sport is scarce and studies of SHA in Swedish sport are absent. This study explores (a) self-reported prevalence of SHA perpetrated by coaches among male and female Swedish athletes, and (b) descriptive statistics for coach–athlete relationship factors and the association between these relationship factors and reported SHA. Current and former Swedish club sport athletes (n = 477) aged 25 participated in the survey. Athletes reported 5.5% prevalence of coach SHA, of which inappropriate, unpleasant, or offensive physical contact were most common. No significant differences of SHA frequency were displayed across gender, sport performance levels, or individual/team sports. A majority of athletes (55–95%) reported trust, closeness, substantial coach influence over sport performance, and instructional physical contact as main coach–athlete relationship factors. A minority (13–39%) reported dependency, substantial coach influence over personal-life, non-instructional physical contact, sexualized comments and jokes, and flirting. Prevalence of coach–athlete friendships, athlete attraction to coaches, and coaches’ instructional physical contact differed significantly between male and female athletes. Closeness and athlete attraction to coaches were negatively related, and coaches’ non-instructional physical contact and flirting were positively related to reported SHA. Multi-causality and ambiguity of coach–athlete relationship factors are discussed.

  • 13.
    Larsson, Håkan
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Fagrell, Birgitta
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Johansson, Susanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Meckbach, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Redelius, Karin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Jämställda villkor i idrott och hälsa med fokus på flickors och pojkars måluppfyllelse: På pojkarnas planhalva2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Gender(ed) patterns in Swedish school physical education and health: a problem of equity?

    In the spring of 2009 the Swedish National Agency of Education commissioned the physical education and sport pedagogy research group at the Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences in Stockholm to survey and problematize girls' and boys' conditions in Swedish physical education and health (PEH). The overarching theme of this symposium is to present the results from this project and to discuss different kinds of factors that influence gender equity in PEH.

    Gender and gender equity in PEH has been on the research agenda both in Sweden and in other countries for several decades, in particular the masculine and heteronormative character of the subject. What is specific, and perhaps new, about this project is that it takes its starting point in statistical data about 15-16 year old girls' and boys' distribution of grades, parents' educational level, and students' and parents' place of birth (Sweden/not Sweden). The Swedish National Agency of Education (SNAE) has access to statistics from every Swedish school about this kind of information.

    The project consist of three studies:

    -                    a survey, where questionnaires were sent to 350 secondary schools to be answered by a PEH teacher (with questions about aims and content of PEH teaching, gender equity, assessment, etc.);

    -                    an interview study with 17 PEH teachers in mid-Sweden (focusing on how teachers reason about their subject and about gender equity issues in the subject);

    -                    an observation study of PEH lessons with 6 classes at different schools in a big-city area (focusing possible relation between the school’s socio-economic and ethnic conditions, gender patterns during class, and content and organisation of PEH teaching)

    The survey study has added information from teachers about PEH teaching that can be related to the previously mentioned statistical information about the pupils and the distribution of grades. The teachers and classes participating in the interview and observations studies were selected based on the same statistical information. Each paper to be presented at the symposium will deal with one of the three studies.

  • 14.
    Larsson, Håkan
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Johansson, Susanne
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Idrottstävlingar skapar kön2012In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 27-29Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Idrottstävlingar lär barn och unga vad det innebär att vara flicka eller pojke. Flickors och pojkars prestationer ska till exempel inte mätas med varandra och flickor görs ofta mindre eller annorlunda jämfört med pojkar, som i sin tur utgör norm.

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